Group Title: Animal science mimeograph report - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AN65-6
Title: Feeding value of pelleted rations high in citrus by-products and corn for fattening lambs
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 Material Information
Title: Feeding value of pelleted rations high in citrus by-products and corn for fattening lambs
Series Title: Animal science mimeograph report
Physical Description: 9 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Loggins, P. E., 1921-
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1964
 Subjects
Subject: Lambs -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Lambs -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Corn as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- By-products   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 8-9).
Statement of Responsibility: P.E. Loggins ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "July, 1964."
Funding: Animal Science Department mimeograph report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072959
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 77538363

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Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Report AN 65-6 Experiment Station
Gainesville, Florida
July, 1964

FEEDING VALUE OF PELLETED R AONS HIGH IN CITRUS BY-PRODUCTS
AND CORN FOR 1TTENl/

P. E. Loggins, C. B. -rman, L. R. Arrington,
J. E. Moore and ~ .Simpson ,2


Previous work by Ammerman et al. (1963) has shown that dried citrus pulp
could be used to replace ground snapped corn in lamb fattening rations. Earlier
workers (Arnold et al., 1941; Kirk and Davis, 1954; and Peacock and Kirk, 1959)
have reported the use of citrus pulp as a source of nutrients for dairy and beef
cattle. The present work was initiated to study dried citrus pulp produced by
different methods and to compare the nutritive value of all-pBlleted fati6nsl
hi'b in citrus. by-prodcxts' for fattening lambs.

Experimental Procedure

Two group feeding experiments were conducted. Experiment I was 90 days
in length beginning July 2, 1962 and Experiment II 56 days beginning June 15,
1963.

In Experiment I, citrus pulp produced by two methods was compared when fed
as a meal or an all pelleted ration. In the process of production,the citrus
pulp designated "A" was pressed to remove excess liquids and then steam dried.
The molasses prepared from the liquids was then added back to the pulp and the
meal portion was then sifted out. Citrus pulp "B" was fire dried without prior
pressing and the lines remained in the pulp. Both pulps appeared to be of good
quality and were relatively free of excessively charred particles. The two
citrus pulps and Bermudagrass hay were ground through a 1/4-inch screen in a
hammer mill, mixed with the remaining ration ingredients and one-half of each
mixture was pelleted (pellet size 3/8-inch diameter). The ration composition
and analyses for the rations and refused feed for the first experiment are
shown in tables 1 and 2, respectively.





1/ This study was supported in part by funds from the Citrus Processors Associa-
tion, Winter Haven, Florida, and acknowledgement is made to American Cyanamid
Co., Princeton, New Jersey for Aurofac-10, Smith Douglass Company, Norfolk,
Virginia, for defluorinated phosphate, and to Commercial Solvents Corp.,
New York, New York, for vitamin A and D supplements.

2/ Loggins, Assistant Animal Husbandman; Ammerman, Assistant Animal Nutritionist;
Arrington, Associate Animal Nutritionist; Moore, Assistant Animal Nutritionist;
Simpson, Pathologist, Veterinary Science Department. The assistance of
M. C. Jayaswal, P. A. Hicks and J. U. Stokes is gratefully acknowledged.






-2-


TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF RATIONS, EXPERIMENT I


Dried Citrus Pulp


Ingredients

Dried citrus pulp 1/

Cottonseed meal (41% protein)

Bermudagrass hay 1/

Salt (trace mineralized) 2/

Defluorinated phosphate (18% P;
31% Ca)


Vitamins 3/


A
Meal Pelleted


67.0

22.0

10.0

0.5


0.5

+

100.0


67.0

22.0

10.0

0.5


0.5


B
Meal Pelleted


67.0

22.0

10.0

0.5


0.5


67.0

22.0

10.0

0.5


0.5


100.0 100.0 100.0


1/ Ground through 1/4-inch screen in hammer mill.
2/ Carey Salt Co., Hutchinson, Kansas, guaranteed minimum analysis in percent:
Fe 0.0027, Mn 0.25, Cu 0.033, Co 0.01, Zn 0.005, I 0,007 and NaC1 95.9.
3/ 2000 I.U. vitamin A palmitate and 270 I.U. vitamin D2 added per pound of
ration.

