• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Introduction and procedure
 Chapter
 Summary
 Literature cited














Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; no. AN69-2
Title: High level copper for pigs fed shelled corn and supplement free-choice
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073003/00001
 Material Information
Title: High level copper for pigs fed shelled corn and supplement free-choice
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1968
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Copper in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Corn as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 5).
Statement of Responsibility: H.D. Wallace ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "July, 1968."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073003
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 78887973

Table of Contents
    Introduction and procedure
        Page 1
    Chapter
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Summary
        Page 5
    Literature cited
        Page 5
        Page 6
Full Text

Department of Animal Science Flovida-Agrturt YaU l
.- Mimeograph Series No. AN69-2 Expdriiid Station
July, 1968 Gaiiesville, Florida

JUL 24 i83
HIGH LEVEL COPPER FOR PIGS FED SHELLED 2
CORN AND SUPPLEMENT FREE-CHOICE I/
.F.A.S.- Ul. of i i"a
H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs, T. E. Simmons
A. Z. Palmer and J. W. Carpenter 2J


Numerous feeding experiments in this country and abroad have demonstrated
the efficacy of feeding high levels of copper to pigs to improve feediot per-
formance (1). However, very little experimentation has been undertaken to
determine practical approach to the use of copper in the free-choice system
of feeding. -Inra previous study from this station (2) it was reported that
1000 ppm of.copper added to the protein supplement was excessive. Intake of
supplement was depressed below that necessary for good performance. The
present experiment was undertaken to obtain information on the use of lower
levels of copper in the supplemental mixture.

Procedure

Sixty-four crossbred pigs (Landrace-Duroc x Hampshire) were divided into
8 lots of eight pigs each. Average initial weight was approximately 83 lb.
Four lots were composed of gilts and four lots were composed of barrows. One
lot from each sex group was fed on each of the following treatments.

Treatment 1 Shelled yellow corn and supplement free-choice (control).

Treatment 2 Shelled yellow corn and supplement free-choice. Two
hundred and fifty ppm copper as CuS04 was added to
supplement.

Treatment 3 Shelled yellow corn and supplement free-choice. Three
hundred and fifty ppm copper as CuSO4 was added to
supplement.

Treatment 4 Shelled yellow corn and supplement free-choice. Four
hundred and fifty ppm copper as CuS04 was added to
supplement.

Composition of the protein supplement is presented in Table 1.

All pigs were slaughtered at the termination of the experiment and carcass
data were obtained according to standard procedures. Liver samples were taken
from all pigs and analyzed for residual copper.


J/ Supported in part by grant-in-aid from International Copper Research
Association, Inc., New York, New York.

2/ Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists; Simmons, graduate assistant;
Palmer, Meat Scientist and Carpenter, Assoc. Meat Scientist, Animal
Science Department. The assistance of Mr. V. W. Stradtmann, Lab
Technician, in making the copper dcterminations is gratefully acknowledged.










-2-


Table 1. Composition of protein supplement
offered free-choice to all lots.


Soybean oilmeal (50%) 47.40
Meat scraps (50%) 25.00
Alfalfa meal (17%) 25.00
Iodized salt 2.00
Trace minerals 0.20
Vitamin supplement" 0.40
100.00


a Contained 11% calcium, 10% manganese, 10% iron, 10% zinc, 1% copper,
0.3% iodine and 0.1% cobalt.

b Contained 8,000, 14,720, 36,000, and 40,000 mg. per lb., respectively,
of riboflavin, pantothenic acid, niacin and choline chloride.


Results and Discussion

A summary of performance is presented in Tables 2 and 3. During the first
28 days (Table 2) all male groups receiving copper in protein supplement appeared
to respond in rate of gain. This was not true in case of the females. The intake
of protein supplement relative to corn consumption was variable from pen to pen
but was generally quite acceptable in terms of known protein requirements. The
females consumed less protein supplement than the barrows. It might have been
anticipated that the reverse would have been true in view of the fact that
previous tests have shown that gilts require a higher level of protein in the
diet for optimum performance and carcass leanness. It was calculated that the
gilts consumed feed containing an average of 15.7% protein while for the barrows
it was 16.0%. The estimated copper intake increased as the level of the copper
in the supplement was increased. The highest level of copper in the supplement
(450 ppm) induced an intake of approximately 100 ppm. Based on other investi-
gations this level of copper may be adequate to improve feedlot performance.
However, levels ranging from 125-250 ppm are probably somewhat more effective.
The level of copper added to the supplement did not seem to be related in any
clear pattern to supplement intake. Levels up to 450 ppm appeared to be toler-
ated with no significant influence on feed intake patterns.

