Title: Story of the Florida beef cattle industry
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073000/00001
 Material Information
Title: Story of the Florida beef cattle industry
Alternate Title: Story of Florida beef cattle industry
Physical Description: 38 p. : ill., maps ; 15 x 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Cunha, Tony J., 1916-1992
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1960
Copyright Date: 1960
 Subjects
Subject: Cattle trade -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Beef cattle -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by T.J. Cunha.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073000
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 19026602

Full Text



Beef Cattle Industur.-






















THE COVER PHOTO

Cowboys rounding up a herd in the Lake Okeechobee area of South
Florida. This area has a big future in the development of the beef
cattle industry.








Story of the Florida Beef Cattle Industry


By DR. T. J. CUNHA *
Florida already is an important beef cattle producing
state and everything indicates it will continue to grow and
develop into an even higher status as a beef cattle area.
Florida and the Southeast have been the fastest growing
areas in the United States in beef cattle numbers during
the last ten years and all indications are that this trend will
continue as will be discussed later in more detail.
During recent years, much attention has been given
to the beef cattle industry of Florida. Cattlemen have dem-
onstrated that higher grades of animals can be raised than
had been produced in years past. It has been found that
improved pastures can be developed, thereby making more
feed for cattle than was obtained from native pastures
only. With improved feed conditions, cattlemen have
found it possible to improve the breeding within their
herds by introducing purebred bulls of well-recognized
beef breeds. With better grazing and feeding conditions,
and by using bulls of improved breeding, the offspring is
of higher quality and has brought more on the markets
than the scrub cattle of two decades ago. Hence, it can
be seen that it is only within the last ten to twenty years
that the cattlemen and farmers of Florida have given con-
sructive thought to cattle raising and have put into practice
measures that have improved the beef cattle produced
within this state.


Florida has been raising cattle longer than any state
Figure 1
NUMBER OF BEEF CATTLE PER SQUARE MILE
BY COUNTIES IN FLORIDA, 1955

TT"""~~ i iPiib


o-20 20
21 40
41 -60 V
61 ov *r 1


Source: Calculated from U. S. Census of Agriculture, 1935
Prepared by Prof. W. K. McPherson, Department of Agricultural Economics,
University of Florida.

*Head, Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition, University
of Florida.
Page One







in the nation, but, from the standpoint of future potential
and development, it is one of the youngest cattle states.
Thus, Florida is in a unique and promising position. While
the cattle industry is an old one, it is still in its beginning
stages in regard to its future growth.
Figure 2
CHANGE IN THE NUMBER OF BEEF CATTLE PER SQUARE
MILE BY COUNTIES IN FLORIDA, 1950 TO 1955

n I


Decrese --
.o i -- vs
151- over'"""


Source: Calculnted from U. S. Census of Agriciultre, 1955
Prepared by ProfW.W. K. Mcl'herson, D)plmrtm'nt of Agricu~ltral lEconomics,
University of Florida.
Page Two


According to historians, cattle were first brought to
Florida in 1520 by Ponce de Leon. Although many groups
of Spanish settlers brought cattle to this state in later years,
the cattle fever tick and other parasites, poor pastures, in-
adequate nutrition, disease and poor management were
formidable obstacles to overcome.
Eradication of the cattle fever tick began in the early
1920's and was finally accomplished in 1950. During the
same interval, many mineral deficiency diseases were elimi-
nated, forages were improved, feeding and management
practices were adopted and breeding improved to a con-
siderable extent.
As of January 1, 1959, Florida ranked 13th in the nation
in beef cattle numbers, and second east of the Mississippi
River. Illinois is the only state east of the Mississippi River
which has more cattle than Florida.
The beef cattle industry of Florida is based on grass
as the main source of feed, since many of the soils are
not adapted to large scale grain production. Furthermore,
near year-around grazing is possible throughout the state
because of the mild climate and generous annual rainfall.
At the present time there are about two million acres
of improved pasture in Florida. Agronomists estimate that
another 8 to 10 million acres can eventually be developed
into improved pastures. Thus, there is room for a great
deal of expansion of cattle numbers. Moreover, beef cattle
production could be greatly increased on the present acre-
age of improved pasture by better production practices.







Beef production in the northern and western part of
Florida is mainly on a farm herd basis. In these sections,
diversified farming is practiced. Through diversification,
farmers are enabled to have several sources of farm income
if they desire. Herds of beef cattle, ranging from approxi-
mately 50 to 200 head are kept to afford one source of
farm income. The acreage devoted to livestock farming in
these sections of the state is small when compared with
the large ranches in Central and South Florida. In North
and West Florida the soil is adapted to the production of
such crops as corn and oats for concentrate feed. Hay
may be made from Coastal Bermuda and Pensacola Bahia
grasses. Such crops as sorghum and corn may be raised
for silage. Where field crops can be produced, the prob-
lem of winter feeding is solved to a great extent. Calves
and yearlings may be fattened on crops produced on farms
in the general farming areas, thereby enabling the farmer
to sell his field crops through his livestock.
Pastures in Florida
In North and West Florida there are many areas, par-
ticularly along the Georgia and Alabama borders, which
are clay soils. In this area of Florida, Coastal Bermuda
and Pensacola Bahia are the main grasses used. Crimson

Figure 3
Dipping cattle for ticks. The fever tick was finally eradicated in
Florida in 1950 and made it possible for a higher quality cattle
industry to develop.


Page Three


"-





















I


-n Im


clover and Louisiana White clover grow very well in this
area of Florida.
In Central Florida, from Gainesville on South, most of
the soils are sandy with varying degrees of organic matter.
Pangola, Coastal Bermuda and Pensacola Bahia are the
most popular grasses in this area. Pangola cannot stand
weather which is too cold and Gainesville is about as
far North as it is grown successfully in large acreage.
Louisiana White Clover is grown very successfully in this
area of Florida wherever moisture conditions will warrant
it.
In South Florida, particularly in the Everglades area,
as well as other lake bottoms scattered throughout Florida,
there are muck soils which are very rich and productive.
Carib, Para and St. Augustine grass are grown extensively
in these muck areas. There are also many soils close to
the dark muck areas which contain varying degrees of muck
soil and are called semi-muck areas. Muck soils contain
molybdenum in high enough levels to present a special
problem to the cattle producer. The molybdenum which
goes into the grasses ties up copper in some way not yet
entirely understood and thus extra copper needs to be fed
to cattle on muck pastures. Thus, salt with a high level
of copper is a must on muck pastures.

Figure 4
Angus calves being sold at feeder calf sale at Gainesville. Auction
markets are used to excellent advantage by cattlemen in Florida.
They are well distributed throughout the state.


