• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Introduction
 Experimental procedure
 Results and discussion
 Summary






Group Title: Animal husbandry and nutrition mimeograph series - University of Florida Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Dept. ; no. 61-3
Title: The Purposes of and objections to internal artificial coloring in bologna
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072902/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Purposes of and objections to internal artificial coloring in bologna
Physical Description: 11 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Palmer, A. Z.
Carpenter, J. W ( James Woodford )
Alsmeyer, Richard Harvey, 1929-
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1961
 Subjects
Subject: Coloring matter in food -- Research -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Meat -- Composition -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "January, 1961."
Funding: Animal husbandry and nutrition mimeograph series - University of Florida Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Dept. ; no. 61-3
Statement of Responsibility: A.Z. Palmer, J.W. Carpenter and R.H. Alsmeyer.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072902
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 77067989

Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Experimental procedure
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Results and discussion
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Summary
        Page 11
Full Text


Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. 61-3 Experiment Station
January, 1961 Gainesville, Florida

THE PURPOSES OF AND OBJECTIONS TO INTEAL
ARTIFICIAL COLORING IN BOLOGNA A=

A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and R. H. Alsmeyer 3



It is general knowledge in the meat packing industry and among meat
retailers that consumers select and purchase meat and meat products of
desirable color, attractively packaged and fresh in appearance. Grade,
brand, package weight, portion cost, price per pound, convenience, and
leaness are additional factors motivating consumer selection.

Light induced fading of bologna and other sliced luncheon meats
presently constitutes a merchandising problem in that faded packages lack
eye appeal and attractiveness. The meat packing industry has been con-
cerned with this problem since the advent of the self-service retail dis-
play case. To lessen light induced fading or to avoid it, the meat in-
dustry has turned to the use of soft white incandescent lighting for affect-
ed displays, to vacuum packaging which prevents fading and to displaying
by picture with meat face down in the case.

Soft white incandescent lighting does induce fading but the rate of
fading is appreciably lower than when other types of lights are used.
Vacuum packaging prevents light induced fading but in addition to being
expensive, a small percentage of packages become "leakers" and fade when
exposed to light. The face-down display lacks in that oftentimes pack-
ages are left exposed and become faded. Inasmuch as each method presently
used to minimize light induced fading has some shortcoming, it is not
surprising that questions arise as to the feasibility of using edible color
fast dyes in bologna and similar luncheon meat formulations.


Y/ This study was supported in part by a grant-in-aid from the State of
Florida Department of Agriculture.

/ The cooperation of Copeland Sausage Company, Alachua, Florida and the
Winn-Dixie stores of Gainesville, Florida and the assistance of D, B. Pratt,
Associate Professor, Bacteriology Dept., University of Florida and
A. E. Brandt, Statistician, Statistical Section, Florida Agricultural Exper-
iment Station, in the conduct of this study is acknowledged. The help of
Mrs. Grace B. Howes and Mrs. Mary Elinor Milton, LaboratoryAs taunts,
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Dept. is gratefully acknowas

SPalmer, Associate Animal Husbandman; Carpenter, As~ ant Animal-uband-
man; and Alsmeyer, Agricultural Fellow, Department of I mal Hb r ahd
Nutrition, University of Florida, Gainesville, Floridai,






-2-


Advocates of using internal coloring in bologna and similar comminuted
luncheon meats maintain that such practice is not only an economically
feasible solution to the problem of light induced fading but that the
practice also adds materially to product attractiveness and consumer appeal.
On the other hand, the Meat Inspection Bureau of the U. S. D. A. pro-
hibits the internal use of dyes in meats and even limits surface appli-
cation penetration. Many states, through food and drug or meat inspec-
tion regulations, prohibit the internal use of dyes in meat and meat
products. Although Federal and State Meat Inspection regulations fail
to show reason for prohibiting the internal use of dyes, it is likely
that regulatory officials object on either or both of the following conten-
tions:

1. That the addition of internal coloring is a deceptive practice
in that added coloring would mask product deterioration and
spoilage. The masking effect would deprive the consumer the
right tc purchase "freshness". In advanced stages of deterior-
ation the masking effect could constitute a public health hazard.

2. That the addition of internal coloring is a deceptive practice
in that coloring would make proda~.ts appear leaner. This objec-
tion would infer that consumers purchase comminuted meats accord-
ing to apparent degree of leaness or protein content.

Although there appears to be some logic in the reasoning that is for
and the reasoning that is against added internal color, scientific evidence
supporting either view cannot be found in the literature.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of
using internal coloring in comminuted meats; more specifically, this study
was designed to determine:

1. The effect of added color and per cent protein on apparent
attractiveness or leaness and the influence of that attractive-
ness or leaness on consumer preference.

2. The effect of added color and per cent protein in masking light
induced fading and the influence of such masking on apparent
attractiveness or leaness.

3. The effect of added internal color and per cent protein in mask-
ing deterioration Ir flavor and aroma and in masking bacterial
spoilage.

This study did not concern the edibility or safety of the particular
dye used inasmuch as it had already been approved for general use in the
meat industry by the Florida Food and Drug Administration.

Experimental Procedure
Bologna was used exclusively in this study. It was selected on the
basis of its being one of the higher volume luncheon meat items; further-
more, its characteristic homogeneity contributed to simplicity in chemical,
bacteriological and color fading phases of the study as well as to taste
testing.





-3-


Design

Six two-hundred pound blocks of Bologna were formulated as indicated
in Table 1; moisture, fat and protein analysis are presented in Table 2.
Blocks 1 and 2 contained 12.5 and 12.3 per cent protein, respectively;
Block 1 contained added color, Block 2 did not. Blocks 3 and 4 contained
14.3 per cent protein; Block 3 contained added color, Block 4 did not.
Blocks 5 and 6 contained 15.2 and 14.8 per cent protein, respectively;
Block 5 contained added color, Block 6 did not.

Formulation

TABLE 1. FORMULATION OF THE SIX BLOCKS OF BOLOGNA



Block
Low Protein Medium Protein High Protein
Colored Uncolored Colored Uncolored Colored Uncolored
1 2 3 4 5 6


Lean Beef Trim, lbs.

Reg. Beef Trim, lbs.

Lean Pork Trim, lbs.

Lean Pork Jowl, lbs.

Reg. Pork Jowl, lbs.

Back Fat, lbs.

Dry Skimmilk, Ibs.

Salt, Ibs.

Dextrose, lbs.

Vegamine, oz.

Prague Powder, oz.

Bolo Seasoning, lbs.

Paprakene Spice, lbs.*

Ice, lbs.


95
-



35

35

35

10

4.75

4

4

8


10

4.75

4

4

8


1.5


1.5


10

4.75

4

4

8


10

4.75

4

4

8


10

4.75

4

4

8


1.5


1.5


10

4.75

4

4

8

1.5


1.5


Contained seasoning and vegetable color.


- I-





-4-


TABLE 2. MOISTURE, FAT AND PROTEIN ANALYSIS


Block
Low Protein Medium Protein High Protein
Colored Uncolored Colored Uncolored Colored Uncolored
1 2 3 4 5 6

Moisture, per cent 54.0 50.4 58.2 57.6 59.2 59.4

Fat, per cent 26,8 31.7 21.2 22.5 19.4 20.2

Protein, per cent* 12.5 12.3 14.3 14.3 15.2 14.8
*
Meat and dry skim milk protein.

Processing

Meats used in formulation were ground through a five-thirty seconds
inch grinder. All ingredients were blended in a Buffalo Mixer. Each batch
was comminuted through a series of two Mince Masters. Each block of emul-
sion was stuffed in 6W" by 48" fibrons casings (Visking) under 40 pounds
pressure.

The bologna was placed in a smoke house for cooking and smoking. The
product was held at 1400 F. for two hours with smoke started on an open
damper. The smoke house temperature was increased to 1500 F. for the next
hour then set at 1600 F. for an hour. The smoke house temperature was
lastly set at 1750 F. and the product was held therein until the product
reached an internal temperature of 152 to 1540 F.

The bologna was chilled under a cold water spray for one hour and
further chilled overnight in a 340 F. cooler. The bologna was automatically
sliced and packaged in 8 and 12 ounc4 packages the following day with care
taken to maintain block identity. The following day, the bologna was
shipped to Gainesville, Florida retail markets for sale.

Chemical Analysis

Nine packages were randomly selected from each block for moisture,
fat and protein analysis. The bologna was ground through a one-eighth
inch plate, mixed, ground a second time and mixed again to further assure
aliquots being representive. Two aliquots were taken from each sample for
analysis. Moisture, fat and protein analysis were done according to stan-
dard A. 0. A. C.1 procedures.


1 Association of Official Agricultural Chemists
1950. 7T Edition, Washington, D. C.






-5-


Consumer Preference Test


The bologna was received for sale at the two Winn-Dixie stores in
Gainesville on a Friday and displayed for sale immediately. Packages
of the various blocks, marked for identification were arranged as indi-
cated in Figure 1.


Figure 1. TYPICAL DISPLAY USED
IN MERCHANDISING BOLOGNA


No
Color Color
*
*
*0 0


High Protein
Level


No
Color Color
0


Medium Protein
Level


No
Color Color
0 a


Low Protein
Level


Customer
SFlow



The packages were displayed meat face down; however, it was the
duty of the attendant recording sales information to keep at least two
packages of each block or line exposed meat face up at all times to per-
mit customers, so desiring, to make color comparison. On Saturday, the
second day of the sales test, block lines were rearranged within the
three protein levels, the two blocks of similar protein content staying
together. Rearrangement was done to minimize any possible "position"
advantage of any block over any other block.


- --





-6-


Only those consumers who purchased a package of the test bologna
were considered in the preference test. After the purchaser had made a
selection, the attendant noted the kind of bologna selected, registered
the purchase as a "vote for" and then asked the purchaser why that partic-
ular package was selected in preference to the others. The attendant
showed the purchaser the list of possible preference reasons presented in
Figure 2 and checked all applicable reasons indicated.

Figure 2. FORM USED BY ATTENDANT IN RECORDING
SAMPLE PREFERRED AND REASONS FOR PREFERENCE


Preferred sample
(Please check all applicable reasons)


for:


Plumpness _____
Texture
Freshness
Leanness
Color
Attractiveness
No Reason

Light Induced Fading

Samples of bologna from each block were exposed to 30-35 ft. candles
of light for periods of O, W, 1, 1%, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 hours in a meat
display case holding a temperature of 40 F. The samples were arranged
in the display case as shown in Figure 3.


Figure 3.


ARRANGEMENT OF SAMPLES IN DISPLAY CASE
DURING LIGHT INDUCED FADING


Exposure Time, hours
0 1 l 2 3 4 6 8


Color Added
Block 1
Block 3
Block 5

No Color Added
Block 2
Block 4
Block 6


2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 *
2 *


(Two samples per Block for
S exposure period)


each


Light induced fading studies were replicated the following day.






-7-


After proper exposure, the samples were evaluated as to desirability
of color and/or freshness by a panel of eight persons. Samples were scored
on a scale of 1 to 6 with 4 designating "average color or freshness"; 6,
"superior color or freshness"; 5, "excellent color or freshness"; 3,"slightly
faded lacking freshness"; 2, "faded"; 1, "completely inferior in color or
freshness".

Immediately following the subjective evaluation, samples were evalu-
ated objectively for color differences using the Hunter Color and Color
Difference Meter. The machine was adjusted to a pink standard plate hav-
ing the following description: Rd = 34.6, a = 29.7, b = 10.7.
Samples for evaluation were removed from the packaging material and a
circular sample, approximately three inches in diameter, of the exposed
outside slice of bologna was placed inside the glass sample holder. Color
of the sample was determined and recorded. The Hunter Color Meter was
readjusted to the pink standard plate after testing each.sample of bologna.
Objective evaluations for color were determined on the control samples
(O hours exposure) first and the remaining samples were evaluated in as-
cending order of exposure period (Y, 1, 1 2 --- 8 hrs.).

Color, Flavor and Aroma Deterioration

In the color (not exposed to light), flavor and aroma deterioration
phase of this study, bologna samples were stored in closed cardboard con-
tainers at a temperature of 380. Samples of each block were evaluated by
an eight member panel as to desirability of color, flavor and aroma. Panel
color values were based on the 1 to 6 scale previously explained.

The eight member taste panel evaluated flavor and aroma on coded
samples presented under a dark red light. Use of the colored light com-
pletely masked the identity of the samples. Panel members were instructed
to refrain from eating, drinking flavored drinks, smoking and chewing gum
for the hour just prior to tasting. Samples were chewed but not swallowed.
After each tasting, white bread was chewed but not swallowed and mouth
rinsed before tasting the next sample.

Panel members scored flavor and aroma on a 1 to 6 scale with 4
being "average flavor and aroma"; 6, "superior flavor and aroma" and 1,
"inedible".

Results and Discussion

The effect of added color and percent protein on apparent attractive-
ness or leanness and the influence of that attractiveness on consumer
preference.

During the two-day sales test at two different super markets, 435
packages of test bologna were purchased.









Table 3 shows the effect of added color and per cent protein on
salability and on attractiveness or leanness as determined by visual ob-
servation by laboratory panel. Color added samples were scored higher in
the low, medium and high protein bologna than samples which contained
no added color. In the uncolored bologna, the two higher protein levels
were found more attractive or leaner in appearance than the low protein
bologna. These data suggest that adding color during formulation was more
effective in providing an attractive product than increasing protein content
in uncolored bologna. Adding color to the low protein formulation provided
a more attractive color than adding protein to the low protein formulation.
The laboratory panel data thus indicates that coloring can be used in lieu
of protein and even provide a more attractive product. It should be recog-
nized, however, that the laboratory panel is often prone to magnify color
differences and in such manner find differences of little concern to a more
or less discriminating public.

TABLE 3. THE EFFECT OF ADDED COLOR AND PER CENT
PROTEIN ON ATTRACTIVENESS AND CONSUMER PREFERENCE OF BOLOGNA



Block
Low Protein Medium Protein High Protein
Colored Uncolored Colored Uncolored Colored Uncolored
1 2 3 4 5 6


Color Attractiveness 5.0 3.4 5.0 4.0 5.0 3.9

No. Samples purchased
Store A 42 33 23 23 26 31
Store B 48 34 52 36 50 37



A notable difference in total sales was found between stores; store A
sold 178 packages and store B sold 257, the difference however was not con-
sidered important to this study. Consumers were either reluctant to indicate
reason for preferring a particular package or were not sufficiently conscious
of being motivated in selection to so indicate; the number of buyers giving
reason for preference was insufficient for a meaningful analysis of that data.

Total sales of low protein bologna exceeded sales of medium and
high protein bologna due largely to sales at store A where the low pro-
tein bologna definitely outsold the higher protein levels. At store B low
protein bologna sales were slightly lower than the higher protein levels.
Nonetheless, differences in sales attributable to level of protein were
not statistically significant. In other words, differences in sales could
have been the result of chance.

Considering sales at both stores, colored bologna outsold the un-
colored bologna 241 packages to 194 -- a highly significant difference in
sales indicating that added color enhanced sales. It is interesting to





-9-


note that in store A color added bologna outsold uncolored bologna less
than 5 per cent. Whereas, in store B colored bologna outsold the uncolored
a little over 40 per cent. It should be pointed out, therefore, that while
added color increased sales a certain amount at one store such was not
necessarily true at the other store.

The effect of added color and per cent protein in masking light induced
fading and the influence of such masking on apparent attractiveness or
leanness.

Light induced fading of bologna as influenced by added color and per
cent protein is presented in Table 4.

TABLE 4. LIGHT INDUCED FADING AS INFLUENCED
BY ADDED COLOR AND PER CENT PROTEIN*



Exposure Time, hours
0 2 1 1Y2 2 3 4 6 8
Visually Determined
Attractiveness or
Leanness
Color added:
Block 1 5.0 5.0 4.8 4.2 4.2 3.8 3.4 3.3 2.9
Block 3 5.0 5.0 4.6 4.2 4.2 3.8 3.4 3.3 2.8
Block 5 5.0 5.0 4.7 4.2 4.2 3.8 3.5 3.3 2.7
No Color Added;
Block 2 3.6 3.3 3.0 2.6 2.4 2.0 1.8 1.4 1.2
Block 4 4.0 3.4 3.2 2.8 2.7 2.1 1.8 1.5 1.3
Block 6 3.9 3.4 3.2 2.9 2.7 2.1 1.8 1.6 1.3

Hunter a/b Ratio
Color Added:
Block 1 1.29 1.22 1.21 1.13 1.13 1.08 1.04 1.00 0.95
Block 3 1.29 1.26 1.21 1.13 1.11 1.02 0.99 1.01 0.99
Block 5 1.37 1.28 1.22 1.18 1.18 1.18 1.04 1.03 1.08
No Color Added:
Block 2 0.87 0.80 0.75 0.72 0.68 0.61 0.65 0.59 0.60
Block 4 0.97 0.86 0.80 0.78 0.80 0.78 0.69 0.63 0.70
Block 6 0.96 0.88 0.82 0.81 0.78 0.90 0.70 0.67 0.64

Blocks 1 and 2, low protein; blocks 3 and 4, medium protein; blocks 5
and 6, high protein.


Bologna from colored Blocks 1, 3 and 5 appeared more attractive and
leaner initially by visual appraisal and was effected less by exposure to
light than bologna from uncolored Blocks 2, 4 and 6. Level of protein in
the bologna influenced detectability but only slightly fading induced by
light exposure. Hunter a/b ratios, values of redness relative to yellow-
ness, confirm visual appraisal data.





-10-


The data show clearly that the colored bologna retained an acceptable
degree of color or attractiveness for a much longer period of time than
uncolored bologna.

The effect of added internal color and per cent protein in masking deter-
ioration in flavor and aroma and in masking bacterial spoilage.

Deterioration in color, flavor and aroma during storage is presented
in Table 5; deterioration of the bologna is also shown by bacteria total
count in Table 5.

TABLE 5. THE EFFECT OF ADDED COLOR AND PER CENT PROTEIN
IN MASKING FLAVOR AND AROMA DETERIORATION AND
IN MASKING BACTERIAL SPOILAGE



Days Storage at 38 F.
4 7 10 13 19 22


Color or attractiveness
Block 1
Block 3
Block 5
Block 2
Block 4
Block 6


Flavor






Aroma


Block
Block
Block
Block
Block
Block


Block
Block
Block
Block
Block
Block


5.0
5.0
5.0
3.4
4.0
3.9


4.8
4.8
4.6
4.1
4.8
4.6


4.9
4.9
4.6
4.1
4.8
4.8


5.0
5.0
5.0
3.4
4.0
3.9


4.2
4.2
4.2
3.9
4.1
4.5


4.4
4.4
4.4
4.1
4.1
4.5


Viable Bacterial Count,

Block 1 >3,500 3,000
Block 3 >3,500 >4,300
Block 5 >3,500 4.09x10l
Block 2 >3,500 1.110x10
Block 4 >3,500>26,000 4
Block 6 53,500 2.94x10


5.0
5.0
5.0
2.8
3.6
3.5


3.5
4.2
3.8
3.1
3.6
4.4


3.5
4.0
4.1
3.9
3.8
4.1


1.15xl05
4.65x10O
2.70x105
4.50x10l
4.71xl10
3.48x105


4.6
4.5
4.8
2.9
3.6
3.1


3.9
4.5
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.2


3.9
4.1
3.5
3.5
3.9
3.5


6.20xl04
1.24x105
6.83x10,
1.18x10O
9.47xl0O
2.54x10


4.2
4.0
5.0
3.0
3.2
3.2


2.5
3.2
3.2
2.0
3.5
2.2


3.0
3.2
3.0
3.0
3.2
2.8


8.80xloi
1.O1xlO
5.36x10l
6.38x10-
7.96x10i
7.00x1 0


4.5
4.5
4.5
2.5
3.2
3.0


2.5
2.0
2.8
1.8
2.0
3.2


2.5
2.5
2.8
2.5
2.2
2.8


7.50xl07
1.96x10O
1.46x10
7.70x10O
2.85x10O
1.24x10


4.2
4.2
4.8
2.5
3.2
3.0


2.2
2.2
2.5
1.8
2.0
1.5


2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.5
1.5


5.80xl07
7.1 0x10
3.42x108
1.10x10l
9.88x107
7.25x107


,,,I -






-11-


The data presented indicate that the addition of color in bologna masked
the flavor, aroma and bacteriological condition of the bologna after 16
days of storage at 3o8 F. It may be seen that the desirability of color
or attractiveness of the colored bologna decreased only slightly during
storage compared to the uncolored bologna whereas after 10 and 13 days
of storage, flavor and aroma of all bologna was borderline in acceptability
and after 16 days of storage the bologna lacked acceptability in flavor
and aroma.

It should be pointed out that among the uncolored blocks of bologna
the two higher protein blocks were more desirable in color or attractive-
ness than the lower protein block both initially after four days of stor-
age and consistently throughout the storage period. To interpret this
point to mean that in uncolored bologna higher protein content could mask
deterioration in flavor and aroma to a certain extent would be stretching
the small point. Protein level had only a minor affect on color or attrac-
tiveness deterioration during storage compared to added color.

Neither added color nor level of protein influenced rate of deterior-
ation during storage according to flavor, aroma and bacteriological data.

Summary

Bologna containing internal color appeared more attractive or
leanner than uncolored bologna.

Colored bologna outsold uncolored bologna indicating that added
color enhanced sales.

Among the uncolored blocks of bologna, the two higher protein levels
appeared more attractive or leanner than the lower protein bologna.

Adding color to the lower protein bologna provided a more attrac-
tive product than that obtained by increasing protein content.

Level of protein in the bologna did not influence consumer prefer-
ence as determined by sales test.

In light induced fading studies, colored bologna retained an accep-
table degree of color or attractiveness for a significantly longer time
than uncolored bologna. Level of protein only slightly influenced light
induced fading; higher protein levels were somewhat less subject to fad-
ing.

The addition of color in bologna masked the flavor, aroma and bacter-
iological condition of the bologna by the 16b day of storage at 380 F.,
and possibly by the 13t day. The masking effect was not apparent earlier
since the bologna had not deteriorated sufficiently for added color to make
the product appear fresher than it tasted.




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