Group Title: Animal husbandry and nutrition mimeograph series - UF Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition ; no. 60-2
Title: Beef cattle production data from the West Central Florida Experiment Station from 1953 to 1958
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072887/00001
 Material Information
Title: Beef cattle production data from the West Central Florida Experiment Station from 1953 to 1958
Physical Description: 9 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Burns, William C., 1926-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1959
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Beef cattle -- Breeding -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "July - 1959."
Funding: Animal husbandry and nutrition mimeograph series - UF Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition ; no. 60-2
Statement of Responsibility: W.C. Burns ... et al..
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072887
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 76968113

Full Text




-S





Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. 60-2 Experiment Station
Gainesville, Florida
July 1959

BEEF CATTLE PRODUCTION DATA FROM THE
WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
FROM 1953 to 1958

by

W. C. Burns, M. Koger, A. C. Warnick and C. M. Kincald I

INTRODUCTION

In 1952 a beef cattle breeding project cooperative between the U. S.
Department of Agriculture and the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
was approved for the West Central Florida Expe-iment Station. The objectives
of this project are (I) to improve the reproductive efficiency and meat pro-
ducing qualities of different strains of beef cattle under Florida conditions;
(2) to test various breeding systems with these cattle; and (3) to determine
if the combining ability of breed groups can be improved by cross-progeny
testing.

There are at present five breeds of cattle, consisting of 269 females of
breeding age. Records are kept on all phases of production. The results
obtained to date have indicated some trends and problems in raising beef
cattle under Florida conditions. Generalizations on breed comparisons should
not be made, however, since the herds were in varying stages of formation
during this period.

Sources of Foundation Herds, Selection and Culling Practices

(a) Angus: Foundation cattle were obtained from the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station, private concerns and transfers from other
U.S.D.A. Stations. The first cattle came to the Station in
1954, with additions being made annually since that time.



Burns, Superintendent, West Central Florida Experiment Station; Koger and
Warnick, Animal Husbandman and Associate Physiologist, respectively, Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station, Gaineslilie; Kincaid, Regiodal Coordinator,
S-Q1 Beef Cattle Breeding Project, Knoxville, Tennessee.








-2-


(b) Brahman: Most foundation animals were obtained from a prominent breeder
in Texas in 1950. A few head were transferred from the Main
Station, Gainesville, in 1953 and 1954.

(c) Brahman-Angus: Crossbred bulls have been mated to crossbred females.
Some animals have the 3/8 5/8 blood proportion of the Brangus,
others do not. The first cattle were transferred from the U.S.
D.A., Jeanerette, Louisiana in 1950, with an additional transfer
being made in 1958.

(d) Hereford: Obtained from the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, by
buying drought-stricken heifers in Texas and purchased from one
Florida breeder. A few breeding age cattle were obtained in 1952
with periodic additions since.

(e) Santa Gertrudis: Fifteen top heifer calves per year were obtained on
lease from a private individual for three years beginning in
1952. These calves were grown out and put in the breeding herd
as two year olds. Six additional heifers were loaned by other
breeders but left no female progeny in the herd.

The selection and culling practices during the formative years were not
rigid because the number of cattle in some breeds was being increased and
reproduction has been low in others. All of the heifer calves were kept and
ten percent in each breed group were culled as long yearlings. All non-
pregnant two year old heifers were culled each fall. The mature cows were
culled on the basis of being open for two years or for being incapable of
raising a calf.

Reproduction

The females two years of age and older in each herd were divided into
two breeding herds for 90 days, from March 15 to June 15, Pregnancy rate
determined by rectal palpation of the uterus at weaning time is shown in
Table I. The pregnancy rates shown in Table I are slightly different from
those in the weaning data (Table 2), because Table I includes data only from
cows that were at the Station during the breeding season, while Table 2 in-
cludes some records from purchased cattle that were pregnant.