Page Four







In addition to the clovers, many cattlemen are using
rye, oats and wheat for winter grazing. Pearl or Starr
millet and Hairy indigo are being used to a limited extent
as summer grazing crops or for silage making. Alyce
clover is being used for a hay crop since it is ready for
harvesting in September at about the time the heavy rainy
season is over. Considerable silage is being made in Florida
from surplus summer pasture and from corn and sorghums.
Some hay is being made but not to the same extent as
silage. Silage is becoming more popular since it is diffi-
cult to make hay during the summer months because of
the heavy rainy season. Most cattlemen have considerably
more pasture than their cattle can take care of during the
rainy summer months and, thus, silage making is a natural
for Florida as a means of properly utilizing this surplus
forage. Trench silos as well as above ground silos from
which cattle can self-feed on either end are becoming
popular in Florida.
There are two types of beef production in Florida:
(1) the range herd where there are many breeding animals
within the herd and where the animals have large areas
over which to graze, and (2) the farm herd where there
are fewer animals and smaller pastures than in range beef
production. Both types of production have a definite place
in Florida.

Figure 5
Charolais cattle owned by L Bar Ranch at Carrabelle, Florida.
Photo courtesy The Florida Cattleman.


Page Five







Florida is the only state in the Southeast that is classed
as a range cattle state. The term "range cattle" is mislead-
ing since it implies that the cattle are grazed on open
range when this is not the case. Cattle are kept on large
pastures some pastures as high as 25,000 to 30,000 acres
and even larger that are fenced, and on these large pastures
cattle are referred to as "range cattle."
Parallel with the work in improving pastures, the cat-
tlemen have given much thought to improved breeding.
The native cow has furnished the foundation for the Florida
beef cattle industry. Many critical statements have been
made regarding the native or scrub cow, yet she carried
a hardiness that was needed to withstand the tough range
conditions. The native scrub cow has been the foundation
on which Florida has been building an improved beef
cattle industry.
The use of purebred bulls on these native cows has
enabled the cattlemen to raise calves of higher grade than
were obtained from bulls of nondescript breeding. Most
of the native cattle have now been bred up with purebred
Brahman, British and crossbred foundation bulls and only
very few cattle do not have improved breeding.
Purebred Herds in Florida
In 1929, Florida had less than 10 purebred herds of
cattle. By 1957, this number had increased to over 700.
Their breakdown as to breeds is as follows:


Breed Number of purebred herds
Hereford ---. --------------.- 197
Brahman --------- 171
Angus ---- ---------------- 161
Shorthorn ------------------- 78
Santa Gertrudis .--- 61
Brangus--------------- 23
Charoloise and Charbray -- 16
Devon ------- 8
Red Polled ... -----------.---.... 3
Sussex--- ------------ 1

Since 1957, there has been some change in the distribu-
tion and number of purebred herds. These figures, how-
ever, will give some indication as to the purebred beef
cattle industry in Florida. These purebred herds are serv-
ing as a source of high quality bulls to improve the com-
mercial herds of the state. However, the purebred herds
of Florida still do not produce enough bulls to supply the
demand in the state. As a result, many cattlemen need to
travel to distant areas to purchase purebred bulls for use
in their herds. Naturally, they would prefer to obtain
bulls raised in Florida since it would save the expense and
time involved in traveling to other areas. Moreover, it has
been shown that bulls raised in other areas of the country
take some time to get acclimated in Florida. Thus, it
would be preferable for Florida cattlemen to use bulls
raised here in the state. This indicates there is plenty of


Page Six







opportunity and incentive for the purebred beef cattle in-
dustry in Florida to produce more and better quality pure-
bred bulls for the commercial cattlemen of the state.
Recent Growth of Cattle Industry
During the last 30 years the Florida beef cattle industry
has been growing very rapidly. In 1929, Florida had
355,000 head of beef cattle. By January 1, 1959 this num-
ber had increased to 1,620,000 head which is over a 4 time
increase in numbers. During 1956 and 1957, Florida beef
cattle numbers increased 6% each year in spite of the
fact that beef cattle numbers were decreasing in the United
States as a whole. This is indicative of the great interest
in the growth of the cattle industry in Florida. Since
1940, Florida has been one of the fastest growing beef cattle
states in the country. Of equal importance is that the
quality of the cattle has been improving as rapidly as the
numbers. However, it must be pointed out that Florida
still has a long way to go in improving the quality of its
animals.
Quality of Cattle
While Florida has made great strides in the cattle in-
dustry, quality is still the key to the future. Florida has
some cattle of quality comparable to what can be found
anywhere. Unfortunately, Florida still has too many cattle
which still show too much native breeding and the lack of
good feeding and management practices. The following
figures show what has been happening to quality in Florida.


Figure 6
Charbray cattle owned by K Bar Ranch, of Zephyrhills, Florida.
Photo courtesy The Florida Cattleman.


Page Seven







Value of Average
Cattle in U. S.
$ 58.47
$153.00


Value of Average
Cattle in Florida
$ 23.40
$106.00


These figures show that Florida cattle increased ap-
proximately 42 times in value in 30 years which is quite an
increase. However, they also show that the average Florida
animal is still only worth about 2/3 that of the U. S. aver-
age. This means there is still great room for improvement
of the quality of Florida cattle in the future.



Comparison of Florida and 10 Southeastern States


The southeastern area of the United States has been in-
creasing its beef cattle numbers rapidly and is destined
to become an even more important beef cattle area in the
future. Table I shows the growth which has occurred in
ten southeastern states during the last thirty years. The
data show that Florida now ranks first in beef cattle num-
bers in this area and is followed by the states of Missis-
sippi, Louisiana, Alabama and Georgia, each of which
have over one million head of beef cattle.


Table I.
NUMBER OF BEEF CATTLE IN U.S. AND TEN
SOUTHEASTERN STATES


1929 ---..
1959 ..-------


TOTAL ..--.._ 2,831,000 3,824,000 5,071,000 10,409,000


Beef Cattle
in U. S. ... ..- 26,975,000 30,403,000 41,560,000 64,025,000


Source: Livestock on Farms and Ranches on January I-Number,
Value, and Classes-1920-39 by States, U.S.D.A. Statistical Bulletin
88 (1950). Livestock and Poultry on Farms and Ranches on Janu-
ary I-Numiber, Value, and Classes-1915-50 by States, U.S.I).A.
Statistical Bulletin 106 (1952).


State
Florida -..--
Mississippi -
Louisiana -..-
Alabama ......
Georgia --...-
Arkansas -----
Kentucky -----
Tennessee .---
N. Carolina ---
S. Carolina -..


1929
449,000
353,000
459,000
237,000
301,000
214,000
337,000
309,000
92,000
80,000


1939
623,000
492,000
639,000
345,000
360,000
340,000
452,000
385,000
113,000
75,000


1949
926,000
637,000
772,000
484,000
427,000
408,000
674,000
497,000
142,000
104,000


1959
1,620,000
1,588,000
1,329,000
1,197,000
1,020,000
978,000
969,000
853,000
457,000
378,000


I'ag Eight







Table II ranks the states by actual increase in total
beef cattle numbers during the last thirty years. The state
showing the most increase was Mississippi, followed by
Florida. Both states showed an increase of over one million
head.


