Group Title: Animal Science mimeograph series - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; 61-10
Title: The influence of mycostatin on fungi-inoculated pigs fed high levels of aureomycin
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 Material Information
Title: The influence of mycostatin on fungi-inoculated pigs fed high levels of aureomycin
Series Title: Animal Science mimeograph series
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: O'Bannon, Robert Harold, 1938-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1961
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antibiotics in animal nutrition -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.H. O'Bannon, H.D. Wallace and G.E. Combs.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May, 1961."
Funding: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072910
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 77079996

Full Text





Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. 61-10 Experiment Station
Gainesville, Florida
May, 1961

THE INFLUENCE OF MYCOSTATIN ON FUNGI-INCULATED PIGS
FED HIGH LEVELS OF AUREOMYCIN-!"

R. H. O'Bannon, H. D. Wallace.and G. E. Combs

Mycostatin, an-antifungal antibiotic, has been reported to be
particularly useful in human medicine for supressing intestinal fungi
which often follow usage of antibacterial antibiotics.

This experiment was undertaken with the following objectives:

I. To learn more about the importance of toxic fungi in swine
feeding.

2. To study the relationship of fungi growth in the pig's intestine
to aureomycin administration.

3. To evaluate the effectiveness of mycostatin in controlling
fungi growth.

4. To evaluate the effectiveness of mycostatin and aureomycin as
feed additives when fed individually and in combination.

Experimental

Forty weanling pigs were divided into five lots of eight pigs each
according to sex, weight arid breed. The animals were self fed in small
dirt lots which were heavily shaded and tended to be wet and muddy.
This condition was purposely sought in hope that the mycotic organisms
to be studied would thrive. The experimental treatments for the various
lots were as follows:

Lot I Basal ration
Lot 2 Basal ration + 100 gm. aureomycin per ton.
Lot 3 Basal ration + 100 gm. aureomycin per ton with oral
inoculations of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis.
On the 36th day of the experiment 100 gm. of mycostatin
was added per ton of feed and continued for the remainder
of the experiment.
Lot 4 Basal ration + 100 gm. aureomycin and 50 gm. mycostatin
per ton with oral inoculations of Candida albicans and
Candida tropicalls.



I/ O'Bannon, Interim Assistant; Wallace, Associate Animal Scientist and
Combs, Assistant Animal Scientist, Department of Animal Science. This
study was supported in part by the Squibb Institute for Medical Research,
New Brunswick, New Jersey.











Lot 5 Basal + 100 gm. aureomycin and 50 gm. mycostatin per ton.

Three basal rations were employed in the experiment and are presented
in Table I. Pigs In all lots were fed.a 15 percent sucrose diet (Basal
1) at the beginning of the test in order to.prepare an intestinal envi-
ronment advantageous for fungal growth. The sucrose level was increased

Table 1. Composition of Basal Rations (Percent)


Ingredient Basal Basal Basal
1 2 3

Ground yellow corn 63.80 58.80 85.80
Soybean oilmeal (50%) 18.50 18.50 11.50
Ground limestone 1.00 1.00 1.00
Steamed bonemeal 1.00 1.00 1.00
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals/ 0.05 0.05 0.05
Vitamin 812 supplement 2/ 0.05 0.05 0.05
8-vitamin supplement / 0.10 0.10 0.10
Granulated cane sugar 15.00 20.00 0.00


J/ C3'cium Carbonate Co. trace mineral mixture for swine. Supplied
the following to the rations (p.p.m.); manganese-30, iron-36,
copper-2.5, cobalt-0.83, zinc-42 and potassium-3.9.

Z/ Pfizer B12 Supplement (9+). Contains a minimum of 9 mg. vitamin
B12 per pound.

A/ Pfizer Vitamin Supplement No. 1. Contains 2,000 mg. riboflavin,
4,000 mg. pantothenic acid, 9,000 mg. niacin and 10,000 mg. choline
chloride per pound.

to 20 percent (Basal 2) at the beginning of the third week. This increase
was to provide added assurance that the Candida species to be studied
would have an intestinal environment in which they might flourish. After
45 days of the trial sucrose feeding was discontinued and crude protein'
levels were reduced in keeping with usual feeding recommendations (Basal
3).

The pigs were fed on the experimental diets for one week before
being challenged with the Candida species. At the beginning of the
second week pigs in Lots 3 and 4 were orally inoculated with Candida
albicans and Candida tropicalis by use of a syringe and stomach tube.
The diluted cultures were administered in nutrient agar at the rate of
20 cc. of each species per pig. On the following day the same animals
were again inoculated but with only 15 cc. of the nutrient agar cultures.









Fecal samples were collected on the 8th, 22nd, 36th, 46th and final
or 87th day of the trial. The uncontaminated samples were normally
acquired as the animals defecated. When this.method was unsuccessful,
pigs were held and a sample removed from the anus with a metal probe.
The samples were immediately frozen and then shipped packed in dry ice
to the Squibb Institute for Medical Research, New Brunswick, New Jersey.
Dr. Samuel G. Kahn, Head of the Nutrition Research Unit at Squibb was
responsible for obtaining the desired fecal counts for Candida ablicans
and Candida tropicalis.