The pregnancy rate in general has been low, especially in the three year
old heifers that were nursing a calf. Nursing lowered reproduction in the I
three year old animals in all breeds with the greatest decrease occurring in!
the Brahman, Brahman-Angus and Santa Gertrudis groups. Lactation appeared
also to interfere with pregnancy in older cows to a lesser extent, with the
most marked influences appearing in the Brahman and Santa Gertrudis. Culling
for low reproductive rates has been practiced with apparent beneficial results
in some groups. In other groups, however, adequate numbers of replacements were
not available due to low reproduction and little progress is apparent at this time.









- 3 -


Table I. PREGNANCY RATE AT WEANING IN COWS CLASSIFIED
BY AGE, BREED, AND LACTATION STATUS, 1953-1958


Age and B R E E D
Lactation Angus Brahman B x A Here- Santa SG x Red All
Status ford Gertrudis RP Poll Breeds

Two years:
a) nursing 33.3 83.3 66.7
b) non-nursing 84.8 68.4 87.5 90.9 76.1 100.0 85.7 81.8
c) all cows 84.8 68.4 84.3 90.0 76.1 100.0 85.7 81,3

Three years:
a) nursing 90.5 30.0 30.6 59..5 34.1 50.0 54.5 47.1
b) non-nursing 100.0 83.3 75.0 90.9 83.3 100.0 80.0 84.8
c) all cows 90.9 42.3 35,0 66.7 49.2 57.1 62.5 55.0

Four years & older
a) nursing 87.3 56.6 76.5 84.1 57.6 55.6 46.4 71.9
b) non-nursing 100.0 89.2 95.5 92.3 90.0 50.0 70.0 88.6
c) all cows 88.6 67.3 80.7 85.1 65.8 52.9 52.6 75.6

All ages:
a) nursing 88.0 51.0 67.2 77.1 48.0 53.3 48.7 65.4
b) non-nursing 88.1 79.0 90.6 91.2 80.0 66.7 79.3 84.3
c) all cows 88,1 63.8 75.0 81.9 64.4 59.3 61.8 72.9

Total Number
of cows; 134 177 288 199 205 27 68 1098

Santa Gertrudis x Red Polled


iAngus cattle have had the highest reproduction rate, followed by Herefords
with the Santa Gertrudis and Brahman being lowest.

Weaning Data

Table 2 shows a five-year summary of the weaning performance for each
breed or group.

The weaning weight ger calf weaned was heaviest in the Santa Gertrudis,
446 Ibs.; followed by Brahman-Angus, 404 Ibs.; Brahman, 378 Ibs.; Angus, 339
lbs.; and Hereford lowest with 330 Ibs.









-4-


Table 2. FIVE-YEAR SUMMARY OF WEANING DATA
BY BREEDS FROM 1954-1958


BREED
Angus Brahman Brahman Hereford Santa SG x RP*
Angus Gertrudis
No. cows bred III 146 242 175 155 76


Calving rate


87.7


Weaning percent

Av. age at weaning

Av. feeder grade

Av. slaughter grade

Av. weaning weight:
per calf weaned
per cow bred

Av. 205-day weight:
per calf weaned
per cow bred

Av. adjusted weight:
per calf weaned
per cow bred


Av. feeder
per calf
per cow


value: I
weaned
bred


65.2


87.0 58.9


236

10.6


198

8.6


8.3 8.3


360
313


317
276


339
295


56
49


355
209


359
211


378
223


56
33


Av. slaughter value: I
per calf weaned 49 55 60 46 67
per cow bred 43 32 43 34 44


Adjusted weight
good at 160; and


x value per pound.
Choice at 190.


Standard calves valued at 130;


Santa Gertrudis x Red Polled.


66.3


69.0


76.6

71.6

202

9.0

8.8


382
274


380
272


404
289


61
44


80.9


74.4

210

10.5

7.6


316
235


302
225


330
246


55
41


66.3

213

8.7

8.8


435
288


413
274


446
296


66
44


60.1

215

8.7

8.5


427
257


401
241


430
258


64
38


--
---








-5-


The weaning weight per cow bred (average weight of calf x weaning percent)
was heaviest in the Angus with 313 Ibs. followed by Santa Gertrudis (288 Ibs.),
Brahman-Angus (274 Ibs.), Hereford (235 Ibs.), and Brahman with 209 Ibs.

