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 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary














Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; no. 61-9
Title: Ground snapped corn as a substitute for corn meal in the ration of growing-finishing swine
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072909/00001
 Material Information
Title: Ground snapped corn as a substitute for corn meal in the ration of growing-finishing swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Physical Description: 4, 1 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1961
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Corn -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: H.D. Wallace ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May, 1961."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072909
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 77079929

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Results and discussion
        Page 3
    Summary
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
Full Text


Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. 61-9 Experiment Station
May, 1961 Gainesville, Florida

Ground Snapped Corn as a Substitute for Corn Meal
in the Ration of Growing-Finishing Swine

H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs, A. Z. Palmer
and J. W. Carpenter./

Under certain conditions ihthis state it is more advantageous to
harvest corn as snapped ear corn with considerable shuck than to remove
the shuck or shell the corn in the field. Swine producers with snapped
corn available are interested in utilizing this material in their swine
feeding programs. Very little information is available on the use of
ground snapped corn although numerous other fibrous feeds have been ex-
tensively tested in swine feeding trials. Generally the results indicate
that any significant increase in fiber content of the ration causes a
slowing of gains and an increase in the amount of feed required per unit
of gain. However, the leanness of carcasses produced is usually improved
considerably. The decision to feed or not to feed ground snapped corn to
growing-finishing pigs would probably depend on a combination of such
factors as rate of gain, feed required per pound of gain, feed cost per
unit of gain and the price received for the finished hogs. The experiment
reported here was designed to determine if the use of ground snapped corn
was feasible and if so, to what extent.

Experimental
Sixty weanling crossbred pigs of mixed breeding were divided accord-
ing to litter, sex and weight into four similar groups. The feeding
treatments were as follows:

I Corn meal ration for entire growing-finishing period. /i,
2 Corn meal ration to 150 Ib. weight, snapped corn ratipn
thereafter.
3 Corn meal ration to 100 Ib. weight, snapped corn rati6oni'
thereafter .
4 Snapped corn ration for entire growing-finishing period. ;-
The experimental rations are presented in Table I. The experiment was
conducted in the station pig parlor facility where the concrete floors
were hosed down daily. Feed was offered in self feeders. Automatic
watering devices provided fresh drinking water at all times. Misting
devices were used as needed for the comfort of the animals. The pigs
were removed from the experiment and slaughtered on an individual basis
when a weight between 190-210 Ib. was attained. All hogs were dressed
with heads off and leaf fat out. Carcass weights and measurements were
taken after chilling for 48 hours at 34-36 degrees F. Length of carcass
was obtained by measurement from the anterior edge of the aitch bone
(pelvis) to the anterior edge of the first rib. Backfat thickness was
calculated as an average of measurements taken at the first rib, last

I/ Wallace and Palmer, Associate Animal Scientists, Combs and Carpenter,
Assistant Animal Scientists, Department of Animal Science. The
assistance of W. E. Collins and L. S. Taylor, Swine Herdsmen is
gratefully acknowledged,












Table I. Composition of Experimental Rutions I


Corn Meal Ground Snapped
Ingredient Ration Corn Ration

Ground yellow corn 78.30 --
Ground snapped corn --- 74.30
Soybean oilmeal (50%) 19.00 23.00
Ground limestone 1.00 1.00
Steamed bonemeal 1.00 1.00
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50
Trace Minerals / 0.05 0.05
8-vitamin supplement 3/ 0.10 0.10
812 supplement A/ 0.05 0.05
Antibiotic supplement 2/ 0.10 0.10

100.10 100.10



I/ Both rations contained approximately 16.5% crude protein.

/ Calcium Carbonate Co. trace mineral mixture for swine. Supplied
the following to the ration (p.p.m.); manganese 30, iron 36,
copper 2.5, cobalt 0.83, zinc 42 and potassium 3.9.

