| Material Information
||Some observations of enteritis of rabbits
||4 leaves : ; 28 cm.
||Arrington, Lewis Robert, 1919-
Simpson, Charles F ( Charles Floyd ), 1929-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
||Agricultural Experiment Station, Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
||Place of Publication:
||Rabbits -- Diseases -- Florida ( lcsh )
Enteritis -- Florida ( lcsh )
||bibliography ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
||Includes bibliographical references (leaf 4).
||nimal husbandry & nutrition mimeograph series - UF Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition ; no. 58-9
||Statement of Responsibility:
||L.R. Arrington and C.F. Simpson.
| Record Information
||University of Florida
||All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
||oclc - 76963928
Animal Husbandry & Nutrition Mimeograph Junes' 95 's ,
Series No. 5U-9 / c
SOME OBSERVATIONS ON ENTERITIS OF RABBITS c '
L. R. Arrington and C. F. SimpsonI '.
Enteritis is a common cause of mortality and morbidity among young
domestic rabbits. A study conducted at the U. S. abbit Ekperiment Station
showed that 50 per cent of the unweaned animals lost were affected with enteri-
tis (3). Intestinal coccidiosis is frequently also recognized as a very common
disease of rabbits. Mucoid enteritis, diarrhea, scours and bloat are terms
which have been used to identify an intestinal disorder not caused specifically
by coccidiosis. Symptoms vary in the disease and generally the name applied
is indicative of the type symptoms prevalent in the outbreak. Some workers
believe that the disease is viral or bacterial in origin; some feel that it is
associated with coccidiosis and others think that it may be nutritional in
nature (2). The cause or causes of this widespread problem are unknown and no
specific treatments are available. The period of life during which most trouble
is experienced occurs from the time the young begin to come out of the nest box
at about three weeks of age until they are weaned at eight weeks.
Antibiotics have provided some reduction in the incidence of enteritis
but have not provided satisfactory control (4). Within recent months, nitro-
furazone has been shown effective in reducing the incidence, but experiments
conducted with this drug have not been sufficient to make a complete evaluation
at this time.
The purpose of this paper is to report the observations made on the
intestinal disorders occurring during the past 16 months at this station.
Additional reports of progress will be released as new information becomes
Arrington, Associate Animal Nutritionist, Department of Animal Husbandry
and Nutrition; Simpson, Veterinarian, Department of Veterinary Science, Florida
Agricultural EMperiment Station, Gainesville.
In the course of experiments designed to investigate the nutritional
requirements of rabbits, outbreaks of enteritis causing considerable mortality
and morbidity were observed. Recognizing the importance of this disease, efforts
were made to study all natural occurring outbreaks of enteritis that developed.
No effort was made to induce or transmit the disease.
Rabbits were housed in multiple tier metal cages under adequate shel-
ter. Housing and management conditions were similar to those of well-kept
commercial rabbitries. Good sanitary practices were followed using fresh cages
for each litter and using a disinfectant spray weekly on the cages and litter
pans. Litter pans were cleaned and manure removed twice weekly.
Two different commercial rabbits rations (pellets)* were fed during
the experimental period. Lactating does and growing young were fed ad libitum.
A small quantity of timothy hay was provided twice each week, but no green
or succulent feeds were given.
During the latter portion of the experimental period, limited trials
were conducted using nitrofurazone as a treatment for diarrhea. The soluble
form (commonly known as soluble Furacin or N. F. Z.) was added to the drinking
water for seven days. 'his treatment was started as soon as any evidence of
diarrhea appeared in a litter.
Animals were observed daily for symptoms of intestinal disorder.
When a rabbit developed diarrhea and it appeared that it would not survive,
it was sacrificed and a post-mortem examination was made in the Veterinary
Science Laboratory. Gross pathology was studied and cultures of tissues were
prepared to isolate possible causative organisms.
* Purina Rabbit Checkers and Jim Dandy Rabbit Ration
- 3 -
Intestinal disorders, characterized primarily by diarrhea, were
observed during the 18 month period, but the appearance and duration of the
diarrhea were very sporadic. During some periods of several months, cases
of diarrhea developed in some of the young of approximately one half of the
litters. During other periods of eaual duration, no evidence of diarrhea was
present. These outbreaks were not specifically related to season, nor were they
related to a change of feed or management. In some instances all of the young
in a litter were affected; in others, only a part of the young developed diar-
rhea. A majority of the young affected recovered in two to four days without
any treatment and without any notable effect upon the weaning weight. Approxi-
mately 20 per cent of those affected died or had severe symptoms and were sac-
rificed for post-mortem examination.
Gross observations of the disorder were generally mild to moderate
diarrhea and at times the condition was more the nature of merely loose feces.
In less than five per cent of the cases was there any evidence of the mucoid
type enteritis. There was no evidence of bloat or constipation.
Post-mortem examinations did not reveal any consistent findings.
One rabbit had the liver form of coccidiosis, and a mildc case of intestinal
coccidiosis, but was not considered sufficient to cause the diarrhea present.
The mucosa of the cecum and the terminal portion of the small intestine of this
animal were edematous. Proteus mirabilis was isolated from the intestine and
liver. A Paracolon resembling E. coli was isolated from the liver and intestine
of another animal that died with diarrhea.
Treatment with nitrofurazone appeared to be effective in curing the
diarrhea, but specific conclusions cannot be made from these results. Approxi-
- 4 -
mately 75 per cent of the cases of diarrhea treated with soluble nitrofura-
zone in the drinking water responded in two days. The nature of the problem,
in which a number of the animals recover spontaneously without treatment,
makes it difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of any treatment.
Observations were made over an lb month period of some of the in-
testinal disorders of young rabbits. Numerous cases of diarrhea in mild to
severe form occurred. Little evidence of mucoid enteritis and no evidence of
hemorrhagic enteritis or bloat were apparent. Post-mortem examinations and
isolation tests did not reveal specific causes of the disorder. Nitrofurazone
gave some evidence of reducing the incidence and severity of the disease.
1. Casady, R. B. 195b. Personal communication.
2. Hagen, Karl. 1957. Use of furazolidone (nf-180) for prevention of enteri-
tis and Pasteurella-type pneumonia in rabbits. U. S. D. A. Babbit &Eperi-
ment Station Mimeo report.
3. Lund, E. E. 1951. Mortality among hutch-raised domestic rabbits. U. S.
D. A. Circular No. 883.
4. Templetom, G. S. 1955. Domestic rabbit production. The Interstate
Printers and Publishers, Danville, Illinois.