Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Title: Sodium chloride as an intake regulator in a concentrate mixture fed as a supplement to grass hay for cattle
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 Material Information
Title: Sodium chloride as an intake regulator in a concentrate mixture fed as a supplement to grass hay for cattle
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AN68-4
Physical Description: 24 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hentges, J. F. ( James Franklin ), 1925-
Adams, J. R.
Moore, J. E.
Oltjen, R. R.
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1967
Copyright Date: 1967
 Subjects
Subject: Cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Salt in animal nutrition -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.F. Hentges, Jr. ... et al..
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 24).
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "December, 1967."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072992
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 78763478

Full Text




Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AE68-4 Experiment Station
December, 1967 Gainesville, Florida

SODIUM CHLORIDE AS AN INTAKE REGULATOR IN A CONCENTRATE
MIXTURE FED AS A SUPPLEMENT TO GRASS HAY FOR CATTLE1/

J. F. Hentges, Jr., J. R. Adams,2 J. E. Moore
and R. R. OltjeL3/


The need for a practical and economical means of safely and uniformly
limiting the daily consumption of forage supplements by cattle has been
recognized for decades. The use of sodium chloride has been reported for
this purpose.

The purpose of the research project described herein was to test the
efficacy of sodium chloride as a regulator of forage supplement intake by
individually-fed beef cattle when the only other available feed was typical
Florida-produced low quality grass hay. The evaluation of sodium chloride
was based on three criteria. First was the predictability of the limiting
effect or how closely a specified percentage of sodium chloride would regu-
late the daily intake of forage supplement to the desired quantity. Second
was the effect of various concentrations of sodium chloride in the supplement
on the daily intake of forage and water offered ad libitum. Third was the
effect of consumption of various levels of sodium chloride on the general
health of the cattle. Also studied was the effect of individual animal var-
iation on the predictability of supplement intake regulation.


Experimental Procedure

The effect of sodium chloride as a forage supplement intake regulator
was measured with 18 grade Hereford steers which averaged 18 months of age
and 372 kg. in weight at the start of the first experiment. They were
individually fed and watered. Each day the steers were given access to a
large drylot during a 6-hour exercise period, 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.,
while orts were weighed, water meters were read, stalls were cleaned and
fresh feed was placed in feeders.






ASupported in part by research contract with A.H.RD., A.R.S., U.S.D.A.

-Present address: Graduate School, Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins.

3{entges and Moore, Animal Nutritionist and Associate Animal Nutritionist.
respectively, Animal Science Dept., Univ. of Florida; Oltjen, Animal
Nutritionist, Animal Husbandry Research Div., Agr. Research Service,
U.S.D.A., Beltsville, Md. The assistance of Dr. Fred C. Neal and Mrs.
Frances Goodhue, Vet. Science Dept; Dr. C. J. Wilcox, Dairy Science Dept.
and Dr. F. G. Martin, Statistics Dept., Univ. of Florida is acknowledged.





-2-


During a preliminary period, the first 3 weeks of each experiment,
all steers were offered low quality pangolagrass (Digitaria decumbens) hay
ad libitum, 200 gm. of vitamin-antibiotic premix (table 1) and forage sup-
plement (table 2) at the following rates per day: 2.0 kg. during the first
week, 3.25 kg. the second week and 4.5 kg. the third week. The third ,-eek
was a standardization period after which the steers were randomly allotted
to six lots of three each.

During the experimental period, fourth through eighth weeks, one of
six supplements were offered daily to each steer. The six treatments pro-
vided the following levels of added sodium chloride in the supplement:
0 (control), 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 per cent (table 3). The daily amounts of
each supplement offered contained 4.5 kg. of the basal supplement. The
composition of hay and basal supplement is shown in table 4.


TABLE 1

VITAMIN-ANTIBIOTIC PREMIX-/


Ingredients Grams

Vitamin A (Dual A 30) 30,000 I.U./gm.-/ 200.000

Vitamin D2 (Perma D 64) 64xl06 USP/lb.b/ 5.325

Chlortetracycline (Aurofac 10) 10 gm./lb.-/ 955.000

Basal supplement 58,839.675
60,co0.0co

a/Mixture calculated for 300 steer-days supply. Daily al-
lowance of 200 gm. provided 20,000 I.U. vitamin A; 2,500
USP units vitamin D2 and 70 mg. chlortetracycline.

b/Vitamins provided gratis by Commercial Solvents Corpora-
tion, Terre Haute, Indiana.

C/Antibiotic provided gratis by American Cyanamid Company,
Princeton, New Jersey.


Indices of health were recorded at the start and end of each experi-
mental period. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein for the
following analyses: hematocrit (packed cell volume), hemoglobin, eryth-
rocyte count and leucocyte count. Rectal temperatures were recorded at
10:00 a.m. on 3 consecutive days prior to and just before the end of each
experimental period.





