| Material Information
||Preliminary observations on the effect of source of water on rate of gain of growing-fattening pigs
||Animal husbandry mimeograph series
||6 leaves : ; 28 cm.
||Alsmeyer, Richard Harvey, 1929-
Cunha, T. J ( Tony Joseph ), 1916-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
||Agricultural Experiment Station, Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
||Place of Publication:
||Swine -- Water requirements -- Florida ( lcsh )
Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida ( lcsh )
Swine -- Growth -- Florida ( lcsh )
||government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
||Statement of Responsibility:
||R.H. Alsmeyer, T.J. Cunha, and H.D. Wallace.
| Record Information
||University of Florida
||All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
||oclc - 76925472
Animal Husbandry Mimeograph
Series No. 55-5 June, 1955
PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS ON THE EFFECT OF SOURCE OF WATER
ON RATE OF GAIN OF GROWING-FATTENING PIGS
R. H. Alsmeyer, T. J. Cunha, and H. D. Wallacel
The water supplies for animals in certain regions have such high concen-
trations of various salts as to interfere with growth, lactation and reproduction.
Studies by Heller2 have indicated that the damage due to these salts depend more
on the total amount of salts present than on any specific one, thus representing
an osmotic effect rather than an injury from any particular ion. In these
studies, sheep and cattle were more resistant to injury than swine. Further
work indicated that the cause of damage was not due to any influence on the pH
of the intestinal tract, digestibility, or nitrogen retention. As far as can
be determined there has been no previous work done in which the source of water
was considered as a factor affecting rate of gain in pigs.
This study was undertaken to determine the effect of different sources of
water on the performance of growing-fattening pigs.
Sixteen weanling Duroc and Hampshire pigs with an average initial weight
of 60 to 70 pounds (74 days old) were divided into four experimental groups
according to weight, sex, size, and previous treatment. Each lot contained
1Alsmeyer, Graduate Assistant, Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition;
Cunha, Animal Husbandman and Head, Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition;
Wallace, Associate Animal Husbandman, Department of Animal Husbandry and Nu-
trition. The technical assistance of W. E. Collins is gratefully acknowledged.
2Heller, V. G., Sallns and Alkaline Drinking Waters. J. Nutr. 5: 421-429. 1932.
The Effect of Saline and Alkaline Waters on Domestic Animals. Okla. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Bul. 217. 1933.
four animals; however, one pig in Lot III died on the first day and an animal
in Lot I never did well and was removed from the experiment prior to its termi-
nation. The animals were watered from concrete troughs which were operated by
an automatic float valve. Each waterer had a sixty liter reservoir tank which
was painted with two coats of aluminum paint. The twenty-five liter storage
cans, used for storing and transporting water, were painted with aluminum paint
also. Water from each different source was collected twice or three times
weekly as needed and excess water was stored in the large cans. Measurement of
water consumption was accomplished by means of a marked level in the reservoir
tank. The amount of water required to raise the level of the water in the reser-
voir tank to this marked level was considered to be the quantity to have been
consumed by each lot. Water consumption was recorded at seven day intervals.
The sources of water used were as follows:
Lot I Lake water from a fresh water, spring-fed lake (near
University of Florida Plant Introduction Gardens).
Lot II Pond water having a high percentage of microflora.
(Lake Alyce, University Farm Area).
Lot III Distilled water.
Lot IV Well water from a shallow well at University of Florida
The pigs were fed a ration consisting of the following ingredients and con-
taining approximately 12.6 per cent of crude protein.
