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 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Robinson Crusoe






Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
CITATION PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072790/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe who lived twenty- eight years in an uninhabited island, with an account of his deliverance
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: iv, 236 p., 6 leaves of plates : ill. ; 15 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Darton & Harvey (London, England) ( Publisher )
Publisher: Harvey and Darton
Place of Publication: London (Gracechurch Street)
Publication Date: 1846
 Subjects
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1846   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
 Notes
Citation/Reference: Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Date in form: MDCCCXLVI.
General Note: "London, Published by Harvey & Darton, 1831"--Front. All plates in decorative borders, all except front. have two ills. on a page. Other small ill. and ornamental initial letters at the beginning of sections of text.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe, both reworded and abridged (pt. 1, p. 1-197; pt. 2, p. 197-236.
General Note: Red cloth with blind relief ornamentation on covers; gilt decorative spine.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072790
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 27801333

Table of Contents
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Preface
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Robinson Crusoe
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Full Text










jii YZ--=

.. ..




1.5





l- Md:yH-fVD r O









LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF


ROBINSON CRUSOE,


WHO LIVED TWENTY-EIGHT YEARS


IN AN


UNINHABITED


ISLAND,


WITH AN


ACCOUNT OF HIS DELIVERANCE.


LONDON:
HARVEY AND DARTON,
GRACECHURCH STREET.

MDCCCXLVI.











PREFACE.



IF ever the story of any private man's
adventures in the world were worth making
public, and were acceptable when published,
the editor of this account thinks this will
be so.
The wonders of this man's life exceed all
that (he thinks) is to be found extant; the
life of one man being scarce capable of a
greater variety.
The story is told with modesty, with
seriousness, and with a religious application
of events, to the uses to which wise men
always apply them, viz. to the instruction
of others by this example, and to justify
S2





PREFACE.


and honour the wisdom of Providence in
all the variety of our circumstances, let them
happen how they will.
The editor believes this narrative to be
a just history of fact; neither is there any
appearance of fiction in it: and though he
is well aware there are many, who, on account
of the very singular reservations the Author
met with, will give it the name of romance;
yet, in whichever of these lights it shall be
viewed, he imagines that the improvement
of it, as well as the diversion, as to the
instruction of the reader, will be the same,
and as such he thinks, without further com-
pliment to the world, he does them great
service in the publication.













ROBINSON CRUSOE.






:'- .' BOUT the year 1632, I was
born in the ancient city of
S. York, of respectable parents.
My father was a native of
S -. Bremen,. who, by merchan-
dizing at Hull for some time, gained a very
plentiful fortune. He married my mother
at York, and as her maiden name was
Robinson, I was called Robinson Kreutznaer;
which not being easily pronounced in the
English tongue, we are commonly known
by the nane of Crusoe.
B3





LIFE AND ADVENTURES


I was the youngest of three brothers, and
no charge or pains were wanting in my
education. My father designed me for the
law, yet nothing would serve me but I
must go to sea, both against the will of
my father, the tears of my mother, and the
entreaties of friends. One morning my fa-
ther expostulated very warmly with me:
"What reason," says he, "have you to leave
your native country, and enter into a wander-
ing condition of uneasiness and uncertainty?"
He recommended to me Agar's wish, 'Nei-
ther to desire poverty nor riches': told
me that a middle state of life was the most
happy, and that high, towering thoughts of
raising our condition by wandering abroad,
often ended in confusion and disappoint-
ment. I entreat you, nay, I command you,"
(says he), "to desist from these intentions.
"If you will go," (added he), "my prayers
shall be offered for your preservation; but
a time may come, when desolate, oppressed,
or forsaken, you may wish you had taken





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


your poor father's counsel." He pronounced
these words with such a moving and pater-
nal eloquence, while floods of tears ran
down his aged cheeks, that it seemed to
shake my resolutions. But this soon wore
off, and a little after I informed my mother
that I could not settle to any business; and
begged she would gain my father's consent
only to go one voyage; which, if it did not
prove prosperous, I would never attempt a
second. My mother warmly expressed her
dislike of this proposal.
I was then, I think, nineteen years old,
when, one time being at Hull, I met a school-
fellow going with his father, who was mas-
ter of a ship, to London; and acquainting
him with my wandering desires, he assured
me of a free passage, and a plentiful share
of what was necessary. Thus, without im-
ploring a blessing, or taking farewell of my
parents, I took shipping on the 1st of Sep-
tember, 1651. We set sail soon after, and
our ship had scarce left the Humber when





LIFE AND ADVENTURES


there arose a violent storm, and being ex-
tremely sea-sick, I concluded the judgment
of God deservedly followed me for my dis-
obedience to my dear parents. It was then
I called to mind the good advice of my
father; and I firmly resolved, if it pleased
God to set me on dry land once more, to
return to my parents, implore their for-
giveness, and bid a final adieu to my
wandering inclinations.
Such were my thoughts while the storm
continued; but these good resolutions de-
creased with the danger; and I soon for-
got the vows and promises I made in my
distress.
Upon the sixth day we came to anchor
in Harwich road, where we lay wind-bound
with some Newcastle ships; here the sea-
men forgot their late toil and danger, and
spent their time as merrily as if they had
been on shore. But on the eighth day
there arose a brisk gale of wind, which
prevented our tiding it up the river; and





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


still increasing, our ship rode forecastle in,
and shipped several large seas.
It was not long before horror seized the
seamen themselves, and I heard the master
exclaim, Lord have mercy upon us, we
shall be all lost and undone !" For my part,
sick unto death, I kept my cabin, till the
universal and terrible, dreadful apprehen-
sions of our speedy fate made me get upon
deck; and there I was affrighted indeed.
The sea ran mountains high ; I could see
nothing but distress around us; two ships
had cut their masts on board, and another
was foundered ; two more that had lost
their anchors, were forced out to the mercy
of the ocean : and to save our lives we
were forced to cut our foremast and main-
mast quite away.
I was just ready to expire with fear,
when immediately all hands were called to
the pump; and the men forced me also to
share with them in their labour. While
thus employed, the master espying some






LIFE AND ADVENTURES


light colliers, fired a gun as a signal of
distress; and I, not understanding what it
meant, and thinking that either the ship
broke, or some dreadful thing happened,
fainted away. However, nobody minded me,
excepting to thrust me aside with their feet,
thinking me dead, and it was a great while
before I recovered.
Happy it was for us, when upon the sig-
nal given, they ventured out their boats to
save our lives. All our pumping had been
in vain, had not they come to our ship's
side: with great difficulty we got into their
boat, and we perceived our ship sink within
less than a quarter of an hour.
Strange, after all this, like the prodigal
son, I did not return to my father; who,
hearing of the ship's calamity, for a long
time thought me entombed in the deep.
I thought at first I would return home;
but shame opposed that good notion, think-
ing I should be laughed at by my neigh-
bours and acquaintance. So strange is the





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
*,


nature of youth, who are not ashamed to
sin, but yet are ashamed to repent, and re-
turn to their duty, which is the principal
mark of wisdom. In short, I travelled up
to London, resolving upon a voyage; and
a voyage I soon heard of, to go to the coast
of Guinea. Having some money, and ap-
pearing like a gentleman, I went on board
not as a common sailor or fore-mast man;
nay, the commander agreed I should go
the voyage with him without any expense;
that I should be his messmate and companion,
and I was very welcome to carry anything
with me, and make the best merchandise
I could.
I blessed my happy fortune, and humbly
thanked my captain for this offer; and
acquainting my friends in Yorkshire, forty
pounds were sent me, the greatest part by my
dear father and mother, with which I bought
toys and trifles as the captain directed me.
My captain also taught me navigation, how
to keep an account of the ship's course, take






LIFE ANIS ADVENTURES


an observation, and led me into the know-
ledge of several useful branches of the ma-
thematics. And indeed this voyage made me
both a sailor and a merchant; for I brought
home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust
for my adventure; which produced, at my
return to London, almost three hundred
pounds.
But alas! my dear friend, the captain,
soon departed this life. This was a sensible
grief to me ; yet I resolved to go another
voyage with his mate, who had now the
command of the ship. My misfortunes in
this unhappy voyage were very great; for our
ship sailing towards the Canary Islands, we
were chased by a Salee Rover; and in spite
of, all the haste we could make, the pirate
gained upon us, so that we prepared ourselves
to fight. They had 18 guns, and we had
but 12. About three in the afternoon there
was a desperate engagement, wherein many
were killed and wounded on both sides; but
finding ourselves overpowered by numbers,





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


we were forced to surrender ; and were all
carried prisoners into the port of Salee. Our
men were sent to the emperor's court to be
sold there; but the pirate captain kept me
to be his own slave.
In this condition, I thought myself the most
miserable creature upon earth, and the pro-
phecy of my father came afresh into my
thoughts. Some hopes, indeed, I had that
my new patron would go to sea again, where
%T he might be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese
man-of-war, and then I should be set at
liberty. But in this I was mistaken; for he
never took me with him, but left me to look
after his little garden, and do the drudgery
of his house.
After some length of time my patron, as
I found, grew so poor that he could not fit
out his ship as usual; and then he used
constantly, once or twice a week, if the
weather was fair, to go out a fishing, taking
me and a young Moresco boy to row the
boat; and so much pleased was he with me
C





