Animal Husbanr Mtmeograph
Series No. 55-15 -
"C" SUGAR IN THE CREEP RATION OF SUCKLING PIGS'
G. E. Combs, C. E. Haines and H. D. Wallace2
Cane sugar, either refined or unrefined, has proven to be an ingredient that
increases the palatability of rations fed young pigs. The acceptance of starter
rations (1) and creep rations (2) has been enhanced by the addition of various
levels of refined cane eugar. More recent work (3) shows that while levels up
to 15 per cent of refined or unrefined sugar increased gains and feed efficiency
of early weaned pigs, inclusions of similar amounts of sugar from invert cane
molasses were not as effective.
The purpose of this study was to determine if "C" sugar, the residue of
white and brown sugar refining, increased the palatability of creep rations and
the level of sugar which proved most effective,
Sows and litters were removed from the farrowing stall when the pigs were
approximately one week of age and placed on an alfalfa-clover pasture. Creep
rations containing various levels of sugar were introduced as the first litter
in the lot reached 14 days of age. At 56 days of age the pigs were removed
from the experiment, thereby making a total of approximately 42 days in which
the pigs had access to the creep rations.
1. "C" Sugar supplied by Minford & Co., Inc., Fellsmere, Florida
2, Combs, Assistant Animal Husbandman; Haines, Graduate Assistant and Wallace
Associate Animal Husbandman, Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition.
The technical assistance of Mr. W. E. Collins, Swine Herdsman, is greatefully
The first 6 lots (100 pigs) were given a choice of consuming rations con-
taining 0, 10, 20, or 30 per cent sugar. The last 6 lots (168 pigs) had access to
rations that contained 10, 20, 30, or 40 per cent sugar. All rations were self-
fed in a portable pig creep and feeders were rotated weekly to prevent position
preference. For purposes of demonstrating the value of creep feeds, the weight
gains of a non-creep fed group (62 pigs) were compared to a similar number of pigs
that received a creep feed,
The composition of the basal ration is presented in Table 1.
Table I -- Basal Rationi
Ground yellow corn 71.17
Soybean oil meal 13,00
Salt-trace minerals2 .53
Vitamins and antibiotics 1.30
1. Sugar was added to this ration at the expense of corn. The percentage
protein was kept constant by increasing the amount of soybean oil meal
2. Salt-trace mineral mixture was composed of: iodized salt (50 Ibs,),
MnSO4 a H20(921 gm.) FeSO4 H20(398 gm.) CuSO4 5H20(125 gm.) CoCo3
(10 gm.) and ZnSO4 H20(350 g.n.).
3, Vitamin and antibiotic fortification included 4,580 1.U. vitamin A,
396 I.U. vitamin D per lb. of feed plus 0.2 and 0.1 pounds per 100 Ibs.
of feed of Lederle Fortafeed and Aurofac 10, respectively.
Results and Discussion
As indicated in Table 2, the pigs in all lots showed a decided preference
for rations containing sugar.
In the first 6 lots, the increase from 10 to 20 per cent sugar resulted In
approximately a fourfold Increase in feed consumption and the consumption was
nearly tripled when the sugar was increased from 20 to 30 per cent. The com-
paratively large consumption of the 30 per cent sugar ration and the near re-
fusal of the ration containing no sugar prompted the substitution of a 40 per
cent sugar ration for the one containing 0 per cent sugar.
Table 2 -- CONSUMPTION OF CREEP FEED BY SUCKLING PIGS
FED VARIOUS LEVELS OF "C" SUGAR
(FROM 2-8 WEEKS OF AGE)
Lot No. No. Pigs
100 17.5 141.0 566.0 1548.5
:; ----- ------ -I-
10 20 30 40
I 20 57.5 58,5 131.0 171.0
2 14 41.5 95.5 207.0 121.5
3 21 144.5 158,0 253.0 258,0
4 42 12.5 100,0 366.5 734.5
5 36 52.0 152.0 360.5 415.0
6 35 59.0 145.0 413,5 233.5
168 367.0 709.0 1731.5 1933,5
The last 6 lots were offered rations containing 10, 20, 30, and 40 per cent
sugar and the total feed consumption for each sugar level was 367, 709, 1731.5
and 1933.5 pounds respectively. These figures clearly demonstrate that the pigs
preferred the 30 and 40 per cent sugar rations.
While there was occasionally observed to be a few pigs in each lot that had
a tendency to scour, this condition never presented a major problem. The con-
sistency of the "C" sugar was such that small tumps were formed during the mix-
ing operation. However, since no sorting of the feed was observed, this problem
is of minor importance to the swine producer,
As shown in Table 3, the pigs that had access to creep rations weighed con-
siderably more at weaning time than pigs that were not creep fed.
Table 3 -- WEIGHT GAIN COMPARISON OF CREEP FED AND NON-CREEP FED PIGS
Ration Av, 56 day
Treatment No. Litters No, Pigs Av. Birth Weight weight
No creep feed 8 62 2,9 24,8
With creep feed II 74 3.1 40.5
A total of 268 suckling pigs were given access to creep rations that con-
tained 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 per cent "C" sugar. The pigs showed a marked pre-
ference for the rations containing 30 or 40 per cent sugar, with the greatest
consumption occurring with the 40 per cent sugar ration. These figures clearly
indicate that the presence of high levels of "C" enhances the palatability of
creep rations. As evidenced by the weight gained and physical appearance of the
pigs consumption of high level sugar rations had no detrimental effect on the
Pigs that were creep fed weighed an average of 15.7 pounds more at 56 days
of age than pigs not fed a creep ration,
I, Lewis, C. J., D, V. Catron, G, E. Combs and G. C. Ashton. 1953, Cane sugar
in pig starter. J. Animal Sci, 12:923.
2. McMillan, F. A. and H. D. Wallace, 1954. Palatability studies on creep feed
formulations for suckling pigs. J. Animal Sci. 13:39.
3. Dios, F., V. C. Speer, G0 C. Ashton, C. H. Lin and D. V. Catron. 196, Com-
parison of refined cane sugar, invert cane molasses and unrefined cane sugar
in starter rations for early weaned pigs. J. Animal Sci, 15:315.