Group Title: Animal husbandry mimeograph series - University of Florida Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition ; 55-13
Title: The value of Estrnorway (fraction of citrus oils) as a growth stimulant and parasite control for weanling pigs
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072855/00001
 Material Information
Title: The value of Estrnorway (fraction of citrus oils) as a growth stimulant and parasite control for weanling pigs
Series Title: Animal husbandry mimeograph series
Physical Description: 6 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
Publisher: University of Florida, Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1956
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Swine -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Swine -- Parasites -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: H.D. Wallace ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May, 1956."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072855
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 76942173

Full Text

Animal Husbandry Mimeograph
Series No. 55-13 May, 1956 *-


THE VALUE OF ESTRNORWAY (FRACTION OF CITRUS OILS) AS A GROIN, j!
STIMULANT AND PARASITE CONTROL FOR WEANLING PIGS

H. D. Wallace, David Aronson, Don C. Tomlin, Billy Bass
G. E. Combs and L. E. Swansonr-
(Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Department and Veterinary Science Departm
Cooperating)
A constant search is underway for new compounds which may be useful in

swine feeding. Recent interest in the possible feeding value of certain citrus

oils prompted this investigation. The product used in these experiments

consisted of d-limonene and various derivatives.

The experiments were designed to obtain information on the value of the

oil under different environmental conditions, namely in drylot (on concrete),

in drylot (access to soil), and on pasture. The product was also tested

both in the absence and presence of antibiotic, and in one experiment two

levels of the oil were compared.

Experimental
The experimental animals (purebred Duroc, Hampshire X Duroc, and

purebred Spotted Poland China) were divided into treatment groups according

to weight, breed and previous history.

The basal rations fed in the experiments are described in Table I. The

basal ration fed in Experiment I was fortified with 2000 I.U. of vitamin A,

10 micrograms of B12, and .45 gm. of Lederle Fortafeed 2-490 per pound. No

vitamin fortification was provided the pigs of Experiment II since they were

fed on pasture. The pigs of Experiment III were given the vitamin mixture

described in Table I.




IWallace, Associate Animal Husbandman; Aronson, Tomlin and Bass, Research
Assistants; Combs, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Department of Animal Husbandry
and Nutrition. Swanson, Parasitologist, Department of Veterinary Science.







Table I. Basal Rations


Experiment Number I 2 3


Ground yellow corn
Soybean oilmeal
Ground limestone
Steamed bonemeal
Trace Mineralized salt*
Vitamin premix**


79.0
19.0
1.0
0.5
0.5

100.0


79.0
19.0
1.0
0.5
0.5

T000o


78.5
17.0
1.0
1.0
0.5
2,0
100.0


* The trace mineralized salt used in Experiments I and 2 consisted of 1842 gm.
MnSO4*H20; 796 gm. FeSO4-H20; 250 gm. CuSO4*5H20; 20 gm. CcC03; and 100 Ibs.
iodized salt. The trace mineralized salt mixture used in Experiment 3
contained in addition to the above ingredients 350 gm. of ZnSO4'H20.


Vitamin A (10,000 l.U./gm.)
Vitamin 02 (9,000 l.U./gm.)
Vitamin E (44 I.U./gm.)
Vitamin B12 (I gm.= i mg. BI2)
Calcium pantothenate
Choline Chloride (25 percent)
Niacin
Thiamin
Riboflavin
Pyridoxine
Folic acid
Soybean oilmeal


ams.
20.00
2.20
9.10
0.50
0.30
160.00
1.00
0.10
0.09
0.06
0.05
714.60
908.00


The citrus oil was mixed with the total ration at levels indicated in

Table 0. These-tevels approximated daily intake of i ounce,or Ilounce per

pig. All rations were self-fed. Ample shade and water were provided the

animals at all times.

The various experimental regimes and feeding results are summarized in

Table 2.

Several of the animals from Experiments I and II were slaughtered at

the termination of the tests and worms present in the gastrointestinal tract

were counted. The results are shown in Table 3.






Results and Discussion

in Experiment I, which was conducted in concrete pens, the average daily

gains of the pigs receiving citrus oil was 1.39 Ibs. compared to 1.29 for the

controls (Table 2). Feed consumption was greater for the treated pigs, however,

the feed required per pound of gain was approximately the same for the two

lots. Since there were only 6 pigs per group these results were not conclusive

but did suggest that further study was justified. We also noticed in this

experiment that the treated pigs were passing roundworms regularly while no

worms were observed in the control pen.