The average feeder calf value per calf at weaning was $66 for Santa
Gertrudis, $64 for SG x Red Poll, $61 for Brahman-Angus, $56 for Angus and
Brahman and $55 for Herefords. Feeder calf value per cow bred was highest
for the Angus at $49 followed by Brahman-Angus and Santa Gertrudis at $44,
Herefords at $41, Santa Gertrudis x Red Poll at $38 and Brahman at $33. The
average slaughter values per calf at weaning ranked as follows by breed groups:
Santa Gertrudis, $67; Santa Gertrudis x Red Poll, $63; Brahman-Angus, $60;
Brahman, $55; Angus, $49; and Hereford, $46. The average slaughter value
per cow bred was $44 for the Santa Gertrudis followed by $43 for Angus and
Brahman-Angus, $38 for SG x RP, $34 for the Herefords and $32 for the Brahman.

In brief, the Santa Gertrudis, Brahman-Angus and Brahmans weaned heavier,
fatter calves than did the Angus and Hereford. On the other hand, Angus and
Herefords had a higher reproduction rate making the annual production per cow
(average weight of calf x weaning percent) quite similar for all breed groups.

Post Weaning Gains of Heifers on Pasture

The weanling heifers were wintered on pasture with supplemental feed
consisting of I to 2 pounds of protein supplement, variable amounts of
energy feed, and hay until spring, after which time they were run together
until they were two years old. Tables 3 and 4 show the quarterly weights
and seasonal gains respectively for yearling heifers.


Table 3. AVERAGE QUARTERLY WEIGHTS OF
YEARLING HEIFERS 1956-1958


Number Average date of Weighing
Breed of
Animals .8/25 11/16 3/7 6/10 8/23
Ibs. Ibs. Ibs. Ibs. ibs.
Angus 24 338 393 451 523 581

Brahman 24 322 382 424 509 589

Brahman-Angus 42 365 412 459 541 618

Hereford 32 300 354 394 484 553

Santa Gertrudis 19 433 502 558 647 736

SG x RP II 385 442 502 598 683

Av. all breeds 152 357 414 465 550 627








6 -

Table 4. SEASONAL GAINS OF
YEARLING HEIFERS 1956-58


_PERI 0 D
Br eed 8/25 11/16 3/7 6/10 Total
to to to to yearly gain
11/16 3/7 6/10 8/23
Angus 55 58 72 58 243

Brahman 60 42 85 80 267

Brahman-Angus 47 47 82 77 253

Hereford 54 40 90 69 253

Santa Gertrudls 69 56 89 89 303

SG x RP 57 60 96 85 298

Av. All Breeds 57 51 85 77 270



The gains made the first year following weaning were heaviest in the
Santa Gertrudis, followed by Brahman with Hereford and Brahman-Angus the
same and the Angus lowest. Tables 5 and 6 show the quarterly weights and
seasonal gains of two-year old helfers.

Table 5. QUARTERLY WEIGHTS OF '
TWO-YEAR OLD HEIFERS 1956-58

Number Average date of Weighing
Breed of
Animals 8/25 11/8 3/3 6/17 8/22
Ibs. lbs. lbs. Ibs. lbs.
Angus 20 585 615 585 717 767

Brahman 18 594 648 618 735 800

Brahman-Angus 32 631 681 645 789 845

Hereford 23 560 597 586 741 790

Santa Gertrudis 31 735 795 767 882 954

SG x RP 12 653 730 699 828 899

Av. all breeds 136 626 678 650 782 843
i~ .. .. . ... . .
i= i- i ll I I 1 I i l- L I I I ..









