Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Title: Sources of lipids and levels of waste animal fat for regulation of intake of a supplement to grass hay for cattle
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072995/00001
 Material Information
Title: Sources of lipids and levels of waste animal fat for regulation of intake of a supplement to grass hay for cattle
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AN68-7
Physical Description: 18 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hentges, J. F. ( James Franklin ), 1925-
Adams, J. Richard ( James Richard ), b. 1898
Moore, J. E. ( John E )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Station, Dept. of Animal Science
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1967
Copyright Date: 1967
 Subjects
Subject: Cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Lipids -- Metabolism   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.F. Hentges, Jr., J.R. Adams, and J.E. Moore.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 18).
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "December, 1967."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072995
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 78767896

Full Text



Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN68-7 Experiment Station
December, 1967 Gainesville, Florida

SOURCES OF LIPIDS AND LEVELS OF WASTE ANIMAL FAT FOR REGULATION
OF INTAKE OF A SUPPLEMENT TO GRASS HAY FOR CATTLE/

J. F. Hentges, Jr., J. R. Adams and J. E. Moore2/


The efficacy of stabilized waste animal fat, corn oil and menhaden
fish oil as regulators of forage supplement intake was measured with
individually fed and fistulated steers. This evaluation was based on
the following criteria: (1) predictability of the limiting effect of
the intake regulator on forage supplement intake; (2) effect of the
intake regulator on utilization of forage by the animal as indicated
by intake; and (3) effect of the regulator on the general health of
the animal.


EXPERIMENT I

Experimental Procedure

The effect of animal fat as a forage supplement intake regulator
was measured with 20 grade Hereford steers which averaged 24 mo. of
age and 400 kg in weight at the start of the experiment. They were
individually fed and watered in an open barn. They were given access
to a large drylot during a six-hour exercise period, 10:00 a.m. to
4:00 p.m. every day while orts were weighed, water meters were read,
stalls were cleaned and fresh feed was placed in feeders.

During a preliminary period, the first 3 weeks of each experiment,
all steers were offered chopped low quality Pangolagrass hay (Digitari-a
decumbens) ad libitum, 200 gm. of vitamin-antibiotic premix (table 1)
and forage supplement (table 2) at the following rates per day: 20 kg
during the first week, 3.25 kg during the second week, and 4.5 kg during
the third week. The third week was considered a standardization period.
The steers were randomly allotted to 4 lots at the end of the third
week.




l/This study was supported in part by a U.S.D.A. contract. The assis-
tance of Dr. R. R. Oltjen, Animal Husbandry Research Division, Agri-
cultural Research Service, U.S.D.A., is gratefully acknowledged.

-/Hentges, Animal Nutritionist; Adams, former Graduate Research Assis-
tant; and Moore, Associate Animal Nutritionist. The assistance of
Dr. Fred Neal, Veterinary Science Department and Dr. Chas. Wilcox,
Dairy Science Pepartment is acknowledged.






- 2-


TABLE 1

INGREDIENT COMPOSITION OF VITAMIN-ANTIBIOTIC PREMIXI


Ingredients Gras

Vitamin A (Dual A 30) 30,000 J.U./gm.2/ 2CO.OCO
Vitamin D2 (Perma D 64) 64x100 USP/lb.2/ 5.325
Vitamin E (Perma E 125) 25,000 USP/lb.2/ 0.365
Chlortetracycline (Aurofac 10) 10 gm./lb.3/ 955.CCO
Basal supplement 58,839.310
60,000.000

l/Mixture calculated for 300 steer-days supply. Daily allowance of
200 gm. provided 20,000 I.U. vitamin A; 2,500 U.S.P. units vitamin
D2; 15 U.S.P. units vitamin E and 70 mg. chlortetracycline.
2/Vitamins provided gratis by Commercial Solvents Corporation, Terre
Haute, Indiana.
3/Antibiotic provided gratis by American Cyanamid Co., Princeton, ILeT
Jersey.