Table II.

INCREASE IN BEEF CATTLE NUMBERS FROM 1929 TO 1959


1. Mississippi -
2. Florida ---
3. Alabama --
4. Louisiana -
5. Arkansas _
6. Georgia ---
7. Kentucky --
8. Tennessee__
9. North Carolina
LO. South Carolina


1,235,000
1,171,000
960,000
870,000
764,000
719,000
632,000
544,000
365,000
298,000


Table III shows the percentage increase in beef cattle
number by states from 1929 to 1959. These figures show
that all of these states have increased at a faster rate than
the U. S. average. These ten states increased at an average
rate of 367%, whereas, the U. S. increased beef cattle num-
bers an average of 240% during the last 30 years.



Figure 7
Champion Santa Gertrudis bull owned by a Florida Santa Ger-
trudis breeder.


Page Nine







Table II.
PERCENTAGE INCREASE IN BEEF CATTLE NUMBERS
FROM 1929 TO 1959


Alabama ----
North Carolina
South Carolina.
Arkansas --
Mississippi ---.
Florida --......---
Georgia ---
Louisiana
Kentucky --
Tennessee -


- 510%
---.-. -- -- 500%
--..-.---- ----.. 470%
.... -...... ...- 460%
------ 450%
-.---- -------- 360%
-- ----- 340%
.------ 290%
---- 290%
.------- 280%


Average increase in ten
Southeastern States ----- 367%
Average increase in United States 240%
Table IV shows the percentage of beef cattle in the
U. S. in the ten southeastern states. These figures show
that during the last ten years beef cattle numbers have a
little more than doubled in these ten southeastern states;
whereas, the U. S. beef cattle population was only increas-
ing about 50 percent during the same period. These figures
are indicative of the tremendous growth of the beef cattle
industry in the southeastern area of the U. S.

Figure 8
Hored Hereford cows graze in a Central Florida pasture.
Page Ten






































Figure 9
Here are some Shorthorn cattle on a Florida ranch.


Table IV.
PERCENTAGE OF U. S. BEEF CATTLE POPULATION
IN 10 SOUTHEASTERN STATES
Beef Cattle in Beef Cattle % of U.S. Cattle
10 S.E. States in U.S. in 10 S.E. States
1929 2,831,000 26,975,000 10.5%
1939 ---- 3,824,000 30,403,000 12.6%
1949 ---- 5,071,000 41,560,000 12.2%
1959 --. 10,409,000 64,025,000 16.2%
Table V gives the value of cattle in the U. S. and in
the ten southeastern states during the last thirty years.
These figures show that considerable emphasis needs to
be placed on increasing the quality of cattle in all the
southeastern states since they are all below the U. S.
average.
Table V.
VALUE OF CATTLE IN U. S. AND 10 SOUTHEASTERN STATES
Average Value of Cattle in
State 1929 1939 1949 1959
Florida --------- $23.40 $20.50 $74.20 $106
Mississippi ----- 30.10 21.10 83.20 108
Louisiana ------ 31.90 21.70 84.30 118
Alabama ------ 32.20 22.50 82.50 105
Georgia -------- 31.00 21.50 80.60 100
Arkansas ------ 34.10 23.20 94.80 113
Kentucky ------ 51.40 33.40 121.00 138
Tennessee ----- 43.60 30.60 107.00 128
North Carolina_- 48.10 31.20 104.00 116
South Carolina_ 39.30 27.10 90.60 104
Average Value
in United States 58.47 38.44 135.00 153


Page Eleven


.







Table VI shows the increase in dollar value of cattle
during the last thirty years. Kentucky and Louisiana had
the greatest dollar value increase. However, all of these
southeastern states were below the U. S. average increase
during the last thirty years.
Table VI.
INCREASE IN DOLLAR VALUE OF CATTLE IN 10
SOUTHEASTERN STATES FROM 1929 TO 1959


Kentucky ----
Louisiana ---
Tennessee ---
Florida -----
Arkansas ---
Mississippi ---
Alabama ------
Georgia --.....
North Carolina -


- --- .$86.60
---- 86.10
--- 84.40
.- 82.60
.----.....----- 78.90
--- 77.90
72.80
-- 69.00
67.90


10. South Carolina ....... --------- 64.70
11. Average increase in
10 southeastern states ....--. 77.09
12. Average increase in
United States ..--....-----.....----. 94.53
Table VII shows that value of cattle in the ten south-
eastern states has stayed pretty close to 70 percent of the
value of the U. S. average during the last thirty ye--s. This
again emphasizes the need for more emphasis on increas-
ing the quality of cattle in the southeastern part of the
U. S. in the future.


Table VII.
PERCENTAGE VALUE OF CATTLE IN 10 S.E. STATES
AS COMPARED TO U. S. AVERAGE
Average Value of Cattle in % of Value
10 S.E. States U. S. of U.S. in S.E.
1929 .--.. $ 39.30 $ 58.47 67%
1939.. 27.10 38.44 70%
1949. .-- 90.60 135.00 70%


1959. .. 104.00


153.00


70%


Table VIII shows the percentage increase in the value
of cattle in U. S. and ten southeastern states during the
last thirty years. Florida has increased the fastest on a
percentage increase basis. This is due primarily to Florida's
having the lowest valued cattle thirty years ago. All states
except North and South Carolina increased at a faster rate
than the U. S. average percentage increase.
Table VIII.
PERCENTAGE INCREASE IN VALUE OF CATTLE IN U.S.
AND 10 SOUTHEASTERN STATES FROM 1929 TO 1959


1. Florida --...--....
2. Louisiana ........
3. Mississippi .....--
4. Alabama .......
5. Arkansas ...--.....
6. Georgia .--......
7. Tennessee .
8. Kentucky ......
9. South Carolina .


.... ...... -. ..... 450%
-..-..-.. .. .. 370%
...----.. 360%
-.. .............. 330%
-...............- . 330%
......--...... 320%
.............. 290%
............ ... 270%
..... ......... 260%


Page Twelve







10. North Carolina ----------------.. -. 240%
11. Average increase in
Southeastern States ------...... 322%
12. Average increase in U. S. ------- 260%
The figures reported show that the southeastern area
of the United States has been increasing rapidly in beef
cattle numbers during the last thirty years and especially
during the last ten years. All indications are that the south-
eastern area of the United States will continue to grow as
a beef cattle producing area and that it should see the
greatest future increase in beef cattle numbers as compared
to other areas of the U. S. The Southeast has many millions
of acres which can go into improved pastures for cattle
production. Moreover, it can increase its beef cattle pro-
duction considerably on present improved pasture acreage
just by using better production practices. The Southeast
needs to emphasize better quality cattle which means it
needs to do a much better job of feeding, breeding, man-
agement, parasite and disease control, marketing and all
practices which are part of a good production program.
The Southeast has a bright future in the beef cattle industry
and especially so for the person who uses quality animals
and follows good production practices.
Population Growth in Florida
Florida has been one of the fastest growing states in
the nation. The following figures show our population
increase.