Experiment II was conducted on pasture and the pigs were considerably

heavier initially than in the other two experiments. In this test the control

pigs actually out performed both treated lots by a small margin in terms of

average daily gains. It appeared that feed intake may have been adversely

affected by the feeding of I oz. per head per day of citrus oil, whereas the

lower level had practically no affect on feed intake.

In Experiment III it was desired to study the value of the citrus oil in

the absence of antibiotic. The average daily gains of the controls and

treated animals were practically the same. The control animals ate more

feed but were slightly less efficient in converting it to weight gains.

The citrus oil appeared to influence the palatability of the rations in

all experiments. The lower level of oil used in Experiment I and fed over

a relatively short period seemed to stimulate appetite. In Experiment II

the lower level of oil affected feed intake only slightly while the higher

level markedly reduced it. In Experiment III the higher level of oil again

reduced overall palatability of the ration as measured by feed intake. The

oil seemed to stimulate appetite in the early phases of all experiments but







TABLE 2 THE VALUE OF CITRUS OIL IN THE RATION OF GROWING-FATTENING SWINE


Experiment Number I II II


Environmental Drylot (Concrete pens) Pasture (Native Grasses) ;Drylot (Access to soil)


Terramycin 20 gm. 10 gm. None
added per ton of feed

Lot Number 1 2 I 2 3 1 2



Citrus Oil added
per 100 Ibs. of feed None 284 gm. None 284 gm. 568 gm. None 568 gm.

Number of pigs 6 6 9 9 8* It II
Av. initial wt., Ibs. 24.7 24.5 62.7 62.7 63.6 27.0 27.2
Av. daily gain, lbs. 1.29 1.39 1.74 1.68 1.65 1.52 1.48
Feed consumed per pig
per day, Ibs. 3.36 3.65 5.77 5.80 5.50 4.89 4.67
Feed consumed per lb.
gain, Ibs. 2.60 2.61 3.32 3.46 3.32 3.22 3.15
Days on experiment 56 56 663 63 63 91 91
,i ,I i


second week of experiment


* One pig died during


- cause undetermined.








TABLE 3. PARASITES PRESENT IN GASTROINTESTINAL
TRACT AT TERMINATION OF EXPERIMENTS

(Experiment I)

Pig Number and Treatment Ascarids

181 (control) 10

166 (control) 116

177 (1 oz. citrus oil/day) 6

119 ( oz. citrus oil/day) 51


Wh i s

105



36

20


(Experiment II)


309

390

149

406

105

439


(control)

(control)

(G oz. citrus oil/day)

(1 oz. citrus oil/day)

(I oz. citrus oil/day)

(I oz. citrus oil/day)


3

267

0

16

3

5


Animal Husb. Exp. Sta.
5/21/56
100 Copies
yd








then feed intake tended to drop off markedly toward the end of the tests in lots

receiving the high level of oil.

The parasite counts presented in Table 3 are not extensive enough to

permit definite conclusions. It is interesting that none of the treated pigs

were excessively infected while three of the four control animals studied

carried quite a large number of worms. If there was a worming effect from

the feeding of the citrus oil, it was not important in terms of the gains

and feed conversion of the experimental pigs.

Summery

Three experiments involving a total of sixty weanling pigs have been

conducted to determine the feeding value of a citrus oil product (d-limonene

and various derivatives).

The results as measured in terms of average daily gain, feed intake,

feed conversion, and parasite populations indicate that the product has

no beneficial affect when fed to healthy pigs which are receiving a well

balanced ration.

Acknowledgments



To Mar-Tay, Inc. Orlando, Florida we are indebted for supplying the

citrus oil. The Chas. Pfizer and Co., Terre Haute, Indiana, provided the

terramycin and certain of the B-vitamins used. The Fortafeed 2-49C Vitamin E

and certain other B-vitamins were contributed by Lederle Laboratories,

Pearl River, New York. The Vitamin A was supplied by Nopco Chemical Co.,

Harrison, New Jersey, and the Vitamin D by Dawes Laboratories, Inc.,

Chicago, illinois.




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