| Material Information
||An unidentified growth factor for the pig
||Animal husbandry mimeograph series
||4 leaves : ; 28 cm.
||Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
Haines, C. E
McKigney, John I
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
||Agricultural Experiment Station, Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
||Place of Publication:
||Swine -- Growth -- Florida ( lcsh )
Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida ( lcsh )
||government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
||Statement of Responsibility:
||by H.D. Wallace, C.E. Haines and J. McKigney.
| Record Information
||University of Florida
||All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
||oclc - 76925040
MAR 17 1955
Animal Husbandry Wineograph August, 1954
Series No. 55-1
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
WILLARD M. FIFIELD, Director
AN UNIDENTIFIED GROWTH FACTOR
FOR THE PIG 1
H. D. WALLACE, C. E. HAINES AND J. MCKIGNEY2
Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
A search is constantly underway to discover new and unidentified
growth factors. A product known as P.F.P. (Pfizer Fermentation Pro-
duct) has recently been observed to contain unidentified growth
activity. A sample of this material was obtained and an experiment
conducted to determine its value for the weanling pig fed under dry
lot conditions. A typical analysis of the material containing the
unidentified factor is as follows:
1 This work was supported in part by a grant from Chas. Pfizer
and Co., Brooklyn, New York.
2 Wallace, Associate Animal Husbandman, Agricultural Experiment
Station, Haines and McKigney, Graduate Assistants, Department of
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition. The technical assistance of W. E.
Collins, F. A. McMillan and L. Gillespie is gratefully acknowledged.
ANALYSES OF P.F.P.
(Pfizer Fermentation Product)
Crude protein 20.9
Crude fat 4.8
Crude fiber 4.2
Calcium Pantothenic Acid
A total of 24 purebred Duroc and Hampshire pigs were used in
the experiment. Two groups of four pigs each were fed on each of
three experimental rations. The animals were carefully allotted
according to weight, breed, litter, and previous history. They had
been raised at the University swine farm and were inavery thrifty
condition at the start of the test. They were about 9 weeks old
when the experiment started and averaged approximately 50 pounds.
The animals were self-fed on concrete floored pens which were washed
The basal ration consisted of the following ingredients and con-
tained approximately 15 percent of crude protein.
Ground yellow corn 80.0
Soybean oilmeal 18.0
Steamed bonemeal 0.5
Salt-trace mineral 0.53
The salt trace mineral mixture was composed of 50 lbs. iodized salt,
921 gmn. MnSo4, 398 gn. FeSO4, 125 gm. CuSO4 and 10 gm. C0C03* The
following levels of B-vitamins were added per 100 pounds of feed: 1 gn.
thiamine, 230 mg. riboflavin, 2.33 gm. niacin, 1 gm. pantothenic acid,
375 mg. pyridorine, 19.4 gm. choline chloride, 22.7 nagE folic acid, and
1.0 mg. vitamin B120
Results and Discussion
Results of the experiment are summarized in Table 2. Pigs fed the
basal ration (Lots 1 and 4) gained 1.50 pounds per day and required
352.7 pounds of feed per 100 pounds gain. When 10 gms. of terramycin
was added (Lots 2 and 5) gains were increased 11.3 percent and feed
utilization was improved 4.6 percent. The further addition of an un-
identified growth factor material (Pfizer Fermentation Product) at a
level of 2 percent resulted in 26.6 percent improvement in growth
rate over the controls and 18.3 percent improvement over the groups
supplemented with terramycin alone (Lots 2 and 5). Gains of the pigs
fed the basal ration were not only slower than the other groups but
were also considerably less uniform. This was very pronounced in
Table 2. The results of feeding a material containing an "unidentified growth factor" to weanling pigs.
Date Compiled By Group By Treatment
SI 1 1 I
Lot Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 and 4 2 and 5 t 3 and 6
1 t t I I I I
Rations 1 A B C C A B IC C
I I I t I
Initial No. of Pigs 4 4 4 i 4 1 4 4 8 t 8 t 8
I I t It i
Final No. of Pigs 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 t 8 I 8
SI I I I t I I t
Ave. Initial Wt. (Ib) 52.0 52.3 52.0 U 46.8 47.0 47.3 49.4 49.6 r 49.6
!I I I t I
Ave. Final Wt. (Ib) t 160.3 173.8 195.0 154.8 166.5 177.3 157.5 170.1 186.1
I I I I I I I ft t
Ave. Daily Gain (Ib) 1.50 1.69 1.99 1 1.50 1 1.66 1.81 1.50 1 1.67 t 1.90
t I t I I I I T I
and standard error t' 0.20 +0.04 0.10 10.06 I 10.10 +0.06 1 0.10 t -.05 o0.06
SI I I I I It
Ave. Daily Feed Cons. (Ib) 5.21 5.85 7.16 5.39 5.44 6.09 5.30 5.65 t 6.62
I t t t I I t
Feed/100 Ibs. Gain (Ib) 346.4 346.6 1 360.3 359.0 328.0 337.3 352.7 337.3 349.5
t I I I I I I
Days on Test 72 72 1 72 1 72 1 72 1 72 1 72 t 72 t 72
1 Ration A = Basal Ration
Ration B = Basal Ration 4 10 gms. of Crystalline Terramycin per ton of feed
Ration C = Basal Ration 4 10 gms. of Crystalline Terramycin and 40 Ibs. of unidentified feed material per ton of feed
* Difference from control group (Lots 1 and 4) significant at 5% level,ISD = .28
Lot 1 (See standard error, Table 1). Feed efficiency was improved
by the addition of terramycin but was not greatly affected by the
further addition of the unidentified factor supplement. The fact that
pigs in the latter group averaged considerably heavier at the conclusion
of the trial, would in itself, tend to adversely effect feed utili-
zation for this group. Feed intake was markedly increased by the
addition of terramycin and an even greater increase was noted when
the unidentified factor supplement was fed. The high consumption of
the latter ration was one of the striking observations of the experiment.
The unidentified factor supplement appeared to have a very beneficial
effect on appetite.
In view of the residual terramycin present in the P.F.P. (Table 1),
there is the possibility that this added terramycin was responsible
for the growth stimulation. However, researchers at Chas. Pfizer and
Co. have rather conclusively eliminated this possibility as indicated
in personal communication with the senior author.
The addition of terramycin to a corn-soybean oilmeal ration im-
proved gains, feed consumption, and feed utilization.
The addition of both terramycin and an unidentified growth factor
supplement resulted in 26.6 percent increase in gains over the controls
and 18.3 percent increase over animals supplemented with terramycin
alone. The unidentified growth factor supplement had a pronounced favor-
able effect on appetite.
These data tend to substantiate the existence of an unidentified
growth factor for the pig in the material studied.
i onal Husbandry