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Group Title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072789/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 168 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill. ; 14 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Adam, J ( Engraver )
Nelson, T ( Thomas ), 1780-1861 ( Publisher )
Khull, E ( Printer )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Publisher: T. Nelson
Place of Publication: Edinburgh
Manufacturer: E. Khull, Printer to the University
Publication Date: 1846
 Subjects
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1846   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Scotland -- Edinburgh
Scotland -- Glasgow
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: illustrated with engravings.
General Note: Cover and spine with gilt relief ill. have title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Date in form: MDCCCXLVI.
General Note: Illustration signed J. Adam, Sc.
General Note: Part I of Robinson Crusoe, retold. "Verses supposed to be written by Alex. Selkirk ..."--P. 165-68.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072789
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 27081340

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Full Text











-K I (<


CRUSOE AND FRIDAY FIRING AT THE SAVAGES.


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~SL ;~,~









LIFE AND ADVENTUH.1tI


O)V


ROBINSON


ORU8OE.


ILLUSTRATED WITH ENGRAVINGS,


EDINBURGH:-T. NELSON,
Muccclilvi.








THE


LIFE AND ADVENTURES

or

ROBINSON CRUSOE.



I was born at York, in the year 1632, of a reputable
family. My father was a native of Bremen, who, by
merchandising at Hull for some time, gained a very
plentiful fortune.
I was the youngest of three brothers. The eldest
was a lieutenant-colonel in Lockhart's regiment, but
slain by the Spaniards; what became of the other I
could never learn.
No charge nor pains were wanting in my education.
My father designed me for the law# yet nothing could
serve me but I must go to sea, both against the will of
my father, the tears of my mother, and the entreaties
of my friends. One morning, my father expostulated
very warmly with me. What reason, says he, have ymo





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


to leave your native country, where there must be a more
certain prospect of content and happiness, to enter into
a wandering condition of uneasiness and uncertainty?
I entreat you, nay, I command you, (says he,) to desist
from these intentions. If you will go, (added he) my
prayers shall however be offered for your preservation;
but a time may come, when, desolate, oppressed, or
forsaken, you may wish you had taken your poor de-
spised father's counsel. He pronounced those words
with such a moving and paternal eloquence, while
floods of tears ran down his aged cheeks, that it seemed
to stem the torrent of my resolutions. But this soon
wore off, and a little after, I informed my mother that
I could not settle at any business, my resolution was
so strong to see the world, and begged she would
gain my father's consent only to go one voyage; which
if it did not prove prosperous, I would never attempt
a second. But my desire was as vain as my folly in
asking. My mother passionately expressed her dislike
of this proposal, telling me, That as she saw I was
bent on my own destruction, contrary to their will and
my duty, she would say no more, but leave me to my-
self, to do whatsoever I pleased."
I was then, I think, nineteen years old. when one





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


time being at Hull, I met a schoolfellow of mine go-
ing along with his father, who was master of a ship,
to London, and acquainting him with my wandering
desires, he assured me of a free passage, and a plentiful
share of what was necessary. Thus, without imploring
a blessing, or taking farewell of my parents, I took
shipping on the first of September 1651.
Upon the sixth day we came to an anchor in Har-
wich road, where we lay wind-bound with some New-
castle ships; and there being a good anchorage, and
our cables sound, the seamen forgot their late toil and
danger, and spent the time as merrily as if they had
been on shore. But on the eighth day, there arose a
brisk gale of wind, which prevented our tiding it up
the river; and it still increasing, our ship rode forecastle
in, and shipped several large seas.
It was not long before horror seized the seamen
themselves, and I heard the master express this melan-
choly ejaculation, Lord, have mercy upon us, we
shall be all lost and undone!" For my part, sick
unto death, I kept my cabin, till the universal and
terribly dreadful apprehensions of our speedy fate made
me get upon deck, and there I was affrighted indeed.
The sea went mountains high: I could see nothing