Years Increase in Human Population
1940 to 1950.... -------------46 %
1950 to 1960. ------.----.--- 76.5%
A rapid population growth in Florida is also predicted
for the future. Thus, Florida should increase its need for
beef in the future and provide more opportunity for the
expansion of the beef catle industry in this area of the
country.
Growth of Steer Fattening Industry
In 1948, only about 5,000 head of steers were being
fattened in Florida. Most of these were fed in the Quincy
area primarily because there was considerable demand
for the use of their manure for fertilizing shade tobacco.
However, since then there has been a rapid growth in the
fattening of steers and it is estimated that in 1961 from
100,000 to 125,000 head will be fed in Florida. The Quincy
area is still one of the most advanced in the feeding of
steers and somewhere between 20,000 to 25,000 steers are
fed there yearly. Steers are also being fattened in the
Tampa area, the central part of Florida and in the Ever-
glades area. The Everglades area offers considerable op-
portunity for steer fattening in the future. Forage grows
abundantly there and much can be done in fattening steers
with forage as a large part of the ration. This area, which
extends all around Lake Okeechobee, should become a
large steer fattening area in the future. Its location near
the resort cities from West Palm Beach to Miami provides


Page Thirteen

























































Figure 10


Pasture scene in central Florida near Gainesville.


Page Fourteen


nrlr.
'









































Figure 11

Polled Hereford cattle roam leisurely at the Santa Fe River Ranch in Alachua.

Page Fifteen







an excellent market for the beef produced. At the present
time Florida produces only about 20% of the beef
it consumes which grades commercial, standard, good,
choice and prime. The remainder has to be shipped in
from other areas. Florida produces more than it consumes,
however, of the beef grading below commercial. Thus,
there is considerable room for expansion of steer fattening
in Florida. It could increase five fold just to take care of
the beef consumption of the present Florida population.
Effect of Rising Land Values on Cattle Industry
The value of land has been rising rapidly in Florida.
Since 1950 it has increased about 13 times. These higher
land values, of course, will cause some cattle producers to
retrench and some to expand less rapidly. However, it
certainly will result in cattlemen having to become more
efficient in order to show a profit. It means that better
feeding, breeding, management, disease and parasite con-
trol practices with the cattle herd will become a must.
Higher quality cattle which are selected and culled rigidly
will become a necessity. Cows weaning at least 85 to 90%
calf crops and weaning calves weighing 450 to 600 pounds
at about 7 months of age will become goals of the efficient
producer. It also will mean that better pasture fertilization,

Figure 12
An excellent way to feed silage and save labor costs. These cattle
are self-feeding on silage from above ground silo with concrete
block sides.


Page Sixteen







management and weed control will go along with better
cattle production practices. Moreover, cattlemen will need
to become market conscious and pay more attention to
market prices, trends and consumer demands. They also
will need to plan their operations so that they market their
class and grade of animals when they will bring the high-
est price on the market. They should not all market in
the fall when everyone else is doing the same thing. They
also will need to produce more of the kind and quality
of cattle which can be used two or three different ways.
That is, the kind of cattle that can (1) be sold as high
quality feeder calves or as stockers when weaned; (2) that
can be kept by the owner himself to put on additional
gains with pasture feeding before being sold as heavy
feeder calves the following spring or summer; or (3) that
he can finish out in the feed lot himself after he has used
pasture to the maximum in getting them ready for the final
feeding and finish needed in the feed lot. In other words,
higher quality cattle and more efficient production practices
will be musts for the future.
Changes in Types of Cattle Raising
The cow-calf operation, the production of feeder steers
and steer feeding are all increasing in Florida. In some

Figure 13
Florida cattle on feed. Fattening steers is on the increase in Florida.
There is a great demand for high quality feeder steers for the feed
lot in Florida.


Page Seventeen













k:-g~4~


.. ..


Page Eighteen


areas of Florida, there has been some shift from the cow-
calf operation to steer feeding. This is particularly true
in the Quincy area of Northwest Florida. The value of
land in these areas has increased to the point where using
the pasture for steers is the most profitable and logical
operation. The cow-calf producer is concentrated in the
greatest numbers in South Central Florida and it looks
like this will become the largest area for this kind of beef
production in the future. Steer feeding is on the increase
in the muck areas in the Everglades and elsewhere. Many
are finding that it is easier to raise steers on muck soils
than following a cow-calf operation. However, there are
many successful cow-calf producers on the muck. There
is still much to learn concerning the use of rich muck
soils for cow-calf operations. Only experienced cattlemen
with considerable knowledge should attempt cow-calf op-
erations on the muck. The beginner in the cattle business
would be better off in some other type of soil.
Long Range Outlook
The beef cattle industry in Florida has been increasing
rapidly and the outlook is for a continued healthy increase
in the future. In the long range outlook, Florida and most
areas in the Southeast are in for considerable expansion

Figure 14
A family sitting down to eat some Florida beef. As income in-
creases people spend more for beef. It is a very popular and
nutritious food.






of the cattle industry in the future. This is because most
of the area in the Western United States which can raise
beef cattle is already raising beef. A lack of water will
also limit the amount of future expansion which can occur
in the West. The Midwest does not have large new areas
to develop for cattle grazing. Moreover, beef cattle will
have considerable competition from hogs, dairy cattle,
soybeans, corn and other commodities in the Midwest. The
Northeastern area of the United States has very few cattle
and prospects are for very little, if any, increase there in
the future. Thus, Florida and the Southeast is the last
large area in this country where there are many millions
of acres which can be put into improved pastures and
thus used to expand cattle numbers. Moreover, much can
be done to increase cattle production in Florida and the
Southeast with present pastures by better feeding, breed-
ing and management practices.
The human population in the United States is increas-
ing at the rate of about 3 million per year. This means that
by 1975 we will have about 1/3 more people to feed in
this country. Each year about 1,000,000 acres of agricul-
tural land in the United States is going out of production
due to new roads, houses, airports and other construction.
Moreover, beef consumption in the U. S. has risen in the
last 10 years from 60 lbs. per person to a little over 80 lbs.
at the present time. There is no reason why beef con-
sumption cannot be increased even further in the future.
People enjoy eating beef and it is one commodity they


buy more of as they have more money to spend. Thus,
high beef consumption is associated with a high standard
of living and this is something which has been steadily
increasing in this country. All this discussion leads to the
fact that we will need to produce more beef in the future
and the area with the biggest opportunity and the most
logical place for it to occur is Florida and the Southeast.
A hint as to the future importance of the Southeast in
beef production is very apparent from the fact that the
greatest rate of expansion of beef cattle during the past
10 years has been in this area as shown in Table IV.
The future of Florida and the Southeast as the area
for future expansion of beef cattle production is well estab-
lished. The next question is, how should this expansion
take place and what are the problems involved? First, the
expansion should take place in line with the increased de-
mand for beef. Secondly, the expansion should be made
on a sound economical basis and with the employment of
good efficient cattle production practices. Inefficiency can
be tolerated when cattle prices are very high. However, it
cannot be when lower prices set in. Thus, any sound beef
cattle enterprise should be entered into or expanded only
on a program based on an efficient operation. The opera-
tion should be one which can safely weather the lows and
highs in price levels.
Demand for Beef
To give some idea as to what has been happening to