LIFE AND ADVENTURES


for my dexterity in catching the fish, that
he would often send me with a Moor, who
was one of his kinsmen, and the Moresco
youth, to catch a dish of fish for him.
One morning, as we were at the sport,
there arose such a thick fog that we lost
sight of the shore; and rowing we knew not
which way, we laboured all the night, and
in the morning found ourselves in the ocean,
two leagues from land; which however we
at length reached, extremely exhausted by
long fasting; and in order to prevent such
disasters for the future, my patron ordered
a carpenter to build a little state-room or
cabin in the middle of the long boat, with
lockers for provisions.
In this he frequently took us out a fish-
ing; and one time inviting two or three
persons of distinction to go with him, made
provisions extraordinary, providing also three
fusees, with powder and shot, that they might
have some sport at fowling along the sea-coast.
The next morning the boat was made clean





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


and everything ready, but their minds altering,
my patron ordered us to go a fishing, as his
guests would certainly sup with him that night.
And now I began seriously to think ofg
my deliverance. In order to do this, I per, ov
suaded the Moor to get some provisions on
board, not daring to meddle with our pa-
tron's; and we stored ourselves with rusk-
biscuit, and three jars of water. Besides,
I privately conveyed into the boat a bottle
of brandy, some twine, thread, a hammer,
hatchet, and a saw; and, in particular,
some beeswax, which was a great comfort
to me, and served to make candles. I then
persuaded Muley, (for so was the Moor
called) to procure some powder and shot,
pretending to kill sea-curlews, which he
innocently and readily agreed to. In short,
being provided with all things necessary, we
sailed out; I resolving to make my escape,
though it should cost me my life.
When we had run from shore I gave the
boy the helm, and pretending to stoop for
c2






LIlE, ANI) ADVENTURJ lES


something, seized Muley by surprise and
threw him overboard. As lie was an ex-
cellent swimmer, he soon arose, andi made
towards the boat; upon which I took out
a fisee, and presented at himi: Miley,"
said 1, I never yet designed to do you
any hann, and seek nothing now but imy
redemption. I know you are able enough
to swim to shore, and save your life; but
it you arc resolved to follow me, to the
endangering of mine, the very moment you
proceed, I will shoot you through the
head." The harmless creature at these
words, turned himself trout me, and I make
no doubt got safe to land. Then turning
to the boy Xury, I perceived lie trembled
at the action; but I put him out of all fear,
telling him that if lie would be true and
faithful to me, I would do well by him. So
innocent did the child then look, and with
such an obliging smile consented, thliat I
readily believed him, and from that day
forward began to love him entirely.





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


We then pursued our voyage; and having
a fresh gale of wind, with a pleasant, smooth
sea, by three o'clock next day I was one
hundred and fifty miles beyond the Emperor
of Morocco's dominions. Yet, still having
the dreadful apprehension of being retaken,
I continued sailing for five days successively,
till the wind shifting to the southward, made
me conclude that if any vessel was in chase
of me, they would proceed no farther. After
so much fatigue, I anchored at the mouth
of a little river. What I principally wanted
was fresh water; and I was resolved, about
dusk, to swim ashore. But no sooner did
the gloomy clouds of night begin to succeed
the declining day, than we heard such barking,
roaring, and howling of wild creatures, that
one might have thought the very strongest
monsters of nature or infernal spirits had their
residence there.
The next morning I was resolved to go on
shore to get fresh water, and venture my
life among the beasts or savages, should
c3





LIFE AND ADVENTURES


either attack me. Xury said he would take
one of the jars and bring me some. I asked
him why he would go, and not I? The poor
boy answered, If wild mans come, they
eat me, you go away." This nobleness of
mind increased my affection to the child.
"Well, dear Xury," said I, "we will both
go ashore, both kill wild mans, and they shall
eat neither of us." So giving Xury a piece
of rusk-bread to eat, and a dram, we waded
ashore, carrying nothing with us but our
arms, and two jars for water. I did not go
out of sight of the boat, as dreading the
savages coming down tle river in their canoes;
but the boy seeing a low descent or vale,
about a mile in the country, he wandered
to it; and, running back to me with great
precipitation, I thought he was pursued by
some savage or wild beast; upon which I
approached, resolving to perish or protect
him from danger. As he came nearer to me
I saw something hanging over his shoulders,
which was a creature he had shot, like a





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


hare, but different in colour, and longer legs;
however, we were glad of it, for it proved
wholesome and nourishing meat; but what
added to our joy was, my boy assured me
there was plenty of water, and that he see
no wild mans. In this place I began to
consider that the Canary and Cape de Verde
Islands lay not far off. The place I was in
was no doubt that wild country that lies
between the Emperor of Morocco's dominions
and the Negroes. It is filled with wild beasts,
and the Moors chiefly use it for hunting.
From this place I thought I saw the top of
the mountain Teneriff in the Canaries; and
twice in vain I tried to attain it.
Early one morning we anchored under a
little point of land; and the tide beginning
to flow, we lay ready to go further in. But
Xury, whose youthful and penetrating eyes
were sharper than mine, in a soft tone, desired
me to keep far from land, lest we should
be devoured, For look yonder, master,"
said he, "and see de dreadful monster fist





16 LIFE AND ADVENTURES


asleep on de side of
de hill." According-

pointed, I espied a
fearful monster in-
deed. It was a terrible
great lion, that lay on
shore covered as it were
by a shade of a piece of the hill. "Xury,"
said I, "you shall go on shore and kill him."
But the boy looking amazed: "Me kill him!"
says he, "he eat me at one mouth;" mean-
ing one mouthful. Upon which I bid him
lie still, and charging my biggest gun with
two slugs and a good charge of powder, I
took the best aim I could to shoot him
.through the head, but his leg lying over his
nose, the slug broke his knee-bone. The lion





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


awaking with the pain, got up, but soon fell
down, giving the most hideous groan I ever
heard: but taking my second piece I shot
him through the head, and then he lay
struggling for life. Upon this Xury took
heart, and desired my leave to go on shore.
"Go then," said I. Upon which, taking a little
gun in one hand, he swam to the shore with
the other, and coming close to the lion, put
a period to his life by shooting him again
through the head.
But this was spending our ammunition in
vain, the flesh not being good to eat. Xury
was like a champion, and came on board
for a hatchet to cut off the head of his
enemy; but not having strength to perform
it, he cut off and brought me a foot. I
bethought me, however, that his skin would
be of use. This work cost Xury and me a
whole day; when spreading it on the top of
our cabin, the hot beams of the sun effectually
dried it in two days' time, and it afterwards
served me for a bed to lie on.





LIFE AND ADVENTURES


And now we sailed southerly, living spar-
ingly on our provisions, and went no oftener
on shore than we were obliged for fresh
water. My design was to make the river
Gambia or Senegal, or any where about
the Cape de Verde, in hopes to meet some
European ship. If Providence did not so
favour me, my next course was to seek
for the islands, or lose my life amongst the
Negroes.
One day as we were sailing along, we
saw people stand on the shore looking at
us; we could also perceive they were black
and stark naked. I was inclined to go on
shore, but Xury cried, "No, no;" however,
I approached nearer, and I found they ran
along the shore by me a good way. They
had no weapons in their hands, except one,
who held a long stick, which Xury told
me was a lance, with which they could kill
at a great distance. I talked to them by
signs and made them sensible I wanted some-
thing to eat; they beckoned me to stop my





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


boat, while two of them ran up into the
country, and in less than half-an-hour came
back, and brought with them two pieces of
dried flesh and some corn, which we gladly
accepted; and to prevent any fears on
either side, they brought the food to the
shore, laid it down, then went and stood a
great way off till we fetched it on board,
and then came close to us again.
The Negroes having kindly furnished me
with water, and with what roots and grains
their country afforded, I took my leave,
and after eleven days' sail, came in sight
of the Cape de Verde, and those islands
called by its name; when, on a sudden,
Xury cried out, "Master! Master! a ship
with a sail!" and looked as affrighted as if
it was his master's ship sent in search of
us. But I soon discovered she was a Portu-
guese ship. Upon which I strove for my
life to come up to them. But vain had it
been, if through their perspective glasses
they had not perceived me and shortened





20 LIFE. AND ADVENTURES


their sail to let me come up. Encouraged
at this, I fired a gun, as a signal of dis-
tress; upon which they very kindly lay to,
so that in three hours' time I came up with
them. They spoke to me in Portuguese,
Spanish, and French, but none of these did
I understand; till at length a Scots sailor
called, and then I told him I was an Eng-
lishman, who had escaped from the moors
at Salee; upon which they took me kindly
on board, with all my effects.
Surely none can express the inconceivable
joy I felt at this happy deliverance! who,
from being a late miserable and forlorn
creature, was not only relieved, but in fa-
vourt with the master of the ship, to whom
in return for my deliverance, I offered all I
had. But he nobly refused any recompence,
and insisted upon paying for my boat its
full value. He gave me sixty pieces for
my boy Xury. It was with great reluctance
I was prevailed upon to sell the child's liberty,
who had served me so faithfully; but he





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


was willing himself; and it was agreedprhat
after ten years he should be made free, upon
his renouncing Mahometanism, and embracing
Christianity.
Having a pleasant voyage to the Brazils,
we arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos,
or All Saints' Bay, in twenty-two days after.
I cannot forget the generous treatment of
the captain. He would take nothing for
my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the
leopard's skin, and thirty for the lion's. In
short, I made about 220 pieces of my cargo;
and with this stock I entered once more
into the scene of life.
Being recommended to an honest planter,
I lived with him till I was informed of the
manner of their planting and making sugar;
and seeing how well they lived, and how
suddenly they grew rich, I resolved to get
the money I had left in England remitted
to me, and to purchase a plantation.
I bought a settlement next to an honest
and kind neighbour, born at Lisbon, of
D