TABLE 2

INGREDIENT COMPOSITION OF BASAL SUPPLEMENT


Ingredient

Soybean oil meal, 50% 31
Corn meal yellow dent #2 55
Cane molasses, standard 10
Defluorinated phosphat e/ 2
Trace mineralized salt-/ 2
100

i/Guaranteed analysis: Phosphorus (P) 18.00% Minimum
Calcium (Ca) 34.00% Maximum
2/Guaranteed analysis: Salt (NaC1) not less than 96.0c
nor more than 99.01d






- 3 -


During the experimental period, fourth through seventh weeks, one
of four supplements was offered daily to each steer. The four supple-
ments provided the following levels of added animal fat in the supple-
ment: 0 (control), 10, 15, and 20% (table 3). The fat was heated to
about 1500 F. before mixing with the supplement. The fat was yellowish-
brown in color and had the same consistency and odor as lard. The
quantity of each supplement which was offered each day contained 4.5 kg
of the basal forage supplement plus added fat.


TABLE 3

LEVELS OF ANIMAL FAT ADDED TO SUPPLEMENT AND QUANTITY
OF SUPPLEMENT OFFERED DAILY TO EACH STEER


Added Forage Added Total
fat supplement fat supplement,
_kg gm. kg/steer/day

0 4.5 o 4.50

1o 4.5 500 5.00

15 4.5 800 5.30

20 4.5 1,130 5.63



Indices of health were recorded at the start and end of the experi-
mental period. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein for the
following analyses: hematocrit (packed cell volume), hemoglobin, eryth-
rocyte count and leucocyte count. Rectal temperatures were recorded at
10:00 a.m. on 3 consecutive days prior to and just before the end of the
experimental period. Body weights were recorded at 3:00 p.m. on Monday
of every week.

The data were analyzed by analysis of variance (Snedecor, 1956).


EXPERIMENT II

Experimental Procedure

The procedure for Experiment II was the same as that for Experiment
I except that the treatments consisted of different lipid sources
(animal fat,: corn oil .and,menhaden fish oil) each fed as lO% of the
total weight of;supplement (table 4). The 10%o level was selected because
it was the only level in the preceding experiment.which was voluntarily
consumed by a majority of the steers.






-4-


TABLE 4

SOURCES OF LIPID ADDED TO SUPPLEMENT AND QUANTITY OF SUPPLEEIEiT
OFFERED DAILY TO EACH STEER IN EXPERIMENT II


Forage Total
supplement, lipid, supplement,
Lipid Source kg kg kg/steer/day

None 4.5 --.5

Corn oill/ 4.5 .50 5.0

Menhaden fish oil2/ 4.5 .50 5.0

Stabilized animal fat./ 4.5 .50 5.0


1/Mazola, Corn Products Co., New York, N. Y.
E/Supplied gratis by Dr. T. L. Meade, J. Howard Smith Inc., Port
Monmouth, N. J.
3/Stabilized rendered animal fat, Florida Soap Co., Jacksonville, Fla,


EXPERIMENT III

Experimental Procedure

Rumen fistulated steers were used in a 22. factorial design v-ith
randomized blocks of 3 steers each for folir dietary treatments. The
treatments consisted of two levels of basal supplement with and with-
out 10% stabilized waste fat as follows:


Treatment
1
2
3
4


Levels of basal
supplement per day
2 gm./kg body wt.
2 gm./kg body wt.
4 gm./kg body wt.
4 gm./kg body wt.


Waste
fat
O
+
O
+


The basal supplement consisted of soybean oil meal, 30%; corn maJ.3
56%; cane molasses, 10%; trace mineralized salt, 2%; defluorinated rock
phosphate, 2%; vitamins A, D and E and aureomycin. The steers were
individually fed and watered. A 10-day adjustment period was allowed
for adjustment to the pens and a 21-day adjustment period was allowed
for adjustment to fat in the diet. After 14 days on each dietary treat-
ment, immersible lift pumps were installed into the rumen cannulas for
rumen fluid sampling. Rumen samples were removed at 9:30 a.m. and 5:30
p.m. at seven-day intervals. Rumen fluid pH and total C02 concentration
were determined immediately after sampling, the latter by gas-l.q1uid






- 5 -


chromatography and phosphorus by colorimetry. Aliquots were also
preserved with HC1 and HgC12 and frozen for ammonia analysis by micro-
diffusion. In vivo cellulose digestion was measured by suspending
nylon bags containing 2.0 gn. ground air-dry hay in the rumen. Dupli-
cate ba3s were removed after 24 and 48-hour incubation. Residual
cellulose was determined and cellulose digestion was calculated.


EXPERIMENT I

Results

According to blood criteria and rectal temperatures, all steers
were in normal health at the beginning and end of the experimental
period.