Page Nineteen



































Figure 15
One of the first steps in developing an improved pasture. Florida has about 2 million acres of improved pastures and has many millions
of acres which can be improved.


Page Twenty


Ri
''i







beef consumption the information is presented in Tables
IX and X.
Table IX gives information on what has been happen-
ing to meat consumption since 1940 on a per capital basis.
Table IX


Yeai
1940-
1940-
1950-
1957_


POUNDS CONSUMED PER PERSON IN U. S. OF
rs Beef Pork Poultry* Veal X
50 61.2 71 22.2 9.4
57 --- 66.4 69.3 24.4 9.1
57 -- 75.4 66.2 27.8 8.7
--- 84.3 61.6 31.1 8.8


% change since
1940-50 period


button
6.0
5.3
4.3
4.2


+38.0 -13.2 -t-40.1 -6.4 -30.0


Table IX shows that since the 1940-50 period, both
beef and poultry have increased about 40% in per capital
consumption. Pork consumption has decreased because the
housewife has objected to the excess fat which it carried.
This should be a good lesson for the beef producer to take
notice of. He needs to place more emphasis on the meat-
type steer in order to produce cattle with more lean and
less fat. Unless he does this, the increase in beef con-
sumption will not occur since the American consumer is
becoming more calorie and weight conscious and is de-
creasing the consumption of fat meats.


Table X
PERCENTAGE OF CONSUMER'S DOLLAR SPENT FOR


Year
1920 --
1930 -
1940-
1950-
1957-


Pork
--- 3.2%
-.... 3.0%
2.3%
2.5%
1.8%


Beef
2.4%
2.3%
2.2%
2.8%
2.7%


The information in Table X gives more evidence of the
increased spending for beef. The swine producer is trying
to regain some of his market by placing more empha-
sis on meat-type hogs. Both the beef and pork producer,
however, have had and will continue to have plenty of
competition from the poultry industry. Thus, both the
beef and pork industry need to produce more meat-type
animals if they expect to continue to obtain their just share
of the consumer's dollar in the future.


Table XI gives an estimation of the increased demand
there will be for beef by 1975. Whether or not these figures
are reasonably accurate, it does indicate the need for con-
siderably more beef production by 1975 and of course this
demand will continue to increase after 1975.


*Chicken, broiler & turkey.


Page Twenty-One










































Figure 16
This crew is making silage. An increasing amount of silage is being made in Florida. It is an excellent way of supplying winter feed under
Florida conditions.


Page Twenty-Two


-~'-r







Table XI
ESTIMATED NEEDS IN THE UNITED STATES BY 1975
Beef and veal --- --- 58% more

Pork ._-- ------- 41% more

Milk ------ 40% more

Eggs ----- 35% more

Poultry -- ------ 18% more




Table XII gives the changes which occurred in the

counties of Florida from 1950 to 1955. When the 1960

census is completed, comparable figures will be available

for the period from 1955 to 1960.


Figure 17

Florida produced beef hanging on the rail. Florida produces only
20% of the high grading beef which it consumes. There is plenty
of opportunity for producing more of the high quality beef needed
in Florida.


Page Twenty-Three






Table XII.
CHANGES WHICH OCCURRED IN CATTLE NUMBERS IN THE COUNTIES OF FLORIDA FROM 1950 TO 1955.*


County

Alachua
Baker -
Bay ----
Bradford ---
Brevard -
Broward -
Calhoun "
Charlotte
,Citrus
Clay -----.---
Collier -
Columbia ---
Dade ---
DeSoto ....-
Dixie .-..
Duval .-.....-
Escambia -...
Flagler -....
Franklin -...-
Gadsdcn ...-..
Gilchrist ...
Glades .....


Number of
Cattle in
1950
-26,331
-- 1,993
-- 1,854
-- 5,946
14,200
22,838
4,490
20,632
7,430
----- 7,630
-- 45,015
..--- 8,175
--------. 19,427
--- ...... 41,199
----..... 4,793
.------ 16,634
-.--- .... 7,876
...--- -.. 9,548
---- .. ...... 578
.. ..... .. .... 8,166
.- ....-.--- 3,322
..... -... 59,022
... -...-. 912


Number of
Cattle Per
Square Mile
29.52
3.41
2.46
20.29
13.76
18.75
8.06
29.27
13.03
12.76
22.16
10.40
9.46
63.58
6.97
21.41
11.88
19.77
1.06
16.07
9.80
79.12
1.64


Number of
Cattle in
1955
43,493
6,041
3,444
9,609
42,115
40,617
9,354
27,495
12,061
15,690
22,284
16,144
31,499
47,932
6,093
23,001
14,273
9,201
1,058
18,636
7,618
28,397
1,430


Number of
Cattle Per
Square Mile
48.76
10.33
4.57
32.80
40.81
33.35
16.79
39.00
21.16
26.24
10.97
20.54
15.34
73.97
8.86
29.60
21.53
19.05
1.94
36.69
22.47
38.07
2.57


Page Twenly-Four


Change in Number
of Cattle Per
Square Mile from
1950 to 1955
19.24
6.92
2.11
12.51
27.05
14.60
8.73
9.73
8.13
13.48
-11.18
10.14
5.88
10.39
1.89
8.19
9.65
0.72
0.88
20.62
12.67
-41.05
0.93


Change in No.
of Cattle from
1950 to 1955
17,162
4,048
1,590
3,663
27,915
17,779
4,864
6,863
4,631
8,060
-22,731
7,969
12,072
6,733
1,300
6,367
6,397
347
480
10,470
4,296
-30,625
518














I rC


Registered Brahman cattle pose for a picture in the Florida Everglades at U. S. Sugar Corporation Ranch.