TABLE 2. NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF RATIONS AND
REFUSED FEED, EXPERIMENT I 1/

Nitrogen-
Dry Ether Crude free
Treatment Matter Protein Ash Extract Fiber extract

A meal

Ration 85.35 16.42 6.04 3.19 13.36 50.99
Refused feed 74.51 19.89 8.27 0.92 15.47 45.45

A pelleted

Ration 84.20 15.49 5.92 2.57 12.53 53.49
Refused feed 76.09 18.93 7.34 2.14 14.69 46.90

B meal

Ration 87.52 15.34 6.08 2.36 13.35 52.87
Refused feed 78.90 18.72 8.96 1.08 14.38 46.86

B pelleted

Ration 86.53 14.63 5.88 2.43 11.88 55.18
Refused feed 72.86 20.56 8.86 1.47 14.30 44.81

1/ Except dry matter, all values expressed on a 90% dry matter basis.






-3-


Experiment II was designed to compare citrus meal to ground shelled corn
in all pelleted rations. The levels of citrus meal used to replace the ground
corn were 0, 25, 75 and 100 percent of the total corn and represented 0, 15.8,
47.4, and 63.2% of the total ration. The ration composition and analyses for
the second study are shown in tables 3 and 4, respectively.

TABLE 3. COMPOSITION OF RATIONS, EXPERIMENT II


Rations


Ingredients

Ground shelled corn
Dried citrus meal
Soybean oil meal (44% protein)
Cottonseed oil meal (41% protein)
Urea (262% protein equivalent)
Cane molasses (standard)
Alfalfa meal (17% protein)
Ground corn cobs
Minerals 1/
Defluorinated phosphate (18% P; 31% Ca)
Aurofac 10 2/
Vitamins A 6 D 3/


A B C D


54.0
15.8
3.5
3.5
1.0
5.0
5.0
10.0
2.0
0.2



100.0


18.0
47.4
.5.5
5.5
1.0
5.0
5.0
10.0
2.0
0.6
7'


72.0

2.5
2.5
1.0
5.0
5.0
10.0
2.0
1-0
/


100.0


63.2
6.5
6.5
1.0
5.0
5.0
10.0
2.0
0.8
7'


100.0 100.0


1/ Contained in percent: NaC1, 30; Ca, 18.9; P, 5.5; Fe, 1.4; Mn, 0.485;
Cu, 0.108; Co, 0.104 and I, 0.011.
2/ Added at level of 0.038 pound per 100 pounds of ration yielding 3.8 mg.
aureomycin per pound of ration.
3/ 1000 I.U. vitamin A palmitate and 200 I.U. vitamin D2 added per pound of
ration.

TABLE 4. NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF RATIONS AND
REFUSED FEED, EXPERIMENT II 1/

Nitrogen-
Dry Ether Crude free
Treatment groups Matter Protein Ash Extract Fiber extract
A
Ration 83.76 14.64 5.08 1.67 4.91 63.70
Refused feed 87.76 14.24 5.08 2.27 5.09 63.32
B
Ration 85.02 13.53 4.43 2.46 7.71 61.87
Refused feed 85.39 14.37 5.24 2.09 7.70 60.60
C
Ration 82.34 15.07 6.94 3.91 7.86 56.22
Refused feed 83.85 14.99 8.98 3.39 9.62 53.02
D
Ration 80.93 18.06 7.86 5.53 9.84 48.71
Refused feed 83.53 17.34 9.36 3.20 11.91 48.19

1/ Except dry matter, all values expressed on 90% dry matter basis.






-4-


Ninety-two Florida Native and Rambouillet weanling lambs were fed in the
two studies. The lambs were randomly allotted to treatment according to breed
and sex. In Experiment I, one replicate lot of 3 ewes and 2 wether lambs and
a second replicate lot of 4 ewes and 1 wether lamb were fed each of the four
rations. In the second experiment, two replicate lots (one including 5 ewe
and 2 wether lambs, the other including 5 ewe and 1 wether lamb) were fed each
of the four rations.

