Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Title: Defluorinated rock phosphate-salt combination versus salt as an intake regulator of a forage supplement offered ad libitum to cattle
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 Material Information
Title: Defluorinated rock phosphate-salt combination versus salt as an intake regulator of a forage supplement offered ad libitum to cattle
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Physical Description: 8 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hentges, J. F ( James Franklin ), 1925-
Adams, J. R.
Moore, J. E.
Oltjen, R. R.
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1967
Copyright Date: 1967
 Subjects
Subject: Cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Salt in animal nutrition -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sodium phosphates   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.F.Hentges, Jr. ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "December, 1967."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072993
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 78766020

Full Text



Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN68-5 Experiment Station
December, 1967 Gainesville, Florida

DEFLUORINATED ROCK PHOSPHATE-SALT COMBINATION VERSUS SALT
AS AN INTAKE REGULATOR OF A FORAGE SUPPLEMENT
OFFERED AD LIBITUM TO CATTLE:/

J. F. Hentges, Jr., J. R. Adams J. E. Moore
and R. R. Oltjen3/


Combinations of salt and defluorinated rock phosphate are being
used in custom-mixed and commercially manufactured forage supplements
for the purpose of regulating the voluntary intake of these supplements
to a desired quantity under pasture-feeding conditions. Because defluori-
nated rock phosphate is more expensive than salt and because an excessive
intake of phosphorus as well as calcium might be harmful to replacement
breeding cattle, it was desired to compare the efficacy of salt alone and
in combination with defluorinated rock phosphate as a regulator of intake
of forage supplements offered ad libitum under pasture conditions.

This report describes the results of three short-term experiments, one
each with heifers, steers and cows, which were conducted to test the
efficacy of a combination of defluorinated rock phosphate and salt
against salt alone as a regulator of forage supplement intake.


EXPERIMENT I

Experimental Procedure

Eighteen beef heifers ranging in age from 10 to 13 months and in
weight from about 400 to 600 pounds were allotted to two groups on the
basis of body weight. They were self-fed experimental forage supple-
ments which differed only in the ingredients being studied for intake
regulation. See table 1 for ingredient composition of each supplement.
Both lots were fed for 56 days in grass pastures which had been frosted
and which provided little forage. Both lots were offered corn silage
and standard cane molasses ad libitum,




Z/Supported in part by research contract with A.H.R.D., A.R.S., U.S.DAA.

j-Present address: Graduate School, Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins,

3/Hentges and Moore, Animal Nutritionist and Associate Animal Nut'.it;onist
respectively, Animal Science Dept., Univ. of Florida; Oltjen, Animal
Nutritionist, Animal Husbandry Research Div., Agr. Research Service,
U.S.D.A., Beltsville, Md. The assistance of Dr. Fred C, Neal and Mrv,.
Frances Goodhue, Vet, Science Dept., Dr. C. J. Wilcox, Dairy Science
Dept. and Dr. F. G. Martin, Statistics Dept., Univ. of Florida is
acknowledged.





- 2-


TABLE 1

PERCENTAGE INGREDIENT COMPOSITION OF FORAGE SUPPLEMENTS


Lot 1 Lot 2

Salt, white, mixing 16 8

Defluorinated rock phosphate!/ 2 10

Trace mineralized salt/ 2

Basal forage supplement 1132-66AI 80 80
100 1CO

/Guaranteed analysis 34% maximum calcium, 18~0 minimum phos-
phorus.

-/Guaranteed analysis not less than 96% nor more than 99%7 salt.

3/Crude protein content of 24%. Percentage ingredient compo-
sition was as follows:


Ingredients
Corn meal, yellow, dent no. 2
Cottonseed meal, 41o% crude protein (c.p.)
Urea, 282% crude protein equivalent
Alfalfa meal, dehydrated, .17a (c.p.)
Defluorinated rock phosphate
Trace mineralized salt
Cane molasses, standard


Percent
55
15
4
10
3
3
10





- 3 -


Results and Discussion

Performance of the two lots was almost equal with lot 1 (salt)
gaining 0.80 and lot 2 (salt-phosphate combination) 0.86 pounds per
day.

Table 2 shows that the average daily consumption of forage supple-
ment was equal between lots, 2.0 pounds per day. Both intake regulators
salt and salt-phosphate combination, were effective in limiting voluntary
intake of the self-fed supplements to a desired quantity.

No advantage of the combination of salt and defluorinated rock
phosphate over salt alone was observed; however, an advantage might
exist in coastal areas where brackish drinking water adds to the intake
of salt.

The average consumption of corn silage and cane molasses was almost
equal between lots thereby indicating no detrimental effects of either
intake regulator on forage or molasses consumption. The consumption of
corn silage averaged about 6% fresh weight or 1.5% dry weight silage per
100 pounds of live body weight. The consumption of cane molasses within
lots varied from week to week without apparent reasons but the average
intake between lots was almost equal, 2.5 versus 2.6 pounds per day.


EXPERIMENT II

Lactating beef cows were used to compare the intake regulation
properties of forage supplements containing salt, defluorinated phos-
phate and a combination of each.

Experimental Procedure

Forty-eight beef cows which were in their first month of lactation
were allotted at random to three lots. Data was recorded on weight
changes and voluntary consumption of feed. Each lot had free access tc
frosted grass pasture forage, water and a covered mineral box containing
salt, trace mineralized salt and defluorinated phosphate. A quantity of
standard cane molasses equal to 6 lb. per head was offered in long
troughs to each lot of cattle each day. During the last week of the
experiment, freezing weather forced the additional offering of cc:rn
silage or rye pasture.

Table 3 shows the ingredient composition of the forage supplements
which were hand-fed at the rate of 50 pounds per lot each day.





- 4 -


TABLE 2

"AVERAGE DAILY CONSUMPTION (POUNDS) OF RATION INGREDIENTS BY
WEEKS DURING THE EXPERIMENT


'i. Intake
S'regulator


1 Salt
: Combi~nition

2 Salt
Combination

3 Salt
Combination

4 Salt
Combination

5 Salt
Combination

6 Salt
Combination


Salt
Combination

Salt
Combination


Salt
Combination


Forage
supplement


1.9
2.1

1.9
1.8

2.1
1.5

2.5
2.1

1.3
1.4


1.6
2.8

2.2
2.5

2.1
2.2


2.0
2.0


Corn
silage


Cane
molasses


34.0
34.4

32.0
29.7

26.6
28.3

33.7
34.5

30.6
31.3

29.2
30.9

30.8
33.6

37.6
39.5


31.8
32,8


3.2


3.2
3.2

2.9
3.0

1.2
1.8

1.8
2.1

2-7
2c7


Weeks


56-day *
Averages




-5-


TABLE. 3

PERCENTAGE INGREDIENT COMPOSITION OF FORAGE SUPPLEMENTS


Salt, white, mixing

Defluorinated rock phosphate/

Trace mineralized salt.3/

Basal forage supplement'/


Lot number
1 2 3

281/ 0 142

0 283/ 14

2 2 2

70 70 70


!'Increased to 38% after 21 days to replace 10 pounds basal
supplement.
E/Increased to 19% after 21 days to replace 10 pounds basal
supplement.
./Increased to 38% after 21 days to replace 10 pounds basal
supplement.
4/Crude protein content estimated to be 44%. Percentage
ingredient composition was as follows:


Ingredients
Cottonseed meal, 41%
Corn, snapped, ground
Alfalfa meal, dehyd., 17%
Urea, 45% nitrogen
Defluorinated phosphate
Trace mineralized salt


Percent
50
30
10
7
1.5
1.5


Results and Discussion

During the first 5 weeks of this experiment, neither salt nor
defluorinated rock phosphate limited consumption of the forage supple-
ment to less than the 50 pounds offered each lot each day to give an
average intake per cow of 3.1 lb. per day.

There was no limiting effect upon consumption by increasing the
content of salt or defluorinated rock phosphate to 38% of the supple-
ment after the third week.

During the last week of the experiment when supplemented forage
was provided as corn silage or rye pasture, the consumption of supple-
ments containing salt (Lots 1 and 3) was decreased to about one-half th.
quantity offered. The lot offered the supplement containing 38% defluo .
urinated phosphate ate all that was offered.




- 6-


Molasses consumption was not .affected at any time; furthermore,
the quantity offered (96 pounds) was"consumed within 15 minutes each
day.

The pattern or schedule of-tating!Was different among lots. The
supplement containing defluorinated phosphate was consumed immediately
after it was fed. The supplement containing 380 salt was consumed slowly
and required about 18 hours for consumption of the 50 pounds offered tc
lot 1. The supplement containing 19% salt and 19% defluorinated phos-
phate was consumed by lot 3 within about five hours after it was fed.

Weight changes among lots were not different being an average dail;-
loss (lb.) of 1.5, 1.4 and 1.4, respectively, for lots 1, 2 and 3.


EXPERIMENT III

Rumen fistulated steers were used.to..compare the effects of forage
supplements containing salt and defluorinated rock phosphate upon rumen
fluid composition and ruminal cellulose digestion.
Experimental Procedure

Four rumen fistulated Hereford steers, initially weighing 296-349
kg were studied. The design of the experiment was a 4 x 4 Latin square.
The percentage ingredient composition of the four diets is sho-rn in
table 4. The steers were fed their respective diets for 28 days before
rumen contents were sampled. Voluntary feed intake was calculated for
Jays 8-14, 15-21 and 22-28. The feeding procedure and rumen sampling
procedures were the same as previously reported in Chapter I.


TABLE 4

PERCENTAGE INGREDIENT COMPOSITION OF DIETS

Kg/100 kg diet
Treatment! Premix/ T.M. Salt Salt Defl. Phos.

A -Basal 96 2 2
B Salt 78 2 18 2
C Phosphate 78 2 20
D Combination 60 2 18 20


1YVitamins A, D and E and aureomycin were fed separately.
2/Composition of premix:
Soybean meal (50%) ---------- 150 kg
Corn meal ------------------- 280 kg
Molasses, cane --------------- 50 kg

480 kg





-7-


Results and Discussion

Neither salt nor defluorinated rock phosphate in the supplements
affected hay intake (table 5). Hay intake, when calculated as kg/hea.aday
for days 15-28 was likewise not significantly affected by treatment.

Cellulose digestion, as determined by the nylon-bag technique, was
not affected by treatment.


TABLE 5

EFFECT OF SALT AND DEFLUORINATED PHOSPHATE ON HAY AND
SUPPLEMENT INTAIE AND IN VIVO CELLULOSE DIGESTION

Treatments
A B C D
Item Basal Salt Phos. Combin.

Hay Intake
days 8-14 16.01/ 15.8 14.8 15.3
days 15-21 16.5 14.4 16.9 13.5
days 22-28 17.9 15.8 18.4 14.9

Supp. Intake
days 8-14 7.462/ 5.19 9.38 1,62
days 15-21 7.36 4.92 9.26 1.86
days 22-28 7.45 5.45 9.16 2.05
days 15-28 7.10 /A 4.04B 7.19 1,17

Cell. Dig.
24 hr. 26.9-/ 23.6 25.5 17.9
48 hr. 36.4 31.9 34.4 30.4


1/gm/kg BW/day of
2/gm/kg BW/day of


hay (BW=body weight)


supplement


as offered, not corrected for


added salt and phosphate. Quantities offered were A-8.CO,
B-9.85, C-9.85 and D-12.80 gm/kg BW, which gave the same
/amount of grain premix.
gm/kg BW/day of basal supplement (corrected for Eadded salt
_and phosphate).
S/% of initial cellulose digested
A,BMeans in same line with different superscript capital let-
ters are different (P<01).




- 8-


Rumen fluid composition is shown in table 6. At the 9 a.m. sim-
pling, rumen fluid pH was highest in steers consuming supplements con-
taining salt and phosphate (P<.Q5) while rumen fluid acetate to
propionate (C2/C3) ratio was increased in steers which consumed the
salt supplements (P<.01). At the 5 p.m. sampling, pH was increased in
rumen fluid of steers which consumed the salt (P<.01) and the phosphate
(P<.05) supplements while rumen fluid total volatile fatty acids (TVFA)
and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) were decreased. The C2/C3 ratio was
increased in steers consuming the salt supplements (P<.01). These
changes reflect the different levels of supplement intake, primarily,
and should not be attributed to salt and defluorinated phosphate, per
se. An exception may be the effects of phosphate on rumen fluid pH.
The magnitude of this effect,, however, was quite small. There were no
salt and phosphate interactions for any criteria.


TABLE 6

EFFECT OF SALT AND DEFLUORINATED PHOSPHATE ON RUMEN.
FLUID COMPOSITION

Treatment pH TVFA C2/C- C02 NH3-N P
(mM/1) (mM/1) (mg ) (Mg e,

9:00 a.m. (18 hr. post-feeding) -

A Basal 6.35/ 110.6 3.63** 42.8 9.1 36.6
B Salt 6.41 100.7 3.84 48.4 3.6 36.8
C Phos. 6.42 101.8 3.57 47.4 5.7 "8.1
D Combin. 6.51 88.5 4.17 55.9 4.96.

5:00 p.m. (2 hr. post-feeding) -
Basal 6.252/ 102.9* 3.51** 38.5 15.3** 33.4
3 Salt 6.38 77.6 3.86 45.2 5.5 30.9
C Phos. 6.30 .101.4 .3.35 .41.4 14.8 36.4
D Combin. 6.52,. 68.8 4.21 51.7 3.3 43.9


-/Significant
/Significant


increases due to both salt and phosphate (P<.05).
increase due to phosphate (P<.05); highly significant


increase due to salt (P<.01).
"Highly significant effects due to salt only (P<.01).




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