Page Twenty-Five






Table XII (Continued)


County

Hamilton -- .....------- --
Hardee ...--_ .._..------.----.
Hendry .---------...------------
Hernando -__---- .-----------
Highlands -----------... ----
Hillsborough ---- --------
Holmes -- ------------
Indian River .---- ....----------
Jackson ------- ---------
Jefferson .....-----------------..
Lafayette .----...----- ...--------
Lake _._------...---------...----.
Lee --..- ... ..---------..--------
Leon .--.-...-...----------------
Levy _-------..... ------------....
Liberty _...--_.. ----------.--.-
Madison --.....-..-----------.
Manatee .--..... ...-.-----------
Marion---- ..........-----------..
Martin ......--- .......------------....
Monroe .......--------------
Nassau .---....-------..... --...........--
Okaloosa ......................------..--
Okccchobce ......................--


Number of
Cattle in
1950
4,727
36,591
33,571
7,190
34,762
41,313
9,025
7,870
20,493
6,212
2,276
10,863
9,430
9,172
20,956
2,165
8,530
17,643
35,680
10,600
-------- --
5,226
5,116
42,589


Number of
Cattle Per
Square Mile
9.20
58.08
28.28
14.73
33.39
39.72
18.69
15.40
21.75
10.39
4.19
10.91
12.00
13.39
19.00
2.58
12.15
25.17
22.07
18.96

8.04
5.45
54.60


Number of
Cattle in
1955
8,469
43,187
49,934
14,430
52,273
97,234
14,694
15,845
39,179
11,700
7,399
20,704
17,284
12,799
22,784
3,424
14,070
31,145
56,955
20,561
----- -----
7,213
9,209
59,852


Number of
Cattle Per
Square Mile
16.48
68.55
42.07
29.57
50.21
93.49
30.42
31.01
41.59
19.57
13.63
20.79
21.99
18.68
20.66
4.09
20.04
44.43
35.22
36.78

11.10
9.82
76.73


Change in Number
of Cattle Per
Square Mile from
1950 to 1955
7.28
10.47
13.79
14.84
16.82
53.77
11.73
15.61
19.84
9.18
9.44
9.88
9.99
5.29
1.66
1.51
7.89
19.26
13.15
17.82

3.06
4.37
22.13


Page Twenty-Six


Change in No.
of Cattle from
1950 to 1955
3,742
6,596
16,363
7,240
17,511
55,921
5,669
7,975
18,686
5,488
5,123
9,841
7,854
3,627
1,828
1,259
5,540
13,502
21,275
9,961

1,987
4,093
17,263






Table XII (Continued)


County


Orange --......--
Osceola -_.--
Palm Beach _---
Pasco ----
Pinellas ---
Polk --------
Putnam
Santa Rosa -
Sarasota ---
Seminole -.-----.---
St. Johns --
St. Lucie __- --
Sumter ------
Suwanee
Taylor ------
Union ._..--..---.----
Volusia -------
Wakulla -----
Walton ...---------.--
Washington ---


Number of
Cattle in
1950
-. ... 21,947
49,504
39,882
25,719
-- 9,116
86,270
-- 13,032
7,330
13,636
-...-- -- 12,616
.-. 7,707
-- 22,468
- 21,845
11,947
..... --- 4,820
. ....-- 5,829
-- 13,156
S 1,454
.-----. 6,961
5,989


Number of
Cattle Per
Square Mile
23.96
37.36
20.16
34.25
34.53
46.36
16.23
7.16
23.27
39.30
12.66
38.21
38.94
17.65
4.67
24.29
11.80
2.37
6.65
10.03


Number of
Cattle in
1955
35,279
55,096
84,238
39,528
10,835
121,773
20,523
14,697
24,364
14,490
11,333
30,857
29,082
22,440
11,035
9,381
18,626
1,681
11,950
12,311


Number of
Cattle Per
Square Mile
38.51
41.58
42.59
52.63
41.04
65.43
25.56
14.35
41.58
45.14
18.61
52.48
51.84
33.15
10.69
39.09
16.70
2.74
11.42
20.62


Change in Number
of Cattle Per
Square Mile from
1950 to 1955
14.55
4.22
22.43
18.38
6.51
19.07
9.33
7.19
18.31
5.84
5.95
14.27
12.90
15.50
6.02
14.80
4.90
0.37
4.77
10.59


1,101,239 20.29 1,647,348 30.36

*Prepared by W. K. McPherson, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.


Page Twenty-Seven


Change in No.
of Cattle from
1950 to 1955
13,332
5,592
44,356
13,809
1,719
35,503
7,491
7,367
10,728
1,874
3,626
8,389
7,237
10,493
6,215
3,552
5,470
227
4,989
6,322










Table XIII gives data on the top ten ranking counties in the various categories presented.


Table XIII.
TOP TEN COUNTIES IN EACH CATEGORY BY 1955


Change in Cattle
Per Square Mile
from 1950 to 1955
1. Hillsborough 53.77
2. Brevard __.----- 27.05
3. Palm Beach -- 22.43
4. Okeechobee - 22.13
5. Gadsden ------. 20.62
6. Jackson .-----.. 19.24
7. Manatee .--. 19.26
8. Alachua .---..-. 19.24
9. Pasco .....-- .---- 18.38
10. Sarasota ..-----... 18.31


Change in Total
Cattle in County
from 1950 to 1955
1. Hillsborough 55,921
2. Palm Beach --- 44,356
3. Polk ._._-------- 35,503
4. Brevard .------ 27,915
5. Marion ------- 21,275
6. Jackson .----. 18,686
7. Broward ---.. 17,779
8. Highlands .. 17,511
9. Okeechobee 17,263
10. Alachua ..----... 17,162


Total Cattle in County
in 1955


1. Polk


- --- 121,773


Hillsborough -
Palm Beach ---
Okeechobee --
Marion ----....
Osceola --....
Highlands ..-.
Hendry ---.--
DeSoto ------
Alachua -------


97,234
84,238
59,852
56,955
55,096
52,273
49,934
47,932
43,493


Okeechobee ---
DeSoto --.-------
Hardee ---
Polk -----
Pasco --
St. Lucie _-..--
Sumter ..----
Highlands -....
Alachua .--...


I'agc Ttvenly-Eight


Number of Cattle
Per Square Mile
in 1955
1. Hillsborough -- 93.49


76.73
73.95
68.55
65.43
52.63
52.48
51.84
50.21
48.76











btrF


Figure 19
Crossbred cattle on a good quality grass-clover pasture. Clover should be grown on all Florida ranches wherever soil and moisture con-
ditions warrant. Clover provides winter feed and helps increase the calf crop.

