Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 62-5
Title: Characteristics of grass silages preserved with zinc bacitracin and ground snapped corn
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072917/00001
 Material Information
Title: Characteristics of grass silages preserved with zinc bacitracin and ground snapped corn
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Physical Description: 7 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gandara, Diego, 1936-
Loggins, P. E., 1921-
Ammerman, Clarence B
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1961
 Subjects
Subject: Grasses -- Silage -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Feeds -- Preservation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Animal feeding -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 7).
Statement of Responsibility: Diego Gandara, P.E. Loggins and C.B. Ammerman.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "November, 1961."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072917
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 77082007

Full Text
)]PD
PG3bh
Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. 62-5 Experiment Station
November, 1961 Gainesville, Florida

CHARACTERISTICS OF GRASS SILAGES PRESERVED
WITH ZINC BACITRACIN AND GROUND SNAPPED CORN-

Diego Gandara, P. E. Loggins and C. B. Ammerman2/


The need for good quality roughages when green pastures are not avail-
able is a major requirement in feeding ruminant livestock. Dry roughage or
hay has been used by livestock men for centuries, but losses in feeding
value are normally very high especially when roughages are cut and stored
under adverse conditions. Properly preserved grass silage would be of tre-
mendous value in meeting the need for supplementary roughage. Recently there
has been an interest in the use of the antibiotic, zinc bacitracin, as a
preservative in the production of grass silages. Antibiotics are used in con-
trolling bacterial fermentations and the addition of an antibiotic in
silage making, which is a natural fermentation process, could be of benefit
in producing good quality silage.

Dexter (1957) reported that while the antibiotic tended to retard
acid formation, alfalfa silages made with zinc bacitracin had good color
and odor and the palatability was enhanced. Andrews and Stob (1958)
studied the effects of zinc bacitracin alone and in combination with
molasses on the preservation of grass-legume silage. Levels from 4 to
40 grams of zinc bacitracin per ton of fresh chopped grass-alfalfa forage
gave satisfactory results. In research with White Dutch clover silage,
Rusoff et al. (1959a) found that the zinc bacitracin treated silage was
of good color, pleasing odor and had a pH below 4.5. Zinc bacitracin at a
level of 5 grams per ton of fresh forage enhanced the palatability and
consumption of the silage. Becker et al. (1960), however, found that the
daily intake by large dairy calves of oat silage treated with zinc bacitracin
was less than that for the control oat silage. In comparing organic acids
produced in silage treated with different preservatives, Rusoff et al.
(1959b) observed an increase in the lactic and acetic acid content of the
silages preserved with zinc bacitracin. McCullough (1960) in a study of
lactic and volatile fatty acid content of silages found that addition of
zinc bacitracin produced greater quantities of lactic and acetic acid.

The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of zinc
bacitracin alone and in combination with ground snapped corn on several
characteristics of grass silage.


1/ This study was supported in part and zinc bacitracin was furnished
by Commercial Solvents Corporation, Terre Haute, Indiana.

2/ Research Assistant, Assistant Animal Husbandman and Assistant
Animal Nutritionist, respectively. The assistance of J. U. Stokes
and J. F. Easley is gratefully acknowledged.




*.7 Z o*
I 7
'vA.^ r






EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE .


Coastal Bermudagrass, Pangolagras.sand Pensacola Bahiagrass were used
in this study. Three silos were filled with each grass with the following
treatments employed: (I) no preservative (control); (2) 5 grams of zinc
bacitracin per ton of fresh forage; (3) 5 grams of.zinc bacitracin plus
150 pounds of ground snapped corn per ton of fresh forage. The ground
snapped corn was spread over the grass as it was conveyed to the silo.
The antibiotic was diluted in water and sprinkled over the grass in a similar
manner, Treatments and quantities of forage ensiled are presented in Table 1.


STABLE J

.,. EXPERIMENTAL SILAGES

.Forage Ensited,
Grass Treatment Pounds


Coastal Bermudagrass Untreated 3800

'2. 5 grams Zinc bacitracin/ton
fresh forage 2800

S3. 5 grams Zinc bacitracin plus.
150 pounds of ground .snapped
Scorn/ton fresh forage 3900

Pangolagrass 1. Untreated 4300

2. 5 grams Zinc bacitracin/ton
S fresh forage 4300.

3. 5 grams Zinc bacifracin plus
150 pounds of ground snapped
.corn/ton fresh forage 3900

Pensacola Bahiagrass 1. Untreated .. 3730

2. 5 grams Zinc bacitracin/ton
fresh forage 3390

S,3.5 grams Zinc bacitracin plus
150 pounds of ground snapped
corn/ton fresh forage 4670


-2-







The criteria used to determine the degree of preservation as influenced
by treatment were color, odor, depth of surface spoilage, pH,. palatability
and content of volatile fatty acids. The pH was determined with a Beckman
glass electrode pH meter. The volatile fatty acids were determined by
column chromatography using the procedure of Wiseman and Irvin (1957).
Samples of silage for pH and volatile fatty acid determinations were
obtained from 2 plastic screen-type sample bags, one of which was placed
near the top and the other near the bottom of the silo.