Weight change. Weight changes during the experimental period
ranged from maintenance to a gain of 27 kg (table 5) for steers con-
suming the supplement while the steers that refused the supplement
lost as much as 23 kg.

Supplement intake. Four of the five steers offered the supple-
ment containing o1% added fat were consuming the maximum 5.0 kg offered
by the end of the first week and continued to do so for the remainder of
the experiment (table 6). One steer (15) refused the supplement until
the 13th day of the experiment. He also reached the maximum offered
intake before the last week of the experimental period.

The occasional refusal of supplements containing added fat that
was reported by Horton et al. (1956) and Johnson et al. (1956) was a
common observation in this experiment. Only one steer (18) on the
15% added fat treatment ate a measurable amount of the supplement.

No attempt was made to force the steers to start eating the supple-
ment because the experiment was designed to test the desirability of
added fat as a regulator under field conditions where forced feeding
would be impossible. In a comparison study, it was discovered that the
immediate cause of the refusal was the odor of the animal fat. A steer
that refused to eat the supplement was persuaded to eat by smearing his
nose with the animal fat. Apparently, the presence of fat on his nose
exhausted his olfactory senses and the supplement was eaten without
hesitation.

During the experimental period, there was a gradual increase in
consumption of the 15% added fat by steer 18. He was eating the maxi-
mum amount offered (5.30 kg) by the end of the experiment. This in-
crease in tolerance was also shown by the steers consuming 20% added
fat, although they never ate the maximum amount offered (P<.01).







-6-


TABLE 5

WEEKLY BODY WEIGHTS (KG) OF STEERS BY WEEKS AND TREATI ,TS
IN EXPERIMENT I

Added Animal Preliminary, wk. Experimental, wk. Wt. change,
fat Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 experimental
So period


15 17
18
45
54
57


410 413 426
382 398 414
395 407 420
398 396 401
379 375 397

418 426 434
386 388 396
362 372 373
432 428 438
436 436 449

448 433 434
423 425 429
435 453 441
445 455 461
476 482 475


377 372 396
434 432 442
423 420 427
430 433 435
419 427 435


431 434 445 443
418 420 442 432
425 434 439 438
408 399 415 414
406 408 420 424


434 432 441 433
399 390 395 399
390 393 397 391
452 433 440 449
449 447 451 454

458 438 433 427
440 439 441 443
447 445 445 436
464 448 442 438
484 472 468 460


391 386 392 396
442 432 433 426
433 422 418 416
440 431 424 414
440 435 450 445


17
18
18
13
27
Av. 18

1
3
18
11
5
Av. 7.2

14


Av. 7.2

0

-El
-21/
10



Av. 7.6
Av.-7-


lnIndicates steers that refused to eat supplement containing animal fat.




-7-


TABLE 6

DAILY INTAKE OF FORAGE SUPPLEMENTI/2/ AND ADDED FAT-/ PER ANIMAL
BY WEEKS AND TREATMENTS IN EXPERIMENT I

Experimental, wk.
Added Animal .4 5 6 7
fat Number Supp. Fat Supp. Fat Supp. Fat Supp. Fat


0 3 :4,500 --- 4,500 -- 4,500 --- 4,500 ---
5 4,500 4,500 --- 4,500 --- 4,500 -
8 4,50 -00 500 --- 4,500 --- 4,500 ---
11 4,500 --- 4,44o --- 4,500 --- 4,500 ---
19 4,500 --- 4,500 --- 4,500 --- 4,500

10 1 4,005 445 4,432 492 4,500 500 4,500 500
4 2,353 262 4,375 486 4,500 500 4,500 500
9 3,778 420 4,473 497 4,114 457 4,500 500
12 1,532 170 4,282 476 4,500 500 4,500 500
15 --- --- 918 102 3,403 378 4,500 500

15 17 --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
18 2,058/ 363 3,271/ 577 4,460 787 4,486 7922-
457 --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
54 --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
57 --- --- --- --- --- --- ---

20 2 1,2034/ 301 1,843 461 3,008 752 4,078 1.0CO0.
16 --- --- --- --- --- -7-- -- -
14 -- --- --- --- --- --- ---
16 1,148 287 1,894 474 2,902 726 3,723 933-


-' During the three week preliminary period, each steer
forage supplement the first week, 3.25 kg the second
.third week.
.//Not including 200 gm. vitamin premix.
/JMoisture content of fat <0.5%.
i4/Variation among animals within treatments (P<.01).
5IDifferences between weeks (P<.05).
/P<.01.