Page Twenty-Nine







The figures shown in Tables XII and XIII show that a
great deal of the increase in cattle numbers has occurred
in the central and southern part of Florida. The heaviest
concentration of cattle per square mile also exists in this
same area. The future outlook is for the largest increase
in cattle numbers also to occur in this same area. Figures
1 and 2 also help to illustrate the concentration and the
changes which have occurred in cattle numbers in the
various counties in Florida.
Considerable Research Underway in Florida
With the improvements being made in feeding, breed-
ing, management, parasite and disease control, it is safe to
state that a solid foundation is being laid for cattlemen in
future years that will cause Florida to rate high as a
beef cattle state. There are many important questions still
unanswered concerning problems of beef cattle production
in Florida. However, it is encouraging to state that research
:studies are underway at the Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tions located at Gainesville, Ona, Belle Glade, Quincy,
Brooksville, Jay and Live Oak which will provide many
of the answers that cattlemen need. Those studies em-
brace many phases of feeding, breeding, and management.
Experiments are underway which are especially designed
to answer many of the questions that cattlemen have on
breeds and breeding systems to use. There is a great deal
of demand for this type of information. It is hoped that
the trials underway will provide solutions to these problems
in the future.


All Breeds Have a Place in Florida
There is some difference of opinion among cattlemen
as to which breed is best for Florida. Good cattlemen with
broad experience recognize that there are good and poor
individuals in all breeds of cattle. Actually, one can find
more difference within a breed of cattle than between
breeds. Any good animal is highly respected by a cattle-
man regardless of its breeding. Therefore, the breed one
chooses, in most cases, is a matter of personal preference.
One should obtain the breed he likes and will enjoy work-
ing with. There are advantages and disadvantages to all
breeds. The breed which has the most advantages for the
particular location and objective of the cattleman should
be selected. The main thing is to obtain good ones of that
breed and to continue their improvement by proper feed-
ing, breeding and management. Future progress in Florida
will depend on the use of better quality cattle of all breeds.
Cattle Industry Helped by Many
Many county, state, regional and national organiza-
tions have aided the development of the cattle industry in
Florida. Certainly the University of Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations have been very instrumental in solv-
ing many of the soil, pasture and cattle production prob-
lems peculiar to the climate, the varying types of soils and
other environmental conditions that exist in Florida. The
Florida Cattlemen's Association and its many strong and
influential leaders have exerted a most significant effect
during the last 20 or 25 years in developing our present


Page Thtirty







SUMMARY


Florida already is an important beef cattle producing
state and all indications are that it will continue to increase
its numbers and quality of cattle as well as the amount of
beef produced per acre. Graded bull sales, production test-
ing, pregnancy examination of cows, fertility testing of
bulls, testing bulls for rate of gain, better quality pastures,
silage making, and winter feeding are only some of the
better practices being initiated and followed by Florida
cattlemen. Better breeding, management, marketing, as
well as disease and parasite control practices also are being
initiated and followed. However, Florida is still in the
beginning stages of initiating better production practices
and producing better quality animals and the greatest need
for the future is a continual improvement in this regard.
Florida has an excellent future in the beef cattle business.
It offers great opportunity for the person who will use
high quality animals as well as up to date production and
management practices.


K


Crossbred herd of cattle with Brangus and other breeding in
Everglades area of Florida.


Page Thirty-Two






beef cattle industry. The various Florida Purebred Breed
Associations have done a great deal to improve the industry
in the last 10 to 15 years. The State Department of Agri-
culture, the Livestock Sanitary Board, the Soil Conserva-
tion Service, the Florida Agricultural Council, many farm
publications and newspaper farm editors as well as many
others too numerous to mention have all been instrumental
in the great development which has occurred in the cattle
industry in Florida. The eradication of the fever tick and
the solving of the salt sick problem were two very import-
ant milestones in the cattle industry. It is hoped that the
present program which has eradicated the screwworm fly
will prove permanent and that reinfestation will not occur.
If this happens, it will be another milestone in the develop-
ment of the cattle industry in Florida. Many cattlemen
who had men treating their cattle for screwworms are
now using these men to clear land and develop improved
pastures. This is all to the good and will help develop an
improved cattle industry.







Part of Angus cattle herd at University of Florida.


Page Thirty-One


1







Table XIV.
FLORIDA CATTLE STATISTICS-Numbers on Farms, January 1, Years Indicated
(USDA, AMS Crop Reporting Board)


-ALL CATTLE AND CALVES-


No. Value-


Year
1920-
1921-..
1922-..
1923-.-
1924.--.
1925 --
1926 --.
1927- .
1928..-.
1929 -
1930 --.
1931 .-
1932 ...
1933 .
1934 .-
1935.-..
1936 .-
1937 .--
1938 -.
1939 ...


(000)
880
840
810
770
740
712
684
640
612
600
590
620
680
737
773
778
788
796
780
820


Per Head
$ 27.80
23.90
18.30
18.60
18.00
16.50
17.50
17.00
17.60
23.40
29.70
23.70
17.90
14.00
13.80
14.60
18.20
18.50
20.00
20.50


BEEF CATTLE AND CALVES-


Beef cows and
Heifers 2 yrs.
old and older
(000)


Heifers
1-2 years
(000)
82
80
78
76
74
71
69
64
65
64
68
68
72
76
78
82
83
84
80
91


Steers
1 year
Calves and older
(000) (000)
144 118
132 110
131 105
114 '100
114 98
94 102
81 96
70 88
60 79
61 71
58 64
54 83
77 99
103 89
110 90
111 87
107 84
110 86
104 84
112 84


Total
$ 24,464
20,076
14,823
14,322
13,320
11,748
11,970
10,880
10,771
14,040
17,523
14,694
12,172
10,318
10,648
11,491
14,366
14,749
15,600
16,810


Bulls
1 year
and older
(000)
17
17
17
17
17
16
15
14
13
12
12
13
15
17
19
21
21
21
21
20


Total
Beef
Cattle
(000)
766
724
691
647
623
588
554
503
468
449
435
459
510
560
593
607
604
609
592
623


Page Thirty-Three






Table XIV.-(Continued)
FLORIDA CATTLE STATISTICS-Numbers on Farms, January 1, Years Indicated
(USDA, AMS Crop Reporting Board)


-ALL CATTLE AND CALVES-


Value-
Per Head Total


No.
(000)
851
902
947
1,042
1,136
1,159
1,205
1,193
1,193
1,157
1,250
1,350
1,593
1,720
1,737
1,737
1,754
1,842
1,934
2,011


17,786
20,232
27,272
39,530
51,240
59,258
56,394
65,615
70,029
85,849
90,625
132,300
189,567
158,240
109,431
93,798
103,486
114,204
152,786
213,166


Beef cows and
Heifers 2 yrs.
old and older
(000)
338
353
385
444
487
495
520
532
546
484
557
609
672
747
848
814
814
842
815
865


BEEF CATTLE AND CALVES-


Heifers
1-2 years
(000)
93
105
110
124
135
135
130
132
130
124
119
111
154
182
179
153
144
131
147
161


Steers
1 year
Calves and older
(000) (000)


20.90
22.40
28.80
37.90'
45.10
42.50
46.80
55.00
58.70
7420
72.50
98.00
119.00
92.00
62.00
54.00
59.00
62.00
79.00
106.00