- 3.-


TABLE 2

FORAGE SUPPLEMENT


Ingredients o Kilograms

Soybean oil meal, 44% 35 317.52

Corn meal yellow dent #2 51 462.67

Cane molasses, standard 10 90.72

Defluorinated phosphate/ 2 18.145

Trace mineralized salt/ 2 18.145
100 907.200

a/Guaranteed analysis:
Phosphorus (P) 18.00% minimum
Calcium (Ca) 31.00% minimum
34.00% maximum
Fluorine (F) 0.18o maximum

bGuaranteed analysis:
Manganese (Mn) not less than 0.250%
Iron (Fe) not less than 0.200%
Sulfate Sulfur (S04) not less than 0.130%
Copper (Cu) not less than 0.033%
Cobalt (Co) not less than 0.010%
Iodine (I) not less than 0.007%
Zinc (Zn) not less than 0.005%
Salt (NaC1) not less than 96.0%
Salt (NaC1) not more than 99.0%



Experiment II was conducted as a replicate of the first experi-
ment to amass a larger body of data for statistical analyses. The
steers were randomly reassigned to treatments (table 3).

The average daily intakes of supplement, sodium chloride, hay and
water for each experiment were subjected to analysis of variance
(Snedecor, 1956). Regression equations were calculated to relate the
intakes of supplement and hay and the intake of water per gram of ration
dry matter to the per cent of sodium chloride in the supplement. In an
attempt to increase the sensitivity of statistical analysis, supplement
intakes during the last 2 weeks of each experiment were combined and
adjusted for body weight at the start of each experimental period by




-4-


covariance analysis. Because the reduction in error was not appreciable
and the experimental sensitivity'was not improved by covariance analysis,
data are reported by analysis of variance only. Sum of squares for treat-
ment was assigned to individuii degrees of freedom. Effects of supplement
treatments containing-sodium chloride and all hay intakes were tested.



TABLE 3


LEVEL OF SODIUM
AND QUANTITY


CHLORIDEF ADDED TO SUPPLEMENT
OF SUPPLEMENT OFFERED DAILY
TO EACH STEER


Added NaC1 Supplement
Skg./steer/day_/

S.... 4.50

8 4.89

16 5.36

24 5.92

32 6.62

40 7.50

*/Carey's Mixing Salt,:Carey Salt Company, Hutch-
ison, Kansas.

-/Sodium chloride and basal supplement mixture
calculated to provide a maximum intake of 4.5
kg. of basal supplement.


TABLE 4

COMPOSITION OF-BASAL SUPPLEMENT AND HAY


Dry Moisture-free basis,
matter Crude Gross energy,
_% Cellulosea/ protein Ash kcal/g:.

Pangolagrass hay 90.6 36.5 4.4 3.3 4518

Basal supplement 85.9 4.3. 21.1 9.2 4361


a-Determined by method of Crampton and Maynard (1938).





-5-


Results and Discussion


Health criteria. All steers were considered to be in a normal
state of health throughout both experiments. Average rectal tempera-
tures were within a normal range of 100.7-102.10 F at the start and end
of each experimental period. Blood analyses at the start and end of
each experimental period showed the following ranges: hemoglobin,
10.7-15.8 gm. per cent; hematocrit, 31-49 per cent; erythrocytes, 5.82-
9.42 million per mm.3; and leucocytes, 5,100-14,200 per am.3. One steer,
Number 5, had a leucocyte count of 22,172 at the start of Experiment I
but was normal in temperature, appetite and general appearance so he was
continued on the experiment. He was normal by all criteria at the end of
the experiment.

Weight changes. Average weight changes during the experimental
period of Experiment I ranged from a gain of 31 kg. for the control group
to a loss of 5.1 kg. for steers offered-supplement containing 40 per cent
added sodium chloride (table 5). In Experiment II, weight changes ranged
from a 30 kg. gain for the control group to a 24 kg. loss for the 40 per
cent added sodium chloride group. Differences in weight changes among
treatments were related to dry matter intakes. Whenever the dry matter
intake dropped below 15 gm./kg. live weight, weight was lost. As sodium
chloride in the supplement was increased, dry matter intake decreased
(table 6), resulting in decreased weight gain or increased weight loss.
In Experiment II, the relationship between sodium chloride in the supple-
ment and weight changes was more pronounced than in Experiment I. Weight
loss in Experiment I may have been lower because the steers had been
receiving 4.5 kg. per steer per day of forage supplement for about 60 days
before the start of Experiment I and may have had more fat reserve.

Supplement intake. The average daily intakes of supplement and sodium
chloride during the last 2 weeks of each experiment are presented in table
7. Individual values are presented in tables 8 and 9. Addition of sodium
chloride to the supplement limited its intake (P<.01) Since the intake of
supplement without added sodium chloride was controlled to 4.5 kg. per
day, the potential difference between the 0 and 8 per cent sodium chloride
levels may have been minimized. In this respect, these data agree with
all other research done with sodium chloride to restrict feed intake.
There was a large difference in average daily supplement intake of at least
1700 gm. (P<.0O) between the 8 per cent and higher levels of added sodium
chloride. The average difference was 500 gm. between 16 per cent and the
higher levels of added sodium chloride (P<.05). This was caused by the
1000 gm. average difference between experiments. This difference was due
to one steer in Experiment II (No. 2) which apparently developed a toler-
ance for sodium chloride and consumed about 1000 gm. more of the 16 per
cent added sodium chloride supplement per day during the seventh and
eighth weeks than any other steer on this treatment. A sharp decrease in
intake of supplement containing higher percentages of sodium chloride was
noted by Riggs et al. (1953), who found a sharp reduction in intake of
cottonseed meal with 14 per cent added sodium chloride.