- 7 -


Table 6. SEASONAL GAINS OF
TWO-YEAR OLD HEIFERS 1956-58

PERI OD
B r e ed 8/25 11/16 3/7 7/10 Total
to6 to to to yearlt sain
116 3/7 6/10 8/23
Angus 30 -30 132 50 182

Brahman 54 -30 117 65 206

Brahman-Angus 50 -36 144 56 214

Hereford 37 -11 155 49 230

Santa Gertrudis 60 -28 115 72 219

SG x RP 77 -31 129 71 246

Av. all breeds 52 -28 132 61 217



Gains made during the second year following weaning were heaviest in the
Hereford, followed by Santa Gertrudis, Brahman-Angus, Brahman, and lowest for
the Angus.

Seasonal Weights and Weight Changes in Cow Nerds

The different breeds of cattle were run together except during the 90-day
breeding season. The cattle received supplemental feed consisting of I to 2
Ibs. of protein supplement and hay for about 4 months during the winter. Tables
7 and 8 show the weights and seasonal weight changes by breeds.

The breeds that weaned the heaviest calves gained the most from weaning
until the November weight. The period from November to March was the most
critical time for the cow herd. The cows were calving and most of the feed
received was in the form of supplemental feed. The cows lost from 132 to 161
pounds each during this period. In general, the cows gained most of this loss
back during the breeding season and by weaning time had regained all the weight
loss.








8 -

Table 7. QUARTERLY WEIGHTS OF COWS
THREE YEARS AND OLDER 1956-1958

Number Average Date of Weighing
Breed of
cows 8/25 11/8 3/3 6/17 8/22
Ibs. Ibs. Ibs. Ibs. Ibs.
Angus 70 768 841 680 782 789

Brahman 77 911 1013 881 939 957

Brahman-Angus 107 858 955 792 879 883

Hereford 86 848 913 772 896 889

Red Poll 12 812 921 772 810 806

Santa Gertrudis 88 863 957 825 898 902

SG x RP 12 905 983 784 832 852

Av. all breeds 452 854 941 787 865 872




Table 8. SEASONAL GAINS OF COWS
THREE YEARS AND OLDER 1956-58

PER 0 OD
B r e e d 8/25 11/16 3/7 6/10 Total
to to to to yearly gain
11/16 3/7 6/10 8/23
Angus 73 -161 102 07 21

Brahman 102 -132 58 18 46

Brahman-Angus 97 -163 87 04 25

Hereford 65 -141 124 -07 41

Red Poll 109 -149 38 -04 -06

Santa Gertrudis 94 -132 73 04 39

SG x RP 78 -199 48 20 -53

Av. all breeds 87 -154 78 07 18











-9 -

Summary

Records were kept on the production performance of herds of five different
breeds of beef cattle during five formative years. During this time the cattle
were purchased from various sources and went through an adjustment period be-
fore becoming acclimated. The data reported are not conclusive, although
they point out some problems encountered in beef cattle production in Florida.
The project will continue in effect and additional data should accumulate be-
fore placing much reliance on comparative breed performance.

The Angus reproduced the best with a pregnancy rate of 88.1%, followed
by the Hereford with 81.9%; Brahman-Angus, 75.0%; Santa Gertrudis, 64.4%;
and Brahman, 63.8%. The weaning weight per cow bred was heaviest in the
Angus with 313 Ibs., followed by Santa Gertrudis with 288 Ibs.; Brahman-
Angus, 274 Ibs.; Hereford, 235 lbs. and Brahman, 209 Ibs, The gains made
by heifers the first year following weaning were heaviest in Santa Gertrudis
at 303 Ibs., followed by Brahman, 267 Ibs.; Hereford and Brahman-Angus, 253
Ibs.; and Angus 243 Ibs. Gains made during the second year following wean-
ing were heaviest in the Hereford, 230 Ibs., followed by Santa Gertrudis,
219 lbs.; Brahman-Angus, 214 lbs.; Brahman, 206 Ibs.; and Angus, 182 Ibs. The
most critical time for the cow herd was during the calving and wintering
period. However, most of the weight loss was regained by the end of the
90-day breeding season.



















An. Husb.
vh/6/18/59
500 copies


-' C




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs