Animal Husbandry Mimeograph
Series No. 57-5 Jandary, 1957
THE USE OF MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS TO REGULATE
THE CONSUMPTION OF SOYBEAN OILMEAL BY
PIGS HOGGING-OFF CORN
H. D. Wallace and G, E. Combs, Jr.
Soybean oilmeal is an excellent protein supplement for swine. It is
palatable, nutritious and is generally more uniform in quality than most other
commonly used protein supplements. The anticipated increase in the production
of soybeans in Florida as well as in certain other sections of the country
suggests that soybean oilmeal may become even more important as a supplemental
protein feed for swine than at present.
Soybean oilmeal has the disadvantage of being extremely palatable to pigs
and when fed free-choice with grain, they consume too much for an economically
balanced ration. Wallace et al. (I) demonstrated that a mixture of 2/3 ground
whole oats and 1/3 soybean oilmeal was a more economical supplement for pigs
hogging-off corn than either all soybean oilmeal or a mixture of 1/2 ground
whole oats and 1/2 soybean oilmeal.
This experiment was designed to study the value of certain mineral sup-
plements as diluents in soybean oilmeal, for the purpose of regulating its
consumption by pigs hogging-off corn.
Eighty pigs of purebred Duroc, purebred Hampshire, purebred Spotted
Polant China, and Duroc X Yorkshire breeding were divided into four similar
experimental groups according to weight, breed, and previous history. Each
Wallace, Associate Animal Husbandman and Combs, Assistant Animal n dma
Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition, University of Flor Gaines-
ville. The technical assistance of W. E. Collins and L. S. Taylf is grate-5'
fully acknowledged. \r 2'-
group was placed in a 2 acre plot of Dixiel8crn starting on September I, 1956.
An additional 2 acre plot of similar corn was harvested and a yield estimate
of 45 bu. per acre was established. This yield figure was used for the
estimation of corn consumed by the four experimental groups of pigs. Admit-
tedly, some error could be involved. Careful inspection of the 5 plots before
the start of the experiment indicated no noticeable differences in the amount
of corn present.
Water was provided the experimental animals by the use of automatic
watering devices and shade was provided by portable shades covered with
Supplemental mineral and protein were provided according to the following
Lot I (1) Soybean oilmeal self-fed.
(2) Mineral supplement (I part limestone, I part iodized
salt, I part steamed bonemeal) self-fed.
Lot 2 (I) Soybean oilmeal containing 8 percent of the mineral
supplement in Lot I self-fed.
Lot 3 (I) Soybean oilmeal containing 8 percent ground limestone
(2) Mineral supplement as in Lot I self-fed.
Lot 4 (I) Soybean oilmeal containing 16 percent ground limestone
(2) Mineral supplement as in Lot I self-fed.
Results and Discussion
The results of the experiment are summarized in Table I. All lots of
pigs performed satisfactorily. Pigs in Lot 2 gained slightly faster than any
of the other lots; however, the main difference in favor of this lot over all
others was the lower cost of gains. Pigs in Lot 1, which were fed soybean oilmeal
and the mineral supplement separately and free choice, ate an average of 1.39
Ibs. of soybean oilmeal per head per day. This is considerably more than re-
quired to balance the ration and is the chief reason for the high feed costs
TABLE I THE USE OF MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS TO REGULATE THE CONSUMPTION
OF SOYBEAN OILMEAL BY PIGS HOGGING-OFF CORN
__-------------- j ^
I 2 3 4
Lot No. (1) Soybean oilmeal (I) Soybean oilmeal (I) Soybean oilmeal (I) Soybean oilmeal
and containing 8% containing 8% containing 16,
Supplements I/ mineral supplement limestone limestone
(2) Mineral supplement (2) Mineral supplement (2) Mineral supplement
No, pigs per lot 20 20 20 20
Av. initial wt., Ibs. 87.2 86.9 86.5 86.9
Av. final wt., Ibs. 175.9 176.7 172.1 171.1
Av. daily gain, Ibs. 1.45 1.49 1,41 1.43
Feed consumed per pig
per day, lbs.
Soybean ollmeal 1.39 .94 .86 .54
Mineral supplement .022 .081 .013 .020
Ground limestone -- .075 .102
Shelled corn 4.23 3.91 4.23 4.90
Feed costs per 100 lb. $1
gain~/ $11.61 $9.80 $10.69 $11.10
&All supplements were self-fed
Soybean oilmeal $3.55/cwt.
Mineral supplement $4.00/cwt.
Ground limestone $1.O0/cwt.
in Lot 1. This lot consumed an inadequate amount of mineral for a properly
balanced intake, which may also&haveadversely affected overall feed costs.
The pigs in Lot 2 (fed soybean oilmeal containing 8% mineral supplement) ate
0.94 Ibs.soybean oilmeal per head per day. This is very close to the calcu-
lated daily protein requirements. The correct level of protein intake along
with a properly regulated balanced mineral consumption probably accounts for
-the better gains of this lot on considerably less feed. Lot 3, which was fed
8% of ground limestone mixed jn the soybean oilmeal plus the mineral supplement,
consumed about the correct revel-of soybean oilmeal but was much less efficient
than Lot 2, possibly because of a less balanced mineral intake. Lot 4, which
was fed 16% of ground limestone mixed in soybean oilmeal plus the mineral
supplement, consumed the least amount of soybean oilmeal. The consumption
of corn by Lot 4 was very heavy which accounts for the high cost of production
for this lot.
Eighty pigs, fed in four treatment groups, were used to demonstrate that
soybean oilmeal can be satisfactorily self-fed to swine hogging-off corn if
diluted with 8 percent of a mineral mixture (I part ground limestone, I part
steamed bonemeal, I part iodized salt).
The use of ground limestone as a diluent at 8 and 16 percent levels in
soybean meal proved less satisfactory. The 16 percent level of limestone was
particularly undesirable because it induced very heavy and uneconomical con-
sumption of corn.
The most costly treatment of the four studied, was a free choice feeding
of undiluted soybean oilmeal. Pigs ate considerably more than required.to
meet their protein needs and thus increased total feed costs.
I. Wallace, H. D., Larry Gillespie and John McKigney. 1954. Preliminary
observations on method of self-feeding soybean oilmeal to growing-fattening
pigs hogging-off corn. An. Husb. Mimeo. Series No. 5