consumed 2.0 kg of
week and 4,5 kg the





-8-


Hay intake. Average daily hay intake by all steers consuming added
fat in their supplement was reduced (P .01) by almost 2000 ga. from th'-t
of the control steers (table 7). A reduction in intake of hay has ber-
reported to be due to reduction in digestibility of crude fiber, nitr--cen
free extract and dry matter which in turn reduces the rate of passage
(Brethour et al., 1958; Embry et al., 1957; Ward et al., 1957; and
Hubbard et al., 1958). The reason for the reduction in digestibility is
unknown. Perhaps the energy from the fermentation of the added glycerol
from hydrolysis of the fats supplies the energy needs of the microorgan-
isms.' Whatever the cause, the needs of the animal are apparently supplied
because six of the eight steers eating supplement containing added fat
gained weight even with a reduced hay consumption.

Water intake. Average daily water intake appeared to be closely
related to the dry matter intake (table 8). Steers eating hay only had
a markedly reduced average daily water consumption when compared with
steers consuming both hay and supplement (P<.01).


EXPERIMENT II

Results

Health criteria were within normal ranges at the start and end
of the experimental period, with one exception. The white blood cell
count of one steer (12) was elevated (24,976) at the start of the
experimental period. Since steer 12 was otherwise normal in general
appearance, temperature and appetite, he was continued on the exper_-
ment.

Weight changes. Weight changes were useful in comparing the
different lipid sources (table 9). The control steers, with no added
lipids in the supplement, gained from 16-24 kg in weight during the
experimental period. The steers offered supplement containing corn
oil gained from 25-38 kg during the same period. The steers offered
animal fat in the supplement were more varied in their weight gain and
ranged from 1-27 kg of gain. The low average gain for this group was
partially attributable to a steer (5) that refused to eat the supple-
ment for 19 days of the 28-day experimental period and gained only 1
kg. The next lowest gain in this group was 14 kg. The steers offered
the supplement with menhaden fish oil ranged from a loss of 6 kg t -
gain of 9 kg in weight.

Corn oil effect. The steers offered corn oil in the supplement
ate the total amount offered, 5.0 kg, throughout the experimental
period with one exception (table 10). Steer 16 developed severe scours
and refused to eat for two days. He recovered without treatment. The
steers consumed the supplement with apparent relish. There appeared
to be a reduction in hay intake (table 11) by steers offered corn oil
in the supplement, but it was masked by individual variation in hay
intake. The water meter for Steer 11 was not functioning properly,
but all other steers maintained their water intfk. ak t.e e s:s le're3
as the controls (table 12),








- 9 -


TABLE 7

AVERAGE DAILY INTAKE OF'HAi1/ (KG) PER ANIMAL BY WEEKS
AND TREATMENTS IN EXPERIMENT I

Added Animal Preliminary, wk. Experimental, wk.
fat number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 3 4.87 5.59 5.29 5.39 5.07 5.00 5.04
5 5.09 6.16 5.80 6.04 5.66 5.23 5.83
8 4.30 4.72 4.45 4.82 4.71 4.67 4.70
11 5.43 4.76 4.34 4.06 3.82 4.09 3.97
19 5.73 5.54 5.03 5.52 5.02 5.53 5.17
S10 1 5.24 5.29 4.57 4.163/!/ 3.24 3.23 3.00
4 5..34 4.73 4.56 3.73 2.48 2.46 2.34
9 4..80 5.02 5.19 4.50 3.38 3.24 3.17
12 5.24 5.37 5.39 4.78 3.47 3.36 3.80
15 4.90 5.30 4.98 5.01 4.00 3.21 2.75

15 17 6.13 6.54 6.05 6.21 4.67 4.24 4.42
18 4.53 5.12 4.60 3.93 3.17 2.38 2.052/
45 4.58 5.59 5.23 4.90 4.55 4.47 4.51
54 6..08 6.03 6.11 6.00 4.83 4.92 4.90
57 6.40 5.94 6.25 5.69 4.94 4.74 5.26
20 2 5.39 5.59 5.69 4.47 3.75 3.59 3.20/
6 5.40 5.22: 5.11 5.29 4.10 4.27 4.01
10 5.26 4.69k:- 4.02 4.96 4.15 3.74 3.64
14 5.13 5.42 4.97 4.80 4.18 3.89 3.17
16 5.08 5.83 5.78 4.07 4.35 3.95 3.24E/


/Moisture content of hay 10.5%.
/Indicates value for steer consi~ing fat in the lots offered
20% F.
/Differences among animals within treatments (P<.01).
/Difference between weeks of the experimental period (P<.01).