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


but distress around us: two ships had cut away their
masts, and another had foundered: two more that had
lost their anchors, were forced out to the mercy of the
ocean; and, to save our lives, we were forced to cut
our foremast and mainmast quite away.
Our ship was very good, but overloaded; which made
the sailors often cry out, She will founder :" words
I then was ignorant of. In the middle of the night,
one cried out, We had sprung a leak:" another,
" That there was four feet water in the hold." I was
just ready to expire with fear, when immediately all
hands were called to the pump; and the men forced
me also in that extremity to share with them in their
labour. While thus employed, the master espying
some colliers, fired a gun as a signal of distress; and
I not understanding what it meant, and thinking that
either the ship broke, or some dreadful thing happened,
fell into a swoon. Even in that condition of wo, no-
body minded me, excepting to thrust me aside with
their feet, thinking me dead; and I was a great while
before I recovered.
Happy it was for us, when, upon the signal given,
they ventured out their boat to save our lives. All
our pumping had been in vain, and vain had all our





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


attempts been, had they not come to our ship's side,
and our men cast them a rope over the stern with a
buoy to it, which after great difficulty they caught hold
of and we hauling them to us got into their boat, and
left our ship, which we perceived sink within less than
a quarter of an hour: and thus I learned what was
meant by foundering at sea. And now the men in-
cessantly laboured to recover their own ship; but the
sea ran so high, and the wind blew so hard, that they
thought it convenient to haul in shore, which with
great difficulty and danger at last we happily effected,
landing at a place called Cromer, not far from Win-
terton lighthouse; from whence we all walked to
Yarmouth, where, as objects of pity, many good people
furnished us with the necessaries to carry us either to
Hull or London.
When we had been at Yarmouth three days, I met
my old companion who had given me the invitation to
go on board along with his father. His behaviour
and speech was altered, and, in a melancholy manner,
he asked me how I did? telling his father who I was,
and how I had made this voyage for a trial only to
proceed farther abroad. Upon which the old gentle-
man turning to me, said, Young man, I recommend





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


you to choose another line of life; the sea is an uncer-
tain element to trust to, and you have lately experienced
some of the hardships to which sailors are exposed."
"Sir," answered I, "will you take the same resolution ?"
"It is a different case," said he, it is my calling, and,
consequently my duty to remain contented with it;
but as you have made this voyage for a trial merely,
and have every other line open to you, I think you
might choose one less liable to hardship and reverses.
But pray what are you, and on what account did you
go to sea ?" Upon which I very freely declared my
whole story; at the end of which he said, in a tone of
seriousness, which I shall never forget, Young man,
you ought to thank God, that you did not perish whilst
you were committing this act of disobedience to your
father; had I known these circumstances, you may
be assured I never should have suffered you to sail
along with us; thank God, however, that you may still
atone for the past. Return to your parents, they will
forgive you, but if you do not, recollect your father's
words, and beware lest his warning should be realized."
And so we parted.
I thought at first to return home; but shame opposed
that good notion, as thinking I should be laughed at





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


by my neighbours and acquaintances. In short, I
travelled up to London, resolving upon a voyage, and
a voyage I soon heard of by my acquaintance with a
captain who took a fancy to me, to go to the coast of
Guinea. Having some money, and appearing like a
gentleman, I went on board, not as a common sailor
or foremast-man; nay, the commander agreed I should
go that voyage with him without any expense; that I
should be his messmate and companion, and that I
was welcome to carry any thing with me, and make
the best merchandise I could.
I blessed my happy fortune, and humbly thanked
my captain for his offer, and acquainting my friends in
Yorkshire, forty pounds were sent me, the greatest
part of which, my dear father and mother contributed,
with which I bought toys and trifles, as the captain
directed me. My captain also taught me navigation,
so that I soon knew how to keep an account of the
ship's course, and to take an observation, and also be-
came acquainted with several useful branches of the
mathematics. And indeed this voyage made me both
a sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five
pounds nine ounces of gold dust, for my adventure,






ROBINS CRUSOE.


