Group Title: Animal husbandry mimeograph series - University of Florida Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition ; 58-3
Title: The influence of cooling growing-finishing swine on gains and feed conversions
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 Material Information
Title: The influence of cooling growing-finishing swine on gains and feed conversions
Series Title: Animal husbandry mimeograph series
Physical Description: 5 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Haines, C. E
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
Publisher: University of Florida, Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1957
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: H.D. Wallace, G.E. Combs and C.E. Haines.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "October, 1957."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072866
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 76951578

Full Text



Animal Husbandry Mimeograph
Series No. 58-3 October, 1957

THE INFLUENCE OF COOLING GROWING-FINISHING
SWINE ON GAINS AND FEED CONVERSION'

H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs, Jr. and C. E. Haines2


Observations at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Swine Unit during
recent years have indicated that gains of pigs are not as good during the summer
period (May through October) as during the winter and early spring months. It seems
logical to assume that a part of this variation in seasonal gains is due to high
environmental temperatures.

In an effort to obtain better feeding efficiency during this summer period two
experiments were undertaken. One was conducted In dry lot (on concrete) and involved
the use of a fine mist spray for cooling purposes and the other was conducted on mil-
let pasture and made use of a lawn sprinkler mounted on the roof of a portable shade.

Experimental Procedure

Experiment I -- Forty weanling purebred Duroc and crossbred pigs were divided accord-
ing to initial weight, breed, and previous treatment into four similar lots. All lots
were self fed a ration consisting of the following Ingredients:

Up to 125 Ibs. After 125 Ibs.
Body Weight Body Weight

Ground yellow corn 76.3 84.3
Soybean oil meal 19.0 11.0
Vitamin premix 2.0 2.0
Ground limestone 1.0 1.0
Steamed bone meal 1.0 1.0
Iodized salt 0.5 0.5
Trace minerals 0.1 0.1
Antibiotic Supplement--Aurofac 10-A
(American Cyanamid Company) 0.1 0.1
100.0 100.0

IThe misting device used in Experiment I of this study was supplied through the
courtesy of Edwin J. Camson, Sales Manager, of Plant Products Corporation of Blue
Point, L. I., New York.

2Wallace, Associate Animal Husbandman; Combs, Assistant Animal Husbandman; and
Haines, Research Assistant, Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition, University
of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. The assistance of W. E. Collins and L. S. Taylor,
swine herdsmen, is gratefully acknowledged.






Two lots of the pigs (Lots I and 2) were cooled by means of a misting device
attached to the end of an ordinary hose. It was mounted between the two pens so
that the one unit very handily cooled the twenty pigs in the two lots. Feeders were
placed on the opposite sides of the pens to keep them dry. Ample dry area was also
available for the pigs to lie in when they desired. An attempt was made to have the
mist turned on at all times during the day when the temperature was above 750 F. It
was routinely turned off each evening at about 7 p.m. The pigs In Lots 3 and 4 were
fed and managed like those in Lots I and 2 except that they were not spray cooled.

Experiment 2 -- Sixty-four purebred Duroc and crossbred pigs were divided into two
similar lots according to initial weight, breed, and previous treatment. Each lot
of pigs was placed in a pasture of approximately one acre of Starr Millet which had
been drilled in 32 inch rows. During the course of the experiment the millet was
cultivated and clipped as necessary. Lush forage was available to both groups of
pigs throughout the test. Both lots of pigs were self fed a ration consisting of
the following ingredients:

Up to 125 Ibs. After 125 Ibs.
Body Weight Body Weight
Ground yellow corn 77.0 84.2
Soybean oil meal 20.2 13.0
Ground limestone 1.0 1.0
Steamed bone meal 1.0 1.0
Iodized salt 0.5 0.5
Trace minerals 0.1 0.1
Vitamin Supplement No. 2 (Pfizer) 0.1 0.1
Antibiotic Supplement TM-IO (Pfizer) 0.1 O.I
100.0 100.0
Pigs In Lot 2 were cooled by the use of a garden sprinkler positioned on the roof
of a portable shade. An attempt was made to keep the sprinkler In operation at all
times when the temperature was above 750 F, The control pigs (Lot I) were not cooled.

Results and Discussion
Results of Experiments I and 2 are summarized in Tables I and 2 respectively.
The data in Table I indicate that during the first four weeks of the experiment the
fine mist spray exerted little influence on the performance of the pigs. Average
daily gains, feed consumption, and feeding efficiency were not greatly different from
the control pigs. However, for the entire feeding period (91 days) the fine mist
spray produced significantly faster gains (P <.01). The sprayed pigs also consumed
more feed and converted It to pork more efficiently than the uncooled pigs, An
examination of the weekly weight gains revealed that most of the response obtained
from the spray occurred during the last three weeks of the experiment. This could
well be explained on the basis of the weather data presented in Table 3. It can be
seen that during the last 20 days of Experiment I the average maximum temperature
was 92.60 F. Thus, it was quite warm during this period and since the pigs were
getting close to market weight one would expect them to respond to a cooled
environment.







Table I. The Use of a Fine Mist Spray for
Cooling Pigs Fattened in Dry Lot

Treatment Fine Mist Spray Not Cooled

Lot No. 1 2 3 4
No. of Pigs 10 10 10 10
Av. Initial Wt., Lbs. 44.7 44.4 44.5 44.4
Av. Daily Gain
Ist 4 Weeks, Lbs. 1.46 1.47 1.37 1.52
A~. Dal ly Feed Consumption
Ist 4 Weeks, Lbs. 3.83 4.01 3.67 3.95
Feed/Lb. Gain
Ist 4 Weeks, Lbs. 2.52 2.65 2.47 2.53
Av. Final Wt., Lbs. 208.0 205.9 187.8 197.6
Av. Daily Gain
Entire Period, Lbs. 1.79 1.77 1.57 1.68
Av. Daily Feed Consumption
Entire Period, Lbs. 6.03 6.07 5.58 5.78
Feed/Lb. Gain
Entire Period, Lbs. 3.36 3.42 3.54 3.44
Total Days on Test 91 91 91 91



Table 2. The Use of a Sprinkling Device
for Cooling Hogs Fed on Millet Pasture

Treatment Not Cooled Sprinkled

Lot No. 1 2
No. of Pigs 31 29
Av. Initial Wt., Lbs. 41.2 41.2
Av. Final Wt., Lbs. 188.9 191.0
Av. Daily Gain, Lbs. 1.55 1.58
Av. Daily Feed Consumption, Lbs. 5.53 5.72
Feed/Lb. Gain, Lbs. 3.56 3.63
Total Days on Test 95 95


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Table 3. Temperature and Precdpitation Data
Collected During the Experimental Periodst


Period Av. Maximum Av. Minimum Total
Temperature Temperature Precipitation

(Experiment 1)
April 20-30 85.1 68.6 0.50
May 1-31 87.3 65.3 6.69
June 1-30 89.3 70.0 7.51
July 1-20 92.6 71.6 6.20

(Experiment 2)

June 4-30 89.6 70.2 7.48
July 1-31 91.9 71.9 8.72
August 1-31 89.8 71.3 10.33
September 1-7 89.1 71.3 1.71


Data supplied by the Agronomy Department, Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station and U. S. Weather Bureau. Taken at Agronomy Farm Weather Station, Gainesville
Florida. This station is located approximately 1/4 mile from the swine farm where
the experiments were conducted.


The data presented in Table 2 for the pasture experiment show no advantage for
the sprinkling. Gains of the pigs in the two groups were practically the same. The
pigs that were sprinkled ate more feed but did not convert it to pork quite as effi-
clently as the control pigs. These results were a bit surprising but again if we
turn to the weather data of Table 3 we may find the explanation. The maximum temper-
atures were highest during the month of July. At this time the pigs were relatively
small and heat would not bother them as much as when they reach heavier weights.
During the finishing period (August and September) the temperatures were signifi-
cantly lower and a great deal of rainfall resulted in a fairly comfortable environ-
ment. This may account for the ineffectiveness of the sprinkling,

Summary and Conclusions

Two experiments, Involving 100 pigs, have been conducted to study the value of
cooling growing-finishing swine during the hot summer months.

In a dry lot experiment very favorable results were obtained by the use of a
fine mist spray. Temperatures were quite warm during the finishing period and It
was observed that most of the response from the spray occurred during this period.
In the other experiment, which was conducted on millet pasture and involved the use
of a garden sprinkler for cooling purposes, no improvement in gains or feed conver-
sion was recorded. A possible explanation for these results was the relatively cool
temperatures and excessive precipitation which prevailed during the experimental
period,


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It is concluded that an effort should be made to cool swine, particularly during
the finishing period. The use of a fine mist spray worked very well in this study.
This method requires much less water than the sprinkling method and appears to be
quite efficient in the cooling process.









































HDW:is
10/23/57
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