IJ





LIFE AND ADVENTURES


English parents, whose plantation joining
mine, we improved it very amicably to-
gether. Both our stocks were low, and
for two years we planted only for food;
but the third we planted some tobacco,
and each of us dressed a large piece of
ground the ensuing year for canes. I now
found how much I wanted assistance, and
repented the loss of my dear boy Xury.
I was in some measure settled, before
the captain departed from the Brazils.
One day I went to him and told him what
stock I had in London, desiring his assist-
ance in getting it remitted; to which he
readily consented, but would only have me
send for half my money lest it should mis-
carry.-His kindness towards me was great
for he not only procured the money I had
drawn for, but sent me over a servant with
a cargo proportionable to my condition;
together with tools of all sorts, iron-work,
and utensils necessary for my plantation.
Uncommon success crowning my prosper-





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


ous labours, I might have rested happy in
that middle state of life my father had so
often recommended; but again I left this
happy station from a foolish ambition of
rising; and, once more, cast myself into the
greatest gulf of misery that ever a poor
creature fell into. Having lived four years
in Brazil, I had not only learned the lan-
guage, but contracted acquaintance with the
most eminent planters; to whom, once having
given an account of my two voyages to the
coast of Guinea, and the manner of trading
there for mere trifles, by which our planta-
tions were furnished with Negroes, they gave
such attention to what I said, that three
of them came one morning and proposed
to me a voyage to Guinea, in order to
stock the plantation with Negroes, which,
as they could not be publicly sold, they
would divide among them; and if I would
go their supercargo, to manage the trading
part, I should have an equal share of thl
Negroes, without providing any stock. I





LIFE AND ADVENTURES


could not resist the proposal, but accepted
the offer upon condition of their looking
after my plantation.
The ship being fitted out, and all things
ready, we set sail the first of September,
1659, being the same day eight years I left
my father and mother in Yorkshire. We
sailed northward upon the coast, in order
to gain Africa, till we made Cape Augus-
tine; from whence going further into the
ocean, out of sight of land, we steered as
though we were bound for the Isle Fernand
de Norenba, leaving the islands on the east;
and then it was that we met with a terrible
tempest, which continued twelve days, the
winds carrying us wherever they pleased.
In this perplexity one of our men died,
and another and a boy were washed over-
board. When the weather cleared up a
little, we found ourselves in eleven degrees
north latitude, upon the coast of Guinea.
Upon this the captain gave reasons for re-
turning, which I opposed, counselling him





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


to stand away for Barbadoes, which, as I
supposed, might be attained in fifteen days.
So altering our course we sailed north-west
and by west, in order to reach the Leeward
Islands; but a second storm succeeding,
drove us to the westward; so that we were
afraid of falling into the hands of cruel
savages, or the paws of devouring beasts of
prey.
In this great distress one of our men,
early in the morning, cried out, "Land,
land!" which he had no sooner said, than
our ship struck upon a sand-bank, and in
a moment the sea broke over her in such
a manner, that we expected we should all
have perished immediately. We knew not
where we were, or upon what land we were
driven; and we could not so much as hope
that the ship would hold out many minutes,
without breaking in pieces, except the wind,
by a miracle, should change immediately.
While we stood looking at one another,
expecting death every moment, the mate laid





LIFE AND ADVENTURES


hold of the boat, and with the help of the rest
flung her over the ship's side, and getting
all into her, being eleven of us, committed
ourselves to God's mercy and the wild sea.
When we had rowed, or rather were driven
about a league and a half, a raging wave,
like a lofty mountain, came rolling a-stern
of us, and took us with such fury, that at
once it overset the boat.
Men are generally counted insensible when
struggling in the the pangs of death; but
while I was overwhelmed with water, I had
the most dreadful apprehensions imaginable.
For the joys of heaven and the torments
of hell seemed to present themselves before
me in these dying agonies. I was going,
I thought, I knew not whither, into a dis-
mal gulf unknown, never to behold my
friends, nor the light of this world any
more! I strove, however, to the last ex-
tremity, while all my companions were over-
powered and entombed in the deep; and
it was with great difficulty I kept my breath





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


till the wave spent itself, and retiring back,
left me on the shore half dead. As soon as
I got on my feet, I ran as fast as I could, lest
another wave should pursue me, and carry me
back again. The sea came after me like a high
mountain, or furious enemy. The next dreadful
wave buried me at once twenty or thirty feet
deep, but at the same time carried me with a
mighty force and swiftness towards the shore;
when raising myself, I held out till the water
having spent itself, began to return, at which I
struck forward, and feeling ground with my
feet, I took to my heels again. I was at length
dashed against a piece of rock, in such a man-
ner as left me senseless; but recovering a little
before the return of the wave, which no doubt
would have overwhelmed me, I pushed hastily
forward and reached the main land; when
clambering up the cliffs of the shore, tired and
almost spent, I sat down on the grass, free from
the dangers of the foaming ocean.
No tongue .can express the ecstasi nd
transports that my soul felt at the hapy





LIFE AND ADVENTURES


deliverance. I was wrapt in contemplation,
and often lifted up my hands, with the pro-
foundest humility, to the Divine Powers,
for saving my life, when the rest of my
companions were all drowned. I cast my
eyes around, to behold what place I was
in, and what I had next to do. I could
see no house nor people : I was wet, yet
had no clothes ; hungry and thirsty, yet
had nothing to eat or drink ; no weapon to
destroy any creature for my sustenance, nor
defend myself against devouring beasts; in
short, I had nothing but a knife, a tobacco-
pipe, and a box half filled with tobacco. The
darksome night coming upon me, increased my
fears of being devoured by wild creatures; my
mind was plunged in despair, and having no
prospect, as I thought, of life before me, I pre-
pared for another kind of death than what I
had lately escaped. I walked about a furlong,
to see if I could find any fresh water, which I
did to my great joy; and taking a quid of
tobacco to prevent hunger, I got up into a





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. W

thick bushy tree, and seating myself so that I
could not fall, a deep sleep overtook me, and
for that night buried my sorrows in quiet
repose.
It was broad day the next morning before I
awaked; when I not only perceived the tempest
had ceased, but saw the ship driven almost as
far as the rock which the waves had dashed,
me against, and which was about a mile from
the place where I was. When I came down
from my apartment in the tree, I perceived the
ship's boat two miles distant on my right hand,
lying on shore as the waves had cast her. I
thought to have got to her; but there being an
inlet of water of about half a mile's breadth
between it and me, I returned again towards
the ship, as hoping to find something for my
immediate subsistence. About noon, when the
sea was calm, resolving to get to the ship, I
stripped and leaped into the water; it was my
good fortune to espy a small piece of rope
hanging so low, that by the help of it, though
with great difficulty, I got into the ship. The





30 LIFE AND ADVENTURES


provisions I found in good order, with which I
crammed my pockets, and losing no time, ate
while I was doing other things. I also found
some rum, of which I took a hearty dram; and
now I wanted for nothing except a boat to carry
away what was needful for me.
Necessity quickens invention. We had seve-
ral spare yards, a spare topmast or two, and
two or three large spars of wood. With these
I fell to work, and flung as many of them over-
board as I could manage, tying every one of
them with a rope, that they might not drive
away. This done, I.went down to the ship's
side, and tied four of them fast together at both
ends, in the form of a raft, and laying two or
three short pieces of plank upon them cross-
ways, I found it would bear me, but not any
considerable weight. Upon which I went to
work again, cutting a spare topmast into three
lengths, adding them to my raft with a great
deal of labour and pains. I then considered
what I should load it with, it being not able to
bear a ponderous burden. And this I soon






OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


thought of-first, laying upon it all the planks
and boards I could get; next, I lowered down
three of the seamen's chests, after I had filled
them with bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five
pieces of dried goat's flesh, and some European
corn; and for liquors I found several cases of
bottles belonging toobur skilper, in which were
some cordial waters, and four or five gallons of
rack, which I stowed by themselves. By this
time, the tide beginning to flow, I perceived my
coat, waistcoat, and shirt swim away, which I
left on the shore; as for my linen breeches and
stockings, I swam with them to the ship; but
I soon found clothes enough, though I took no
more than I wanted for the present. My eyes
were chiefly on tools to work with; and after a
long search, I found out the carpenter's chest,
which I got safe down on my raft. I then
looked for arms and ammunition, and in the
great cabin found two good fowling-pieces, two
pistols, several powder-horns filled, a small bag
of shot, and two old rusty swords. I likewise
found three barrels of powder, two of which





LIFE AND ADVENTURES


were good; also two or three broken oars,
two saws, an axe, and a hammer. I then
put to sea, and in getting to shore had
three encouragements. A smooth, calm sea,
with the tide rising and setting in to shore,
and the little wind there was blew towards
the land. After I had sailed about a mile,
I found the raft drive a little distance from
the place where I first landed; and then I
perceived a little opening of the land, with
a strong current of the tide running into
it: upon which I kept the middle of the
stream. But great was my concern, when
on a sudden the fore part of my raft ran
aground, so that had I 'not, with great
difficulty, for near half an hour, kept my
back straining against the chests to keep my
effects in their places, all I had would have
gone into the sea. But after some time, the
rising of the water caused the raft to float
again, and coming up a little river with land
on both sides, I landed in a cave, as near
the mouth as possible, the better to discover






OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


a sail, if any providentially passed that way.
Not far off, I espied a hill of stupendous
height, surrounded with lesser hills, and
thither I was resolved to go and view the
country, that I might see what part was
best to fix my habitation. Accordingly, arm-
ing myself with a pistol, a fowling-piece,
powder and ball, I ascended the mountain.
There I perceived I was in an island, en-
compassed by the sea, no distant lands to be
seen, but scattering rocks that lay to the
west: it seemed to be a barren place, in-
habited only by wild beasts. I perceived
abundance of fowls, but ignorant of what
kind, or whether good for nourishment; I
shot one of them at my return, which oc-
casioned a confused screaming among the other
birds, and I found it, by its colour and
beak, to be a kind of hawk, but its flesh
was perfect carrion.
When I came to my raft, I brought my
effects on shore, and fearing that some cruel
beasts might devour me in the night-time,





LIFE AND ADVENTURES


I made a kind of hut or barricade with the
chests and boards. I slept very comfortably;
and the next morning got on board as
before, and prepared a second raft far nicer
than the first, upon which I brought away
the carpenter's stores, two or three bags full
of nails, a great jackscrew, a dozen or two
of hatchets, and a grindstone. Two or three
iron crows, two barrels of musket-bullets,
another fowling-piece, a small quantity of
powder, and a large bag full of small shot.
Besides these, I took all the men's clothes
I could find, a spare foretop-sail, a hammock,
and some bedding; and thus completing my
second cargo, I made all the haste to shore
I could, fearing some wild beast might
destroy what I had there already. But I
only found a little wild cat, sitting on one
of the chests, which seeming not to fear
me, or the gun that I presented at her, I
threw her a piece of biscuit, which she
instantly ate and departed.
When I had got these effects on shore, I





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


went to work, in order to make me a little
tent with the sail and some poles which I
had cut for that purpose; and having finished
it, what things might be damaged by the
weather I brought in, piling all the empty
chests and casks in a circle, the better to
fortify it against any sudden attempt of man
or beast.
After this, I blocked up the doors with
some boards, charged my gun and pistol,
and laying my bed on the ground, slept
comfortably till next morning.
Now, though I had enough to subsist
upon a long time, yet despairing of a sudden
deliverance, I coveted as much as I could;
and so long as the ship remained in that
condition, I daily brought away one neces-
sary or other; particularly the rigging, sails,
and cordage, some twine, a barrel of wet
powder, some sugar, a barrel of meal, three
casks of rum, and, what indeed was most
welcome to me, a whole hogthead of bread.
Thirteen days I had now been in the islaId,
E2





LIFE AND ADVENTURES


and eleven times on board, bringing away
all that was possible. As I was going the
twelfth time the wind began to rise; however,
I ventured at low water, and rummaging
the cabin, in a locker I found several razors,
scissors, and some dozens of knives and
forks; and in another thirty-six pounds of
pieces of eight, silver and gold. "Ah! simple
vanity," said I, "whom this world so much
dotes on, where is now thy virtue, thy excel-
lency to me? You cannot procure me one
thing needful, nor remove me from this
desolate island to a place of plenty One
of these knives, so meanly esteemed, is to me
preferable to all this heap. E'en, therefore,
remain where thou art, to sink in the deep
as unregarded, even as a creature whose life
is not worth preserving." Yet, after all, I
wrapt it up in a piece of canvass, and began
to think of making another raft; but I
soon perceived the wind began to rise, a
fresh gale blowing from the shore, and the
sky overcast with clouds and darkness; so,






OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


thinking a raft to be in vain, I let myself
into the water, with what things I had about
me, and it was with much difficulty I got
ashore, when soon after it blew a fearful storm.
That night I slept very contentedly in
my little tent, surrounded with all my ef-
fects; but, when I looked out in the morn-
ing, no more ship was to be seen. My
next. thoughts were how I should secure
myself from savages and wild beasts, if
any such were in the island. At one time
I thought of digging a cave; at another I
was for erecting a tent; and, at length, I
resolved to do both.
I found a little plain near a rising hill,
the front towards which being as steep as
a house side, nothing could descend on
me from the top. On the side of this rock
was a little hollow place, resembling the
entrance or door of a cave. Just before
this place, on the circle of the green, I
resolved my tent should stand. This plain
did not much exceed a hundred yards broad,
E3





LIFE AND ADVENTURES


and about twice as long, like a delightful
green before my door, with a pleasing though
an irregular descent every way to the low
grounds by the sea side, lying on the N.W.
side of the hill; so that it was sheltered
from the excessive heat of the sun. After
this I drew a semicircle, containing ten yards
in a semi-diameter and twenty yards in the
whole, driving down two rows of strong
stakes, not six inches from each other.
Then with a piece of cable which I had
cut on board I regularly laid them in a
circle between the piles up to their tops,
which were more than five feet out of
the earth; and after, drove another row of
piles, looking withinside against them, be-
tween two or three feet high, which made
me conclude it a little impregnable castle
against men and beasts. And for my better
security I would have no door, but entered
in and came out by the help of a ladder
which I also made.





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. On










HERE was
u1 I-1ceC and
fortress,
7 itu t which I
c. I ri, l all my
;' "- ,il. nmiunition,
--i"" d I tortl-. After
which, working on
the rock, with what
dirt and stones I dug out, I not only raised my
ground' two feet, but made a little cellar to my
mansion-house; and this cost me many days'
labour and pains. One day, in particular, a
shower of rain falling, thunder and lightning
ensued, which put me in terror lest my pow-
der should take fire. To prevent which, I






LIFE AND ADVENTURES


fell to making boxes and bags, in order
to separate it, having by me near 1501bs.
weight. And, thus being established as king
of the island, every day I went out with
my gun to see what I could kill that was
fit to eat. I soon perceived numbers of
goats, and shot one suckling a young kid;
which, not thinking its dam slain, stood by
her unconcerned; and when I took the
dead creature up, the young one followed
me even to the enclosure. I lifted the kid
over the pales, and would willingly have
kept it alive; but finding it would not eat
I killed that also.
It was by the account I kept, the 30th
of September, when I first landed on this
island. About twelve days after, fearing
lest I should lose my reckoning of time,
nay, even forget the sabbath days, for want
of pen, ink, and paper, I carved with a
knife upon a large post, in great letters, these
words, I came on shore, Sept. 30, 1659.
Every day I cut a notch with my knife





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


on the sides of this square post, and that
on the sabbath was as long again as the
rest; and every first day of the month as
long again as that long one. Had I made
a more strict search I need not have set
up this mark; for among my parcels I
found the very things I wanted; particu-
larly pens, ink, and paper; also two or
three compasses, some mathematical instru-
ments, dials, perspective glasses, books of
navigation, three English Bibles, and several
other good books, which I carefully put up.
A dog and two cats were on board, and I
made them inhabitants with me in my castle.
Though one might think I had all the neces-
saries that were desirable, yet still I found
several things wanting. My ink was daily
wasting; I wanted needles, pins, and thread,
to mend my clothes; and particularly a spade,
pickaxe, or shovel, to remove the earth. It
was a year before I finished my little bulwark.
Having raised a turf wall against the out-
side of my habitation, I thatched it so close






LIFE AND ADVENTURES


as might keep it from the inclemency of the
weather; I also improved it within, enlarged
my cave, and made a passage and door in
the rock, which came out beyond the pale
of my fortification. I next proceeded to make
a chair and a table. When I wanted a plank
or board, I hewed down a tree with my
hatchet, making it as thin with my axe as
possible, and then smooth enough with an
adze to answer my designs; thus in time I
got boards enough to shelter all my stores.
But now a very strange event happened.
For one day finding a bag, which used to hold
corn for the fowls, I resolved to put gunpowder
in it, and shook all the husks and dirt upon
one side of the rock, little expecting what the
consequence would be. The rain had fallen
plentifully a few days before; and about a
month after, to my great amazement, some-
thing began to look very green and flourishing;
and when I came to view it more nicely every
day as it grew, I found about ten or twelve
ears of green barley appearing in the very





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


same shape and make as that in England.
I can scarce express the agitations of my
mind at this sight. Hitherto I had looked
upon the actions of this life only as the
events of blind chance. But now the appear-
ance of this barley, flourishing in a barren
soil, and my ignorance in not conceiving
how it should come there, made me conclude,
that miracles were not yet ceased: nay, I
even thought that God had appointed it to
grow there without any seed, purely for my
sustenance in this miserable and desolate
island. And indeed such great effect this had
upon me, that it often made me melt into
tears, through a grateful sense of God's
mercies; and the greater still was my thank-
fulness, when I perceived about this little
field of barley some rice-stalks also, wonder-
fully flourishing.
While thus pleased in mind, I concluded
there must be more corn in the island; and
therefore made a diligent search among the
rocks; but not being able to find any, on





LIFE AND ADVENTURES


a sudden it came into my mind, how I had
shaken the husks of corn out of the bag,
and then my admiration ceased, with my
gratitude to the Divine being, as thinking
it was but natural, and not to be conceived
a miracle; though even the manner of its
preservation might have made me own it was a
wonderful event of God's kind providence.
It was about the latter end of June when
the ears of this corn ripened, which I laid
up very carefully, together with twenty or
thirty stalks of rice, expecting one day I
should reap the fruit of my labour; yet four
years were expired before I could allow myself
to eat any barley-bread, and much longer
time before I had any rice. After this,
with much indefatigable pains and industry,
for three or four months, at last I finished
my wall on the 14th of April, having no
way to go into it but by a ladder against
the wall.-April 17th I finished my ladder,
and ascended it; afterwards pulled it up, then
let it down on the other side, and descended