which produced, at my return to London, almost three
hundred pounds.
But, alas! my dear friend the captain departed this
life soon after his arrival. This was a sensible grief
to me; yet I resolved to go another voyage with his
mate, who had now got command of the ship. This
proved a very unsuccessful one; for though I did not
carry a hundred pounds of my late acquired wealth,
(so that I had two hundred pounds left, which I re-
posed with the Captain's widow, who was an honest
gentlewoman,) yet my misfortunes in this voyage were
very great. For our ship sailing towards the Canary
Islands, we were chased by a Salee rover; and in
spite of all the haste we could make, by crowding as
much canvass as our yards could spread, or our masts
carry, the pirate gained upon us, so that we prepared
ourselves to fight. They had eighteen guns, and we
had but twelve. About three in the afternoon, there
was a desperate engagement, wherein many were killed
and wounded on both sides: but finding ourselves over-
powered with numbers, our ship disabled, and ourselves
too impotent to have the least hopes of success, we were
forced to surrender; and accordingly we were all carried
prisoners into the port of Salee. Our men were sent






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


to the Emperor's court to be sold there; but the
pirate captain taking notice of me, kept me to be his
own slave.
In this condition, I thought myself the most miser-
able creature on earth, and the warning of my father
came afresh into my thoughts. However, my condition
was better than I thought it to be, as will soon appear.
Some hopes, indeed, I had that my new patron would
go to sea again, where he might be taken by a Spanish
or Portuguese man of war, and then I should be set at
liberty. But in this I was mistaken; for he never
took me with him, but left me to look after his little
garden, and do the drudgery of his house, and when
he returned from sea, would make me lie inthe cabin,
and look after the ship. I had no one that I could
communicate my thoughts to, which were continually
meditating my escape.
After some length of time, my patron, as I found,
grew so poor, that he could not fit out his ship as
usual; and then he used constantly once or twice a
week, if the weather was fair, to go out a fishing,
king me and a young Moorish boy to row the boat;
and so much pleased was he with me for my dexterity
.in catching the fish, that he would often send me with






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


a Moor, who was one of his kinsmen, and the youth
before-mentioned, to catch a dish of fish for him.
One morning, as we were fishing, there arose such
a thick fog, that we lost sight of the shore; and rowing,
we knew not which way, we laboured all the night,
and in the morning we found ourselves in the ocean,
two leagues from land. However, we attained there
at length, and made the greatest haste, because our
stomachs were exceedingly sharp and hungry. In
order to prevent such disasters for the future, my
patron ordered a carpenter to build a little stite-
room or cabin in the middle of the long boat, with a
place behind it to steer and haul home the main sheet,
with other conveniences to keep him from the weather,
as also lockers to put in all manner of provisions.
In this, he frequently took us out a-fishing; and one
time, inviting two or three persons of distinction to go
with him, laid in provisions extraordinary: providing
also three fusees, with powder and shot, that they
might kill some seafowl along the coast. The next
morning, the boat was made clean, her ancient(- and
pendants out, and everything ready: but their minds
altering, my patron ordered us to go a-fishing, for that
his guests would certainly sup with him that night.





ROBISON CORUSOE.


And now I began to think of my deliverance indeed.
In short, being provided with all things necessary, we
sailed out.
When we had passed the castle, we fell to fishing;
but though I knew there was a bite, I dissembled the
matter, in order to put farther out to sea. Accord-
ingly we ran a league farther, when, giving the boy
the helm, and pretending to. stoop for something, I
seized Muley by surprise, and threw him overboard.
As he was an excellent swimmer, he soon arose, and
made towards the boat; upon which I took out a fusee,
and presented it at him: "Muley," said I, "I never
yet designed to do you any harm, and seek nothing.
now but my freedom. I know you are able enough to
swim to shore, and save your life; but if you are re-
solved to follow me to the endangering of mine, the
very moment you proceed, I will shoot you through
the head." The harmless creature, at these words,
turned himself from me, and, I make no doubt, got
safe to land. Then turning to the boy Xury, I per-
ceived he trembledat the action; but Iput him out of
all fear, telling him, that if he would be true and faith-
ful to me, I would do well by him, and not hurt him.
We then pursued our voyage, I kept to the south-