-6-


TABLE 5

WEIGHT CHANGES (KG.) IN EXPERIMENTS I AND II BY STEERS AND TREATMENTS


Added Experiment I Experiment II
NaC1 Animal Weight change Animal Weight change
o% number .number


*11
54
57


27
38
25
30o/


8
. 10
12
S Av.


9
16
57
Av.


5
15
45
Av.

4
11
17


a/Significant treatment comparisons: 0 vs. 8,
8 vs. 16, 24, 32, 40 (P<.01).
/Significant treatment comparisons: 0 vs. 8,
8 vs. 16, 24, 32, 40 (P<.01); 16 vs. 24, 32,
40 (P<.05); 32 vs. 40 (r<.05).


16, 24, 32, 40 (P<.OI);


16, 24, 32,
40 (P<.01);


40 (r<.01);
24 vs. 32,


p


15
4
22
13.7/

16
3
9
9.3w

-6
-3
-6



-10
-10
-13



-17
-31
-24
-24/


.34
31
28
31a/


1
29
38
22.7 2

0
-7
10
1

3
3
7
4.3

-2
19
8
8.3

1
-1
-16
-5.1





-7-


TABLE 6

AVERAGE DAILY DRY MATTER INTAKE (GM./KG. OF BODY WEIGHT) FOR THE LAST
TWO WEEKS IN THE EXPERIMENTAL PERIOD OF EXPERIMENTS I AND II
BY TREATMENTS AND EXPERIMENTS


Added _xEperiment I Experiment II Combined
NaC1 Animal Intake Animal Intake average
o number per day number per day


8
10
12
Av.


21.0
19.7
20.7
20.5


) 8.5
S 21.4
21.1
Av. 20.2

S 17.2
S 13.5
S 14.2
Av. 15.0

E 16.2
16.6
15.5
Av. 16.1

.14.3
17.1
13.8
Av. 15.1


18
19
54
Av.


1
10
12


8
16
45


12.0
16.1
14.2
17.1


20.4
20.7
19.7
20.3

15.0
15.6
20.0


22.0
16.0
16.2
18.0

12.3
11.4
17.0
1376T

10.4
13.8
12.1
12.1

12.1
12.3
12.9
12.4


20.4/




18.6/


16.5 /




14.8


13.7




13.3


a/Significant treatment comparisons: 0 vs. 8, 16, 24, 32,
8 vs. 16, 24, 32, 4o (P<01); 16 vs. 24, 32, 40 (P<.05).


40 (P<.01);





- 8-.


TABLE.7

AVERAGE DAILY SUPPLEMENT AND. SODIUM CHLORIDE INTAKES (GM.) FOR THE LAST
TWO WEEKS IN THE EXPERIMENTAL .PERIOD OF EXPERIMENTS I AND II
BY TREATMENT :AND EXPERIMENTS


Added Experiment I Experiment II Combined average
NaCl Animal Supple- Sodium Animal Supple- Sodium ..-.Supple- Sodiun
o number ment chloride number ment .chloride- -.ent chloride


o 8
10
12
Av.

8 9
16
57
Av.

16 5
15
45
Av.


22+. 1
1)


4500
4500
4500
4500


1679
4370
4204
34I17


873
641
1016
843


1019
681
7 863
Av. ~-85


32 1
2
3
Av.

40 18
19
54
Av.


704
796
514
671

300
306
222
276


0
0
0
O

146
380
365
297

166
122
194
161

321
214
272


331
374
241
315

200
204
148
.18


4500
4500
4500
7500

1537
2059
4314
S2637

2699
1136
1619


663
549
1145
7e6

156
1044
522
574

428
198
262
2956


0
0
0
o0

. 133
S179
375
229


514
216
'308
346

209
173
361
248

73
491
245
270

285
132
174
197


45co/0


263




253


820




623




286


258




292




190


a'Significant treatment comparisons:
24, 32, 40 (P<.01); 16 vs. 24, 32,


0 vs. 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 (r<.01); 8 vs. 16,
40 (P<.05).


1331




TABIE 8


AVERAGE DAILY INTAKE (GM.) OF FORAGE SUPPLEMENTa/ AND ADDED SODIUM CHLORIDE
PER ANIMAL BY WEEKS AND TREATMENTS IN EXPERIMENT I


Experimental, wk. /-/
Added Animal 4 5 6 7
NaC1 number Supp. NaC1 Supp. NaCi Supp. NaC1 Supp. NaC1 Supp. NaC1

o 8 4500 0 4500 0 4500 0 4500 o 4500 o
10 4500 o 4500 o 4500 o 4500 o 4500 o
12 4500 0 4500 0 4500 0 4500 0 4500 o

8 9 754./ 66 1141 99 1601 139 2006 174 1352 118
16 3735 325 4158 362 4214 366 4333 377 4407 383
57 3763 327 4407 38z 4131 359 4140 360 4269 371

16 5 1075 205 370 70 756 144 991 189 756 144
15 336 64 445 85 143 27 546 104 739 141
45 1050 200 983 187 1008 192 1058 202 974 186

24 4 122 38 585 185 1079 341 1163 367 874 276
11 46 14 122 38 380 120 707 223 654 206
17 182 58 532 168 836 264 935 295 790 250

32 1 150 70 462 218 612 288 626 294 782 368
2 109 51 279 131 415 195 762 358 830 390
3 48 22 360 170 687 323 367 173 660 310

40 18 156 104 240 160 144 96 294 196 306 204
19 162 108 204 136 198 132 312 208 300 200
54 78 52 18 12 54 36 204 136 240 160

a/Does not include 200 gm. of vitamin premix per day.
i/During a 3 wk. preliminary period, each steer consumed 2000 gm. of the forage supplement during the
first week, 3250 gm. the second week and 4500 gm. the third week,
/Differences between weeks were significant (P<.01).
Cl!,iff.rences among indiLviduals *'ithiz treatments were significant (P<.01).





TAB3L 9
AVERAGE DAILY INTAKE (GM.) OF FORAGE SUPPLEMENTT/ AND ADDED SODIUM CH.jORTDE
PER ANIMAL BY WEEKS AND TREAT-HENTS IN EXPERIMENT II

.. .. .' Experimental, wk.//__
Added Animal 4 5 6 7 '
NaCI number Supp. NaCl Supp." NaC1 Supp. NaCl Supp. NaC1 Supp. 'TaCl

0 11 4500 0 4500 0o 4500 0 4500 0 4500 o
54 4500 0 4500 o 4500 0 4500 0 4500 0
57 4500 0 4500 0 4500 0 4500 0 4500 0
18 1 1062/ 92 1466 128. 1479 129 1608 140 1465 127
10 696 61 1799 -156 1860 162. 2127 185 1991 173
.* :..12 2799 -. 243: 4500 390 4500 390 4399 382 4229 368

16 '2 799 152 948 180 1625 309 2496 476 2901 553
'4 *' 563 107 638 122 631 120 1158 220 1113 212
17 433 82 911 173 1256 239 1815 346 1422 271
24 15 439 138 485 153 535 169 735 232 591 :186
18 753 238' 774 244 546 172 532 368 565 179
19 312 99' 513 162 792 250 1160 366 1129 356

32 8 100 47 66 31 92 43- 135 63 177 84
1.6 373 176 533 251. 709 333 1136 535 951 447
.45 94 44 330 155 375 176. 533 251 510 240
40 3 18 12 188 126 222 148 439 293 416 278
5 40 o 27 117 78 116 78 164 110 231 154
9 87 58 118 79 166 111 289 193 235 156


a/Does not include 200 gm. of vitamin premix per day.
b/During a 3 wk. preliminary period, each steer consumed 2000 gm. of the forage
first week, 3250 kg. the second week and 4500 kg. the third week.
C/Differencoe between weeks were sigol.ficant (P<.01).
.Differenccs among individuals within trcatwm'ntsn cre rsignificr. 'l, (I<.01).


supplement during the








It is interesting to note that sodium chloride intake ranged from
63 to 553 gm. per day among individuals while the combined average intake by
treatments did not exceed 300 grams per day. Such wide variability
defeats attempts to use sodium chloride as a predictable regulator of feed
intake. It was also observed that a tolerance to sodium chloride devel-
oped and that voluntary consumption of sodium chloride increased from
week to week in most steers.

Data from each of the fourth through eighth weeks of each experi-
ment were analyzed. The steers fed supplement without sodium chloride
were omitted from the, analysis because all of them ate all of the 4500
gm. of supplement offered.,

In both Experiment I and II, there was an increase in average daily
supplement intake (P<.01) from week to week as the experiments progressed.
This increase can be attributed to an increase in tolerance for sodium
chloride in the supplement, as found by Savage and McIlvain (1954). There
was an increase in intake from week to week (P<.01) for the first 4 weeks
of the experimental period and a leveling off during the fifth week.

There was a large variability in average daily intake of supplement
among animals within a given level of added sodium chloride (P<.01) in
both experiments. This variability is readily apparent upon examination
of the data presented for Experiment II (table ;9). Within any treatment
in the last 2 weeks of this experiment, one steer had consumed nearly
twice as much supplement as one other steer on the same treatment. This
high degree of variability suggested that although sodium chloride does
limit supplement intake, it is not a sufficiently predictable regulator
of supplement intake to be of use for controlling intake of forage sup-
plement by individual animals under pasture conditions.

The response by steers to added sodium chloride in the supplement,
as indicated by supplement intake, was not linear. Linear regression
equations were developed for average daily supplement intake in relation
to per cent added sodium chloride in rations for each experiment (figure
1). When the two experiments were combined, the effect of added sodium
chloride on supplement intake was curvilinear (P<.01). When the 40 per
cent added sodium chloride level was substituted for X in the linear
regression equation for either experiment, the value of Y was negative.
This finding, plus the finding that the projection of the line for this
equation to the 0 per cent level of added sodium chloride was below the
actual supplement intake by the steers on this treatment, indicated
that the response to added sodium chloride in the supplement was not
linear.

Hay intake. Average daily hay intake data for the treatments con-
taining sodium chloride showed variation (P<.01) among animals on the
same treatment (tables 10 and 11). There were also differences in
average daily/hay intake between weeks of the experimental period
(P<.0l). In'both experiments, there was a general decrease in average
daily hay consumption between the fourth and fifth weeks (first and
second weeks of the experimental period) of from 0.2 kg to.1.1 kg. per



S < '] : "" :


- .11




- 12 -


(Max.)


I
4


2200


e 2000

*-I
4 1800











1000


80o
ci
















600
t






















8800


FIGURE 1.


Regression equations:

-- Experiment I Y = 2951.1-79.24x
-- Experiment II Y = 2551.4-65.72x
Y = hay intake
x = % NaC1


x= individuals in Experiment I
o= individuals in Experiment II
sm = combined average for treatment

























4 '







'. 4
8 9
\ ^!

16 24 32 40
% NaC1
EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON AVERAGE DAILY SUPPLE-
MENT INTAKE AND LINES FROM REGRESSION EQUATIONS


*<*
%
u


~
B~.






- 13 -


steer. Two steers (Nos. 9 and 4) in Experiment I and two (Nos. 54 and 10)
in Experiment II increased their average daily hay intake in the fifth
week, but the general trend was downward. Hay intake remained fairly con-
stant for all groups for the rest of the experimental period, although
individual fluctuations in average daily hay intake from week to week
ranged from 100 gm. to 500 gm.

When hay intake data for the comparison periods (seventh and eighth
weeks) of the two experiments were combined and subjected to analysis of
variance, there was quadratic effect (P<.05) due to level of sodium
chloride in the supplement (table 37). Average daily hay intake was
higher (P<.01) on the treatment containing 16 per cent sodium chloride
in the supplement than on the treatments containing higher levels of
sodium chloride (table 11). The average daily intake of hay by steers
by treatments increased from 4.94 kg. for the control to 5.25 kg. for
8 per cent added sodium chloride to a high of 5.67 kg. for 16 per cent
added sodium chloride. The hay intake was reduced to 5.19 kg. and 4.95
kg. with 24 per cent and 32 per cent added sodium chloride and increased
again slightly to 5.11 kg. at 40 per cent added sodium chloride in the
supplement (figure 2).

Reasons for differences in hay intakes between treatments are not
readily apparent. Nelson et al. (1955) fed 240 gm. of sodium chloride
per day to steers and reported a lowering of digestibility. When they
fed 50 gm. of sodium chloride per day to sheep, a decrease (P<.01) in
digestibility was noted in N.F.E. and crude fiber. Elam and Autry (1961)
found that 8 per cent sodium chloride depressed digestibility of N.F.E.,
crude fiber and crude protein in a pelleted diet of corn, cottonseed meal
and grass hay fed to steers. In later work, Elam and Davis (1962) found
that 5 per cent sodium chloride in the same pelleted diet reduced micro-
bial activity by about 10 per cent, but this effect was not significant.
On the other hand, Meyer et al. (1955) reported no influence on diet
digestibility by sodium chloride levels as high as 12.8 per cent when a
ration of barley, alfalfa hay and oat hay was fed to cattle.

The effect of sodium chloride on intake of hay may be a matter of
concentration of sodium chloride in the rumen contents rather than total
amount of sodium chloride consumed. In the 8 per cent and 16 per cent
added sodium chloride treatments in this experiment, the increase in hay
intake may have been an effort to offset the decreasing consumption of
supplement. At 24 per cent added sodium chloride, the amount of supple-
ment consumed was sharply reduced. This may have allowed the concentra-
tion of sodium chloride to become high enough to reduce digestibility.
At 40 per cent added sodium chloride, the intake of supplement and sodium
chloride were reduced to the point where sodium chloride probably was not
effective in reducing digestibility of the hay.

Water intake. Water intake was an interesting part of the sodium
chloride experiments because, at first, some of the results seemed incon-
sistent with those reported in the literature. Savage and McIlvain
(1954) reported that calves consuming sodium chloride and cottonseed meal
doubled their water intake. When the average daily water intake was tab-
ulated (tables 13 and 14), it was noted that tbhc- aerage daily water





- 14 -


TABLE 10

AVERAGE DAILY INTAKE (KG.) OF HAY PER ANIMAL BY
WEEKS AND TREATMENTS IN EXPERIMENT I


Preliminary, wk.
"1 2 : 3


Experimental, wk.
S 5 6 7 8


8
10
12

9
16
57

5
15
45


5.39
5.68
5.37

5.62
5.88
5.59

5.60
5.59
4.72

4.70
5.30
5.45

5.13
5.42
4.55

5.47
5.20
5.28


a/Differences between weeks


4.83 4.65
4.95 4.01
5.09 ...5.09

5.58 5.22
5.78 5.67
5,39 5.28

5.58- 5.62
5.63 5.69
4.76 4.55

5.24 4,85
4.65 4.63
5.59 5.71

4.75 4.62
4.81 4.56,
4.66 5.22

4.80 4.60
5.30 5.03
5.25 5.44


5.48
4.71
4.96

5.30-
5.91
-5.77

6.28
5.89
5.67

-4.96
'5.36
6.20

5.47
5.46
5.69

5.34
6.08
6.01


5.14
4.27
4.28

/5.65
4.93
5.66

_5.08
5.43
4.77

5.12
4.90
5.61

4.94
5.21
5.19

5.07
5.48
.4.88


(P<.01).