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


into my new habitation, where I had space
enough, and so fortified that nothing could
attack me without scaling the walls.
But what does all human pains and in-
dustry avail, if the blessing of God does
not crown our labours? Or who can stand
before the Almighty, when he stretcheth forth
his arm? For one time, as I was at the
entrance of my cave, there happened such a
dreadful earthquake, that not only the roof
of the cave came tumbling about my ears,
but the posts seem to crack terribly at the
same time. This put me in great amaze-
ment; and running to the ladder, and getting
over the wall, I then plainly knew it was an
earthquake; the place I stood on sustained
three terrible shocks in less than three
minutes. But judge of my terror when I
saw the top of a great rock roll into the
sea! I then expected the island would be
swallowed up every moment; and what made
the scene still more dreadful, was to see the
sea thrown in the most violent agitation





LIFE AND ADVENTURES


and disorder by this tremendous accident.
For my part, I stood like a criminal at
the place of execution, ready to expire. At
the moving of the earth I was, as it were,
sea-sick; and very much afraid lest the rock,
under which was my defence and habitation,
should overwhelm it and myself in a last-
ing tomb.
When the third dreadful shock had spent
itself, my spirits began to revive: yet still
I would not venture to ascend the ladder,
but continued sitting, not knowing what I
should do. So little grace had I then, as
only to say, Lord have mercy upon me! and
no sooner was the earthquake over, than that
pathetic prayer left me.
It was not long after that, when a horrible
tempest arose, at the same time attended with
a hurricane of wind. The sea seemed moun-
tains high, and the waves rolled so impetuously,
that nothing could be perceived but froth
and foam. Three hours did this storm
continue, and in so violent a manner, as to





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


tear the very trees up by the roots, which
was succeeded by abundance of rain. When
the tempest was over, I went to my tent;
but the rain coming on in a furions manner,
I was obliged to take shelter in the cave,
where I was forced to cut a channel through
my fortification to let the water out. It
continued raining all that night, and some
time the next day. These accidents made
me resolve, as soon as the weather cleared
up, to build me a little hut in some open
place, walled round to defend me from wild
creatures and savages; not doubting but at
the next earthquake, the mountain would
fall upon my habitation and me, and swallow
up all in its bowels.
When I began to put my resolution in
practice, I was stopped for want of tools
and instruments to work with. Most of my
axes and hatchets were useless, occasioned
by cutting the hard timber that grew on the
island. It took me up full a week to make
my grindstone of use.
F2






LIFE AND ADVENTURES


As I walked along the sea-shore, I found
a barrel of gunpowder, and several pieces of
the wreck the sea had flung up. Having
secured these I made to the ship, whose
stern was torn off, and washed a great
distance ashore; but the rest lay in the
sands.
At this time I was afflicted with an ague;
thirsty, yet could not help myself to water:
prayed to God in these words: "Lord, in
pity look upon me: Lord, have mercy upon
me: have mercy upon me!" After this I
fell asleep and dreamed.
Something refreshed with sleep, I arose;
and, after eating some turtle's eggs, I attempted
to walk again out of doors with my gun;
but was so weak, that I sat down, and
looked at the sea, which was smooth and
calm. While I continued here, these thoughts
came into my mind:-
In what manner is the production of the
earth and sea, of which I have seen so
much ? From whence came myself, and all






OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


other creatures living, and of what are they
made ?
Our beings were assuredly created by some
almighty, invisible Power, who framed the
earth, the sea, the air, and all therein. But
what is that Power?
Certainly it must follow, that God has cre-
ated all. Yet, said I, if God has made all
this, he must be the ruler of all; for certainly
the Power that makes must indisputably be
able to guide and direct them. And if so,
nothing can happen without his knowledge
and appointment. Then certainly God has
appointed these my sufferings. I then pro-
ceeded to enquire, why should God deal with
me in this manner? Or what had I done to
deserve his indignation?
Here Conscience cried with a loud and
piercing voice, "Unworthy wretch! how dar-
est thou ask what thou hast done? Look
on thy past life, and see what thou has left
undone! Ask thyself, why thou wert not long
ago in the merciless hands of death? Why
r3






LIFE AND ADVENTURES


not drowned in Yarmouth roads, or killed in
the fight when the ship was taken by the Salee
man-of-war? Why not entombed in the bowels
of the wild beasts on the African coast, or
drowned here when all thy companions suf-
fered shipwreck in the ocean?"
Struck dumb with these reflections, I rose,
being so thoughtful I could not sleep, and
fearing the dreadful return of my distemper.
I recollected that the Brazillians used tobacco
for almost all diseases, and going to my chest
in order to find some, Heaven, no doubt, di-
rected me to a cure for both soul and body;
for there I found one of the Bibles, which,
till this time, I had neither leisure nor incli-
nation to look into. And no sooner did I open
it, but there appeared to me these words, Call
on me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver
thee, and thou shalt glorify me."
At first, this sentence made a very deep
impression on my heart, but it soon wore off
again, when I considered the word deliver was
foreign to me. And as the children of Israel





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


said, when they were promised flesh to eat,
"Can God spread a table in the wilderness?"
In like manner I began to say, "Can God
himself deliver me from this desolate island?"
However, the words still returned to my mind,
and afterwards made a greater impression
upon me.
As it was now very late, I felt inclined to
sleep; but before I would lie down I fell on
my knees, and implored the promise that God
had made me in the Holy Scripture, that "if I
called upon him in the day of trouble, he
would deliver me." With much difficulty, I
afterwards drank the rum, wherein I had
steeped the tobacco, which, flying into my
head, threw me into such a profound sleep,
that it was three o'clock the next day before
I awoke; indeed I believe I slept two days,
having lost a day in my account. When I
got up, my spirits were lively and cheerful:
I was very hungry; and, in short, no fit
returned the next day, but I found myself
much altered for the better.






12 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

I had now been about ten months in the
island; and, as I never had seen any of
the human kind, I accounted myself as sole
monarch; and as I grew better, having secured
my habitation to my mind, I resolved to make
a tour round my kingdom, in order to make
new discoveries.






OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


TH E 1.5tll. \ I o h I llr.

SI I I II


h1rdw 161l1 1.1 111;-1[ 111o
tide 0 eIIL flu IlOli t 6Iliaci
two miles up, where there was a little brook
of running water, on the banks of which were
many pleasant savannahs, or meadows, plain,
smooth, and covered with grass. On the
rising parts, where, I supposed, the water did
not reach, I perceived a great deal of tobacco
growing to a very strong stalk. Several other
plants I likewise found, the virtues of which
I did not understand. I searched a long time
for the cavassa-root, which I knew the In-






LIFE .AND ADVENTURES


dians of that climate made their bread of, but
all in vain. There were several plants of
aloes, though at that time I knew not what
they were; I saw also several sugar-canes, but
imperfect for want of cultivation. With these
few discoveries, I came back that night, and
slept contentedly in my little castle.
The next day, going the same way, but fur-
ther than the day before, I found the country
more adorned with woods and trees. Here I
perceived different fruits in great abundance.
Melons in plenty lay on the ground, and
clusters of grapes, ripe and very rich, spread
over the trees. You may imagine I was glad
of the discovery, yet ate very sparingly. The
grapes I found of excellent use; for when I
had dried them in the sun, which preserved
them as dried raisins are kept, they proved
very wholesome and nourishing, and served
me in those seasons when no grapes where
to be had. The night drawing on apace, I
ascended a tree, and slept very comfortably,
though it was the first time I had lain out of





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


my habitation. And when the morning came,
I proceeded with great pleasure on my way,
travelling about four miles, as I imagined, by
the length of the valley, directing my course
northward. At the end of the valley, I came
to an opening, where the country seemed to
descend to the west: there I found a little
spring of fresh water, proceeding out of the
side of the hill, with its crystal streams running
directly east. And, indeed, here my senses
were charmed with the most beautiful land-
scape nature could afford; for the country
appeared flourishing, green, and delightful. I
then descended on the side of that delicious
vale, when I found abundance of cocoa, orange,
lemon, and citron trees, but very wild and
barren at that time. The limes were delightful
and wholesome, and the juice, mixed in water,
was very cooling and refreshing. I resolved to
carry home a store of grapes, limes, and
lemons, against the approaching wet season;
and returned to my little castle, after having
spent three days in this journey.






LIFE AND ADVENTURES


And now contemplating the fruitfulness of
this valley, its security from storms, and
the delightfulness of the adjacent woods, I
resolved to make a little kind of bower,
surrounding it with a double hedge, as high
as I could reach, well staked and filled
with bulrushes: and having spent a great
part of the month of July, I think it was
the first of August before I began to enjoy
my labour.
On the 30th September, casting up the
notches on my post, which amounted to 365,
I concluded this to be the anniversary of
my landing; and, therefore, humbly pros-
trating myself on the ground, confessing
my sins, acknowledging God's righteous judg-
ments upon me, and praying to Jesus Christ
to have mercy upon me, I fasted for
twelve hours till the going down of the
sun; and then, eating a biscuit and a bunch
of grapes, laid me on the bed, and with
great comfort took my night's repose.-You
may call to mind what I have mentioned





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


of some barley and rice which I had saved,
about thirty stalks of the former, and twenty
of the latter; and, at that time, the sun being
in its southern position, going from me,
together with the rains, made me conclude
it a very proper season to sow it. Accord-
ingly I dug up a piece of ground with my
wooden spade, and dividing it into two parts,
sowed about two-thirds of my seed, preserv-
ing by me about a handful of each. And
happy it was I did so; for no rains falling,
it was choked up, and never appeared above
the earth till the wet season came again;
and then part of it grew as if it had been
newly sown.
I was resolved still to make another trial;
and seeking for a moister piece of ground
near my bower, I sowed the rest of my
seed in February, a little before the vernal
equinox; which, having the rainy months of
March and April to water it, yielded a
noble crop. I had still saved part of the
seed, not daring to venture all; and by the






58 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

time I found out the proper seasons to sow it
in, and that I might expect every year two
seed-times and two harvests, my stock amounted
to above half a peck of each sort of grain.





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


0 sooner were rains
over, but the stakes
which I had cut from
the trees, shot out like
willows, the first year
after lopping their
heads. I was ignorant of the tree I cut them
from; but they grew so regularly beautiful,
that they made a most lively appearance, and
so flourished in three years' time, that I re-
solved to cut more of them; and these soon
growing made a glorious fence.
And now I perceived that the seasons of
the year might generally be divided not into
summer and winter, as in Europe, but into
wet and dry seasons.
The wet season continued longer or shorter,
as the winds happened to blow. But having
found the ill-consequences of being abroad in






LIFE AND ADVENTURES


the rain, I took care beforehand to furnish
myself with provisions; and during the wet
months, sat within doors as much as possible.
At this time I contrived to make many
things I wanted. The first I tried was a
basket; but all the twigs proved so brittle,
that I could not perform it. When a boy,
I took great delight in standing at a basket
maker's in the same town where my father
lived, to view them work; and like other
boys, curious and very officious to assist, I
perfectly learned the method, and wanted
nothing but tools. And recollecting that the
twigs of the tree of which I made my stakes
might be as tough as osiers growing in
England, I resolved to make an experiment;
went the next day to my country seat, and
after cutting down a quantity, I dried them,
and when fit to work, carried them to my
cave, where I employed myself in making
several sorts of baskets. It is true, they
were not cleverly made, yet they served my
turn upon all occasions.






OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Still I had no cask to hold my liquor;
neither had I a pot to boil anything in.
I wanted likewise at the beginning of this
dry season a tobacco-pipe.
I now resumed my intention of exploring
the island; taking my dog, gun, hatchet,
two biscuit-cakes, a great bunch of raisins,
with a larger quantity of powder and shot
than usual, I began my journey. Having
passed the vale where my bower stood, I
came within view of the sea, lying to the
west; when it being a clear day, I de-
scried land, extending from the W. to the
S.W. about ten or fifteen leagues, but could
not say whether it was an island or continent.
As I proceeded forward, I found this side
of the island much more pleasant than mine;
the fields fragrant, adorned with sweet flowers
and verdant grass, together with several very
fine woods. There were parrots in plenty,
which made me long for one to be my
companion; but it was with great difficulty
I could knock one down; and I kept him
G3





LIFE AND ADVENTURES


some years before I could get him to call
me by my name.
In the low grounds, I found various sorts
of hares and foxes, but different from those
in England. Several of these I killed, but
never ate them; neither, indeed, had I any
occasion, for abounding with goats, pigeons,
turtle, and grapes, I could defy Leadenhall-
market to furnish me a better table. When
I came to the sea-shore, I was amazed at
the splendour. The strand was covered with
shells of the most beautiful fish, and abound-
ing with innumerable turtles, and fowls of
many kinds. I might have shot as many
as I pleased, but was sparing of my
ammunition, rather choosing to kill a she-
goat, which I did with much difficulty, on
account of the flatness of the country.
I continued my journey, travelling about
twelve miles further towards the east, where
I set a great pile on the shore for a mark.
In this journey my dog surprised a kid,
and would have killed it, had I not prevented





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


him. As I had often been thinking of getting
a kid or two, and so raising a breed of
tame goats to supply me after my ammunition
was spent, I took this opportunity of
beginning: and having made a collar for
this little creature, with a string of rope-
yarn, I brought it to my bower, and there
enclosed and left him; and having spent a
month in this journey, at length I returned
to my own habitation, and rested myself a
week, which time I employed in making a
cage for my pretty Poll. I now recollected
my poor kid I had left in the bower, and
immediately went to fetch it home. When
I came there, I found it almost starved: I
gave it some food, and it followed me like
a dog; and as I constantly fed it, it became so
loving, gentle, and fond, that it would never
leave me.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox
being now come, I kept the 30th of Septem-
ber in the most solemn manner as usual, it
being the third year of my abode in the





LIFE AND ADVENTURES


island. I spent the whole day in acknow-
ledging God's mercies, in giving Him thanks
for making this solitary life as agreeable and
less sinful than that of human society; and
for the communications of his grace to my
soul, in supporting, comforting, and encou*lg-
ing me to depend upon his providence, dad
hope for his eternal presence in the world to
come.
One morning, opening my Bible, I imme-
diately fixed my eyes upon these words, "I
will never leave thee, nor forsake thee!"
Surely, thought I, these words are directed
to me; and if God does not forsake, what
matter is it, since he can make me more
happy in this state of life than if I enjoyed
the greatest splendour in the world? I shut
the Bible and blessed kind Providence, that
directed my good friend in England to send
it without any order, and for assisting me to
save it from the power of the raging ocean.
And now beginning my third year, my
several daily employment were these:-First






OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


-My duty to Heaven, and diligently reading
the Holy Scriptures, which I did twice or
thrice every day. Secondly-Seeking provi-
sions with my gun, which commonly employed
me, when it did not rain, three hours every
morning. Thirdly-The ordering, curing, pre-
serving, and cooking what I had killed, for
my supply, which took me up the greater
part of the day. I was no less than two-and-
forty days making a board fit for a long
shelf, which two sawyers, with their tools and
sawpit, would have cut off the same tree in
half a day. It was a large tree, as my board
was to be broad. I was three days in cutting
it down, and two more in lopping off the
boughs, and reducing it to a piece of timber
This I hacked and hewed off each side ti6W
it became light to move; and then I turned
it, made one side of it smooth and flat as a
board from end to end, then turned it down-
wards, cutting the other side till I brought the
plank to be about three inches thick, and
smooth on both sides.






LIFE AND ADVENTURES


The harvest months, November and De-
cember, were now at hand, in which I had
the pleasing prospects of a very good crop.
But here I met with a new misfortune; for the
goats and hares having tasted the sweetness
of the blade, kept it so short that it had
not strength to shoot up into a stalk. To
prevent this, I enclosed it with a hedge, and
by day shot some of its devourers; and my dog,
which I tied to the field-gate, barking all night,
so frightened those creatures, that I got entirely
rid of them. But no sooner did I get rid of
these, than other enemies appeared, whole
flocks of several sorts of birds only waited till
my back was turned to ruin me. So much did
this provoke me, that I let fly, and killed
three of the malefactors; and afterwards
served them as they do notorious thieves in
England, hung them up in chains as a terror
to others. And so good an effect had this,
that they not only foorsook the corn, but
all that part of the island, so long as these
criminals hung there.






OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


My corn having ripened apace, the latter
end of December, which was my second
harvest, I reaped it with a scythe made of
one of my broad swords. I had no fatigue
in cutting down my first crop, it was so
slender. The ears I carried home in a basket,
rubbing them with my hands, instead of
threshing; and when the harvest was over,
found my half-peck of seed produced near
two bushels of rice, and two bushels and a
half of barley. I knew not how to grind
my corn, neither how to bake the bread.
The want of a plough to turn up the
earth, or shovel to dig it, I conquered by
making a wooden spade. The want of a
harrow I supplied by dragging over the corn
a great bough of a tree. When it was
growing I was forced to fence it; when
ripe, to mow it, carry it home, thresh it, and
part it from the chaff. And after all I
wanted a mill to grind it, sieve to dress it,
yeast and salt to make it into bread, and
an oven to bake it. This set my brains to






LIFE AND ADVENTURES


work to find some expedient for every one
of these necessaries against the next harvest.
And now having more seed, my first care
was to prepare more land. I pitched upon
two large flat pieces of ground, near my
castle, for that purpose, in which I sowed
my seed, and fenced it with a good hedge.
This took me up three months ; by which
time the wet season coming on, and the rain
keeping me within doors, I found several occa-
sions to employ myself; and while at work,
used to divert myself in talking to my parrot,
learning him to know and speak his own name,
Poll-the first welcome word I ever heard
spoke in the island. I had been a long time
contriving how to make earthen vessels, which
I wanted extremely; and when I considered
the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but
if I could find any such clay, I might make
a pot strong enough, when dried in the sun,
to bear handling, and to hold anything that
was dry, as corn, meal, and other things.
The clay I found, but it would make the






OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


most serious person smile, to see what
awkward, ugly, misshapen things I made;
how many cracked by the violent heat of,
the sun, and fell in pieces when they were
removed; so that I think it was two months
before I could perfect anything; and even
then but two clumsy things in imitation of
earthen jars. As for the smaller things, I
made them with better success; such as
little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and
pipkins, the sun baking them very hard.
Yet still I wanted one thing absolutely
necessary, and that was an earthen pot,
not only to hold my liquid, but also to bear
the fire, which none of these could do. It
once happened, that as I was putting out
my fire, I found therein a broken piece of
one of my vessels burnt as hard as a rock,
ind red as a tile. This made me think of
burning some pots, and having no notion
of a kiln, or of glazing them with lead, I
fixed three large pipkins, and two or three
pots in a pile one upon another. The fire
N H






L1FE AND ADVENTURES


I piled round the outside, and dry wood
upon the top, till I saw the pots in the
inside red-hot, and found that they were
not cracked at all: and when I perceived
them perfectly red, I let one of them stand
in the fire about five or six hours, till the
clay melted by the extremity of the heat,
and would have run to glass had I suffered
it; upon which I slackened my fire by de-
grees, till the redness abated; and watching
them till morning, I found I had three very
good pipkins, and two earthen pots, as well
burnt as I could desire.
No joy could be greater than mine at this
discovery. I filled one of my pipkins with
water to boil me some meat.
The next concern I had, was to get me
a stone mortar to beat some corn in, instead
of a mill to grind it. But all the stones
of the island being of a mouldering nature,
I resolved to look out for a great block of
hard wood, which having found, I. formed
it with my axe and hammer, and then, with






OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


infinite labour, made a hollow in it, just as
the Indians of Brazil make their canoes.
When I had finished this, I made a great
pestle of iron-wood, and then laid them up
against my succeeding harvest.
My next business was to make a sieve to
sift my meal, and part it from the bran and
husk. Having no fine, thin canvass, I could
not tell what to do. What linen I had was
reduced to rags. At length I remembered I
had some neckcloths of calico or muslin, of
the sailors, which I had brought out of the
ship, and with these I made three small sieves,
proper enough for the work.
The want of an oven I supplied by mak-
ing some earthen pans, very broad but not
deep. When I had a mind to bake, I made
a great fire upon the hearth, the tiles ef
which I had made myself; and when the
wood was burnt into live coals, I spread
them over it, till it became very hot; then
sweeping them away, I set down my loaves,
and turning down the earthen pots upon them;
H2





LIFE AND ADVENTURES


drew the ashes and coals all round the out-
sides of the pots, to continue the heat; and
in this manner I baked my barley loaves
as well as if I had been a complete pastry-
cook, and also made of the rice several cakes
and puddings.
These things took me up the best part
of a year, and what intermediate time I had
was bestowed in managing my new harvest
and husbandry; for in the proper season I
reaped my corn, carried it home, and laid it
up in the ear in my large baskets, till I
had time to rub it, instead of threshing.
All this while, the prospect of land,
which I had seen from the other side of
the island, ran in my mind. I still medi-
tated a deliverance from this place, though
the fear of greater misfortunes might have
deterred me from it. For allowing that I
had attained that place, I ran the hazard
of being killed and eaten by the devouring
cannibals; and if they were not so, yet I
might be slain as other Europeans had been,





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


who fell into their hands. Notwithstanding
all this, my thoughts ran continually upon
that shore. I wished for my boy Xury,
and the long-boat; the ship's boat had been
cast a great way on the shore in the late
storm. Her bottom being turned up by the
impetuosity and fury of the waves and wind,
I fell to work with all the strength I had,
with levers and rollers I had cut from the
wood, to turn her, and repair the damages
she had sustained. This work took me up
three or four weeks, when finding my little
strength in vain, I fell to undermining it
by digging away the sand, and so to make
it fall down, setting pieces of wood to thrust
and guide it in the fall. But after this
was done, I was still unable to move it
towards the water, and so was forced to
give it over.
This disappointment, however, did not
frighten me. I began to think whether it
was not possible for me to make a canoe,
such as the Indians make of the trunk of
H3





LIFE AND ADVENTURES


a tree. But here I lay under particular
inconveniences; want of tools to make it,
and want of hands to move it in the water
when it was made.








However, to work
I went: I first cut
down a cedar-tree,
which was five feet
ten inches in di-
ameter at the lower
part next the stump,
and four feet eleven
inches in diameter
at the end of twenty-two feet, after which it
lessened for a space, and then parted into
branches.





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Twenty days was I hacking and hewing this
tree at the bottom, fourteen more in cutting off
the branches and limbs, and a whole month
in shaping it like the bottom of a boat. As
for the inside, I was three weeks with a
mallet and chisel clearing it, till it was big
enough to carry twenty-six men, much bigger
than any canoe I ever saw in my life, and
consequently sufficient to transport me and
all my effects to that wished-for shore.
Nothing remained now, but to get it into
the water, it lying about one hundred yards
from it. I proceeded to measure the distance
of ground, resolving to make a canal in
order to bring the water to the canoe, since
I could not bring the canoe to the water.
But as this seemed to be impracticable,
under the space of eleven or twelve years,
I concluded the attempt altogether vain. I
now saw what stupidity it is to begin work
before we reckon on its cost, or judge
rightly our own abilities to go through with
its performance.





LIFE AND ADVENTURES


In the height of this work my fourth
year expired, from the time I was cast on
this island. At this time I did not forget
my anniversary ; but kept it with rather
greater devotion than before. For now my
hopes being frustrated, I looked upon this
world as a thing I had nothing to do with;
and well might I say, as father Abraham
said unto Dives, Between thee and me
there is a gulph fixed." I was separated
from its wickedness too, having neither the
lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, nor
the pride of life; I had nothing to covet,
being lord, king, and emperor over the
whole country, without dispute and without
control. Corn, plenty of turtles, timber
in abundance, and grapes above measure.
What was all the rest to me? The mo-
ney I had, lay by me as despicable
dross, which I would freely have given for
a gross of tobacco-pipes, or a hand-mill to
grind my corn; in a word, the nature and
experience of these things dictated to me





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


this just reflection: That the good things of
this world are no further good to us, than
they are for our use; and that whatsoever
we may heap up to give to others, we
can but enjoy as much as we use.
These thoughts rendered my mind more
easy than usual. Every time I sat down
to meat, I did it with thankfulness, admiring
the providential hand of God, who, in this
wilderness, had spread a table for me.
As long as my ink continued, which, with
water, I made last as long as I could, I
used to minute down the days of the month
on which any remarkable event happened.
First, I observed that the same day I
forsook my parents and friends, and ran away
to Hull, in order to go to sea; the same day
in the next year, I was taken and made a
slave by the Salee rovers.
That the very day I escaped out of the
wreck of the ship in Yarmouth roads, a
year after, on the same day, I made my escape
from Salee in my patron's fishing-boat.





LIFE AND ADVENTURES


And, on the 30th of September, being my
birth-day, was I miraculously saved, and cast
ashore on this island.
The next thing that wasted after my ink,
was the biscuits which I had brought out of
the ship; and though I allowed myself but
one cake a day for above a twelvemonth,
yet I was quite out of bread for near a year,
before I got any corn of my own.
In the next place, my clothes began to
decay, and my linen had been gone long
before. However, I had preserved about
three dozen of the sailors' chequered shirts,
which proved a great refreshment to me,
when the violent beams of the sun would
not suffer me to bear any of the seamen's
heavy watch-coats; which made me turn
tailor, and after a miserable botching manner,
converted them into jackets. To preserve
my head, I made a cap of goat's-skin, with
the hair outwards to keep out the rain; and
afterwards, a waistcoat and open-kneed breeches
of the same. I contrived a sort of umbrella,





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


covering it with skins, which not only kept out
the heat of the sun, but rain also. Thus, being
easy and settled in my mind, my chief happiness
was to converse with God in prayer.
For five years after this nothing extraor-
dinary occurred to me. My chief employ-
ment was to cure my raisins, and plant my
barley and rice, of both which I had a
year's provision before hand. Though I was
disappointed in my first canoe, I made at
intermediate times, a second, of much inferior
size; and it was two years before I had
finished it. But as I perceived it would in no
wise answer my design of sailing to the other
shore, my thoughts were confined to take a
tour round the island, to see what further
discoveries I could make. To this intent,
after having moved her to the water, and
tried how she would sail, I fitted up a little
mast to my boat, and made a sail of the ship's
sail that lay by me. I then made lockers
or boxes at the end of it, to put in necessaries,
provision and ammunition, which would pre-






LIFE AND ADVENTURES


serve them dry, either from rain or the spray
of the sea; and in the inside of the boat,
I cut a long hollow place to lay my gun
in; and to keep it dry, made a flag to
hang over it. My umbrella I fixed in a
step in the stern, like a mast, to keep the
heat of the sun off me. And now resolving
to see the circumference of my little kingdom,
I victualled my ship for the voyage, putting
in two dozen of my barley-bread loaves, an
earthen pot full of parched rice, a little
bottle of rum, half a goat, powder and shot,
and two watch-coats. It was the 6th of
November, in the 6th year of my captivity,
that I set out on this voyage; which was
much longer than I expected, being obliged to
put farther out, on account of the rocks.
And indeed, so much did these rocks surprise
me, that I was for putting back, fearing that
if I ventured farther it would be out of my
power to return. In this uncertainty I came
to anchor just on shore, to which I waded
with my gun on my shoulder, and then