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


ward, to the truly Barbarian coast; but in the dark
of the evening I changed my course, that I might
keep near the shore; and having a fresh gale of wind,,
with a very pleasant smooth sea, by three o'clock next
day, I was 150 miles beyond the Emperor of Morocco's
dominions. I continued sailing for five days succes-
sively, till such time as the wind shifting to the south-
ward, made me conclude, that if any vessel was in
chase of me, they would proceed no further.
After so much fatigue and thought, I anchored at
the mouth of a little river, I knew not what, or where,
neither did I then see any people. What I principally
wanted was fresh water; and I was resolved about the
dusk of the evening to go ashore; but no sooner did
the gloomy clouds of night begin to succeed the de-
clining day, than we heard such barking, roaring, and
howling of wild creatures, that one might have thought
the very strongest monsters of nature had their re-
sidence there. Poor Xury, who was almost dead with
fear, entreated me not to go on shore that night.
" Suppose I don't, Xury," said I, and in the morning
we should see men who are worse than those we fear,
what then ?" "Ollen we may give dem de shoot gun,"
said he, laughing, "and de gun make dem all run






ROBINSON CRUBOE.


away." The wit, and broken English which the boy
had learned from myself for we had passed a great
deal of our time together, pleased me entirely, and
made me still fonder of him than before. We could
get but little sleep all the night for the terrible howl-
ings they made; and indeed we were very much
affrighted.
The next morning, I was resolved to go on shore
to get in fresh water, and venture myself among the
beasts or savages, should either attack me. Xury said
he would take one of the jars, and bring me some.
I asked him why he would go and not I? The poor
boy answered, If wild mans come, they eat me, you
go away." This indeed increased my affection for
the child. Well, dear Xury," said I, "we will both
go ashore, both kill wild mans, and they shall eat
neither of us." So giving Xury a piece of bread to
eat, we waded ashore, carrying nothing with us but
our arms, and two jars for water. I did not go out
of sight of the boat, as dreading the savages coming
down the river in their canoes: but the boy seeing a
low descent or vale about a mile in the country, he
wandered to it: and then running back to me, with
great precipitation, I thought he was pursued by some






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


savages or wild beasts; upon which I approached, re-
solving to perish, or protect him from danger. As he
came nearer to me, I saw something hanging over
his shoulders, which was a creature he had shot like a
hare, but different in colour, and with longer legs;
however, we were glad of it, for it proved wholesome
and nourishing meat; but what added to our joy was,
my boy assured me there was plenty of water, and
that he saw no wild mans."
In this place I began to hope that I should meet
some of the English trading vessels, who would relieve
and take us in.
The place I was in was, no doubt, that wild coun-
try, inhabited only by a few, that lies between the
Emperor of Morocco's dominions and the negroes. It
is filled with wild beasts, and the Moors use it for
hunting chiefly. From this place, I thought I saw
the top of the mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries,
which made me try twice to attain it, but as often was
I driven back, and so forced to pursue my fortune
along shore.
Early one morning we came to an anchor under a
little point of land, but pretty high ; and the tide be-
ginning to flow, we lay ready to go further in; but Xury,





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


whose youthful and penetrating eyes were sharper
than mine, in a soft tone desired me to keep far from
land, lest we should be devoured: For look yonder,
master, and see de dreadful monster fast asleep on de
side of de hill." Accordingly looking where he pointed,
I espied a fearful monster indeed. It was a terrible
great lion that lay on shore, covered as it were by a
shade of a piece of the hill. Xury," said I, "you
shall go on shore and kill him." But the boy looked
amazed. "Me kill him!" says he, "he eat me at
one mouth," meaning one mouthful. Upon which I bid
him lie still, and charging my biggest gun with two
slugs, and a good charge of powder, and pulling in
shore till we had come within musket shot of the
place where he lay, I took the best aim I could to
shoot him through the head, but his leg lying over
his nose, the slug broke his knee-bone. The lion
awaking with the pain, got up, but soon fell down,
giving the most hideous groan I ever heard; but
taking my second piece, I shot him through the head,
and then he lay struggling for life. Upon this Xury
took heart, and desired my leave to go on shore. Go
then," said I. Upon which, taking a little gun in one
hand, he swam to shore with the other, and coming





