Animal Science Department A Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Report AN65-7 /, Experiment Station
FEEDING VALUE OF DRIED BA vLiO FOR RATS AND RABBITS
L. R. Arrington, Roberto Ancalmo, D. E. Raulerson,
J. E. Moore and T. J. Cunhal/
Dried Bakery Products are now available in forms for animal feed-
ing. Two products have been prepared and have been evaluated as a feed
for several species. The basic material, Dried Bakery Product (DBP),
consists of a number of different unused bakery items dried and blended
into a uniform mixture. The second product (Nujets) contains the same
basic items with added condensed grain and whey fermentation solubles.
Studies with swine have shown that DBP or Nujets could replace up
to 30 percent of corn in the ration with no marked change in performance
of the pigs. Without B-vitamin fortification, performance of the pigs
fed either product was unsatisfactory, indicating that B-vitamin forti-
fication is necessary with either the corn or DBP ration (6). Combs,
et al. (3) have reported that DBP could replace dried skim milk at
levels of 5 to 20 percent in a starter ration for 10-pound pigs with
excellent results. Work with fattening steers (5) has indicated that
DBP can replace ground snapped corn in the ration and when fed at levels
of 5 and 10 percent of the ration, the higher level resulted in greater
gain. The higher level increased feed efficiency by four percent in a
56-day trial. In another study (2), DBP fed at a level of 2.5 pounds
per steer daily replacing an equal amount of ground snapped corn resulted
in performance of cattle approximately equal to that of steers fed ground
snapped corn. Thirty percent DBP added to the concentrate mixture for
lactating dairy cattle produced a satisfactory and highly palatable feed
and no differences in milk production were observed when it replaced
other feeds in the ration (7).
The following experiments were designed to study the feeding value
of Dried Bakery Products for rats and rabbits.
Rats. Weanling rats of the Long-Evans strain were used in all trials.
They were housed, two per cage, in standard cages with wire floors. All
diets were fed ad libitum and voluntary feed intake recorded. Growth
/ Arrington, Associate Animal Nutritionist; Ancalmo and Raulerson,
Research Assistants; J. E. Moore, Assistant Animal Nutritionist;
and T. J. Cunha, Animal Nutritionist and Head of Department.
rate and total gain were determined from weekly and terminal body
weights at the end of a six week feeding period.
In the first trial, each of the bakery feeds was included in diets
prepared from natural ingredients (table 1). Only male rats were used
in this trial. In a second series of trials, DBP or Nujets were used
in diets in which the other ingredients were purified (table 2). This
semi-purified diet was further modified for additional trials by omit-
ting either the minerals or vitamins in order to evaluate the products
in terms of these nutrients. When the complete mineral mixture was
omitted, 0.5 percent CaC03 was added.
Rabbits. Weanling Dutch rabbits were fed a ration containing 50 percent
Nujets in a six week feeding trial. The experimental ration was pre-
pared by adding the Nujets to a ground complete commercial ration.
Soybean meal was also added to provide a protein intake equal to the
commercial ration used as a control. Results were determined in terms
of voluntary feed intake, weight gain and efficiency of feed utilization.
Proximate analysis of the bakery product was conducted according
to methods outlined by A.O.A.C. and gross energy determined in a bomb
calorimeter. Statistical analyses for all trials were based upon
Analysis of Variance and significant differences between treatments
determined by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (4).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Proximate composition as determined on an air dry basis is shown
in table 3. A more detailed composition of DBP, furnished by the
supplier, is given in the report by Wing (7). The protein in the pro-
duct is assumed to be primarily of plant origin. The fat present is
well distributed with little or no separation and no rancidity has
been observed in storage.
Diets containing DBP were readily consumed by both rats and
rabbits and no digestive disturbances or other disorders were
observed. Values representing voluntary feed intake, weight gain and
feed efficiency of rats fed the various levels in a natural ration are
recorded in table 4. Intakes of the rations containing 33 or 66
percent of DBP or Nujets were slightly reduced. No differences in
weight gain were observed except in the group consuming 66 percent of
DBP. Gains of these rats were significantly less (P<0.05) but a simi-
lar decrease was not noted in any other trials at the same level of
DBP or Nujets. Feed efficiency of the rats consuming the higher levels
of DBP or Nujets was apparently improved in all trials, but the rats
were fed two per cage and statistical differences were not observed.
No differences were observed in performance of the rats fed corn
meal or equal proportions of the bakery products (tables 4 and 5). In
all trials, feed intake of rations containing bakery products was reduced
and feed efficiency was improved. Such a reduction in feed intake might
be expected from the higher energy contents of rations containing DBP
Performance of the rats fed both products in the semi-purified
ration is indicated in table 5. When supplemental vitamins were
included in the diets with 66.5 percent of either of the two bakery
products or corn, no significant differences were observed in feed
intake, gain or feed efficiency. In all trials, however, there was a
numerical decrease in feed consumption aid an improvement in efficiency
of feed utilization by using DBP or Nujets. The overall improvement
in feed efficiency approached 10 percent.
Table 5 presents data showing the effects of feeding the bakery
products without supplemental vitamins and minerals. When the complete
vitamin mixture was omitted from the diet, weight gain and feed effi-
ciency were significantly decreased (P<0.01). The diet containing
Nujets was not superior to that containing the plain bakery product.
Omission of minerals from the diet, except for calcium, did not result
in any decrease in gain or feed efficiency. These results indicate
that neither form of the dried bakery product supplied an adequate
level of vitamins for rat growth but both appeared to supply adequate
minerals in the diets studied.
The results of the feeding trial with rabbits are recorded in
table 6. The feeding of a ration containing 50 percent Nujets resulted
in a highly significant decrease in voluntary feed intake but no dif-
ference in weight gain. Under these conditions, feed efficiency was
significantly improved (P<0.01).
Proximate composition of dried bakery product was determined and
feeding value for rats and rabbits was studied in a series of six week
When the dried bakery product was fed to rats at levels as high as
66.5 percent of the total ration and supplemented with vitamins, weight
gains were equal to rats fed similar rations containing equal amounts of
corn meal. In all trials, with one exception, voluntary feed intake was
reduced and feed efficiency was improved with diets containing dried
bakery product. The omission of vitamins from the ration resulted in
very poor gains, but absence of supplemental minerals had no effect.
The results show that DBP may be fed at high levels in the ration if
adequate B vitamins are supplied. Rabbits fed rations containing 50
percent bakery product in a natural ration made gains equal to others
fed a ration of similar composition without bakery product. Voluntary
feed intake was significantly reduced and feed efficiency improved.
Tab le 2
Composition of Natural Rations for Rats Containing Dried Bakery Products
Corn meal 66.5 61.5 33.25 0
DBP (or Nujets) O 5 33.25 66.5
Soybean meal (50VP protein) 27 27 27 27
Alfalfa leaf meal (17 protein) 5 5 5 5
Salt (NaCl) 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Limestone 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Bone meal 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Composition of Semi-Purified Rations for Rats Contain
Corn meal 66.5
DBP (or Nujets) 0
Vitamin-free casein 15
Corn starch 12
Cellulose (Alphacel) 3
Mineral mix (USP XIV) 2
Vitamin mix/ 1
Salt (NaCl) 0.5
ing Dried Bakery Products
J/Vitamin Diet Fortification, Nutritional Biochemicals Corp, Cleveland,
Ohio. Contains per 100 lb diet: 4.5 gm vitamin A concentrate, 0.25
gm vitamin D concentrate, 5.0 gm alpha tocopherol, 45.0 gm ascorbic
acid, 5.0 gn inositol, 75.0 gm choline chloride, 2.25 gm menadione,
5.0 gm PABA, 4.5 gm niacin, 1.0 gm riboflavin, 1.0 gm pyridoxine
hydrochloride, 1.0 gm thiamine hydrochloride, 3.0 gm Ca pantothenate,
20 mg biotin, 90 mg folic acid, and 1.35 mg vitamin B12.
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Proximate Composition df Dried
4.5 K cal/gm
Feed Intake, Weight Gain and Feed Efficiency of Rats Fed
Dried Bakery.Products in a Natural Ration
Ration No. Rats Av. daily Av. daily Feed per gm.
(Table 1) feed intake, gm. gain, gn. gain, gm.
66% Corn 8 15.5 4.1 3.8
Feed Intake, Weight Gain and Feed Efficiency of Rats
Fed Bakery Products in Semi-Purified Rations
Ration No. Rats Av. daily Av. daily Feed per gm.
(Table 2) feed intake, gm. gain, gm. gain, gm.
+ Min. + Vit. 8 12.6 3.5 3.4
+ Min. + Vit. 17 10.6 3.5 3.1
- Min. Vit. 6 9.5 1.0 9.2
- Min. + Vit. 8 9.9 3.7 2.8
+ Min. Vit. 8 7.4 1.2 6.5
+ Min. + Vit. 8 11.4 3.5 3-2
- Min. Vit. 6 9.5 1.4 7.0
- Min. + Vit. 8 11.7 3.7 3.1
+ Min. Vit. 8 7.7 1.2 6.5
Feed Consumption, Weight Gain and Feed Efficiency of Rabbits
Fed 50 Percent Nujets in Natural Ration
Ration No. Av. daily Av. daily Feed/gi.
Rabbits feed, gm. gain, gm. gain, gm.
Control 7 79.6 17.3 4.6
50% Nujets 7 55.2 16.1 3.4
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1. A.O.A.C. 1960. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of
Official Agricultural Chemists, Washington, D. C.
2. Baker, F. S. 1964. Steer fattening trial. North Florida
Experiment Station Mimeo Report 64-7. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta.
3. Combs, G. E., H. D. Wallace and T. H. Berry. 1964. Dried bakery
product as a replacement for dried skim milk in starter rations.
Animal Science Mimeo Report AN65-1. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta.
4. Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests.
5. Kirk, W. G. and F. M. Peacock. 1964. Dried bakery product in
steer fattening rations. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report.
6. Wallace, H. D., G. E. Combs and R. G. Conness. 1964. Dried
bakery product as a substitute for corn and as a source of
B-vitamins for the growing-finishing pig. Animal Science Mimeo
Report AN64-15. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta.
7. Wing, J. M. 1964. Preliminary evaluation of dried bakery product
in dairy cattle rations. Dairy Science Mimeo Report 64-2. Fla.
Agr. Expt. Sta.