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


climbing a hill, which overlooked that point,
I saw the full extent of it, and resolved to
run all hazards. That night it grew so calm
that I ventured out; and here I may be a
monument to all rash and ignorant pilots;
for I was no sooner come to the point, and
not above a boat's length from shore, but
I was got into deep water, with a current
like a mill, which drove my boat along so
violently, that it was impossible for me to
keep near the edge of it, but forced me more
and more out from the eddy to the left of me;
and all I could do with my paddles was useless,
there being no wind to help me.
Who can conceive the present anguish of
my mind at this calamity ? With longing
eyes did I look upon my little kingdom and
thought the island the pleasantest place in
the universe. "Happy, thrice happy desert,"
said I, "shall I never see thee more?
Wretched creature! whither am I going?
Why did I murmur at my lonesome condi-
tion, when now I would give the whole






LIFE AND ADVENTURES


world to be thither again ?" While I was
thus complaining, I found myself driven
about two leagues into the sea; however,
I laboured till my strength was far spent,
to keep my boat as far north as possible.
About noon, I perceived a little breeze of
wind spring up from the S. S. E. which
overjoyed my heart; and was still more
elated, when in about half an hour, it blew
a gentle, fine gale. I set up my mast again,
spread my sail, and stood away northward
as much as I could, to get rid of the
current. And no sooner did the boat begin
to stretch away, but I perceived, by the
clearness of the water, a change of the cur-
rent was near. About four o'clock in the
afternoon, I reached within a league of the
island, and within an hour came within a
mile of the shore, where I soon landed to
my unspeakable comfort; and after an humble
prostration, thanking God for my deliverance,
with resolution to lay all thoughts of escap-
ing aside, I brought my boat safe to a





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


little cove, and laid down to take a 1lcome
repose. When I awoke, I considered how
I might get my boat home; and coasting
along the shore, I came tb a good bay
which ran up to a rivulet or brook, where,
finding a good harbour, I stowed her as safe
as if she had been in a dry dock made on
purpose for her.
I now perceived myself not far from the
place where before I had travelled on foot;
so taking nothing with me, except my gun
and umbrella, I'began my journey; and in
the evening came to my bower, where I
again laid me down to rest. I had not
slept long before I was awakened in great
surprise, by a strange voice that called me
several times, "Robin, Robin, Robinson
Crusoe, Poor Robin! Where are you,
Robinson Crusoe? Where are you? Where
have you been?"
So fast was I asleep at first, that I did
not awake thoroughly; but half asleep and
half awake, I thought I dreamed that some-
i2






LIFE AND ADVENTURES


body spoke to me. But as the voice re-
peated Robinson Crusoe several times, be-
ing terribly affrighted, I started up; and
no sooner were my eyes fully open, but I
beheld my pretty Poll sitting on the top of
the hedge, and soon knew that it was he
that called me; for just in -such bewailing
language I used to talk and teach him;
which he so exactly learned, that he would
sit upon my finger, and lay his bill close
to my face, and cry, Poor Robinson Crusoe,
where are you? where have you been?
how came you here ?" and such like
prattle, I had constantly taught him. But
even though I knew it to be the parrot,
it was a great while before I could adjust
myself, being amazed how the creature got
thither. But now being assured it could
be no other than my honest Poll, my
wonder ceased, and reaching out my hand,
and calling familiarly, "Poll," the creature
came to me, and perched upon my thumb
as he was wont, constantly plating to me





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


with "Poor Robinson Crusoe!" and "how did
I come here?" and "where had I been?"
as if the bird was overjoyed to see me; so
I took him home with me
I was now pretty well cured of my
rambling to sea, and began to lead a very
retired life, living near a twelvemonth in a
very contented manner, wanting for nothing
except conversation. As to mechanical labours,
which my necessities obliged me to, I fancied
I could, upon occasion, make a tolerable
carpenter were the poor tools I had to
work with but good. Besides, as I im-
proved in my earthenware, I contrived to
make them with a wheel, which I found
much easier and better, making my work
shapely, which before was rude and ugly.
But I think I was never so elated with
my own performance, as for being able to
make a tobacco-pipe, which, though it was
an awkward, clumsy thing, yet it was very
sound, and carried the smoke perfectly well.
I also improved my wickerware, making






LIFE AND ADVENTURES


abundance of baskets, which were very handy
and convenient.
My powder beginning to fail, I contrived
many ways to ensnare the goats, and see
if I could catch them alive, particularly a
she-goat with young. At last I had my
desire; for making pit-falls and traps, baited
with barley and rice, I found one morn-
ing, in one of them, an old he-goat, and
in the other, three kids-one male and
two females. It was some time before they
would feed; but throwing them some sweet
corn, it so much tempted them that they be-
gan to be tamer. I concluded that if I
designed to furnish myself with goat's flesh
when my ammunition was spent, the tamely
breeding them up like a flock of sheep, about
my settlement, was the only method I could
take. I resolved to separate the wild from
the tame; and the best way for this, was
to have some enclosed piece of ground well
fenced, that those within might not break
out, or those without break in.





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Such an undertaking was very great for
one pair of hands; but as there was an
absolute necessity for it, my first care was to
find a convenient piece of ground where there
was likely to be herbage for them to eat,
water to drink, and shelter to keep them
from the sun. I resolved to enclose a piece
of ground about one hundred and fifty yards
in length, and one hundred in breadth, sufficient
for as many as would maintain me till my
flock increased, and then I could add more
ground. I now vigorously prosecuted my
work, and it took me about three months to
hedge in the first piece. I tethered the three
.kids in the best part of it, feeding them as
near me as possible, to make them familiar;
and indeed I very often carried some ears
of barley, or a handful of rice, and fed them
out of my hand; by which they grew so
tame, that when my enclosure was finished,
and I let them loose, they would run after
me for a handful of corn. In a year and
a half's time I had a flock of about twelve






LIFE AND ADVENTURES


goats, kids and all; and in two years after
they amounted to forty-three, besides what I
had taken and killed for my sustenance.
After which I enclosed five pieces of ground
to feed them in, with pens to drive them
into, that I might take them as I had occasion.
In this project I likewise found additional
blessings; for I not only had plenty of
goat's flesh, but milk too, which at first I
did not think of. And indeed, though I had
never milked, or seen butter or cheese made,
yet after some essays and miscarriages, I
made both, and never afterwards wanted.
How merciful can the omnipotent Power
comfort his creatures, even in the midst of
their greatest calamities ? He can sweeten
the bitterest providence, and give us reason
to magnify him in dungeons and prisons!
what a bounteous table was here spread in
a wilderness for me, where I expected nothing
at first but to perish with hunger! When
I dined, I seemed a king, eating alone, none
daring to presume to do so till I had done.





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Poll, as if he had been my principal court.
favourite, was the only person permitted to
talk with me. My old, but faithful, dog
continually sat on my right hand; while my
two cats sat on each side of the table, ex-
pecting a bit from my hand, as a mark of
my royal favour. In this manner did I live,
wanting- for nothing but conversation. One
thing indeed concerned me, the want of my
boat; I knew not which way to get her
round the island. One time I resolved to
go along the shore by land to her; but had
any one in England met with such a figure,
it would either have affrighted them, or made
them burst into laughter.
The cap I wore on my head was great,
high, and shapeless, made of a goat's skin,
with a flap or pent-house hanging down behind,
not only to keep the sun from me, but to shoot
the rain off, nothing being more pernicious
than the rain falling upon the flesh in these
climates. I had a short jacket of goat-skin,
whose hair hung down such a length on






LIFE AND ADVENTURES


each side, that it reached to the calves of
my legs. As for my shoes and stockings,
they were made like buskins, and laced on
the sides like spatterdashes, barbarously shaped
like the rest of my habit. I had a broad
belt of goat's skin dried, girt round me
with a couple of thongs, instead of buckles;
on each of which, to supply the deficiency
of sword and dagger, hung my hatchet and
saw. Another belt not so broad, yet fastened
in the same manner, hung over my shoulder,
and at the end of it, under my left arm,
two pouches, made of goat-skin, to hold
powder and shot. My basket I carried on
my back, and my gun on my shoulder ;
and over my head a great, clumsy, ugly
goat-skin umbrella, which however, next
to my gun, was the most necessary thing
about me. As for my face, the colour was
not quite so swarthy as the Mulattoes, as
might have been expected from one who
took so little care of it, in a climate within
nine or ten degrees of the equator. At one





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


time my beard grew so long that it hung
down about a quarter of a yard; but as
I had both razors and scissors in store,
I cut it all off, and suffered none to grow,
except a large pair of Mahometan whiskers,
like what I had seen worn by some Turks
at Salee, not long enough indeed to hang
a hat upon, but of such a monstrous size
as would have amazed any Englishman.
I had now two plantations in the island;
the first my little fortification, with many
large and spacious improvements. The piles
with which I made my wall were grown
so lofty and great, as secured my habitation.
And near this commodious and pleasant
settlement, lay my well-cultivated and im-
proved corn fields, which yielded me their
fruit in proper season. My second planta-
tion was that near my country seat, or
little bower, where my grapes flourished,
and where, having planted many stakes, I
made enclosures for my goats, so strongly
fortified by labour and time, that it was





92 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

much stronger than a wall, and consequently
impossible for them to break through. As
for my bower itself, I kept it constantly in
repair, and cut the trees in such a manner,
as ,made them grow thick and form a
delightful shade. In the centre of this stood
my tent: I had driven four piles in the
ground, spreading over it a piece of the ship's
sail; beneath which I made a sort of a couch'
with the skins of the creatures I had slain;
and having laid thereon one of the sailor's
blankets, which I had saved from the wreck,
and covering myself with a great watch-coat,
I took up this place for my country retreat.




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