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


close to the lion, put a period to his life, by shooting
him again through the head.
But this was spending our ammunition in vain, the
flesh not being good to eat. Xury was like a cham-
pion, and comes on board for a hatchet to cut off the
head of his enemy; but wanting strength to perform
it, he cut off and brought me a foot. I bethought me,
however, that his skin would be of use. This cost
Xury and me a whole day: when spreading it on the
top of our cabin, the hot beams of the sun effectually
dried it in two days' time, and it afterwards served me
for a bed to lie on.
And now we sailed southerly, living sparingly on
our provisions, and went no oftener on shore than we
were obliged for fresh water, in hopes to meet some
European ship. If Providence did not favour me, my
next course was to seek for the islands, or lose my life
among the negroes; in a word, either I must meet
with some ship, or certainly perish.
One day as we were sailing along, we saw people
stand on the shore looking at us; we could also per-
ceive they were black, and stark naked. I was in-
clined to go on shore; but Xury cried, No, no; how-
ever I approached nearer, and I found they ran along





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


the shore by me a long way. They had no weapons
in their hands, except one, who held a long stick,
which Xury told me was a lance, with which they
could kill at a great distance. I talked to them by
signs, and made them sensible I wanted something to
eat; they beckoned to me to stop my boat, while two
of them ran up into the country, and in less than half
an hour came back, and brought with them two pieces
of dry flesh, and some corn, which we gladly accepted;
and to prevent any fears on either side, they brought
the food to the shore, laid it down, then went and
stood a great way off, till we fetched it on board, and
then came close to us again.
But while we were returning thanks to them, being
all we could afford, two mighty creatures came from the
mountains, one as it were pursuing the other with
great fury, which we were the rather inclined to be-
lieve, as they seldom appear but in the night, and both
these swiftly passing by the negroes, jumped into the
sea, wantonly swimming about, as though the diversion
of the waters had put a stop to their fierceness. At
last one of them coming nearer to my boat than I ex-
pected, or desired, I shot him directly through the head,
upon which he sunk immediately, yet rising again, he





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


would have willingly made to the shore, but between the
wound and the struggling of the water, he died before
he could reach it.
It is impossible to express the consternation the
poor negroes were in at the firing of my gun; much
less can I mention their surprise, when they perceived
the creature to be slain by it. I made signs to them
to draw it near with a rope, and then gave it to them
to haul on shore. It was a beautiful leopard, which
made me desire its skin; and the negroes seeming to
covet the carcass, I freely gave it to them. As for
the other leopard, it made to shore, and ran with a
prodigious swiftness out of sight. The negroes having
kindly furnished me with water, and with what roots
and grains their country afforded, I took my leave, and
after eleven days' sail, came in sight of a ship near the
Cape de Verd. But the great distance I was fi'om it,
and fearing contrary winds would prevent my reaching
them, I began to grow melancholy and dejected, when
upon a sudden, Xury cried out, "Master, master,"
looking as affrighted as if it was his master's ship sent
in search of us. But I soon discovered she was a
Portuguese ship. Upon which I strove for life to
come up to them. But in vain had it been, if through





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


their perspective glasses, they had not perceived us,
and shortened their sail to let us come in. Encouraged
at this, I set up my patron's ancient, and fired a gun,
both, as signals of distress; upon which they very
kindly lay to, so that in three hours' time I came up
with them. They spoke to me in Portuguese, Span-
ish, and French, but none of these did I understand,
till at length a Scots sailor called, and then I told him
I was an Englishman, who had escaped from the Moors
at Salee, upon which they took me kindly on board,
with all my effects.
Having a pleasant voyage to the Brazils, we arrived
in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or, All Saints' Bay,
in twenty-two days after. And here I cannot forget
the generous treatment of the captain. He would
take nothing for my passage, gave me twenty ducats
for the leopard's skin, and thirty for the lion's. Every
thing he caused to be delivered, and what I would sell
he bought. In short, I made 220 pieces of my cargo,
and with this stock I entered once more, as I may
say, into the scene of life.
To be brief, I bought a settlement next door to an
honest and kind neighbour, born at Lisbon, of English
parents, whose plantation joining to mine, we improved