The experiments were conducted in a pole type barn that provided adequate
shelter. The rations were hand fed twice daily according to appetite and
refused feed was weighed back every few days as required. The lambs were
individually weighed at weekly intervals and live slaughter grades were
obtained at the beginning and completion of each experiment. Gross observa-
tions of the rumen papillae were made at the time of slaughter. In experiment
II, sections of the ruminal epithellium were examined histologically.

Proximate analyses of feed samples were made according to A.O.A.C. (1960)
methods. Rumen fluid samples were taken by stomach tube at the end of
Experiment II and volatile fatty acids determined by the gas-liquid chromato-
graphy method. The data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance
as described by Snedecor (1956) with significant mean differences determined
by the multiple range test of Duncan (1955).

Results and Discussion

Experiment I Results obtained with different sources of citrus pulp fed
in pelleted and meal rations are shown in table 5. The combined average daily
gains without regard to physical form of the rations were 0.26 lb. for both
samples of pulp. The average daily gains when combined without regard to source
of pulp were 0.24 lb. for the meal rations and 0.27 for the pelleted rations
but were not significantly different. Slightly less feed was required per unit
of gain when pelleted rations were fed. Feed refused in all treatment groups
was higher in protein, ash, and crude fiber and lower in ether extract and
nitrogen-free extract than the original ration (Table 2). The lambs graded
high good to low choice at time of slaughter with no suggestion of a treatment
effect.

TABLE 5. EFFECT OF TWO SOURCES OF CITRUS PULP FED AS PELLETED OR
MEAL RATIONS ON LAMB GAINS, FEED CONVERSION AND GRADE, EXPERIMENT I

Dried Citrus Pulp
A B
Meal Pelleted Meal Pelleted
No. lambs 10 10 10 10
Initial wt., lb. 63.5 59.4 59.5 64.9
Average daily gain, lb. 0.23 0.28 0.25 0.26
Feed per pound gain, lb. 10.53 9.38 9.68 9.61
Initial live grade 1/ 11.5 12.2 11.8 12.4
Improvement in grade 2.0 2.4 2.5 1.7

1/ Live slaughter grades scored as follows: 9, 10, 11 = low, average and high
good and 12, 13, 14 = low, average and high choice.






-5 -


Physical characteristics of the pellets from the two citrus pulps were
different. When the pellets were passed over a 1/4-inch mesh hardware cloth,
an average of 13.2% fines were obtained from the "A" pellets and 3.03% fines
from the "B" pellets. The "A" pellets were bulkier having a density expressed
in pounds per cubic foot of 35.7 compared with 38.4 for the "B" pellets. The
density of the meal rations for the two pulps was more nearly equal being 29.7
for the "A" meal and 27.2 for the "B" meal. The production method used making
the "B" citrus pulp may have contributed to the improved pelleting qualities
of this pulp.

Gross inspection of the rumens revealed the ruminal epithelium to be
somewhat dark in color f6r lambs consuming rations ~high in dried-.:citrus phlp '"
(Table 6) as had been reported by Ammerman et al. (1963). Slight to severe
parakeratosis as indicated by encrustation of the ruminal papillae occurred
in all treatments as did clogging and clumping of the papillae.


TABLE 6.
OR


EFFECT OF TWO SOURCES OF CITRUS PULP FED AS PELLETED
MEAL RATIONS ON RUMEN PAPILLAE CHARACTERISTICS
OF INDIVIDUAL LAMBS, EXPERIMENT I


Total gain
lbs.
11
20
21
22
26


Colorl/ Coating2/
3.5 Severe
2 Medium
4 Severe
2 0
1 Slight


2
3.5
2
4


2
2
2
2
1
3.5


1.5
4.5
2
4.5
2.5
2.5


0
Severe
0
Slight


Severe
0
0
0
0
0


0
Severe
Medium
0
Slight
0


Clogging3/
0
0
0
0
0


0
0
0
Medium


Medium
0
0
0
0
0


0
Slight
0
Severe
0
Medium


Clumping4/
0
0
Severe
0
0


0
Medium
0
Slight


Severe
0
0
0
0
0


0
Severe
0
Medium
0
Medium


1/ 1 = flesh color, 5 = black color.
2/ Papillae showing encrustation on their surface.
3/ Papillae imbedded in slimy material appearing to
particles.
4/ Papillae adhered together in clumps.


