| Material Information
||Feed additives in starter rations
||Animal husbandry and nutrition mimeograph series
||4 p. : ; 28 cm.
||Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
Vandepopuliere, Joseph Marcel, 1929-
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
||Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
||Place of Publication:
||Feed additives -- Research -- Florida ( lcsh )
Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida ( lcsh )
||government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
||Statement of Responsibility:
||by G.E. Combs, H.D. Wallace and J.M. Vandepopuliere.
||Animal husbandry & nutrition mimeograph series ;
| Record Information
||University of Florida
||All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
||oclc - 76970469
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. 60-7 Experiment Station
DEC 1959 ,. Gainesville, Florida
.FEED ADDITIVES IN STARTER RATIONS.,
by. ..' ::
G. E. Combs, H. D. Wallace and J. M. Vandepopulierel'
An increasing number of potential growth promoting agents are becoming avail-
able for use in swine feeds. Prior to recommending their use it is necessary to
compare their effectiveness with recognized growth promotants when used singly
or in combination with pigs of various ages.
The present report is concerned with an evaluation of several antibacterial
agents when added to starter rations for pigs weaned at an early age.
Two experiments were conducted with pigs weaned at 2 weeks of age. Similar
management and feeding procedures were followed in both experiments; all pigs
were injected with an iron-dextran compound at 3 days of age; when 2 weeks old
they were randomly allotted from outcome groups to the various treatments; all
ration treatments were self-fed; wood shavings were used as bedding in concrete-
floored pens and heat lamps were used to provide supplemental heat.
Ration treatments were as follows:
1. Basal ration
2. Basal ration plus 80 grams of oleandomycin/ton of ration
3. Basal ration plus 19 grams of arsenosobenzene/ton of ration
4. Basal ration plus a mixture of 25 grams streptomycin and25 grams
of sulfaquinoxaline/ton of ration.
1. Basal ration
2. Basal ration plus a mixture of 40 grams oxytetra'ycIine ,"2 grams
procaine penicillin and 20 grams streptomycin/tgn i6frt iopn
3. Basal.ration plus a mixture of 40 grams oleand6mycin, 20 ams
procaine penicillin and 20 grams streptomycin/ton.of feed
4. Basal ration plus 40 grams of oleandomycin/ton of rafion
The composition of the basal rations is presented in Tab;te. l.
Combs and Wallace, Assistant and Associate Animal Husbandman and Vandepopuliere,
Research Assistant, respectively, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. The
assistance of W. E. Coll ins and L. S. Taylor, Swine Herdsmen, is gratefully
This study was supported in part by funds and materials from American Cyanamid
Company and Chas. Pfizer and Company, Incorporated.
Table I. COMPOSITION OF BASAL RATIONS
Ingredient 1st 4th 5th 6th
Ground yellow corn 22.15 76.70
Cane sugar 22.25
Dried skimmilk 40.00 ---
Soybean meal 9.00 15.00
Tankage --- 4.00
Lard 3.00 ---
Salt .50 :.50
Trace minerals I/ .10 .10
Steamed bone meal 1.00 .00
Ground limestone --- .70
Vitamin premix 2/ 2.00 2.00
TOTAL 100.00 100.00
j/ Supplied the following in the ration (ppm): manganese (35.5), iron (43.8),
copper (3.0), cobalt (1.0), zinc (50.0) and potassium (4.7)
2/ Composition of vitamin premix:
Grams for 2 lb. mix
Vitamin A (10,000 I.U./gm.) 15.00
Vitamin D ( 9,000 1.U./gm.) 4.54
Choline chloride (25%) 200.00
Pantothenic acid .80
Parvo (3% folic acid) 16.60
Vitamin BI2 (9mg./lb.) 80.00
Soybean meal 589.81
Results and Discussion
A summary of the results for Experiments I and 2 is presented in Table
In Experiment I the differences in both average daily gain and feed
efficiency among the various treatments were not statistically significant.
However, it is evident that all of the additives were effective in stimulating
rate of gain; the percent increase over the basal group was approximately 26 ,
17 and 30 percent, respectively for the groups receiving oleandomycin, arse-
nosobenzene and streptomycin-sulfaquinoxaline. Efficiency of feed utilization
was also slightly improved by all three of the additives. Although no serious
outbreak of scouring was observed with any of the treatments daily observations
showed that the frequency and duration of this condition was less in the strep-
tomycin S.Q. group.
In Experiment 2 the use of either oxytetracycline or oleandomycin :n ,
combination with penicillin and streptomycin resulted in a statistically
significant improvement in growth rate. While the difference between the
basal and oleandomycin groups was not statistically significant the daily
gain figures show that the efficacy of the various antibiotic treatments
was approximately the same. As in experiment I the feed efficiency was
only slightly improved by the addition of antibiotics.
The addition of oleandomycin, arsenosobenzene or a streptomycin-sulfa-
quinoxaline mixture to starter rations increased average daily gains 26, 17
and 30 percent, respectively.
A similar growth response was obtained when oleandomycin was fed singly
or In combination with penicillin and streptomycin and within oxytetracycline
None of the feed additives resulted in a marked improvement in feed ef-
ficiency. The percent improvement over the controls ranged from 2 per cent
(oleandomycin -- Experiment 2) to 8 percent (streptomycin-S.Q. -- Experiment
Table 2. FEED ADDITIVES FOR STARTER RATIONS
Av. initial wt., lbs.
Av. final wt., Ibs.
Av. daily gain, lbs.
Av. daily feed, Ibs.
Lb. feed/lb. of gain, Ibs,
Days on test
benzene / /
I/ Arsenosobenzene is sold under.-the
Cyanamid Company; Arzene contains
trade name Arzene by the American
approximately 19 gm. arsenosobenzene
Basal Oxytetracycline Oleandomycin Oleando-
Treatment: + Penicillin 4 Penicillin mycin
+ Streptomycin + Strepto-
Number pigs 10 10 10 10
Av. initial wt., Ibs. 11.4 11.4 11.4 11.4
Av. final wt., Ibs. 48.1 54.5 54.7 52.4
Av. daily gain, Ibs. .88* 1.03 1.03 .93
Av. daily feed, Ibs. 1.79 2.03 1.98 1.96
Lb. feed/lb. gain, tbs. 2.04 1.97 1.92 2.00
Days on test 42 42 42 42
* significantly lower than treatments I and 2 (P / .05)