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


very amicably together. Both our stocks were low;
and for two years we planted only for food; but the
third year we planted some tobacco, and each of us
dressed a large piece of ground, the ensuing year, for
planting sugar-canes.
I was in some measure settled, before the captain
who took me up departed from the Brazils. One day
I went to him, and told him what stock I had in
London, desiring his assistance in getting it sent out
to me; to which the good gentleman readily consented,
but would only have me send for half my money, lest
it should miscarry, which, if it did, I might still have
the remainder to support me; and so taking letters of
procuration from me, bid me trouble myself no further
about it.
And indeed, he not only procured the money I had
drawn for upon my captain's widow, but sent me over
a servant, with a cargo proportionable to my condition.
He also sent me over tools of all sorts, iron work and
utensils necessary for my plantation.
Wealth now increasing on me, and uncommon
success crowning my prosperous labours, I might have
rested happy in that middle state of life my fie
so often recommended; yet nothing would content i.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Having lived four years in Brazil, I had not only
learned the language, but contracted acquaintance with
the most eminent planters, and even with the mer-
chants of St Salvadore, three of whom came one
morning to me, saying they had a secret proposal to
make. After enjoining me to secrecy, they told me
they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea, in
order to stock the plantation with negroes, which, as
they could not be publicly sold, they would divide
among them; and if I would go their supercargo in
the ship, to manage the trading part, I should have an
equal share of the negroes, without providing any
stock. The thing indeed was fair enough, had I been
in another condition: however, I could not resist the
proposal, but accepted the offer, upon condition of their
looking after my plantation.
The ship being fitted out, and all things ready, we
set sail the first of September 1659. We sailed
northward upon the coast, from whence going farther
into the ocean out of the sight of land, we steered as
though we were bound for the island Fernand de No-
renba, leaving the islands on the east, and then it was
we met with a terrible tempest, which continued for
twelve days successively, so that the winds carried us





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


wheresoever they pleased. When the weather cleared
up a little, we found ourselves upon the coast of
Guiana. Upon this the captain gave reasons for
returning, which I opposed, counselling him to stand
away for Barbadoes, which, as I supposed, might be
attained in fifteen days. So altering our course, we
sailed north-west and by west, in order to reach the
Leeward Islands; but a second storm succeeding,
drove us to the westward, so that we were justly afraid
of falling into the hands of cruel savages, or the paws
of devouring beasts of prey.
In this great distress, one of the men, early in the
morning, cried out, Land! Land! which he had no
sooner said, than our ship struck upon a sand bank,
and, in a moment, the sea broke over her in such a
manner that we expected we should perish immediately.
We knew not where we were, or upon what land we
were driven, whether it was an island or the main,
inhabited or not inhabited, and we could not so much
as hope, that the ship would hold out many minutes,
without breaking in pieces, unless the wind by a
miracle should turn about immediately. While we
stood looking at one another, expecting death every
moment, the mate lays hold of the boat, and with the





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


help of the rest got her flung over the ship's side; in
this we all got, being eleven in number, and committed
ourselves to the sea. When we had rowed, or rather
were driven about a league and a halt a raging wave,
like a lofty mountain, came rolling astern of us, and
took us with such fury, that at once it overset the
boat.
Men are generally counted insensible, when strug-
gling in the pangs of death; but while I was over-
whelmed with water, I had the most dreadful appre-
hensions imaginable, for the thoughts of everything
which I had done amiss came crowding to my mind.
I had disobeyed my parents, I had slighted their ad-
vice, I had left them to follow my own wayward in-
clination, and I was now about to appear before that
Being whom I had offended. I was going I thought
I knew not whither, into a dismal gulf unknown, and
as yet unperceived, never to behold my friends, nor the
light of this world any more! I strove however to the
last extremity, while all my companions were over-
powered and entombed in the deep; and it was with
great difficulty I kept my breath till the wave spent
itself and, retiring back, left me on the shore half-
dead with the water I had taken in. As soon as I
B