Palatability was measured two ways: (I) average daily consumption of
silage by fifteen yearling crossbred Native-RambouiIlet wethers during
a digestion trial (Gandara et al., 1961); (2) the same fifteen wethers
were placed together in a pen and given a 24-hour feed restriction. The
wethers were then allowed free access to nine feeders containing the different
silages. The amount of refused silage and order of preference were the
criteria used to determine the palatability scores of the different
silages. The scores were ranked from I to 9 with I representing the most
palatable and 9 the least palatable.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Summaries of the data obtained in evaluating the preservation and
palatability of the grass silages are presented in Tables 2 and 3.
TABLE 2

CHARACTERISTICS OF SILAGES PRESERVED WITH DIFFERENT TREATMENTS


Color Surface Spoilage
Silage and Treatment (Green) Odor (Inches) pH


Coastal Bermudagrass silage
1. Untreated Dark Fair 2 6.24
2. Treated antibiotic Light Good 5 5.64
5. Treated antibiotic plus
ground snapped corn Light Good 5 6.17

Pangolagrass silage
i. Untreated Dark Fair 4 5.08
2. Treated antibiotic Light Good 4 4.90
:. Treated antibiotic plus
ground snapped corn Dark Good 3 4.70

Pensacola Bahiagrass silage
1. Untreated Dark Fair 10 6.19
2. Treated antibiotic Light Good 10 5.03
3. Treated antibiotic plus
ground snapped corn Dark Poorj/ 10 5.15

-./ Odor improved in the lower layers of silage.


-3-






TABLE 3


PALATABILITY OF SILAGES-PRESERVED WITH DIFFERENT TREATMENTS
(Values expressed on dry matter basis)


Digestion Trial 8-Hour Free-Access to 9 Silages
Av. daily intake Silage Silage Palatability
Silage and Treatment per lamb Available Consumed Score-L
Ibs. lbs. Percent


Coastal Bermudagrass silage
I. Untreated 1.46 3.95 25 7
2. Treated antibiotic 1.46 3.00 5 8
3. Treated antibiotic plus
ground snapped corn 1.43 1.47 0 92/

Pangolagress silage
1. Untreated 1.90 2.18 100 5
2. Treated antibiotic 1.92- 2.28 100 I
3. Treated antibiotic plus
ground snapped corn 1.90 2.22 100 2

Pensacola Bahiagrass silage
I. Untreated 1.35 2.78 100 4
2, Treated antibiotic 1.33 3.32 47 6
3. Treated antibiotic plus
ground snapped.corn I..22 .... 2.33 100 3
,- ,, i i i J =


One represents the most palatable and
Silage was of lower quality than that


nine the leas
representative


t palatable.
e of the silo.


Coastal Bermudagrass silages treated with the antibiotic and with
the antibiotic plus ground snapped corn were light green in color and
both were of desirable odor. The untreated Coastal Bermudagrass silage
was dark green in color and had a less desirable odor,. The least amount
of spoilage, however, occurred in the untreated silo. The acidity was
highest for the Coastal Bermudagrass silage treated with antibiotic alone.
With regard to palatability, wethers fed in digestion studies consumed
similar quantities of the three Coastal Bermudagrass silages. The
palatability test based on order of preference and amount consumed showed
that the wethers fed untreated Coastal Bermudagrass silage ate more than
those fed the silage treated with the antibiotic. A representative sample
of the Coastal Bermudagrass silage treated with the antibiotic plus ground
snapped corn was not available for comparison.

The Pangolagrass silage treated with the antibiotic was lighter
green in color, more desirable in odor and had a higher acidity than
did the untreated silage. The Pangolagrass silage treated with the


-4-







antibiotic plus ground snapped corn had the highest acidity but was dark
in color. In the preference test the silage treated with the antibiotic
alone appeared to be the most palatable and was consumed in the shortest
time, The untreated Pangolagrass silage was lower in quality than either
of the treated silages and was the least palatable.

The antibiotic-treated Pensacola Bahiagrass silage was light green
in color, had a more desirable odor and was lowest in pH when compared
with either the untreated or the antibiotic plus ground snapped corn-
treated silage. Consumption during the digestion trial was similar for
the untreated silage and that treated with antibiotic alone and was
greater than that obtained with the silage treated with antibiotic plus
ground snapped corn. In order of preference, however, the lambs selected
the Bahiagrass silage treated with antibiotic plus ground snapped corn
over either of the other two Bahiagrass silages.

With two of the three forages, the silage treated with zinc bacitracin
alone had the lowest pH and in all forages the untreated silage had the
highest pH. In general, the desirability of odor and color tended to
follow the same pattern, These data are in agreement with the results
obtained by Dexter (1957), Andrews and Stob (1958) and Rusoff (1959a).

The organic acid content of the experimental silages is shown in
Table 4. The levels of acetic and lactic acid present in the Coastal
Bermudagrass silages were normal and the butyric acid was low as ex-
pected. For the Pangolagrass silages, the levels of acetic acid exceeded
the corresponding level of lactic acid for all three treatments and butyric
acid was extremely.high both for the untreated silage and the silage
treated with antibiotic plus ground snapped corn. The butryic acid level
was also quite high for the Pensacola Bahiagrass silages. The Pensacola
Bahiagrass silage treated with the antibiotic plus ground snapped corn
appeared to contain more lactic acid and less butyric acid when compared
to the other two treatments.


-5-








"* .- A TABLE 4

ORGANIC ACIDS CONTENT OF EXPERIMENTAL SILAGES


Acid Content'.!
Silage and Treatment Butyric Acetic Lactic


Coastal Bermudagrass silage
I. Untreated 0.42 0.92 1.85
2. Treated antibiotic 0.52 1.29 2.86
3. Treated antibiotic plus
ground snapped corn 0.04 1.09 1.29

Pangolagrass silage :
1. Untreated 2.20 3.47 1.13
2. Treated antibiotic. .0.82 2.75 1.31
3. Treated antibiotic plus
ground snapped corn 5.37 2.35 1.69

Pensacola Bahiagrass silage
1. Untreated 4.52 1.45 1.33
2. Treated antibiotic 3.36 1.92 1.72
.3. Treated antibiotic plus
ground snapped corn 1.71 1.31. 2.25

i/ Expressed as percent of dry matter.


'SUMMARY

Coastal Bermudagrass, Pangolagrass and Pensacola Bahiagrass were
ensiled with no preservative, with 5 grams zinc bacitracin per ton fresh
forage, and with 5 grams zinc bacitracin plus 150 pounds ground snapped
corn per ton of fresh forage. The color and odor of the silages were
observed and recorded and measurements of depth of spoilage, pH, organic
acids and palatability were made to aid in evaluating the silage. In
general, the treated silages were lighter green in color and of a more
desirable odor than the untreated silages. With all forages tested, the
untreated silages had the highest pH and for two of the three forages the
silage treated with antibiotic alone had the lowest pH. The amount of
surface spoilage did not appear to be related to treatment.

Relative palatability of the three grass silages did not appear to
be related to treatment. In comparing the different grasses the Pangola-
grass silage was the most palatable both on the basis of consumption by
lambs during a short term feeding period and as measured by preference
tests when all silages were offered free-choice. The Coastal Bermuda-
grass silage was the next most palatable on the basis of silage consumed
during the feeding period. However, when all silages were offered free-
choice all three of the Pensacola Bahiagrass silages were preferred over
the Coastal Bermudagrass silages.


-6-







REFERENCES


Andrews, F. N. and Martin Stob. 1958. Effect of Molasses and Bacitracin
on the Estrogenic Activity of Silage. J. Dairy Sci., 41: 1616-1620.

Becker, R. B., J. M. Wing and C. J. Wilcox. 1960. Unpublished data.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., Gainesville.

Dexter, S. T. 1957. The Use of Antibiotics in the Making of Silage.
Agron. J., 49: 483-485.

Gandara, Diego, P. E. Loggins and C. B. Ammerman, 1961. Nutritive
value of Grass Silages Preserved with Zinc Bacitracin and Ground
Snapped Corn. Animal Science Mimeograph Series No. 4, Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta., Gainesville,

McCullough, M. E. 1960. Georgia Agr. Exp. Sta., Griffin. Unpublished data.

Rusoff, L. L., C. P. Breidenstein and J. B. Frye, Jr. 1959a. Value of
Bacitracin as a Pressrvative for Grass Silage on Milk Production.
J. Dairy Sci., 42: 929.

Rusoff, L. L., C. P. Breidenstein, W. J. Milstead and J. E. Bertrand.
!959b. Zinc Bacitracin as a Silage Preservative. J. Dairy Sci.,
42: 392.

Rusoff, L. L. 1959. An Antibiotic as a Silage Preservative. South-
west Regional Am, Chem. Soc. Meeting, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

Wiseman, H. G. and H. M. Irvin. 1957. Determination of Organic Acids
in Silage. J. Agr. Food Chem. 5: 213-215.











-7-

11/2/61
PEL:rw
200 copies




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs