Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 62-4
Title: Nutritive value of grass silages preserved with zinc bacitracin and ground snapped corn
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072916/00001
 Material Information
Title: Nutritive value of grass silages preserved with zinc bacitracin and ground snapped corn
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Physical Description: 6 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gandara, Diego, 1936-
Loggins, P. E., 1921-
Ammerman, Clarence B
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1961
 Subjects
Subject: Grasses -- Silage -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Feeds -- Preservation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Animal feeding -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 6).
Statement of Responsibility: Diego Gandara, P.E. Loggins and C.B. Ammerman.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "November, 1961."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072916
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 77081952

Full Text

F to rk


Department of Animal Science
Mimeograph Series No, 62-4
November, 1961


Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station
Gainesville, Florida


NUTRITIVE VALUE OF GRASS SILAGES PRESERVED WITH ZINC
BACITRACIN AND GROUND SNAPPED CORNI/

Diego Gandara, P. E. Loggins and C. B. Ammerman2/


Grass silage is an important means of preserving roughages for livestock.
The importance of silage has increased with the growth of grassland farming
programs especially throughout the more humid areas of the world. The need
for a more effective preservative in grass silage making has led research
workers to evaluate the use of antibiotics.

Ramsey et al. (1959) working with Johnsongrass silage and Chapman et al.
(1959) working with St. Augustinegrass silage found no significant differences
in the digestibility of nutrients when the silages were treated either with
zinc bacitracin or with molasses. Later Ramsey et al. (1960) reported no
significant improvement in the digestibility of nutrients in oat silage
preserved with zinc bacitracin while Alexander et al. (1961) found that
protein digestibility was significantly greater in zinc bacitracin treated
oat silage when compared with the control. The latter workers also reported
digestibilities of dry matter and nitrogen-free-extract were higher for the
zinc bacitracin preserved silage. White Dutch clover silage was studied by
Rusoff et al. (1959) and no advantage for fat corrected milk production with
the use of zinc bacitracin was obtained.

The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of zinc
bacitracin alone and in combination with ground snapped corn on the nutritive
value of grass silage.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

Coastal Bermudagrass, Pangolagrass and Pensacola Bahiagrass were
harvested during the summer months of 1960. The grass had been fertilized
with one hundred pounds of Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3) per acre three weeks
prior to cutting. The grass was in the pre-bloom stage of maturity at
the time of cutting with a forage harvester adjusted to chop the forage
into 0.5 I inch lengths. Nine experimental upright-type silos, 4 feet
high and 6 feet in diameter were prepared with woven wire and lined with
polyethylene sleeves. Burlap bags were placed between the wire and the
polyethylene to protect the silos from the wire and prevent damage by birds.
The cut forage was transferred to the silos within a few minutes after cutting
at which time the preservative was added. Three silos were filled with each
grass with the following treatments employed: (1) no preservative (control);
(2) 5 grams of zinc bacitracin per ton of fresh forage; (3) 5 grams of zinc
bacitracin plus 150 pounds of ground snapped corn per ton fresh forage.'-. .-
The ground snapped corn was sprinkled over the grass as it was conveyed

I/ This study was supported in part and zinc bacitracin was furnished i
by Commercial Solvents Corporation, Terre Haute, Indiana. 1
2/ Research Assistant, Assistant Animal Husbandman and Assistant animal
Nutritionist, respectively. The assistance of J. U. Stokes,
J. E. Wing and M. C. Jayaswal is gratefully acknowledged. ,








to the silo. The antibiotic was diluted in sufficient water and sprinkled
over the grass in a similar manner.

The grasses remained ensiled for periods as follows: Coastal
Bermudagrass, 110 days; Pangolagrass, 149 days; and Pensacola Bahia-
grass, 189 days. Two plastic screen-type sample bags each containing
10 kilograms of fresh forage were placed, one near the bottom and the
other near the top of each silo. This provided samples for a direct
comparison of the chemical composition of the silage with that of the
fresh forage.

Fifteen yearling Native-Rambouillet wethers were used in a 3 x 3
factorial replicated design involving the same animals and treatments
during two 7-day collection periods. The animals were randomized into
three groups of five each. The digestion trials were of the conventional
total collection type. The grass silage was fed to the allotted animals in
pens for a 7-day adjustment period. The lambs were then placed in collection
racks for another 7-day period during which a constant daily feed intake was
established. Following this, two 7-day fecal collections were made without
a time interval.

Samples of orts and feces were taken daily and composite for chemical
analyses. Proximate analyses were made as outlined by the Association of
Official Agricultural Chemists (1960). Nitrogen-free-extract was determined
empirically by difference and gross energy was measured with the oxygen bomb
calorimeter. Digestion coefficients and total digestible nutrients were
calculated using standard procedures. All data were statistically analyzed
by analysis of variance as described by Snedecor (1956) with significant
mean differences determined by the multiple range test of Duncan (1955).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The average chemical composition and gross energy content of the fresh
forages and experimental silages are shown in Tables I and 2. The average
chemical composition of all three fresh forages appeared quite similar except
that the Bahiagrass was lowest in crude protein and ether extract while the
Pangola-rass was highest in crude fiber and therefore lowest in nitrogen-
free-extract. The average chemical composition of the ensiled forages
was similar to that of the fresh material. There appeared to be, however,
some loss in crude protein content for the Pangolagrass and Bahiagrass silages.


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TABLE
AVERAGE NUTRIENT COMPOSITION
OF THE EXPERIMENTAL


AND GROSS ENERGY CONTENT
FRESH FORAGESi/


Percent
Nitrogen-
Crude Ether Free Energy
Silage and Treatments Protein Ash Extract Fiber Extract Cal./g.

Coastal Bermudagrass 11.47 5.22 2.29 27.95 43.07 4.13

Pangolagrass 10.92 5.87 2.58 32.04 38.59 3.99

Pensacola Bahiagrass 10.38 5.53 1.67 28.95 43.47 3.97

I/ Expressed on a 90% dry matter basis.

TABLE 2
AVERAGE NUTRIENT COMPOSITION AND GROSS ENERGY CONTENT
OF THE EXPERIMENTAL SILAGES./


Percent
Nitrogen-
Crude Ether Free Energy
Protein Ash Extract Fiber Extract Cal./g.


Coastal Bermudagrass silage
1. Untreated 12.73 5.54 2.59 26.82 42.32 4.05
2. Treated antibiotic 12.51 5.47 2.54 27.41 42.07 4.06
3. Treated antibiotic plus
ground snapped corn 10.30 4.10 2.61 26.75 46.24 4.02

Pangolagrass silage
1. Untreated 8.74 5.82 2.68 35.06 37.70 4.08
2. Treated antibiotic 8.74 6.34 2.00 34.45 38.47 4.03
3. Treated antibiotic plus
ground snapped corn 8.11 4.03 2.82 35.65 39.39 4.13

Pensacola Bahiagrass silage
1. Untreated 8.39 5.50 1.14 31.10 43.87 3.93
2. Treated antibiotic 7.87 5.36 1.33 29.70 45.74 4.02
3. Treated antibiotic plus
ground snapped corn 8.81 4.20 1.72 28.37 46.90 4.07

Averages

Coastal Bermudagrass silage 11.85 5.04 2.58 26.99 43.54 4.04
Pangolagrass silage 8.53 5.40 2.50 35.05 38.52 4.08
Pensacola Bahiagrass silage 8.36 5.02 1.40 29.72 45.50 4.01

1/ Expressed on 90% dry matter basis and averages of analyses from both top and
bottom sample bags.
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Digestion coefficients and total digestible nutrient values for the
experimental silages are presented in Table 3. Coastal Bermudagrass silage
treated with zinc bacitracin plus ground snapped corn was highest in
digestibility of dry matter, ether extract, fiber, nitrogen-free-extract
and energy and had the highest total digestible nutrient value. The untreated
Coastal Bermudagrass silage, however, was highest in protein digestibility
although this difference was not significant when compared with the other two
treatments.

TABLE 3
AVERAGE DIGESTION COEFFICIENTS AND TOTAL DIGESTIBLE
NUTRIENTS OF EXPERIMENTAL SILAGES-I/


Percent


Silage and Treatments


Dry
Matter


Ether
Protein Extract Fiber


Nitrogen- Total
Free Digestible
iExtract Energy Nutrients


Coastal Bermudagrass silage
1. Untreated
2. Treated antibiotic
3. Treated antibiotic plus
ground snapped corn

Pangolagrass silage
1. Untreated
2. Treated antibiotic
3. Treated antibiotic plus
ground snapped corn

Pensacola Bahiagrass silage
I. Untreated
2. Treated antibiotic
3. Treated antibiotic plus
ground snapped corn


57.44
50.25


65.08b5
55.21a


63.55b
54.01a


57.12b 52.73 73.06c 64.57b


52.44b5
53.37b


49.87bl
31.94a


51.74b
36.13a


53.23b5
43.29a


50,21bi
39.40a


56.69b 55.01b 53.29b


44.62
46.76


46.37a 16.19a 64.07c 67.28a 41.91


33.77b
41.10c


12.98b'
16.63b


32.73a
50.85b


57.74a5
63.91b1


29.10 a
40.96b


24.20a -15.69a 51.41b 53.06a 27.13a


50.35 47.78
49.69 47.15

47.45 45.91


33.23a
43.56b


32.65a
40.54b


28.22a 29.76a 2/


Averages


Coastal Bermudagrass silage
Pangolagrass silage
Pensacola Bahiagrass silage


50.34
50.73
33.02


53.47
22.65
4.64


64.45
48.63
45.00


60.71
71.80
58.24


48.19
44.43
32.40


50.51
49.16
35.00


I/ Means with different exponential letters are significantly different at the
level indicated by numerical value according to Duncan's multiple range test.
2/ Calculated by using the negative digestibility of protein as zero to avoid
penalizing the other nutrients.


47.63
46.95
34.32


-4-


--


53.16bl
40.75a


74.12b
74.00b


22.53ab
29.23b5








Pangolagrass silage treated with zinc bacitracin plus ground snapped
corn was highestin ether extract digestibility but was lowest in fiber and
dry matter digestibility. Pangolagrass silage treated with zinc bacitracin
alone was lowest in ether extract digestibility. However, there was a
suggested improvement in the protein digestibility when compared with the
other treatments.

Pensacola Bahiagrass silage treated with zinc bacitracin alone was
highest in the digestibility of dry matter, protein, fiber, nitrogen-free-
extract and energy and had a higher total digestible nutrient value when
compared to the other two treatments. Pensacola Bahiagrass silage treated
with zinc bacitracin plus ground snapped corn was higher in the digestibility
of ether extract when compared to the untreated silage but yielded the lowest
value for total digestible nutrients.

Considering the grass silages, regardless of treatment, Coastal
Bermudagrass silage had the highest coefficients of digestibility for
protein, ether extract and nitrogen-free-extract with digestibility values
for dry matter and energy similar to those obtained with Pangolagrass silage.
Pangolagrass silage had the highest coefficient of digestibility for fiber
and was an intermediate between Coastal Bermudagrass and Pensacola Bahiagrass
silage in the digestibility of all other nutrients.

As is observed in Table 3 the zinc bacitracin and ground snapped corn
preservatives responded differently when added to the different forages.
These differences in effect on nutritive value were reflected in a statistically
significant interaction of treatments versus grasses.

SUMMARY

Coastal Bermudagrass, Pangolagrass and Pensacola Bahiagrass were ensiled
with no preservative, with 5 grams zinc bacitracin per ton fresh forage and
with 5 grams zinc bacitracin plus 150 pounds of ground snapped corn per ton
of fresh forage. Nutrient composition of the fresh forage and silage and
digestion coefficients and total digestible nutrient values for the silages
were obtained with lambs using conventional methods. All fresh forages
appeared quite similar in nutrient composition except that Bahiagrass was
lower in ether extract and higher in fiber thus making it lower in nitrogen-
free-extract than either the Bermudagrass or Pangolagrass. In general, the
nutrient composition of the silages were similar to the fresh forage except
for lower protein values for the Pangolagrass and Pensacola Bahiagrass silages.

While the preservatives did not respond the same with all forages, the
highest coefficients of the digestibility for the nutrients of all forages
were obtained when either the antibiotic was used alone or when the antibiotic
plus ground snapped corn was used as a preservative. Coastal Bermudagrass
silage treated with zinc bacitracin plus ground snapped corn had the highest
individual nutrient coefficients of digestibility and was highest in total
digestible nutrients. The Pensacola Bahiagrass silage treated with zinc
bacitracin alone had the highest digestibility coefficients for individual
nutrients and was highest in total digestible nutrients. The advantage
of adding a preservative to Pangolagrass silage was less clearly defined
and similar total digestible nutrient values were obtained both with the


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untreated and with the preservative treated silage.


The average total digestible nutrient values regardless of treatment
and expressed on a 90 percent dry matter basis were 47.63, 46.95 and 34.32
for the Coastal Bermudagrass, Pangolagrass and Pensacola Bahiagrass silages,
respectively.

REFERENCES

A.O.A.C. Official Methods of Analysis. 9th ed. 1960. Association of
Official Agricultural Chemists, Washington, D. C.

Alexander, R. A., J. T. McCall, J. F. Hentges, Jr., P. E. Loggins and
G. K. Davis. 1961. Nutrient Composition and Digestibility of
Chopped Oat Silage Preserved With and Without Zinc Bacitracin. Animal
Science Mimeograph Series No. 61-7, Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station, Gainesville.

Chapman, H. L., Jr., E. C. Haines, R. J. Allen, Jr. and G. K. Davis.
1959. Apparent Digestibility of Nutrients in Roselawn St. Augustinegrass
Silage, Using Zinc Bacitracin or Corn Molasses as the Preservative.
Unpublished data. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., Belle Glade.

Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple Range and Multiple F Tests. Biometrics, 11:1.

Ramsey, D. W., J. W. Lusk and J. T. Miles. 1959. A Comparison of Silage
Preservatives Used with Grass Silages. Miss. State Univ. Inf. Sheet
No. 639.

Ramsey, D. W., J. W. Lusk and J. T. Miles. 1960. Oat Forage for Hay or
Silage. Miss. Farm Res., 23: 3.

Rusoff, L. L., C. P. Breidenstein, J. B. Frye, Jr. 1959. Value of Bacitracin
as a Preservative for Grass Silage on Milk Production. J. Dairy Sci.,
42: 929.

Snedecor, G. W. 1956. Statistical Methods. 5th ed. The Iowa State College
Press, Ames, Iowa.




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An.Sci.
11/13/61
PEL:rw
250 copies




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