15% F and







- 10 -


TABLE 8

AVERAGE DAILY INTAKE OF WATER (L.) PER STEER BY WEEKS
AND TREATMENTS IN EXPERIMENT I

Added Animal Preliminary, wk. Experimental, vwk.
fat number 1/ 2 3 4 5 6 7


0 3 --- 23.7 23.0 30.7 26.4 28.0 27.0
5 -- 26.4 27.9 29.6 29.1 30.7 29.1
8 -- 23.7 24.9 28.6 26.4 29.6 29.1
11 --- 18.9 21.5 14.0 19.9 21.6 18.3
19 --- 21.0 25.7 25.3 26.4 29.1 27.5

10 1 --- 18.3 21.5 21.6 23.7 23.7 19.9
4 --- 21.0 25.3 18.3 23.2 22.1 23.7
9 --- 25.9 30.9 28.6 31.3 26.4 28.6
12 --- 24.3 29.0 21.0 24.8 25.3 25.9
15 --- 22.1 23.8 15.6 14.0 19.9 22.1

15 17 -- 25.3 27.9 17.8 15.6 12.9 14.0
18 --- 21.0 26.0 15.6 18.3 21.0 23.7-/
45 --- 25.9 28.7 16.7 16.7 16.2 15.6
54 --- 27.0 29.0 19.9 15.1 15.1 15.1
57 --- 28.0 30.2 17.3 15.1 16.2 15.1
20 2 --- 23.2 28.3 14.6 17.3 20.5 24.82
6 --- 21.0 24.5 14.6 11.3 12.9 11.9
10 --- 19.4 21.5 15.6 14.0 11.3 11.3
14 -- 21.0 24.5 14.0 11.9 10.2 9.2
16 --- 22.1 22.3 19.9 17.8 17.3 22.12/


'/Freezing


weather necessitated insulating water meters so that no read-


ings could be taken.
2/Consumed supplement and hay, others ate only hay. Consumed more water
(P<.01).






T 'A3BlI 9


WEEKLY BODY WEIGHS (KI) OF STEERS BY TREATMENTS AlDm WEEKS IN EI :.. 'IIT HI


Animal Preliminary, wk. Experimental, wk. Weight changes,
Treatment nmruber 1 2 3 --4 5 6 7 experimental
period

Control 1 442 449 443 456 458 461 461 3.8
6 425 431 438 439 441 460 454 16
8 438 442 445 454 458 463 467 22
12 445 440 451 448 449 454 467 16
54 449 445 470 465 468 479 494 24
Average 19.2**

Corn oil 11 413 415 422 430 432 448 454 32
15 451 451 462 472 476 481 494 32
16 435 448 451 456 458 460 479 28
17 432 445 455 463 466 476 493 38
45 445 411 435 440 448 457 460 25
Average 31.0*'

Fat 4 399 402 411 413 415 418 428 17
5 417 438 438 433 427 423 439
14 417 433 435 432 434 438 449 14
18 441 454 458 458 464 479 485 27
19 417 431 436 433 435 447 458 22
Average T-.2**

Fish oil 2 392 404 405 393 395 404 408 3
3 447 454 457 445 451 464 460 3
9 402 404 403 408 4o8 406 408 5
10 414 415 424 426 426 426 433 9
57 458 468 480 474 470 476 474 -6
Average 2.7**


'P<.01.







AVJRAG IJUJ!L E O W C'V,;V AI AfPDTER '.'Dj/ Pi u p El.-U
7.N l^ -I~ .' .'1-


-z? -c~r.r 'f-;sn1L s,-C.i'r-r C-~"fI=I T~~^-~~.~*J .*~~tL- ,trL?,.rt--~-fl' r?-,-r c ~ 'pz ~ tt5--rz- ..,r--,%rr,-c~- a.