3/ Pfizer Vitamin Supplement No. 2. Contains 4,000 mg. riboflavin,
4,000 mg. pantothenic acid, 24,000 mg. niacin and 104,000 mg.
Choline Chloride per pound.

4/ Pfizer 812 Supplement (9+). Contains 9 mg. vitamin 812 per pound.


,/ American Cyanamid Co. Aurofac-lO.
per pound.


Contains 10 gm. chlortetracycline


-2-









rib and last lumbar vertebra.' A tracing was made of the perimeter of
the longissimus dorsi muscle (loin eye) of both loins, exposed by
cutting the loin perpendicular to the vertebral column at the tenth
rib. The area of the loin eye muscle was then determined by use of a
compensating polar planimeter. Percentage lean cuts was determined
on a live weight basis by combining the weights of the trimmed hams,
loins, picnics and Boston :utts'and relating this weight to the live
weight of the animals'prior to'slayghter.

The experiment was lt'itiated August 13, 1960 and terminated
December 5, 1960. *.

Results and Discussion

Results of the experiment are summarized in Table 2. Pigs fed the
corn meal ration for the entire growing-finishing period (group I) per-
formed very well, averaging 1.80 pounds per day gain with a feed conver-
sion of 3.33. When ground snapped corn was substituted for corn meal
at a weight of 150 pounds (group 2) overall gains were reduced to 1.60
and the feed required per pound gain increased to 3.48. When the sub-
stitution was made at 100 pounds live weight (group 3) overall gains
were again 1.60 but the feed requirement increased further to 3.69.
The gain of pigs fed snapped corn during the entire period (group 4)
was 1.43 pounds per day with an extremely high feed requirement per
pound gain of 4.23. It was necessary to grind the snapped corn rather
fine (1/16 Inch screen) to prevent wastage.

Based on the cost figures presented in the footnote of Table 2
pigs in groups I and 2 produced pork at similar costs. As the period
of feeding snapped corn was extended to a gain of 100 pounds (group 3)
costs increased slightly. A marked increase in feed costs occurred
when ground snapped corn was fed over the entire growing-fattening
period (group 4). Assuming the increased value of the hogs due to
feeding of the ground snapped corn as set forth in Table 2, it is
evident that the use of ground snapped corn after 100 lb. live weight
resulted in some increased return if the extra time required to finish
the hogs is disregarded.

Dressing percent and carcass length were not significantly affected
by the variation in feeding regimes. Carcass leanness was increased by
substituting ground snapped corn for corn meal as shown by a decrease
in backfat, an increase in loin eye area and an increase in percent lean
cuts.

Summary

Substituting ground snapped corn for corn meal for various periods
of time during the growing-finishing period of swine produced the
following results:

I. Slowed gains and thus increased the time required fornanlmate
to reaQh a given market weight.


-3-









rib and last lumbar vertebra.' A tracing was made of the perimeter of
the longissimus dorsi muscle (loin eye) of both loins, exposed by
cutting the loin perpendicular to the vertebral column at the tenth
rib. The area of the loin eye muscle was then determined by use of a
compensating polar planimeter. Percentage lean cuts was determined
on a live weight basis by combining the weights of the trimmed hams,
loins, picnics and Boston :utts'and relating this weight to the live
weight of the animals'prior to'slayghter.

The experiment was lt'itiated August 13, 1960 and terminated
December 5, 1960. *.

Results and Discussion

Results of the experiment are summarized in Table 2. Pigs fed the
corn meal ration for the entire growing-finishing period (group I) per-
formed very well, averaging 1.80 pounds per day gain with a feed conver-
sion of 3.33. When ground snapped corn was substituted for corn meal
at a weight of 150 pounds (group 2) overall gains were reduced to 1.60
and the feed required per pound gain increased to 3.48. When the sub-
stitution was made at 100 pounds live weight (group 3) overall gains
were again 1.60 but the feed requirement increased further to 3.69.
The gain of pigs fed snapped corn during the entire period (group 4)
was 1.43 pounds per day with an extremely high feed requirement per
pound gain of 4.23. It was necessary to grind the snapped corn rather
fine (1/16 Inch screen) to prevent wastage.

