Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series ;, AN66-12
Title: High level copper supplementation of the sow during the farrowing and early lactation period
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 Material Information
Title: High level copper supplementation of the sow during the farrowing and early lactation period
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Physical Description: 7 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
Houser, Richard H ( Richard Hart ), 1934-
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1966
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Copper in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: H.D. Wallace, R.H. Houser and G.E. Combs.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May, 1966."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072978
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 78582873

Full Text



Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series AN66-12 Experiment Station
May, 1966 Gainesville, Florida

HIGH LEVEL COPPER SUPPLEMENTATION OF THE SOW
DURING THE FARROWING AND EARLY LACTATION PERIOD1/

H. D. Wallace, R. H. Houser and G. E. Combsl/


In two previous reports (1, 2), the results of'feeding high levels of antibiotic
at farrowing time were described. Terramycin and tylosin supplementation tended to
increase the weaning weights of pigs, although the advantage was not great. Surviva-
bility was not improved, nor was there complete control of scouring in the young pigs.
Minor udder problems in the sows were not completely eliminated with antibiotic feed-
ing.

This study was undertaken to determine if a high level of dietary copper would
favorably influence the overall productive performance of sows when fed just prior to
farrowing and during early lactation.

Experimental

The sows were bred and maintained on pasture during gestation. Three days prior
to the anticipated farrowing date, the sows were moved to the farrowing barn. At
this time they were alternately assigned to either a basal diet or the same basal diet
containing 250 ppm of copper as copper sulfate (CuSO4). The basal diet is presented
in Table 1. All sows were fed twice per day while in the farrowing barn, being driv-
en from the farrowing stalls to individual feeding stalls located in an adjoining
wing. Prior to farrowing, each sow was given 3 lb. of feed twice per day. On the
day of farrow, feed was offered only if the sow seemed hungry. The next day, 3-5 lb.
of feed was given each sow. This amount was increased each day so that by the end of
the first week of lactation most sows were consuming 8-9 lb. of feed daily. This feed
level was maintained during the second week, at the end of which the pigs were weaned.

On the day of birth, pigs were weighed and ear notched for identification. Na-
vel cords were tied off when necessary, and the navels treated with a tincture of
iodine. Needle teeth were carefully clipped. Injectable iron was administered to
all pigs between 3 and 5 days of age. Male pigs were castrated at one week of age.
Heat lamps were used to provide needed warmth for the baby pigs. Pens were cleaned
each morning and a special effort was made to provide a dry environment for the pigs
at all times, with wood shavings serving as bedding. Automatic drinking cups provided
a constant source of fresh water for the sows and litters.

Daily observations on the incidence of scours in the litters were made and re-
corded.


1/ Supported in part by a grant from International Copper Research Association,
Inc., New York.

2/ Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionist and Associate Animal Nutritionist, res-
pectively, Animal Science Department. The assistance of B. R. Cannon and L. S.
Taylor, Swine Herdsmen, is gratefully acknowledged.











Table 1. Composition of basal diet fed sows.



Ground yellow corn 65.09
Ground whole oats 10.00
Soybean meal (50% protein) 20.30
Steamed bonemeal 1.00
Ground limestone 0.75
Iodized salt 0.50
Trace mineral supple nt / 0.06
B-vitamin supplement- 0.20
Vitamin B12 supplement2/ 0.10
Vitamin A and D supplement4/ 2.00
100.00


1/ Calcium Carbonate Co. swine mix. Added the following to the ra-
tion (ppm): Manganese (35.5), iron (43.8), copper (3.0), cobalt
(1.0), zinc (50.4) and potassium (4.7).

2/ Contained 2,000 mg. riboflavin, 4,000 mg. pantothenic acid, 9,000
mg. niacin and 10,000 mg. choline chloride per pound of.supplement.

3/ Contained a minimum of 9 mg. B12 per pound of supplement.

4/ Contained 14 gm. vitamin A supplement (10,000 I.U./gm.), 4 gm.
vitamin D supplement (9,000 I.U./gm.) and 890 gm. yellow corn.

5/ The diet contained approximately 18 percent crude protein.





Results and Discussion

Summaries for the three separate farrowings involved in the study are presented
in Tables 2, 3 and 4.

In the January farrowing (Table 2), control sows weaned 10.5 pigs per litter
which weighed an average of 7.07 lb. at two weeks of age. The copper supplemented
sows weaned 11.0 pigs per litter which averaged 7.30 lb. at two weeks of age. The
survival percentage was 80.2 for the pigs from control sows, compared to 85.9 for
the pigs from copper supplemented sows. There was a marked average birth weight dif-
ference (2.83 vs. 3.00), in favor of the copper treated sows. This, of course, was
not the result of the dietary treatments, but probably influenced the weaning weights
and survivability of the litters accordingly. The amount of scouring observed in
litters from the control sows was considerably greater than that observed in litters
from treated sows.






-3-


In the March farrowing (Table 3) control sows weaned 9.8 pigs per litter which
averaged 7.75 lb. at two weeks of age. The copper supplemented sows weaned 10.4
which averaged 8.12 lb. at two weeks of age. The survival percentage was 85.2 for
the pigs from control sows, compared to 84.6 for the pigs from copper supplemented
sows. Once again, there was a marked average birth weight difference (3.05 vs. 3.24)
which favored the pigs from the copper supplemented sows. This difference may well
explain the advantage in weaning weight for the pigs from copper supplemented sows.
Scouring was observed in several litters in both sow groups, but was somewhat less
severe in case of the litters from copper supplemented sows.

In the May farrowing (Table 4), control sows weaned 9.77 pigs per litter which
averaged 6.84 lb. at two weeks of age. The copper supplemented sows weaned 9.50 pigs
per litter which averaged 6.82 lb. at two weeks of age. The survival percentage was
85.4 for the pigs from control sows, compared to 86.4 for the pigs from treated sows.
During this farrowing scouring was a serious problem and, in contrast to previous
farrowings, was more severe in litters from the copper supplemented sows.

The overall combined summary for the three farrowings is presented in Table 5.

Summary

A total of 50 litters, involving 602 pigs, were farrowed during three farrowings
(January, March and May of 1965), and used to study the value of high level copper
supplementation of the sow diet commencing 3 days prior to parturition and continu-
ing through two weeks of lactation.

The data obtained show a slight advantage for the copper supplementation in num-
ber of pigs weaned and in the weight of the pigs at weaning. Survivability also fav-
ored, by a small margin, pigs from supplemented sows. Due to chance allotment of
the sows prior to farrowing, the average birth weight of pigs favored the supplement-
ed litters. It is suggested that this difference may account for most of the advan-
tage of the litters from the supplemented sows. High level copper in the sow diet
did not prevent periodic outbreaks of bacterial scours in the suckling pigs. There
was no evidence of any adverse effect of the copper on the sows or nursing pigs.






Literature Cited

1. Wallace, H. D. and G. E. Combs. 1962. High level antibiotic supplementation
of the sow during the farrowing period. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series 63-3.

2. Wallace, H. D. and G. E. Combs. 1964. High level antibiotic supplementation
of the sow during the farrowing period. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN64-14.


gem
5/16/66
1700 copies
(1200 + 500)





Table 2. Influence
1965.


of high level copper supplementation on sow performance. Summary of January farrowing,


Sow Number No. Live Av. Pig No. Pigs No. Resorb- No. Pigs Av. Pig Wt. Sow Wt.
and Breed Pigs Per Birth Born Dead ing Fetuses Weaned At Weaning Change,
Litter Wt., Lb. Per Litter Per Litter (2 wk.) (2 wk.), Lb. Lb.


0
0
0
O


CONTROL SOWS

0
0
0
0
0
1
3
3


0.00 0.88
(7. Survival 80.2)

COPPER SUPPLEMENTED SOWS


1
2
0
0
2
0
0
0


2
1
1
1
2
0
1
1__


0.63 1.13
(% Survival 85.9)


9
13
9

10.50


12
15
10
7
10
10
11
13

11.00


8.38***
6.51*
6.78***
6.83***
7.35*
7.48
6.84
6.54


7.07


7.17
7.03
8.00***
8.67
7.85
6.70
7.99
5.90

7.30


- 83
- 70
- 87
- 99
- 75
- 72
- 92
- 68

- 80.7


-110
- 92
- 84
- 57
- 81
- 75
- 91
- 87

- 84.6


*** Scoured badly, intermittently for several days; ** Scoured badly for one day; Mild scours for short time.


13
325
65
48
468
116
397
443


(D)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)


" Average
I


12
15
15
16
14
10
13
10

13.1


14
17
11
7
12
12
14
16

12.9


3.33
2.19
2.89
2.94
2.34
3.60
3.34
2.14

2.83


3.34
2.72
3.45
3.63
2.67
2.84
3.02
2.78

3.00


110
138
56
441
472
439
411
163


(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)


Average






Table 3. Influence of high level copper supplementation on sow performance.
farrowing, 1965.


Summary of March


Sow Number No. Live Av. Pig No. Pigs No. Resorb- No. Pigs Av. Pig Wt. Sow Wt.
and Breed Pigs Per Birth Born Dead ing Fetuses Weaned At Weaning Change,
Litter Wt., Lb. Per Litter Per Litter (2 wk.) (2 wk.), Lb. Lb.


CONTROL SOWS


2.95
3.60
2.45
2.95
2.54
3.89
2.72
4.04

3.05


0
0
1
1
0
0
1
2


1


0.50 0.63
(% Survival 85.2)

COPPER SUPPLEMENTED SOWS


9
10
12
12
13
9
6
8

9.80


8.60***
8.3 9***
6.83*
7.13***
6.85
10.52***
6.07*
7.93

7.75


- 65
- 76
- 82
- 85
- 55
-100
- 42
- 87

- 74.0


123 (DxL)
126 (OxL)
412 (DxL)
139 (DxL)
21 (D)
95 (DxL)
438 (DxL)
117 (DxL)
336 (DxL)

Average


14
11
11
11
10
14
18
12
10

12.3


2.66
3.25
3.91
3.65
3.17
3.44
3.09
3.26
2.94

3.24


2
0
0
0
0
2
0
1
0


1
0
0
0
0
1
0
2
1


0.56 0.56
(% Survival 84.6)


*** Scoured badly, intermittently for several days; ** Scoured badly for one day; Mild scours for short time.


. 13
144
164
403
467
45
102
72


(D)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)


11
10
15
15
14
9
9
9

11.5


Average


10
11
11
7
10
12
17
9
7

10.40


6.93**
9.15
8.21 **
8.44*
6.25*
8.95**
8.08
9.14*
7.84**

8.12


- 59
- 74
- 92
- 67
- 72
-107
-124
- 91
- 37

- 80.3





Table 4. Influence of high level
farrowing, 1965.


copper supplementation on sow performance.


Sow Number No. Live Av. Pig No. Pigs No. Resorb- No. Pigs Av. Pig Wt. Sow Wt.
and Breed Pigs Per Birth Born Dead ing Fetuses Weaned At Weaning Change,
Litter Wt., Lb. Per Litter Per Litter (2 wk.) (2 wk.), Lb. Lb.


CONTROL SOWS


3.95
2.92
3.61
2.95
2.45
2.72
2.71
3.19
3.45

3.10


0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
i


0
1
0
0
0
3
2
0
1


0.33 0.77
(% Survival 85.4)

COPPER SUPPLEMENTED SOWS


6
12
12
12
10
7
9
10
10


5.20
7.08*
6.69
6.83
6.51**
7.11*
8.63*
7.80
5.74*


9.77


- 73
-100
- 80
- 65
- 86
- 52
- 41
- 68
- 83

- 86.1


6.84


3.00
3.27
3.45
2.10
3.78
3.51
3.36
3.02

3.18


1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0


1
0
0
0
1
1
0
2


0.37 0.62
((% Survival 86.4)


8
7
11
10
9
9
13
9

9.50


6.10***
6.67.
8.40**
7.18
7.58***
6.52***
5.52***
6.64*


6.82


- 70
- 78
- 69
- 59
- 84
- 78
- 66
- 65

- 71.1


*** Scoured badly, intermittently for several days; ** Sconired badly for


one day; Mild scours for .i;. ti.
A.- ocuk U41 AV~


16
48
110
305
320
325
360
417
494


(D)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)


6
15
14
14
13
10
11
10
10

11.44


Average


13
14
65
130
354
355
405
498


(D)
(D)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)
(DxL)


12
9
11
16
9
9
13
911

11.00


Average


-- --


Summary of May








- 7 -


Table 5. Combined summary of all farrowings.


Control


Copper
Supplemented


Number of sows 25 25
Av. number live pigs per litter 12.0 12.1
Av. birth weight per live pig, lb. 2.97 3.12
Av. number pigs weaned (2 wks.) 10.0 10.3
Av. weight per pig at weaning 7.22 7.46
Percent survival to weaning 83.7 85.4
Av. sow weight loss from prefarrow 75.4 78.8
to weaning of pig, lb.


_




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