Supp. Fat


4,500
4,500
4,500
4,500
4,500

4,500
4,500
4,500
4,500
4,303

4,500
000
000
4,408
3,813

1,226
1,064
646
438
000


Control





Corn oil





Fat





Fish oil


Supp. Fat


4,500
4,500
4,500
4,500
4,500

4,500
4,500
3,955
4,500
4,500

4,311
643
1,285
4,500
4,394

1,410
1,2288
2,205
2,385
000


00
00
00
00
00
5oo

500
oo





439
500
500

479
71
143
500
488

157
137
245
265
00


Supp. Fat


4,500
4,500
4,500
4,500
'4,500

4,500
4,500
4,500
4,500
4,500

4,500
1,291
3,786
4,500
4,500

1,431
1,590
1,555
- 2,229
000


00
00
S00
00
00

500
500
500
500
500

500
144
421
500
500

159
177
173
248
00


6. 7


Supp. Fat


4,500
4,500
4,500
4,500
4,500

4,500
4,500
4,500
4,500
4,500

4,500
4,106
4,500
4,500
4,500

1,654
1,705
2,116
3,420
000


00.
00
00
00
00

500
500
500
500
500

500
456
500
500
500

1845/
190
235
380
00


1/DIring the 3-week preliminary period, each steer consumed 2.0 kg per day of forage supplement
the first week, 3.25 kg the second week and 4.5 kg the third week.
/Does not include 200 gm. of vitamin premix per day.
ih'Moisture content of lipids <.05%.
4/Steer 16 developed severe scouring during week 5 which lasted for 2 days,
./ Significantly different from o-her treatme.nt.s (i-<.0l).


Treatment


Animal
number


00
00
00
00
00

500
500
500
500
478

500
00
00
490
424

136
118
72
49
00


1
6
8
12
54

11
15
164/
17
45

4
5
14
18
19


---~*-------------I


-I- --


- ---


AVERAGE DAIL' TII;TAIK, O1


Epecrimcnnt al, wk.






- 13 -


TABLE 11

AVERAGE DAILY INTAKE OF HAY./ (KG) PER ANIMAL BY
WEEKS AND TRAiTMETS' IN EXPERIMENT II


--- -:' Animal Preliminary, wk. Experimental, wk.
Treatment number 1 2 3 34' ..5 .6.! L. 7


>1 1
6
8
12
54

>il 11
15
16
17
45

4
5
14
18
19


4.68 5.61
5.85 5.87
4.81' 4.30
4. 2:2 4.06
5.50 6.39


1/Moisture content


Control


Corn c




Fat


3.40
3.88
4.68 -
3.95
5.05

4.13
3.93
3.83
4.70
4.23

3.01
4.91
4.06
3.11
4.64


4.31
4.44
4.93
3.95
6.12

4.59
4.04
4.82
6.37
2.21

4.41
5.19
4.37
4.11
6.14


3.69
4.40
4.35
4.99
5.51

4.07
4.96
5.70
6.04
2.67

3.76
5.36
4.18
4.69
5.58


3.65
4.01
4.50
4.51
5.84

2.90
4.07
4.69
4.87
2.67

3.55
5.05
4.32
3.47
5.01


3.91
4.67
4.88
4.62
5.86


4.06
4.49
4.59
4.68
6.47

3.26
3.81
3.71
5.21
3.09

3.55
5.56
3.85
3.03
4.49

3.90
4.60
4.22
2.72
5.22


Fish oil


3.68.
4.40
4.16
4.01
4.82

3.29
3.54
3.03
4.69
3.44

2.63
4.90
2.11
3.45
4.03

3.44
4.29
3.00
2.61
4.92


3.81
3.13
4.22
4.41
5.19

3.15
2.88
3.84
5.21
3.11

2.77
4.09
2.98
3.52
3.45

-3.84
4.04
3.47
3.08
4.69


3.70
5.46
4.35
3.34
5.08


- --~


of hay 10. 54o.






- 14 -


TABLE 12


AVERAGE DAILY INTAKE OF WATER (L.) PER ANIMAL BY WEEKS
AND TREATMENTS IN EXPERIMENT II


Animal Preliminary, wk. Experimental, wk.
Treatment number 1 2 3 4 5 b 7


Control





Corn oil





Fat





Fish oil


1
6
8
12
54

111/
15
16
17
45

4
5
14
18
19

2
3
9
10
57


17.2
19.7
23.5
23.5
28.1


19.7
20.4
26.0
23.5

17.6
25.2
20.1
23.7
23.1

20.5
23,5
25 6
18.4
25.6


19.8
27.4
23.6
27.4
28.3


20.8
25.5
29.2
17i0

22.6
27.4
23.6
18.9
26.4

27.4
26.4
27.4
19.8
30.2


25.9
32.9
32.3
34.0
40.4


30.2
33.4
35.0
29.6

29.6
35.6
31.8
32.9
34.5

30.2
35.6
34.0
28.0
40.4


29.1
32.9
32.3
31.3
36.7


30.2
27.0
32.9
31.3

28.6
21.6
18.9
27.5
29.1

17.8
22.1
23.2
19.4
27.5


30.2
36.1
37.8
37.2
42.0


32.3
30.7
43.1
38.3

32.3
27.0
19.9
28.6
37.2

21.6
25.3
24.8
18.9
30.2


30.2
36.7
35.6
38.8
41.5


31.8
31.3
38.8
38.8

30.7
27.5
27.5
31.8
36.1

19.4
25.9
24.3
23.7
34.5


27.5
30.7
34.5
35.6
42.6


31.3
31.8
35.0
32.3

30.2
35.0
29.6
31.3
36.1

23.22
21.0
25.9
23.7
31.8


-1Water meter not functioning properly.
Differs from other treatments (P<.05).






- 15 -


Animal fat effect. In the group offered supplement containing
animal fat, three steers quickly reached the maximum intake of 5.0 kg
(table 10). Two steers (5 and 14) refused the supplement for 19 and 13
days, respectively. -By the end of the experimental period both of these
steers had consumed all of the supplement offered on at least two days.
Hay intake was not significantly reduced by consumption of..the supple-
ment containing stabilized animal fat (table 11),' There was no effect
of the supplement containing animal fat on water intake (table 12).

Fish oil effect. Menhaden fish oil in the supplement limited the
intake of supplement (P:.01). One steer (57) refused the supplement
throughout the trial. Steers 2 and 3 started consuming the supplement
at an average daily intake of 1362 and 1182 gm. for the first week of
the experimental period. Steers 9 and 10 started at an average daily
intake of 718 and 487 gm. for the first week and ended in the last week
of the experiment at 2351 and 3800 gm., respectively (table 10). There
was an increase in tolerance from-week to week (P<.01) and marked
variation among individuals. Hay intake was reduced as demonstrated
by the regression equation; Y = 5101.9 6.86x when Y = hay intake and
x = fish oil intake in grams (r2 = 67.46). The average daily water
intake of steers was reduced (P<.05) by consumption of the fish oil
(table 12). This effect may be due to reduced dry matter intake.
Weight gain of steers also was reduced (table 9) due to the reduction
in intake of nutrients.


EXPERIMENT III

Results

Table 13 shows the effect of dietary treatments on rumen fluid
composition. Table 14 shows the effects on hay intake and cellulose
digestion. Statistical analysis showed high variation between animals
and..few significant differences. The only treatment effects were due
to the level of supplement. Acetate:propionate ratio was higher at
2 gm./kg than 4 gm./kg (P<.01) of basal supplement intake.

For rumen NH3, there were significant interactions, as shown
below:


Level


Fat


Sample time 2 gm./kg 4 gm./kg 0% 10%

9:30 a.m. 3.83 4.36 5.54 2.65
5:30 p.m. 3.18 8.89 6.91 5.15


The concentration of NH3 decreased with time at the 2 gm./kg but
increased at the 4 gm./kg level of supplement intake. Supplement was
fed at 3:30 p.m. Fat decreased rumen NH3 at both sampling times, but
the greatest decrease occurred at 9:30 a.m.










TABLE 13

EFFECTT OF FAT AND SUPPLEMENT LEVEL ON RUMEN FLUID
COMPOSITION (EXPERIMENT III)


Treatme t
Supp. Fat
T(gm/kg) *(%)


pH TVFA
(mM/1)


--------------- 9:30 a.m. (18 hr. post-feeding) ------------------

2 o 6.16 102.8 4.04 41.4 6.02 28.3
2 10 6.27 91.7 3.98 48.6 1.64 28.4
4 0 6.20 110.2 .3.84 41.6 5.06 33.5
4 10 6.20 100.4 3.71 45.8 3.67 32.9

----------------- 5:30 p.m. (2 hr. post-feeding) ------------------


0
10
0
10


6.09
6.28
6.08
6.10


95.1
92.5
108.0
94.9


3.86
3.89
3.69
3.49


41.2
48.3
39.4
41.4


4.43
1.92
9.39
8.39


26.8
27.9
32.6
31.8


TABLE 14


EFFECT OF FAT


AND CONCENTRATE LEVEL ON CELLULOSE
AND HAY INTAKE (EXPERIMENT III)


DIGESTION


Treatment
Supp. Fat


Cellulose Digestion
24 hr-. 8 hr.