consist of fine feed


Ration



A-meal






A-pellet


B-meal







B-pollet


__







- 6 -


Experiment II Lamb performance data' obtained when citrus meal replaced
ground shelled corn in an all pelleted ration are reported in table 7. The
same rations were fed previously in steer fattening trials (Hentges et al.,
1964) and with the steers it became necessary to feed long hay to prevent
digestive disorders. In the present study the lambs were fed the experimental
pelleted rations and received no hay. The ration containing 72 percent corn
meal produced significantly higher (P <.01) average daily gains (0.37 lb.
per day) with significantly (P <.01) less feed required per unit gain (8.52
lb. feed per pound of gain). The feed required per pound of gain for the rations
containing citrus meal ranged from 12.58 to 15.90 per unit gain which was higher
than in Experiment I or that reported in previous studies when high levels of
dried citrus pulp were fed to lambs (Ammerman et al., 1963). The feed efficiency
data are not in agreement with those reported by Hentges et al. (1964) for
steers fed the same rations but allowed long hay.

TABLE 7. EFFECT OF REPLACING GROUND CORN MEAL WITH
CITRUS MEAL IN ALL PELLETED RATIONS ON LAMB GAINS,
FEED CONVERSION AND GRADE, EXPERIMENT II 1/

'Rations
A B C D

Corn Meal, % 72 54 18 0
Citrus meal, %
No. lambs 13 13 13 13
Initial wt., lb. 66.8 66.9 65.7 67.0
Average daily gain, lb. 0.37a2 02 0.21 0.29
Feed per pound gain, lb. 8.52a 12.58b 15.89c 15.90
Slaughter grade 2/ 11.0 10.8 9.4 10.5

1/ Means in the same line with different superscripts are significantly
(P < .01) different.
2/ Live slaughter grades scored as follows: 9, 10, 11 = low, average and
high good.

As a means of evaluating the type of fermentation that occurred in the rumen,
volatile fatty acids were determined on rumen fluid samples. The results of
these determinations are shown in table 8. Acetic acid increased and propionic
acid decreased as the level of corn decreased in the ration. The change in
ratio of acetic to propionic acid may be explained by a change in the type of
carbohydrates present in the rations. The acetic to propionic acid ratios
observed in this study were similar to those reported for steers consuming the
same rations (Hentges et al., 1964). The increase in the acetic to propionic
acid ratio with increasing citrus meal is in parallel with the increase in feed
required per pound of gain. This relationship between acetic : propionic ratio
and efficiency of feed utilization suggest that the type of ruminal fermentation
may influence feed efficiency.




-7-


TABLE 8. EFFECT OF REPLLCiNG GROUND CORN MEAL WITH
CITRUS MEAL ON THE AVERAGE MOLAR PERCENT OF
R,-iN VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS, EXPERIMENT II


Rations


Corn meal, %
Citrus meal, %
No. lambs
Acetic acid
Propionic acid
Butyric
Isovaleric
V leric
C /C ratio 1/


A B
72 54

5 10
39.64 53.72
42.00 30.98
14.89 11.15
1.18 2.01
2.28 2.14
0. 94 1.74b


l/ Means with different superscripts are


C
18

6
61.65
19.14
16.31
1.11
1.79
3.22c


D
0

11
63.48
20.81
12.60
0.99
2.12
3.05c


significantly (P <.01) different.


Gross observations of the lamb rumens in the first experiment and of
rumens from steers fed citrus pulp (Ammerman et al., 1964) suggested that
more detailed data should be obtained. Fourteen rumens from lambs slaughtered
in the second experiment were observed for gross and histological changes. The
gross changes are reported in table 9. Color changes in the rumen due to ration
treatment did not follow a definite pattern. Lambs receiving the two higher
levels of citrus meal showed capping of the rumen papillae and histological
examination of the rumen epithelium showed this to be parakeratosis. A
condition described as clogged papillae was evident in one lamb receiving
72 percent corn and in four lambs receiving the highest level of citrus meal.