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


got on my feet, I ran as fast as I could, lest another
wave should pursue me, and carry me back again.
But for all the haste I made, I could not avoid it, for
the sea came after me like a high mountain, or a furious
enemy; so that my business was to hold my breath,
and by raising myself on the water, to save myself by
swimming. The next dreadful wave buried me at
once twenty or thirty feet deep, but, at the same time,
carried me with a mighty force and swiftness towards
the shore, when raising myself I held out as well as
possible, till, at length, the water, having spent itself
began to return, at which I struck forward, and feeling
ground again with my feet, I took to my heels. Thus
being served twice more, I was at last dashed against
a piece of rock, in such a manner, as left me senseless,
but recovering a little before the return of the wave,
which no doubt would then overwhelm me, I held fist
by the rock till those succeeding waves abated; and
then fetching another run, was overtaken by a small
wave, which was soon conquered. But before any
more could overtake me, I reached the main land,
where clambering up the cliffs of the shore, tired and
almost spent, I sat down on the grass, free from the
danger of the foaming ocean.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


No tongue can express the transports that my soul
felt at this happy deliverance. But now I began to
cast my eyes around, and to behold what place I was
in, and what I had next to do. I could see no house
nor people; I was wet, yet had no clothes to shift me;
hungry and thirsty, yet had nothing to eat or drink,
no weapon to destroy any creature for my sustenance,
nor defend myself against devouring beasts; in short I
had nothing but a knife, a tobacco pipe, and a box half
filled with tobacco. The darksome night coming upon
me, increased my fears of being devoured by wild
creatures, my mind was plunged in despair, and having
no prospect, as I thought, of life before me, I prepared
for another kind of death than what I had lately es-
caped. I walked about a furlong to see if I could find
any fresh water, which I did to my great joy; and
taking a quid of tobacco to prevent hunger, I got up
into a thick bushy tree, and seating myself so that I
could not fall, a deep sleep overtook me, and for that
night, buried my sorrows in quiet repose.
It was broad day, the next morning, before I awoke,
when I not only perceived the tempest was ceased, but
saw the ship driven almost as far as the rock before
mentioned, which was about a mile from the place





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


where I was. When I came down from my apartment
in the tree, I perceived the ship's boat two miles distant
on my right hand, lying on shore as the waves had
cast her. I thought to have got to her; but there
being an inlet of water about half a mile's breadth be-
tween it and me, I returned again towards the ship, as
hoping to find something for my more immediate
subsistence. About noon, when the sea was so calm
that I could come within a quarter of a mile of her, it
was to my grief I perceived, that if we had kept on
board, all our lives would have been saved. These
thoughts and my solitude drew tears from my eyes,
though all in vain. So resolving to get to the ship, I
stripped and waded as far as I could find depth; after
which, swimming round her, I was afraid I could not
get anything to lay hold of; but it was my good fortune
to espy a small piece of rope hanging down so low,
that, by the help of it, though with great difficulty, I
got into the ship. The provisions I found in good
order; and now I wanted for nothing except a boat,
which indeed was all, to carry away what was needful
for me.
Necessity occasions a quickness of thought. We
had several spare yards, a spare top mast or two, and





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


two or three large spars of wood. With these I fell
to work, and slung as many of them overboard as I
could manage, tying every one of them with a rope
that they might not drive away. This done, I went
down the ship's side, and tied four of them fast together
at both ends, in form of a rat, and laying two or three
short pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found it
would bear me, but not any considerable weight.
Upon which I went to work again, cutting a spare
top-mast into three lengths, adding them to my raft,
with a great deal of labour and pains. I then, first
laying upon it all the planks and boards I could get,
next lowered down three of the seamen's chests, after
I had filled them with bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goats' flesh, and some European
corn, what little the rats had spared; and for liquors,
I found several cases of bottles, in which were some
cordial waters, and four or five gallons of arrack. My
eyes, however, were chiefly on tools to work with, and
after a long search, I found out the carpenter's chest,
4 which I got safe down on my raft. I then looked for
arms and ammunition, and in the great cabin, found
two good fowling pieces, two pistols, several powder
horns filled, a small bag of shot, and two rusty swords