.YDifferences among animals within treatments (P<.O1).


Added
NaCl
It


Animal
number


5.04
3.75
4.33

5.97
5.45
5.85

6.26
5.55
5.65

4.58
4.51
5.54

4.88
5.42
4.89

5.02
5.33
5.72


4.34
4.34
4.54

5.21
5.09
5.60

6.07
5.20
5.06

5.04
5.53
5.60

4.86
5.17
4.65

4.97
5.59
5.37


3.14

6.23




5, 7
5.62
6.28
5.74
5.72

5.02
5.11
5. 27j

5.02
5--,
5.14
5.64

4.86
5.92
5.79


--- --





- 15 -


TABLE 11

AVERAGE DAILY INTAKE (KG.) OF HAY PER ANIMAL BY
WEEKS AND TREATMENTS IN EXPERIMENT II


Added Animal Preliminary, wk. Experimental, wk.-a
NaC1 number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7'

0 11 5.19 5.15 5.26 4.79 4.23 4.16 4.34 4.53
54 5.66 5.79 5.49 5.71 5.74 5.08 6.11 5.19
57 6.13 6.07 6.18 6.04 5.91 5.94 5.86 6,22
8 1 4.61 4.63 4.54 5.56b/ 5.30 5.00 5.31 5.10
10 4.91 5.00 4.75 5.31 5.49 4.92 4.86 5.23
12 5.41 5.39 5.12 5.45 4.98 4.96 4.75 4.94

16 2 5.65 5.70 6.12 5.96 5.60 5.54 6.02 5.61
4 4.82 4.69 5.03 5.45 5.23 5.16 5.26 5.48
17 4.98 5.93 6.27 6.23 5.96 5.74 5.55 6.09

24 15 6,43 5.46 5.62 5.68 4.47 4.93 5.08 5.07
18 5.63 4.94 4.74 5.22 5.17 5.03 4.46 4.62
19 5.19 5.49 4.97 5.79 5.02 5.27 5.36 5.63

32 8 5.67 5.08 4.83 5.35 4.85 4.47 4.44 4.17
16 5.66 6.27 6.15 6.10 5.09 4.98 5.09 4.77
45 5.56 4.66 4.31 5.20 5.19 4.65 5.27 5.16

40 3 5.75 5.49 5.56 5.61 4.79 4.81 4.74 4.83
5 6.29 5.96 5.98 6.05 4.94 4.82 4.95 4.73
9 4.96 5.07 4.61 5.35 5.00 4.70 4.83 4.69

a/Differences between weeks (P<.01).

b/Differences among animals within treatments (P<.01).









TABLE 12

AVERAGE-DAILY HAY INTAKES (GM.) FOR THE LAST TWO WEEKS
IN THE EXPERIMENTAL PERIOD OF EXPERIMENTS I AND
...II BY TREATMENTS AND EXPERIMENTS


'Experiment I
Animal Intake
number per day


8
10
12
S'!: Av.


16
57
'Av.

5
15
45
Av.

4
11
17
Av.

1
2
3
Av.


. 4740
'4390
4410
-. 533

5710
5040
"5620
'557 '

6175
5470
5390
5678

5030
"5320
'5690
5343

4940
S5155
5145
50780


Experiment II
. Animal .__ Intake


Added
-NaC1
: I0


per day

4433
*5649
6040
5341

5209
5043
4847
5033

5814
5368
5822
=55H

.5078
4539
:5495
50311

S4309
'4929
5217
STiBI


4915
5755
5580
Av. 35417


./Significant treatment comparison: 16 vs. 24,


number

11 -
54
57


I *
10
12


2
4
17


15
18
19"


S 8-
1i6
45


Combined
average


4944




5245




5673/




5192




4949


32


4785
484o
4762
4797


5106


"f *


32, 40 (P<.01).





- 17 -


S= combined average for treatment
x Experiment I individual
o= Experiment II individual


0




W y
ri

03~a~x


8 16 24 32 4(
o NaC1

EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON AVERAGE DAILY
HAY INTAKE


7.0


6.0 '


5.0 o


0.

FIGURE 2.


: r^
^ ^**
.^ ^ ^
,^*> .
.^
6
F
P
Bs





- 18 -


intake of most of the steers on the added sodium chloride treatments was
less than or equal to that of the steers in the 0 per cent added sodium
chloride treatment. There were three exceptions to this in the group on
8 per cent added sodium chloride. Two steers (Nos. 16 and 57) were in
Experiment I and one (No. 12) was in Experiment II. These steers
increased their average daily water intake to about 140 per cent of the
intake by the steers on 0 per cent added sodium chloride. The reduction.
in average daily water intake by most of the steers with added sodium
chloride in their supplement was attributed to the fact that their tota-
dry matter intake was lowered because of the limiting of supplement in-
take by the added sodium chloride. The three steers which had an increased
average daily water intake had maintained their supplement intake at a
level almost equal to that of the controls in spite of the added sodium
chloride.

There were no significant differences in average daily water intake
among treatments containing added sodium chloride during either experi-
ment. Again, there was a great deal of variability among steers on a
single treatment (<.Ol1) as was the case with supplement intake. There
was a gradual rise in average daily water intake from the first to the
last week of the experimental period (P<.01). This increase was probably
related to an increase in tolerance for sodium chloride which caused an
increase in supplement intake and dry matter intake from week to week.

The daily water intakes of steers during the last 2 weeks of each
experiment were averaged and combined for analysis (table 15). There
were again no significant differences among treatments. This was probably
due to the high variability within treatments. Although the average daily
water intake for the last 2 weeks was 30.9 1. per steer in Experiment I
and 27.1 1. per steer in Experiment II, the difference between experiments
only approached significance.

Experiment I was conducted in September and October and Experiment II
in November ind December. Seasonal differences in air temperature and
humidity may have contributed to the differences in average daily water
intake. The research of Weir and Miller (1953), Riggs et al. (1953) an:
Savage and Mcllvain (1954) indicated that animals on equal feed intakes
would consume more water if the supplement contained sodium chloride.

Intake of water (ml./gm. of ration dry matter) is shown in table 1..
There was no significant linear effect of percentage of sodium chloride
in the supplement on water intake per gm. of ration dry matter intake.
However, water intake per unit of ration dry matter intake increased
(P<.01) with the addition of sodium chloride at any level to the supple-
ment. This effect was most pronounced when the data for the last 2 weeks
of each experiment were analyzed (table 15). In Experiment I, the average
water intake was 3.90 and 4.08 ml. per gm. of ration dry matter, respec-
tively, for the control and treatments containing sodium chloride. The
intakes in Experiment II were 3.32 and 3.77 ml. per gm. of dry matter
intake.. The differences between experiments (P<.01) indicated that
seasonal differences may have had an effect on water intake.




- 19 -


TABLE 13

AVERAGE DAILY WATER INTAKE (LITERS) PER ANIMAL BY
WEEKS AND TREATMENTS IN EXPERIMENT I


Added Animal Preliminary, wk. Experimental, wk.
NaCl number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0 8 41.9 31.1 31.3 31.7 36.5 32,2 31.8 33.8
10 30.1 25.8 32.4 28.5 31.7 27.9 29.7 31.1
12 42.4 31.1 31,3 31.1 30.1 29,0 31.7 30.6

8 9 39.7 34.4 31.3 23.6 29.0 30.6 32.4 31.7
16 29.0 25.8 30.2 42.4 43.5 38.1 41.4 44.4
57 28.5 25.8 29.7 43.5 47.3 44.0 42.6 46.2

16 5 33.3 30.1 30.2 29.0 22.6 25.2 30-2 30.1
15 27.9 25.2 29.1 19.3 22.0 17.7 20.4 24.1
45 27,4 25.2 26.5 29.5 30.6 25.2 29.1 33.8

24 4 39.2 30.6 31.8 19.3 26.3 31,7 35.6 31.1
11 44.6 30.1 29.1 20.4 18.2 22.6 27.5 27.4
17 56.9 39.7 31.8 22.0 26,8 30.1 34.0 32.2

32 1 31.7 25.2 25.9 23.6 22.0 24.7 25.4 30.1
2 35.1 26.8 26.5 18.8 22.0 23.1 32.4 34.9
3 28.5 26.8 27.5 18.2 26.3 27.9 24.3 33"8

40 18 26.3 23.6 26.5 19.3 22.0 16,6 22.0 24,1
19 28.5 25.8 29.1 22.6 23.1 21.5 24.1 26.3
54 41.4 29.5 30.8 23.1 18,2 31.5 25.4 26.8









TABLE 14

AVERAGE DAILY WATER INTAKE (LITERS) PER ANIMAL BY
WEEKS AND TREATMENTS IN EXPERIMENT II .


Added Aniiml Preliminary,. wk. Experimental, wk.
NaC1 number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


22.6
22.6
25.5


19.8
20.8
21.7

22.6
20.8
24.5

22.6
21.7
19.8

24.5
19.8
25.5

21.7
25.5
25.5


27.5
25.3
31.3

20.0
24.8
26.4

23.2
24,3
28.0

22.6
23.2
25.9

23.7
25.9
26.4

23.2
28.0
28.0


.24.8
27.5
29.7

21.0
25.9
27.5

26.4
28.6
30.7

27.5
25.9
26.9

23.0
28.6
26.4

26.9
28.6
31.3


S28.6
30.2
32.9

18.9
. 20.5
. 37.7

24.3
24.3
23.7

21.0
24.8
20.5

S17.2
23.2
20.5

S16.1
18.3
21.5


25.9
29.1
29.7

20.5
24.8
44.2

22.1
21.0
24.3

18.3
24.8
21.5

14.0
24.2
20.5

16.7
17.2
19.9


24.8
30.2
30.2

i8.3
23.2
42.2

29.7
21.0
28.0

21.5
20.5
24.8

15.6
22.6
22.6

13.3
16.1
22.1


25.3
30.2
30.7

19.9
26,4
40.4

38.8
25.3
34.0

25.9
19.9
32.9

15.1
37.2
26.7

24.8
18.3
24.8


26.4
29.7
30.7

18.9
25.9
39.3

39.9
25.3
36.1

22.1
21.0
29.7

16.7
31.8
25.3

21.5
18.3
20.5


- 2C -




- 21 -


TABLE 15

AVERAGE DAILY WATER INTAKES (LITERS) FOR THE LAST TWO WEEKS
IN THE EXPERIMENTAL PERIOD OF EXPERIMENTS I AND
II BY TREATMENTS AND EXPERIMENTS


Experiment I
Animal Intake
number per day


Experiment- II
Animal Intake
number per day


8
10
12
Av.


32.8
30.7
31.2
31.65


31.1
42.9
44.4
Av. 39.5

5 30.2
5 22.3
5 31.5
Av. 28.0

4 33.4
L 27.5
7 33.1
Av. 31.3


1
2
3
Av.

18
19
54
Av.


Average


27.8
33.7
29.1
30.2

23.1
25,2
26.1


30.9


Added
NaCI
%


Combined
average


8 c
5(
51


25.9
30.0
30.7
28.9


30.2


19.4
26.2
39.9
I2.-,


33.5


30.6


28.3


39,4
25.3
35.1
33.3

24.0
20.5
31.3
25.3

15.9
34.5
26.0
25.5

23.2
18.3
22.7
27.1
27.1


27.8


23.1




22 -



TABLE 16

INDIVIDUAL WATER INTAKES (ML./GM. OF RATION DRY MATTER)
.FOR THE LAST TWO WEEKS IN THE EXPERIMENTAL PERIOD OF
EXPERIMENTS I AND II BY TREATMENTS AND EXPERIMENTS


Added .' "Experiment I '' Experiment II Combined
NaCl Animal Intake Animal Intake average
Number per day number-,; per day


8
10
12
Av.


3.95
3.80
3.95
3.90


9 4.65
4.85
7 4.85
Av. .778


5
15
45
Av.


4.50
3.80
5.15
V.-4-9


4 5.65
.1 4.75
-7 5.25
Av. 5.22

1 5.05
2 5.75
3 5.25
Av. 5.35


18
19
54
Av.


8-40 Average

0 Average


4.55
4.30
4.75
4.53

4.08/

3.90&


a/Significant treatment comparisons:
32 vs. 40 (P<.05).

i/Differs from Experiment II (P<.01).


0 vs. 8, 16, 24, 32,


40 (P<.01);


11:
.514
57


1
10
12


2
4
17


3.61-




4.38


3.28
3.36
3.31
3.32

3.15
4.03
4.74
3.97

4.93
4.20
5.08


4.48
4.30
5.01


3.85
5.95
4.83
778-

4.66
3.91
4.81


3.77

3.32


4.91




5.11-



4.50


~------ -----





- 23 -


Summary

Experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of sodium
chloride as a regulator of forage supplement intake as indicated by
several criteria: predictability of limiting effect on supplement
intake, effect of sodium chloride intake on health of steers, and effect.
of sodium chloride in the supplement on hay and water intake. Experi-
ments consisted of 3-week preliminary and 5-week experimental periods
with 18 steers which were individually fed and watered. Supplement, hay
and water intakes were measured daily. Steers were randomly assigned to
six treatments of three steers each. Treatments were 0, 8, 16, 24, 32
and 40 per cent sodium chloride added to the regular supplement. Addi-
tion of sodium chloride to the supplement at levels of 16, 24, 32 and 4C per
cent limited intake of the supplement, decreased daily water in\:ake, in-
creased daily water consumption per unit of dry matter intake and did not
significantly change hay consumption. There was a high degree of individ-
ual animal variability in all treatments containing added sodium chloride.
Addition of sodium chloride to the supplement lacked efficacy as a cons'.-*
tent, precise and proportional supplement intake regulator because of lack
of predictability of its regulating effect due to high variability among
steers.




- 24 -


LITERATURE CITED

Elam, C. J. and L. K. Autry. 1961. Effects of level of sodium chloride
consumption on water ahd mineral balance in beef cattle. J. AniriO
Sci. 20:670 (Abstr.)

Elam, C. J. and R. E. Davis. 1962;. Rumnal characteristics and bloat
incidence in cattle as influenced by feeding synthetic saliva salts
and sodium chloride. J. Animal Sci. 21:327.

Meyer, J. H.', W. C. Weir, N. R. Itther and J. D. Smith. 1955. The infl!-
ence of high sodium chloride intake by fattening sheep and cattle. J:
Animal Sci. 14:412. .

Nelson, A. B., R.-W. MacVicar, Wm. Archer, Jr. and J.-C. Meiske. 1955.
Effect of high dalt intake on digestibility of ration constituents
and on nitrogen, sodium and chloride retention by steers and wethers.
J. Animal Sci. -14:825.

-Riggs, J. K., R. W. Colby and L. V. Sells. 1953. The effect of self-
feeding salt-cottonseed meal mixtures to beef cows; J. Animal Sci.
12:379.

Savage, D. A, and E, H. McIlvain. 1954. Salt as a regulator of meal
consumption for beef cattle. Prog. Rept. U. S. Southern Great Plains
Sta.

Snedecor, G. W. 1956. Statistical Methods. 5th Ed. The Ioa State
College Press, Ames, Iowa.

Weir, W. C. and R. F. Miller, Jr. 1953, The use of salt as a regulator
of protein supplement intake by breeding ewes. J. Animal Sci. 12:219.




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