Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 63-17
Title: High level copper for growing-finishing swine
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072937/00001
 Material Information
Title: High level copper for growing-finishing swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Physical Description: 7 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1963
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Copper -- Physiological effect -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: H.D. Wallace ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May, 1963."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072937
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 77275187

Full Text
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Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. 63-17 Experiment Station
May, 1963 Gainesville, Florida

HIGH LEVEL COPPER FOR
GROWING-FINISHING SWINE!/

H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs, R. L. Shirley
and R. H. O'Bannon2/


For the past several years experiments have been conducted in this country
and abroad to determine the feasibility of adding high levels of copper to swine
rations as a means of improving performance. Pigs are known to require a very
small amount of copper in the feed, approximately 5 10 p.p.m., for normal body
functions. The high levels studied have ranged from approximately 125 250
p.p.m. or about I 2 pounds of CuSO4 5H20 per fon of feed. In many of the
tests, particularly those in England, a growth response and an improvement in
feed conversion have been observed. Presumably the performance response is due
to bactericidal and/or fungicidal properties of the copper supplements. In many
of the experiments conducted in this country performance responses have not been
observed and in some, including certain trials here at the Florida Station, toxi-
city has been encountered at supplementary levels of 200 and 250 p.p.m. It is
clear that toxicity is a limiting factor in the application of high level copper
feeding. Many of the factors related to the performance response as well as the
manifestation of toxicity are poorly understood.

The feeding trials herein reported were designed to study the effect of re-
ducing the copper level after the first six weeks of feeding, to compare copper
with other feed additives and to compare copper sulfate and copper oxide as
sources of copper.

Experimental

A total of four experiments were conducted involving crossbried weanling pigs.
The pigs were predominantly 3-way crosses (Duroc-Landrace X HamEp.ire) with a few
two-way crosses (Duroc X Landrace). In all experiments pigs were allotted from
outcome groups formed on the basis of weight, sex and litter. The following
basal feed mixture was self fed in all experiments. Copper sulfate (CuSO4 5H20)
was the source of copper in all cases except for Lot 4 of Experiment 4 which
received copper oxide (CuO).

Performance data were treated statistically by the analysis of variance
method using Duncan's multiple range test to determine significance between
means.


I/ The authors are indebteo ti th- American Cyanamid Co. ard Chas. Pfizer & Co.
for grant-in-aid support and .u;plies.

2/ Wallace, Animal Nutritionist; Combs, Associate Animal Nu-ritionist; Shirley,
Animal Nutritionist and R. H. O'Bannon, graduate research assistant, Depart-
ment of Animal Science. The assistance of W. E. Collins and L. S. Taylor is
gratefully acknowledged.







-2-


Table 1. COMPOSITION OF BASAL FEED MIXTURE


Ground yellow corn 80.35
Soybean meal (50%) 17.00
Ground limestone 1.00
Steamed bonemeal 1.00
Iodized salt 0.50
Trace minerals!/ 0.05
Vitamin supplement_/ 0.10
100.00

I/ Adds in p.p.m.: Manganese (29.6), iron (36.5), copper (2.5), cobalt (.83),
zinc (42.0) and potassium (3.9).
2/ Adds per pound of ration: vitamin BI2 (4.5 mcg.), Niacin (9.0 mg.), ribo-
flavin (2.0 mg.), pantothenic acid (4.0 mg.) and choline chloride (98 mg.).




Experiment I Eighty pigs were divided into four lots of 20 pigs each and
fed in concrete confinement the following ration mixtures:

Lot I Basal
Lot 2 Basal + 150 p.p.m. copper entire growing-finishing period
Lot 3 Basal + 150 p.p.m. copper first six weeks, then 75 p.p.m.
for remainder of growing-finishing period
Lot 4 Basal + 150 p.p.m. copper first six weeks, then no
supplementary copper for remainder of growing-finishing period

Hemoglobin values were determined after six weeks of the experiment and
again at the termination of the experiment for all pigs. Liver copper values
were determined at the termination of the experiment for ten selected pigs in
each lot.

Experiment 2 Forty pigs were divided into four groups of 10 pigs each and
fed in small dirt lots. The feeding regimes were the same as for experiment 1.
Hemoglobin values were determined after six weeks of the experiment and again at
the termination of the experiment for all pigs.

Experiment 3 Sixty pigs were divided into five groups of 12 pigs each and
fed in small dirt lots. Ration treatments were as follows:

Lot I Basal
Lot 2 Basal + 150 p.p.m. copper
Lot 3 Basal + 40 gm. terramycin and 10 gm. oleandomycin per ton
Lot 4 Basal + 20 gm. aureomycin, 20 gm. sulfamethazine and 10 gm.
penicillin per ton
Lot 5 Basal + 150 p.p.m. copper and 20 gm. aureomycin, 20 gm.
sulfamethazine and 10 gm. penicillin per ton







- 3 -


Experiment 4 Eighty pigs were divided into four lots of 20 pigs each and
fed in concrete confinement. The ration treatments were as follows:

Lot I Basal
Lot 2 Basal + 250 p.p.m. copper as copper sulfate during entire growing-
finishing period.
Lot 3 Basal + 250 p.p.m. copper as copper sulfate first six weeks then
reduced to 150 p.p.m. for remainder of growing-finishing period.
Lot 4 Basal + 250 p.p.m. copper as copper oxide entire growing-finishing
period.

Hemoglobin values were determined for all pigs at the termination of the experi-
ment.

Results and Discussion

Results of Experiments I and 2 are summarized in.Table 2. In both experi-
ments pigs responded in gains to the addition of 150 p.p.m. copper sulfafe during
the first 6 weeks of the trial. Reducing the level of copper to 75 p.p.m. or
removing it entirely commencing at 6 weeks did not produce any significant effects
on performance. Control pigs that gained less rapidly during the first 6 weeks
tended to gain faster than the other lots during the finishing period and no
significant differences were obtained for overall average daily gains between any
of the treatments in either experiment. Feed conversion was not affected greatly
by any of the treatments in either experiment.. Hemoglobin values were somewhat
reduced at the end of 6 weeks for all lots fed copper in both experiments. At
the termination of the experiment this depression was less pronounced for the
groups maintained on 150 p.p.m. (Lot 2 of each experiment) indicating some adjust-
ment probably occurred. Reducing the level of copper or withdrawing it entirely
permitted hemoglobin levels to recover and even slightly exceed average values
for the control groups. Pigs of Experiment 2 which were fed in dirt lots tended
to have higher hemoglobin levels than the pigs of Experiment I, which were fed in
concrete confinement. Values obtained in Experiment I indicated that 150 p.p.m.
supplementary copper fed throughout the growing-finishing period increased liver
copper approximately threefold. Reducing or withdrawing the copper at six weeks
resulted in liver copper values only slightly greater than for control pigs.

Results of Experiment 3 are summarized in Table 3. All experimental treat-
ments significantly improved gains during the first four weeks. The greatest
responses were obtained in Lots 4 and 5 which were fed the combination of aureo-
mycin, sulfamethazine and penicillin. When copper was included in addition to
the above three additives (Lot 5) no further improvement was noted. Approximately
the same magnitude of response in gain was still apparent at the conclusion of the
study for the various test materials. Feed efficiency was not improved by any of
the supplements.

Results of Experiment 4 are summarized in Table 4. When 250 p.p.m. copper
as copper sulfate was fed throughout the growing-finishing period (Lot 2) no
significant effects were observed in gains or feed conversion. Terminal hemoglo-
bin values were significantly reduced by the copper feeding. When the level of
copper was reduced to 150 p.p.m. after 6 weeks (Lot 3) gains and feed conversion
were not greatly affected. However, reduction in copper level apparently stimu-
lated hemoglobin formation for this lot since terminal values were significantly
higher than for all of the other lots. When 250 p.p.m. copper was offered for
the entire period as copper oxide (Lot 4) gains were significantly depressed








- 4-


during the first 6 weeks. It appeared that the reduced rate of gain was due
largely to an adverse effect of the copper oxide on ration palatability. Some
recovery in gains was made later in the feeding period by this lot and the over-
all rate of gain for the entire period, although slower, was not significantly
less. Copper oxide supplementation produced no important effects on the blood
picture as measured by terminal hemoglobin levels.


Summary

Four experiments, involving a total of 260 weanling pigs, were conducted to
investigate various aspects of high level copper feeding.

A level of 150 p.p.m. copper (as CuS04 5H20) consistently improved gains
during the early phase of the feeding period (0-6 weeks) in both concrete and
dirt lot trials. However, during the finishing phase the early advantage for the
copper fed groups largely disappeared. Reduction of the copper level to 75 p.p.m.
or discontinuing copper supplementation entirely after 6 weeks did not influence
performance appreciably. Pigs did not respond to 250 p.p.m. copper during any
phase of the feeding period. When this level of copper was added as copper oxide
performance was depressed significantly in the early feeding phase. A combina-
tion of terramycin and oleandomycin or a combination of aureomycin, sulfametha-
zine and penicillin were somewhat more effective growth promotants than 150 p.p.m.
copper.

None of the additives or combinations of additives induced significant
savings in feed.

Pigs fed in dirt lots generally showed higher hemoglobin levels than pigs
fed in concrete confinement. The 250 p.p.m. copper as copper sulfate caused a
highly significant reduction in terminal hemoglobin values.