Based on the cost figures presented in the footnote of Table 2
pigs in groups I and 2 produced pork at similar costs. As the period
of feeding snapped corn was extended to a gain of 100 pounds (group 3)
costs increased slightly. A marked increase in feed costs occurred
when ground snapped corn was fed over the entire growing-fattening
period (group 4). Assuming the increased value of the hogs due to
feeding of the ground snapped corn as set forth in Table 2, it is
evident that the use of ground snapped corn after 100 lb. live weight
resulted in some increased return if the extra time required to finish
the hogs is disregarded.

Dressing percent and carcass length were not significantly affected
by the variation in feeding regimes. Carcass leanness was increased by
substituting ground snapped corn for corn meal as shown by a decrease
in backfat, an increase in loin eye area and an increase in percent lean
cuts.

Summary

Substituting ground snapped corn for corn meal for various periods
of time during the growing-finishing period of swine produced the
following results:

I. Slowed gains and thus increased the time required fornanlmate
to reaQh a given market weight.


-3-









2. Increased the feed required per, unit of gain substantially;
enough so that the cheaper ground snapped corn ration became
the most expensive under the conditions of this experiment.

3. Increased the leanness of carcasses considerably as shown by
a decreased backfat and an increased loin eye area and percent
of lean cuts.

The improvement in carcass value was sufficient to offset the
slightly higher total feed costs and permit greater returns for those
groups fed ground snapped corn after reaching 100 or 150 lb. liveweight.
This was not true for the group fed ground snapped corn during the
entire period from weaning to market weight. These data would thus
suggest that the use of ground snapped corn should be limited to the
finishing phase of the growing-finishing period.


-4-









Table 2. The Influence of Substituting Ground
Corn Meal on the Feedlot Performance and Carcass
Growing-Finishing Swine


Snapped Corn for
Characteristics of


Treatment Group I 2 3 4


(Performance data)

Number pigs 14 15 14 14
Initial wt., lb. 46.2 45.5 46.6 46.4
Final wt., lb. 203.3 198.7 199.8 196.0
Daily gain, Ib.
Ist 35 days 1.60 1.64 1.68 1.30
Ist 63 days 1.80 1.73 1.61 1.41
Entire period 1.80 1.60 1.60 1.43
Feed/lb. gain, Ib.
Ist 35 days 2.70 2.56 2.50 3.20
Ist 63 days 2.93 2.96 3.08 3.71
Entire period 3.33 3.48 3.69 4.23
Feed cost/100 Ib. gain $ I/ 10.62 10.64 10.87 12.10
Vaiue/100 lb. live wt. $ 2 17.34 17.94 17.70 17.71
Number days on test 88.3 96.8 95.6 105.6

(Carcass data)

Number pigs 13 13 13 14
Dressing % 70.7 71.0 70.5 70.7
Backfat, in. 1.42 1.25 1.22 1.13
Carcass length, in. 29.9 30.1 29.9 30.3
Loin eye area, sq. in. 3.72 3.96 3.93 3.96
% lean cuts 35.4 36.6 36.8 37.7


1/ Feed prices: Corn meal
$44.00 per ton, soybean
tions (vitamin, mineral
mixed ration.


--$54.00 per ton, ground snapped corn -
oilmeal (50%) $75.00 per ton, Fortifica-
and antibiotic) $5.00 per ton of complete


Cost of rations per ton
Corn meal ration $63.80
Snapped corn ration $57.20


2/ Based on a price of $16.50/cwt for pigs yielding 32 percent of
liveweight in ham, loin, picnic and Boston butt; each I percent
increase in yield of the four lean cuts increased market value
25t per 100 lb. liveweight.



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5-9-61
1000 copies




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