For the entire experiment (Table 3) there was no clear indication that the
copper supplemented pigs had responded in rate of gain. One group of males
(Lot 3-A) gained somewhat faster than all other lots with this advantage coming
about after the first 28 days. This could have been due to a combination of
copper intake and ideal supplement to corn ratio intake for this lot. For the
overall experiment the males consumed slightly more protein than the females
(14.9 vs. 14.6%). As would be expected the consumption of supplement decreased
relative to the consumption of corn as the pigs became heavier. As the protein
supplement intake gradually decreased so did the copper intake. Maximum supple-
mentary copper intake for the overall trial averaged approximately 80 ppm for








Table 2. Influence of various copper levels in supplement on feed intake and gains of pigs.
(First 28 days)




Estimated/
Copper Added Corn Copper
to Supplement Consumed, Supplement Intake Daily Gain
Lot ppm lb. Consumed, lb. Corn/Supp. ppm lb.


1 0 691 184 3.76/1 0 1.25

2 250 712 165 4.32/1 47 1.24
Females
3 350 720 225 3.20/1 83 1.28

4 450 670 188 3.56/1 99 1.29
Av. 3.71/1


la 0 766 204 3.75/1 0 1.21

2a 250 789 248 3.18/1 60 1.50
Males
3a 350 825 247 3.34/1 81 1.58

4a 450 850 227 3.74/1 95 1.56
Av. 3.50/1


1/ Based on added copper only.










Table 3. Influence of various copper levels in supplement on feed intake and gains of pigs (Entire
experiment initial weight of 83 lb. to slaughter wt. of approximately 220 lb.)




Copper Added Corn Supplement Corn to Estimated2- Daiy
to Supplement Consumed Consumed Supplement Copper intake Gain
Lot ppm lb. lb. ratio ppm lb.


1 0 3119 633 4.93/1 0 1.51

2 1/ 250 2649 579 4.58/1 45 1.46
Females
3 350 3069 688 4.46/1 64 1.48

4 450 3231 706 4.58/1 81 1.53
Av. 4.64/1


1-A 0 3376 871 3.88/1 0 1.53

2-A 250 3393 708 4.79/1 43 1.52
Males
3-A 350 3253 811 4.01/1 70 1.70

4-A 450 3406 740 4.60/1 80 1.54
Av. 4.32/1

I/ One pig was removed from this lot early in the expt. Data are based on the seven remaining
animals.


2/ Based on added copper only.














the pigs supplemented at the highest level (450 ppm). The feed intake data
suggested no clear effect of supplement copper level. Pigs did not reject
supplement when copper was included at levels of 250, 350 and 450 ppm, nor was
there evidence that acceptability was enhanced by any of the levels of supple-
mentation.

Carcass data and copper liver analyses data are summarized in Table 4.
The various levels of copper supplementation did not appear to influence the
carcass measurements. As would be expected the females yielded leaner car-
casses than the males as measured by backfat thickness, loin eye marbling,
loin eye area and percent 4 lean cuts. Liver copper accumulations were not
great at any level of copper supplementation. Only slight increases were
apparent and these were greater for the females than for the males.

Summary

Sixty-four pigs were used in a feeding-slaughter experiment to evaluate
certain levels of copper when added to the protein supplemental mixture of
pigs fed in the free-choice system. Levels of 250, 350 and 450 ppm copper
as CuSO4 were studied.

Pigs consumed supplement and shelled corn in reasonable ratios at all
levels of copper supplementation. There was no indication that the copper
affected feed intake. Barrows tended to consume somewhat more protein than
the gilts. During the first four weeks the calculated level of protein for
the total feed mixture consumed was 16.0% for the barrows and 15.7% for the
gilts. For the entire experiment these values were 14.9% and 14.6%.

Except for one pen of barrows (350 ppm Cu) there was no indications of
a performance response to copper supplementation. The overall copper intake
for pigs supplemented at the highest level was calculated as 80 ppm. This is
somewhat less than the 125-250 ppm considered necessary for growth responses.

Carcass measurements indicated little, if any, influence of the copper
treatments.

Only slight increases in liver tissue copper concentrations were ob-
served due to the copper supplementations.


Literature Cited

1. Wallace, H. D, 1967. High level copper in swine feeding. A
review of research in the United States. Published by
International Copper Research Association, Inc.

2. Wallace, H. D., B. R. Cannon, A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter
and G. E. Combs. 1967. High level copper for pigs fed
shelled corn and supplement free-choice. Fla. Animal
Sci. Mimeo Series No. AN67-8.














the pigs supplemented at the highest level (450 ppm). The feed intake data
suggested no clear effect of supplement copper level. Pigs did not reject
supplement when copper was included at levels of 250, 350 and 450 ppm, nor was
there evidence that acceptability was enhanced by any of the levels of supple-
mentation.

Carcass data and copper liver analyses data are summarized in Table 4.
The various levels of copper supplementation did not appear to influence the
carcass measurements. As would be expected the females yielded leaner car-
casses than the males as measured by backfat thickness, loin eye marbling,
loin eye area and percent 4 lean cuts. Liver copper accumulations were not
great at any level of copper supplementation. Only slight increases were
apparent and these were greater for the females than for the males.

Summary

Sixty-four pigs were used in a feeding-slaughter experiment to evaluate
certain levels of copper when added to the protein supplemental mixture of
pigs fed in the free-choice system. Levels of 250, 350 and 450 ppm copper
as CuSO4 were studied.

Pigs consumed supplement and shelled corn in reasonable ratios at all
levels of copper supplementation. There was no indication that the copper
affected feed intake. Barrows tended to consume somewhat more protein than
the gilts. During the first four weeks the calculated level of protein for
the total feed mixture consumed was 16.0% for the barrows and 15.7% for the
gilts. For the entire experiment these values were 14.9% and 14.6%.

Except for one pen of barrows (350 ppm Cu) there was no indications of
a performance response to copper supplementation. The overall copper intake
for pigs supplemented at the highest level was calculated as 80 ppm. This is
somewhat less than the 125-250 ppm considered necessary for growth responses.

Carcass measurements indicated little, if any, influence of the copper
treatments.

Only slight increases in liver tissue copper concentrations were ob-
served due to the copper supplementations.


Literature Cited

1. Wallace, H. D, 1967. High level copper in swine feeding. A
review of research in the United States. Published by
International Copper Research Association, Inc.

2. Wallace, H. D., B. R. Cannon, A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter
and G. E. Combs. 1967. High level copper for pigs fed
shelled corn and supplement free-choice. Fla. Animal
Sci. Mimeo Series No. AN67-8.














Table 4. Influence of copper supplementation and sex on carcass
measurements and liver copper concentrations.


Copper Added
to Supplement 0 250 350 450
PDm.


(Females)


Number of pigs
Wt. at slaughter, lb.
Dressing percent
Backfat thickness, in.
Carcass length, in.
Loin eye marbling score-/
Loin eye area, sq. in.
Percent 4 lean cuts
Liver Copper (ppm, D.M. basis)


8
215
69.1
1.3
31.1
12.6
3.7
49.4
21.0


215
69.8
1.3
31.2
11.5
3.7
49.2
30.0


8
212
70.0
1.4
30.7
9.1
3.7
48.8
40.0


8
218
70.0
1.3
31.7
14.2
3.6,
47.9
30.0


(Males)


Number of pigs
Wt. at slaughter, lb.
Dressing percent
Backfat thickness, in.
Carcass length, in.
Loin eye marbling score-
Loin eye area, sq. in.
Percent 4 lean cuts
Liver Copper (ppm, D.M. basis)



Number of pigs
Wt. at slaughter, lb.
Dressing percent
Backfat thickness, in.
Carcass length, in. 1
Loin eye marbling score
Loin eye area, sq. in.
Percent 4 lean cuts
Liver Copper (ppm, D.M. basis)


8
215
69.7
1.4
30.7
15.3
3.2
46.4
30.0


8
215
69.5
1.3
30.6
11.0
3.3
47.1
30.0


8
228
70.0
1.4
31.6
15.9
3.4
46.4
31.0


7
216
70.1
1.4
30.9
16.7
3.3
47.5
33.0


Av.
All females

215
69.7
1.3
31.2
11.9
3.7
48.8
30.3

Av.
All Males

218
69.8
1.4
31.0
14.7
3.3
46.8
30.9


(Females and Males Combined)


16
215
69.4
1.4
30.9
14.0
3.5
47.9
25.5


15
215
69.7
1.3
30.9
11.2
3.5
48.1
30.0


16
220
70.0
1.4
31.2
12.5
3.6
47.6
35.5


15
218
70.0
1.4
31.3
15.4
3.5
47.7
35.5


I/ Slight plus indicated by 9; small minus 10; small 11; small plus, 12;
modest minus, 13; modest, 14; modest plus, 15; moderate minus, 16.




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