1940 .
1941 ----
1942 --.
1943 ..--
1944 -.--
1945 -...
1946 .....
1947 --
1948 -..
1949 -..---
1950 .....
1951...--
1952 ...-
1953 --
1954 --
1955 .....
1956....
1957...
1958 .
1959 .-


Bulls
1 year
and older
(000)
20
21
21
23
24
25
26
26
26
27
29
31
33
43
43
47
49
51
52
52


Total
Beef
Cattle
(000)
655
694
735
828
908
927
972
957
961
926
1,005
1,095
1,315
1,414
1,416
1,412
1,417
1,481
1,555
1,620


Iage Thirly-Four






Table XV
FLORIDA LIVESTOCK AUCTION MARKETS


Day Held
Monday
(Tuesday-Hol
Monday
Monday
Monday
Monday
Monday
Monday
Monday


Tuesday
Tuesday
Tuesday
Tuesday
Tuesday
Tuesday
Tuesday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Wednesday
Wedensday
Wednesday
Wednesday
Wednesday


Name of Market


Gainesville Livestock Market, Inc.
gs)
Tindel Livestock Auction Market
Monticello Livestock Market
Cattlemen's LS Auction Market, Inc.
Glades LS Marketing Association
Mid-Florida Livestock Market, Inc.
Paxton Livestock Market
Jacksonville LS Auction


Chipley Livestock Market
Sarasota Cattle & Commission Sales, Inc.
Cattlemen's LS Auction Market, Inc.
Madison Livestock Market
*State Farmers' LS Market
West Florida Livestock Market
Sumter County Farmers' Market, Inc.
Okeechobee Livestock Market
*State Farmers' Livestock Market
Kissimme Livestock Market, Inc.
'Bonifay State Farmers' Livestock Market
Suwannee Valley Livestock Market
Gadsden County LS Auction Market
Jackson's LS Auction Market


Owner or Manager
L. H. Thompson


Location
Gainesville

Graceville
Monticello
Tampa
Belle Glade
Orlando
Paxton
Jacksonville
Chipley
Sarasota
Lakeland
Madison
*Jay
Marianna
Webster
Okeechobee
*Arcadia
Kissimmee
"Bonifay
Live Oak
Quincy
Gainesville


Page Thirty-Five


Claude Tindel
J. N. Hawkins
Harry McCollum, Jr.
George C. Young
Gilbert A. Tucker
Alston Campbell
Thornton Smith & T. W. Waldrop
E. D. Neel
Jerry L. Coleman
Harry McCollum, Jr.
George Townsend
H. T. Woodruff
W. F. Fite

Alto Adams
John D. and Pat Kelly
Kenneth Caldwell
Lamon Williams
Oneal Boatright
C. Wayne Henry & Jack McFarlin
Lovette Jackson







Table XV-(Continued)
FLORIDA LIVESTOCK AUCTION MARKETS


Name of Market
Beebe Auction Market
*State Farmers' LS Market
Columbia Livestock Market
Tri-County LS Auction Company
E. E. Mills LS Auction Market
Hardee County LS Auction Market
Goff Livestock Commission Co.


Location
West Palm Beach
*DeFuniak Springs
Lake City
Blountstown
Ocala
Wauchula


Owner or Manager
H. S. Beebe
Sam W. Rachels
Van Giebeig
Edwin H. Peters
E. E. Mills
Russell Farmer


Day Held
Thursday
Thursday
Thursday
Thursday
Thursday
Thursday

Saturday


COOPERATIVE HOG SALES-Operating seasonally


Tri-County Farmers' Co-op, Inc.


Trenton


D. D. Faircloth


Lakeland


Tuesday


*State owned markets


Page Thirtiy-Six






Table XVI.
FLORIDA SLAUGHTERING PLANTS
(As furnished by Florida Livestock Board)
Under Federal Inspection


Mid-State Packers
Max Bauer Packer
Gold Merit Packing Co.
Swift and Company
Suber Edwards and Company
Rea Serum Company
Under State Inspection
Riverside Packing Company, Inc.
Copeland Sausage Company
E. H. Strickland
Central Packing Company, Inc.
Tobias Packing Company
Register Meat Company, Inc.
M. L. McDonald Wholesale Meats
Oakland Meat Packing
Carl E. Lennard
Harold R. Gertner Company, Inc.
Meat Inspection Laboratory
(University of Florida)
Ramsey Meat Company
Sunnyland Packing Company
Economy Packing House
Hygrade Packing Company


Bartow
Hialeah
Jacksonville
Ocala
Quincy
Tallahassee

Allandale
Alachua
Bristol
Center Hill
Chipley
Cottondale
Daytona Beach
Fort Lauderdale
Fort Pierce
Gainesville

Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Hialeah
Hialeah


Loeb & Gottfried
Archie Peterson
Clyde O. Smith
Tinsley Meat Slaughter
Jones-Chambliss Company
Michael Sauer
Lake City Sausage Company
Seth S. Nettles
L. F. Wells Meat Packers
J. H. Roberts
Suwannee Packing Company
Roberts Wholesale Meats
Florida Industrial School for Boys
Jackson Packing Company
T. E. Carpenter Slaughter House
Dirr Sausage Factory, Inc.
Gotham Provision Company, Inc.
C. V. Horne
H. S. Camp and Sons
Rainbow Packing Company
Glen Davis Wholesale Meats
High Hammock Farms, Inc.
Turner and Gee


Hialeah
Jacksonville
Jacksonville
Jacksonville
Jacksonville
Jupiter
Lake City
Lake City
Lakeland
Lake Worth
Live Oak
Mango
Marianna
Marianna
Bristol
Miami
Miami Springs
Newberry
Ocala
Ocala
Okeechobee
Orange Park
Orlando

Page Thirty-Seven








Hi-Flavor Meats, Inc.
Southland Provision Co. of Florida
E. M. Hawkins Wholesale Meats
W. N. Burkett
D. Z. Ard Slaughter Plant
Beesley Packing Co. of Florida, Inc.
Florida Sausage Company, Inc.
Harris Packing Company
Sumner Slaughter Plant
M. M. Fussell
Charles A. Moore


Oviedo
Palatka
East Palatka
Panasoffkee
Pensacola
Pensacola
Pensacola
Pinellas Park
Plant City
Polk City
Tallahassee


50. Meat Inspection Laboratory
(Florida A. & M. University)
51. Herman Sausage Company
52. Hickory Hill Meat Packers, Inc.
53. Lykes Brothers, Inc.
54. Earl Ryals Packing Company, Inc.
55. Tarnow Farms
56. Roberson Packing Company
57. Hancock Sausage
58. Frank O'Halloran


Tallahassee
Tampa
Tampa
Tampa
Tampa
Tampa
Winter Garden
Winter Haven
Winter Haven


'Iage Thirty-Eiglht




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