Hay
Intake


(gm./kg) (%) ( --) (- (kg/day)

2 0 31.3 47.6 4.75
2 10 25.8 44.6 5.12
4 0 32.5 46.4 5.58
4 10 32.3 49.1 4.64


Rumen total C02 was significantly related to rumen pH: pH = 5.546 +
0.0145 (C02). The equation explains 70.8% of the observed variation.
Other significant correlations (P<.01) were pH vs. TVFA (r = 0.628), TVFA
vs. C02 (r = -0.718). At P<.05, significance was shown between TVFA and
rumen phosphorus (r = 0.354).


c2/C


CO2


(mM/1)


NH3-N


(Mg %)


p


VM1g p3)


C2/C'R' C02


- 16 -






- 17 -


Summary


The first experiment consisted of four treatments with 0, 10, 15
and 20 per cent additions of stabilized animal fat in the supplement.
Ten per cent added fat did not limit the intake of supplement, although
some steers were hesitant about consuming the supplement at first.
Steers offered supplement containing 15 per cent added fat refused the
supplement entirely with one exception. This steer ate all the supple-
ment offered to him. Two of the steers offered supplement with 20 per
cent added fat gradually became accustomed to it. The other thliae
steers refused the supplement entirely.

The second experiment consisted of four treatments, no added lipit
in the supplement and three sources of lipids as 10 per cent of the
supplement: stabilized animal fat, corn oil and menhaden fish oil.
The added animal fat did not limit supplement intake, ',i: it did reduce
the intake of hay, as did the other lippid sources. T-e steers offered
animal fat gained less than did the controls.' Corn oil in the r-pple-
ment did not limit intake of supplement, but limited r:ay intake aind
increased weight gains. Fish oil in the supplement limited intake of
the supplement; however, the variability among steers in this treat-
ment was large. One steer refused the supplement containing fish oil.
Hay intake was reduced when fish cil was added to the supplement.
Weight gains were also reduced.

The third experiment with fistulated steers measured the effects
of two levels of basal supplement intake with and without stabilized
animal fat on rumen fermentation criteria. Few significant effects
rere observed; however, rumen fluid ammonia levels were suppressed by
the presence of waste fat at both the morning and evening sampling
times .

The lipids used in these experiments did not regulate the intake
of a forage supplement in a predictable manner. Also, they tended to
educee hay intake by steers consuming the supplements. It was con-
cluded that animal fat, corn oil and menhaden fish oil lacked efficacy
as predictable and proportional forage supplement intake regulators for
cattle.










LITERATURE. CITED


Brethour, J; R., R. T. Sirny and A.,D, Tillman. 1958. Further studies
:concerning the effects of fats in sheep rations. J. Animal Sci.
17:171.

Embry, L. B., J. K. Turner and F. G. Gastler. 1957. Digestibility of
Stations and nitrogen balance by lambs as influenced by animal fat,
urea, soybean oil meal, and linseed meal. J. Animal Sci. 16:1080
(Abstr.).

Horton, 0. H., K. A. Kendall, W. B. Nevnis and R. G. Hansen; 1956.
The values of animal fat in rations for milk production. J. Dairy
Sci. 39:1461.

Hubbard, D. D., W. D. Gallup, and A. B. Nelson. .1958. Effect of
added starch and fat in wintering rations fed to beef steels.
J. Animal Sci. 17:1195 (Abstr.).-

Johnson, D., K. L. Dolge, J. E. Rosseau, R. Teichman and H. D. Eaton.
1956. Effect of addition of inedible tallow to a calf starter
fed to Holstein calves. J. Dairy Sci. 39:1268.

Snedecor, G. W. 1956. Statistical Methods. 5th Ed. The Iowa State
College Press, Ames, Iowa.

Ward, J. K., C. W. Tefft, R. J. Sirny, H. N. Edwards and A. D. Tillman,
1957. Further studies concerning the effect of alfalfa and upon
the utilization of low quality roughages by ruminant animals. J.
Animal Sci. 16:633.


- 18-




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