Results and Discussion

The performance of the pigs is summarized in Table 2. All lots of
pigs in this experiment gained exceptionally well and the gains were
accompanied by excellent feed utilization. All antibiotic fed lots
gained slightly better than the controls but none of the differences
were statistically significant (P> .05). Performance of the pigs was
not affected by the oral inoculations with Candida ablicans and Candida
tropicalis.

Fecal plate counts for Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis are
presented in Tables 3 and 4 respectively. Uninoculated pigs (Lots I and
2) showed some natural fungi infection, being particularly noticeable
in Lot 2 suggesting that the presence of aureomycin contributed to the
greater growth of the Candida species. Both Candida albicans and Candida
tropicalis were successfully cultured from the alimentary tract of pigs
although the growth of the latter was limited. Mycostatin effectively
reduced Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis in the feces of the pig,


Summary

Forty weanling pigs were used to study the influence of feeding
mycostatin to fungi-inoculated pigs in the presence of high levels of
aureomycin. The following statements are offered in summary.

I. All antibiotic-fed groups gained slightly faster than the con-
trol group but none of the differences were statistically signifi-
cant. Feed conversion was excellent for all groups with no marked
differences.

2. Oral inoculations with Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis
had no apparent effect on rate of gain or feed conversion.

3. Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis were successfully cul-
tured from the alimentary tract of pigs although the growth of the
latter was limited.

4. The presence of aureomycin appeared to enhance the growth of
both organisms.

5. Mycostatin reduced Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis
populations in the alimentary tract of pigs.


-3-













Table 2. The Influence of Mycostatin on the Performance of Fungi-Inoculated
Pigs Fed High Levels of Aureomycin


Lot number

Treatment


I
Basal Rations


2
Basal Ration.+
100 gm. aureomycin
per ton


3
Same. as ?
with oral
Inoculations
of Candida
albicans and
Candida tropicalis


4
Same as 3
-- 50 gm.
mycostatin
.per ton


5.
Same as 2
- 50 gm.
mycostatIn
per ton


Number pigs
Av. initial wt., lb.
Av. final wt., lb.
Av. daily gain, lb.
First 7 days
7 to 21 days
21 to 35 days
35 to 45 days
45 to 87 days
I to 87 days
Feed per lb. gain, lb.
First 35 days
35 to 87 days
I to 87 days


8
44.8
194.8


8
42.9
198.1


I .32
I.57
1.78
1.45
1.90
1.73

2.50
3.38
2.95


1.62
I.68
1.70
1.52
I.93
1 .78

2.54
3.34
2.92


8
43.1
196.0

1.61
1.50
1.76
1.56
1.91
1.76

2.45
3.43-
2.96


8
43.0
197.9

1.82
1.35
1.67
I.66
1.98
1.78


8
43.0
199.8

1.66
1.33
1.96
1.68
1.96
: .80


2.35
3.15
2.82


2.27
3.18
2.80











TABLE 3. The Efficacy of Mycostatin in Controlling Candida Albicans
in the Presence of High Levels of Aureomycin as Determined
by Fecal Plate Counts I/


Sample # I Sanple # 2 Sample # 3 Sample / 4 Sample # 5
Lot No. Mean Median Mean Median Mean Median Mean Median Mean Median



I 1.8 < 1.0 670.3 77.4 59.6 9.1 496.5 8.3 2.8 2.0

2 2.8 < 1.0 2521.9 385.0 377.1 348.6 101.0 102.9 292.6 27.5

3 2/ 1228.8 47.9 792.4 57.3 307.3 127.5 40.6 14.1 62.4 14.7

4 1.1 < 1.0 < 0.1 < 0.1 2.3 1.5 62.4 29.2 62.7 54.5

5 < 1.0 < 1.0 0.3 < 0.1 19.6 2.2 210.8 271.0 13.7 0.8


1/ Values expressed as Candida albican cells per gm.


feces X 102.


2/ 100 gm. mycostatin added per ton of ration after collection of third fecal sample (36th day).











TABLE 4. The Efficacy of Mycostatin in Controlling Candida tropicalis
in the Presence of High Levels of Aureomycin as Determined
by Fecal Plate Counts -/


Sample # I Sample # 2 Sample # 3 Sample # 4 Sample # 5
Lot No. Mean Median Mean Median Mean Median Mean Median Mean Median



I 5.2 < 1.3 28.1 8.3 4.1 0.7 7.3 2.6 < 0.1 < 0.1

2 8.2 < 1.0 71.2 36.6 39.4 31.0 10.3 < 1.0 < 0.1 < 0.1

3 2/ 3.4 < 1.0 90.0 34.3 3.3 2.0 4.4 0.8 < 0.1 < 0.1

4 1.4 < L.0 1.3 < 0.1 0.2. < 0.1 < 0.1 <0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1

5 < 1.0 < 1.0 1.9 < 0.1 < 0.10.1 < 0.1 <0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1


Values expressed as Candida tropicalis cells per

100 gm. mycostatin added per ton of ration after


gm. feces X 102.

collection of third fecal sample (36th day).




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