Liver copper values indicated approximately a threefold increase when 150
p.p.m. copper was fed.










Table 2. Summary of Pig Performance as Influenced by Reducing
The Level and Withdrawing High Level Copper During the
Growing-Finishing Period (Experiments I and 2).

Experiment I Concrete Experiment 2 Dirt
Lot Number I 2 3 4 I 2 3 4
Copper Level, p.p.m.
First Six Weeks 0 150 150 150 0 150 150 150
Final Period 0 150 75 0 0 150 75 0

Number of pigs 20 20 20 20 10 10 10 10
Av. initial wt. Ib. 44.4 44.3 44.3 44.3 36.5 36.5 36.5 36.6
Av. final wt. lb. 198.9 201.8 203.3 206.2 203.9 209.2 207.7 200.7
Av. daily gain, lb.
First six weeks 1.35* 1.47 1.47 1.52 1.35 1.46 1.51 1.43
Entire period 1.58 1.61 1.63 1.65 1.71 1.76 1.75 1.67
Feed per lb. gain, Ib.
First six weeks 2.81 2.67 2.74 2.70 2.66 2.66 2.58 2.66
Entire period 3.29 3.21 3.25 3.27 3.27 3.20 3.22 3.16
Hemoglobin, gm./ml. blood
End of first six weeks 11.02 10.02 10.40 10.62 12.16 11.18 11.14 11.19
Termination of expt. 11.78 11.57 11.98 12.20 13.93 13.72 13.97 14.04
Liver copper, p.p.m., dry wt. 19.5 62.0** 28.6 25.0 -

* Significantly less than other treatments (P <.025)
** Significantly greater than other treatments (P .01)











Table 3. Summary of Pig Performance as Influenced by
High Level Copper and Certain Other Feed Additives
(__Experiment 3 Dirt)

Lot Number I 2 3 4 5
Feeding Treatment Basal 150 p.p.m. copper 40 gm. terramycin 20 gm. aureomycin Same as Lot 4
10 gm. oleandoinycin 20 gm. sulfamethazine plus 150 p.p.m.
per ton of feed 10 gm. penicillin copper
per, ton feed
Number pigs 12 12 12 12 12
Av. initial wt., Ib. 53.9 54.2 54.4 54.1 54.0
Av. final wt., lb. 182.4 193.3 194.9 197.4 200.8
Av. daily gain, lb.
First four weeks 1.28 1.41 1.48 1.60 1.58
Entire period 1.54 1.67 1.69 1.72 1.76
Feed per lb. gain, lb.
First four weeks 2.93 2.84 2.94 2.85 2.96
Entire period 3.33 3.31 3.35 3.42 3.35

Statistical Analysis Summary of DaiLy Gains
(First four weeks)
Lots 3,4 and 5 gained significantly faster than Lot I (P <.01)
Lot 2 gained significantly faster than Lot I (P<.05)
Lots 4 and 5 gained significantly faster than Lot 2 (P<.05)
(Entire period)
Lots 3, 4 and 5 gained significantly faster than Lot I (P <.01)
Lot 2 gained significantly faster than Lot I (P<.05)









-7 -



Table 4. Summary of Pig Performance as Influenced
By Reduction in Level of Copper and Source
of Copper (Experiment 4 Concrete)


Lot Number I 2 3 4
Feeding Treatment Basal 250 p.p.m. Same as 250 p.p.m.
copper Lot 2 but copper
(CuSO4 5H20) level reduced (CuO)
to 150 p.p.m.
after 6 weeks

Number of pigs 20 20 20 20
Av. initial wt., lb. 58.9 58.7 58.8 58.8
Av. final wt., Ib. 194.4 192.3 192.6 187.6
Daily gain, lb.
First six weeks 1.58 1.52 1.48 1.41
Entire period 1.61 1.59 1.59 1.53
Feed per lb. gain, lb.
First six weeks 2.99 2.84 3.01 2.96
Entire period 3.53 3.43 3.42 3.47
Terminal hemoglobin,
gm./l0 ml. blood 10.51 8.90 11.07 10.21


Summaryiof Statistical Analysis
(Daily gains first six weeks)


Lot I gained significantly
Lot I gained significantly
Lot 2 gained significantly
Lot 3 gained significantly


faster
faster
faster
faster


than
than
than
than


Lot 4
Lot 3
Lot 4
Lot 4


(P <.01)
(P<.05)
(P <.01)
(P <.05)


(Terminal hemoglobin)

Lot 2 significantly lower than all other lots (P <.01)
Lots I and 4 significantly lower than Lot 3 (P <.01)


I *




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