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 Introduction
 Experimental procedure - 1957...
 1958 trial - Effect of breed on...
 Summary and conclusion






Group Title: Animal husbandry and nutrition mimeograph series - University of Florida Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Dept. ; no. 61-2
Title: The effect of breed, alfalfa leaf meal and Stilbestrol implantation on steers at West Central Florida Experiment Station, Brooksville, Florida, 1957-1958
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072901/00001
 Material Information
Title: The effect of breed, alfalfa leaf meal and Stilbestrol implantation on steers at West Central Florida Experiment Station, Brooksville, Florida, 1957-1958
Series Title: Animal husbandry and nutrition mimeograph series
Physical Description: 8 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Burns, William C., 1926-
Koger, M.
Palmer, A. Z.
Kincaid, C. M.
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1961
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Beef cattle -- Breeding -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "January - 1961."
General Note: "USDA, ARS, Animal Husbandry Research and Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations cooperating."
Funding: Animal husbandry & nutrition mimeograph series ;
Statement of Responsibility: W.C. Burns ... et al..
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072901
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 77066983

Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Experimental procedure - 1957 trial
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    1958 trial - Effect of breed on feed lot performance
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Summary and conclusion
        Page 7
        Page 8
Full Text




Anial Husbandry and Nutrition USDA, ARS, Animal Husbandry
SMimeograph Series No. 61 Reseerch and Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations Cooperating 1/
January 1961


THE EFFECT OF BREED, ALFALFA LEAF MEAL AND STILBESTROL
IMPLANTAVTION ON STEERS AT WEST CRFNTRAL FLORIDA EXPERI-
MENV'STAT4ON, BROOKSVILLE, FLORIDA 1957-1958


W. C. Burns, M. Koger, A. Z. Palmer and C. M. Kincaid 2/

Introduction

The production of feeder steers is becoming more important to Florida

through the use of better bulls and better management. The area served by

the West Central Florida Experiment Station is better adapted to production

of feeder cattle than of fat slaughter calves because of the soil types,

moisture conditions and pastures prevalent in the area. This study was

conducted to evaluate steers from five different breeding herds to obtain

information that might be useful to cattlemen in this area in obtaining

greater returns from their beef cattle enterprise.

This report presents data relating to the effects of breeding, the

addition of alfalfa leaf meal to the ration and of Stilbestrol implants on

feed-lot gain, carcass grade, dressing percentage, and tenderness score of

steers fed as yearlings and slaughtered at approximately 18 months of age.



_/ In cooperation with Southern Regional Beef Cattle Breeding Project (S-10)

2/ Burns, Superintendant, West Central Florida Experiment Station; Koger
and Palmer, Animal Kasbandman and. Associate Animal Husbandman, respec-
tively, Floricda Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville; and
Kincaid, Regional Coordinator, S-10 Beef Cattle Breeding Project, Knox-
ville, Tennessee.







2 -
-2-

Experimental Procedure

The steers in this test were of Angus, Brahman, Brahman-Angus, Hereford

and Santa Gertrudis breeding. They were weaned in August, carried through

the winter on pasture with supplemental feeds and were put in the dry lot

in the spring at an average age of 11 months for surae- feeding. The steers

were slaughtered locally, in August. Carcasses were scored by Federal

graders to the nearest third of a grade after a 48 hour chill, steaks from

the 12th and 13th rib area were obtained for tenderness determination in

the Meats Laboratory at the Unhiversity of Florida. The final live weights

were reduced three percent to be uniform with reports from other feeding

trials in the State.


1957 Trial

Table 1 presents the results from the 1957 feeding trial. Steers were

fed 11?. days from April 9 to August 3, 1957.

Thirty-six steers of the five breeds wereallottedto four groups accord-

ing to breed and weight to study the response of Stilbestrol implants and

alfalfa leaf meal in the ration on gain and various carcass characteristics.

Cottonseed meal was fed at the rate of 2.3 lbs. per head daily throughout

the trial. Ecual parts of ground snapped corn, citrus pulp, citrus molasses,

and grass hay vas fed free choice. The average feed intake and treatment

of each lot are shown in Tablze ..

The addition of alfalfa leaf meal. to the ration showed no influence

on gain or any of the c. rc.. characteri-tics .tud.Led. Stilbestrol in-

creased feed-lot gsiu but re.uced dressing percentage, having little influ-

ence on carcass weights. Carcass grades were significantly lowered by

Stilbestrol and income was reduced by an average of $19.00 per steer.


e I





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Table 1. RESULTS FROM 1957 FEEDING TRIAL


Lot 1 Lot 2 Lot 3 Lot 4
30 mg. 0.2 lbs. 30 mg.
Control Stilbestrol Alfalfa leaf Stilbestrol plus
implanted meal per day Alfalfa leaf meal
Number of Steers 9 9 9 9
Initial weight, lbs. 513 505 504 508

Feeder grade l/ 10.6 10.4 10.2 10.3

Final weight, lbs. 2/ 755 783 745 770

Av. daily gain, lbs. 2.2 2.5 2.2 2.3

Daily ration, lbs.
Cottonseed meal 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3
Ground snapped corn 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7
Citrus pulp 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7
Citrus molasses 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7
Alfalfa leaf meal --- 0.2 0.2
Grass hay 5.4 4.9 5.2 3.9

Feed/100 lbs. gain, lbs. 1147 933 1147 919

Carcass weight, lbs. 433 443 436 441

Dressing percent 53.0 57.2 53.5 57.2

Carcass scores
Conformation l/ 10.0 9.9 10.8 9.4
Outside finish / 10.6 9.8 10.4 9.4
Marbling score 3 2.7 1.7 2.8 2.2
Federal grade Y 3.8 7.7 8.8 7.9
Steak tenderness 4/ 9.6 9.6 9.0 3.3

Gross income per steer $155.00 137.00 153.00 133.00

Profit per steer 5/ $ I .60 8.20 19.20 9.40

SScore of 7 = average standard; 3 = high standard; 9 = low good, etc.
Final feed-lot weights less 3;I shrink
SScore of 1 = devoid; 2 = practically devoid; 3 = traces, etc.
SHarner-Bratzler shear resistance, 1/2 inch core from loin steak
/ Gross income minus (value of feeder steer + feed and labor costs)







-4 -


Table 2. RESULTS FROM 1958 FEEDIIG TRIAL


Lot 1 Lot 2 Lot 3 Lot 4
15 ag. 30 mg. 45 mg.
Control Stilbestrol Stilbestrol Stilbestrol
implant implant implant
Lumber of Steers 9 9 9 9

Initial weight, lbs. 554 545 544 539

Feeder grade l/ 9.1 9.6 9.4 9.1

Final weight, lbs. 2/ 839 836 854 863

Av. daily gain, lbs. 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.3

Daily ration, lbs.
Cottonseed meal 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Ground snapped corn 9.0 8.9 9.1 9.1
Citrus pulp 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Cracked corn 1.9 1.8 1.9 1.9
Citrus molasses 5.8 5.6 5.3 5.3
Hay 4.4 6.0 5.2 5.3

Feed/100 lbs. gain, lbs. 1220 1259 1166 1117

Carcass weight, lbs. 501 483 513 513

Dressing Percent 59.7 53.4 60.1 60.0

Carcass scores
Conformation i/ 10.3 9.9 10.1 9.9
Outside finish 10.3 9.7 10.7 10.2
warbling score 3/ 3.4 3.6 3.3 3.2
Federal grade l 3.7 3.8 9.2 8.9

Steak tenderness 4/ 10.4 11.3 10.3 11.0

Gross income per steer $207.00 203.00 215.00 214.00

Profit per steer 5/ $ 13.17 10.64 24.29 25.91

Score of 7 = average standard; 8 = high standard; 9 = low good, etc.
SFinal feed-lot weights less 35 shrink
SScore of 1 = devoid; 2 = practically devoid; 3 = traces, etc.
warner-Bratzler shear resistance, 1/2 inch core from loin steak
SGross income minus (value of feeder steer + feed and labor costs)








-5-

1958 Trial
Table 2 shows the results from the 1958 feeding trial. Steers were

fed 139 days from March 11 to July 28, 1958.

The steers were allotted the same as in the 1957 trial. The ration

consisted of 2.25 lbs. 41% cottonseed meal per head daily, 50% ground

snapped corn, 35% citrus molasses; 15% cracked corn; Vitamin A supplement

and grass hay free choice.

Live weight gains, carcass weight and income per steer were increased

slightly by Stilbestrol at the 30 and 45 mg. level. However, differences

between treated and control animals were not statistically significant.

The interaction between Stilbestrol treatment and years was sig-

nificant at the 1% level indicating that for some reason steers responded

to Stilbestrol differently during the two years. The reason is unknown

but may be related to differences in rations during the two years or the

fact that steers were fed to heavier weights in 1958 and were fatter at

slaughter. This increased finish in 1958 was not reflected completely in

carcass grades due apparently to the heavier cattle in 1958 being classified

as older animals, although age was actually slightly greater in 1957.


Effect of Breed on Feed Lot Performance

Table 3 presents the feed lot performance by breeds. The values shown

are the average for the two trials. All breed groups had similar treatment

from birth to end of the feeding trial.

Santa Gertrudis and Brahman-Angus steers were heaviest at the start of

the trial while Herefords were the lightest. The steers were fed in groups,


SI







-6-


Table 3. FEED LOT PERFORMANCE BY BREEDS


Angus Brahman Brahman- Hereford Santa
Angus Gertrudis

Number of Steers 16 8 16 16 16

Initial Weight, lbs. 500 495 566 437 619

Feeder grade score 11.7 8.3 9.6 10.9 8.3

Final weight, lbs. 2/ 736 782 831 716 952

Av. daily gain, lbs. 1.9 2.3 2.1 2.2 2.7

Carcass weight, lbs. 428 463 495 412 560

Dressing Percent 5/ 58.1 59.2 59.6 57.5 58.8

Carcass scores
Conformation l/ 10.8 8.8 9.9 10.4 9.4
Outside finish 1/ 11.0 9.9 10.0 10.1 9.6
Marbling Score 3/ 3.6 2.3 3.1 2.7 2.6
Federal grade l 9.8 7.9 8.4 8.7 7.8

Steak tenderness / 9.5 12.5 9.9 9.5 9.9

Total income per steer $170.00 170.00 184.00 158.00 198.00


SScore of 7 = average standard; 8 = high standard; 9 = low good, etc.
Final feed-lot weights less 3% shrink
Score of 1 = devoid; 2 = practically devoid; 3 = traces, etc.
Warner-Bratzler shear resistance, 1/2 inch core 'from loin steak
SCarcass weight chilled 24 hrs./final weight








-7-

consequently, feed efficiency by breeds could not be determined. The Santa

Gertrudis steers had the best daily gain on feed (2.7 lbs.), followed by

the Brahman (2.3 lbs.), Hereford (2.2 lbs.), Brahman-Angus (2.1 lbs.) and

Angus (1.9 lbs.). Angus carcasses graded highest, followed by those from

the Hereford, Brahman-Angus, Brahman and Santa Gertrudis. Steaks from

Angus and Hereford steers were the most tender as determined by the

Warner-Bratzler shear test, followed by those from the Brahman-Angus and

Santa Gertrudis, with the Brahman being least tender. The dressing per-

cent was highest in the Brahman-Angus (59.6%), followed by the Brahman

(59.2%), Santa Gertrudis (58.8%), Angus (58.1%) and Hereford (57.5%).


Summary and Conclusion

Yearling steers from five different breeds were fed for two years

during the summer months to study the effects of breed, the addition of

alfalfa leaf meal to the ration and of implanting Stilbestrol on daily

gain, carcass grade, dressing percent, and tenderness score. The addition

of alfalfa leaf meal to the ration showed no effect on daily gain or on the

carcass characteristics studied. The stilbestrol implants increased gain

but decreased carcass grades significantly during the first year of the

trial. Stilbestrol depressed dressing percent the first year, but had no

significant effect the second year. Tenderness score was not affected.

The Santa Gertrudis steers gained most in the feed-lot while Angus

steers gained the least. Angus carcasses graded highest while those from

the Santa Gertrudis graded the lowest. Dressing percentage was highest in

the Brahman-Angus, followed by the Brahman, Santa Gertrudis, Angus and


* *








-8-

Hereford. Steaks from the Angus and Hereford steers were tenderest,

Brahman-Angus and Santa Gertrudis were intermediate with the Brahman steaks

being lowest in tenderness.







































An. Husb.
rm/l/4/60
200 copies




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