Ground Yellow Corn 78.0
Soybean Oilmeal 15.0
Alfalfa Meal 5.0
Ground Limestone 1.0
Steamed Bonemeal 0.50
Salt-trace minerals 0.53
The pigs were self-fed the ration in pens with concrete floors which were
washed daily. The animals were removed from experiment after reaching approxi-
mately 190 pounds live weight,
The salt-trace mineral mixture used was composed of 50 pounds of iodized
salt; 921 gm. manganese sulfate; 398 gm. ferrous sulfate; 125 gm. copper sulfate;
and 10 gm. cobalt carbonate.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Results of the experiment are summarized in Table 1. Lot I pigs (lake water)
gained at an average rate of 1.49 lbs. per day followed by those in lot III
(distilled water) which gained at the rate of 1.42 lbs. per day. The Lot II pigs
(pond water) showed an average daily gain of 1.41. The average daily gain in
Lot IV (well water) was 1.38 Ibs. One animal in this lot had a mild parakera-
tosis (dermatosis) during the early part of the experiment and this may account
in part for the lowest rate of gain in this lot. Later this animals rate of
gain was increased. There was very little difference in the rate of gain of
the four lots of pigs.
The feed efficiency of the pigs in Lot IV (well water) was superior to the
other lots with a figure of 3.34 pounds of feed per pound of gain as compared
with 3.45 for Lot II and 3.51 for Lot III. The feed and water consumption of
the pigs in Lot I was not summarized since there was an animal in this lot which
did not do well throughout the entire experiment. This pig was removed prior to
termination of the test. The possibility of this pig's poor performance re-
sulting from drinking lake water is not likely since the remaining three animals
in the lot showed the fastest rate of gain of any lot.
The difference in water consumption of the lots was the greatest difference
observed in this trial. The pigs in Lot II (pond water) drank 4323 ml. per day;
Lot III (distilled water), 4245 ml; and Lot IV (well water) consumed 3520 ml. of
water per day. There was only a slight increase in water consumption of the pigs
in Lot II as compared to those in Lot III. However, the average water consumption
for the pigs in Lot IV was 82 per cent that of Lot II and 83 per cent of Lot III.
It was noted that the pigs in Lot III (distilled water) consimed more water per
animal during the first eight weeks, but during the following weeks, the con-
sumption was slightly below that of the pigs on lake or pond water. The micro-
flora and other plant life of the lake and pond water appeared to decrease
following the first killing frost after November 27. This observation was made
by physical appearance only; howeverthis may be an explanation for the in-
creased water consumption by the pigs given this kind of water in Lots II and III.
StMAARY AND CONCuI!TONS
Sixteen weanling pigs, divided into four lots, were fed lake water, pond
water, distilled water or well water ad libitum. They were watered from con-
crete watering troughs and water consumption recorded every seven days. The
animals were self-fed a non-fortified corn-soybean oilmeal, alfalfa meal ration.
The fastest gains were observed with the pigs on lake water but there was
not much difference in the rate of gain between all lots.
Water consumption was highest for the pigs on pond water followed by those
on distilled water. The pjgs on well water drank the least amount of water daily.
Efficiency of feed utilization was the best in Lot IV where the pigs were
given well water. However, there was not much difference among lots in efficiency
of feed utilization.
Further studies should be made with pond and lake water during the warmer
seasons when much plant life is present in these waters to determine the effect
of these microflora on the pig.
These preliminary studies indicate that there was not much difference in
the performance of pigs fed these four different sources of water. However,
these studies need to he repeated with a larger number of pigs and at different
times of the year when water composition may be different.
Table 1. EFFECT OF SOURCE OF WATER ON RATE OF GAIN IN GROWING-FATTENING PIGS
Experimental Treatments I II III IV
Lake Pond Distilled Well
Water Water Water Water
No. of animals 3* 4 3 4
Ave. initial wt. (Ibs.) 70 59 67 61
Ave. final wt. (lbs.) 195 193 196 193
Ave. gain per pig (ibs,) 125 134 129 132
Ave. number of days on expt. 84 95 91 96
Ave. daily gain (Ibs.) 1.49 1.41 1.42 1.38
Ave. daily water consumption per pig (ml.) 4324 4245 3520
Ave. datly feed consumption per pig (Ibs.) 4.86 4.99 4.61
Feed per 100 Ibs. gain (Ibs.) 345 351 334
from the experiment and water
* One pig in Lot I grew poorly. As a result this pig was removed
and feed consumption not tabulated.