TABLE 9. EFFECT OF REPLACING GROUND CORN MEAL WITH CITRUS
MEAL ON RUMEN PAPILLAE CHARACTERISTICS OF
INDIVIDUAL LAMBS, EXPERIMENT II


Corn meal, %
Rations


72 A



54 B



18 C




OD


Colorl/

3.5
1
5


Coating2/


Clogging/!

0
0
Severe


Clumpingl/


2.5 6 0 0
3 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
1 Severe 0 0
1 Medium Slight Slight
1 Slight 0 0


0
0
0
Severe
Slight


Severe
0
Medium
Slight
Severe


0
0
0
0
Slight


1/ 1 = Flesh color, 5 = Black color.
2/ Papillae showing encrustation on their surface.
3/ Papillae imbedded in slimy material appearing to
particles.
4/ Papillae adhered together in clumps.


consist of fine feed




-8-


Summary

Two summer fattening trials involving 92 lambs were conducted to evaluate
rations high in citrus by-products and corn in pelleted and non-pelleted rations.
The results of the two experiments may be summarized as follows:

1. Lamb gains, feed efficiency and slaughter grades were not significantly
different in lambs fed rations containing 67% dried citrus pulp which has been
produced by two different methods.

2. Pelleting the rations high in citrus pulp did not significantly
improve gain or feed efficiency; however, the trend was in favor of the pelleted
rations.

3. When citrus meal was substituted for corn meal, the ration containing
the highest level of corn (72 percent) produced significantly higher (P <.01)
average daily gains and more efficient gains. Gains and feed efficiency were
decreased as the level of citrus meal increased in the ration.

4. The volatile fatty acids composition of the rumen fluid was changed
as the source of dietary carbohydrates changed. The acetic to propionic acid
ratio ranged from 1:1 for high corn to 3:1 for the high citrus meal ration and
was related to feed efficiency.

5. Rumen parakeratosis was observed in those lambs receiving the higher
levels of citrus pulp or citrus meal.



Literature Cited

1. A.O.A.C. 1960. Official Methods of Analysis. 9th Ed. Association of
Official Agricultural Chemists, Washington, D. C.

2. Ammerman, C. B., P. E. Loggins and L. R. Arrington. 1963. Comparative
feeding value of dried citrus pulp and ground snapped corn for fattening
lambs. Florida Agri. Exp. Sta., Gainesville, Department of Animal Science
Mimeo Series No. 63-13.

3. Ammerman, C. B., P. A. van Walleghem, A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter,
J. F. Hentges, and L. R. Arrington. 1963. Comparative feeding value of
dried citrus pulp and ground corn and cob meal for fattening steers.
Florida Agri. Exp. Sta., Gainesville, Dept. of Animal Science Mimeo Report
No. AN 64-8.

4. Arnold, P. T. Dix, R. B. Becker and W. M. Neal, 1941. The feeding value
and nutritive properties of citrus by-products. II. Dried grapefruit pulp
for milk production. Fla. Agri. Exp. Sta. Bul. 354.

5. Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11:1.

6. Hentges, J. F., Jr., M. T. Cabezas, F. A. Capote, J. E. Moore, A. Z. Palmer
and J. W. Carpenter. 1964. Comparative nutritional value of dried citrus
meal and corn for fattening cattle. J. Animal Sci. 23:294.









-9-

7. Kirk, W. G. and G. K. Davis. 1954. Citrus products for beef cattle. Fla.
Agri. Exp. Sta. Bul. 538.


8. Peacock, F. M. and W. G. Kirk. 1959.
citrus pulp, corn feed meal and ground
in dry lot. Fla. Agri. Exp. Sta. Bul.


Comparative feeding value of dried
snapped corn for fattening steers
616.


9. Snedecor, G. W. 1956. Statistical Methods. 5th Ed. The Iowa State College
Press, Ames, Iowa.




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