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


I likewise found three barrels of powder, two of which
were good, but the third had taken water, also two or
three broken oars, two saws, an axe, and a hammer,
I then put to sea, and after I had sailed about a mile,
I found the raft driving a little distance from the place
where I first landed, and then I perceived an opening
of the land, with a strong current of the tide running
into it, upon which I kept the middle of the stream.
But great was my concern, when on a sudden, the
forepart of my raft ran aground. But after some time
the rising of the water caused the raft to float again,
and coming up a little river, with land on both sides,
I landed in a little cave, as near the mouth as possible,
the better to discover a sail, if any such providentially
passed that way.
Not far off, I espied a hill of stupendous height,
surrounded with smaller hills about it, and thither I
was resolved to go and view the country, that I might
see what part was best to fix my habitation in.
Accordingly, arming myself with a pistol, a fowling
piece, powder, and ball, I ascended the mountain.
There I perceived I was in an island,.encompassed
by the sea, no distant lands to be seen, but scattering
rocks that lay to the west; that it seemed to be a





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


barren place, and as I thought, only inhabited by wild
beasts.
When I came to my raft, I brought my effects on
shore, which work spent that day entirely; and fearing
that some cruel beast might devour me in the night
time while I slept, I made a kind of hut, or barricade,
with the chests and boards I had brought on shore.
That night, I slept very comfortably; and the next
morning my thoughts were employed to make a further
attempt to the ship, and bring away what necessaries
I could find, before another storm should break her
in pieces. Accordingly I got on board as before, and
prepared a second raft far more nice than the first;
upon which, I brought away the carpenter's stores,
two or three bags full of nails, a great jack-screw, a
dozen or two of hatchets, and a grindstone. I also
took two or three iron crows, two barrels of musket
bullets, another fowling piece, a small quantity of pow-
der, and a large bag full of small shot. Besides these,
I took all the men's clothes I could find, a spare fore-
top-sail, a hammock, and some bedding; and thus com-
pleting my second cargo, I made all the haste to shore
I could, fearing some wild beast might destroy what I
had there already. But I only found a little wild cat





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


sitting on one of the chests, who not seeming to fear
me, or the gun that I presented at her, I threw her a
piece of biscuit, which she instantly ate and departed.
When I had got these effects on shore, I went to
work in order to make me a little tent with the sail
and some poles, which I had cut for that purpose; and
having finished it, what things might be damaged by
the weather I brought in, piling all the empty chests
and casks in a circle, the better to fortify it against
any sudden attempt of man or beast. After this, I
blocked up the doors with some boards, and an empty
chest turned the long way out. I then charged my
gun and pistol, and laying my bed on the ground, slept
comfortably till the next morning.
Now, though I had enough to subsist me a long
time, yet despairing of a sudden deliverance, and fear-
ing that both ammunition and provision might be spent
before such a thing happened, I saved as much as I
could, and so long as the ship remained in that con-
dition, I daily brought away one necessary or other;
particularly the rigging, sails, and cordage; some twine,
a barrel of wet powder, some sugar, a barrel of meal,
three casks of rumand indeed what was most welcome
to me, a whole hogshead of bread.





ROBINSON CRUBOE.


Fifteen days had I now been on the island, and elev-
en times on board, bringing away all that was possible.
As I was going the twelfth time, the wind began to
rise; however I ventured at low water, and rumma
going the cabin, in a locker I found several razors,
scissors, and some dozens of knives and forks, and in
another, thirty-six pounds in pieces of eight, silver
and gold. I wrapt the money up in a piece of canvass,
and began to think of making another raft; but I soon
perceived the wind beginning to rise, a fresh gale blow-
ing from the shore, and the sky overcast with clouds
and darkness. So thinking a raft to be in vain, I let
myself into the water with what things I had about
me; and it was with great difficulty I got ashore, when
soon after it blew a fearful storm.
That night I slept very contentedly in my little tent,
surrounded with all my effects; but when I looked out
in the morning, no more ship was to be seen. This
much surprised me for the present; yet, when I con-
sidered that I had lost no time, abated no pains, and
had got every thing useful out of her, I comforted
myself in the best manner, and entirely submitted to
Divine Providence.
My next thoughts were, how I should defend and
a2





ROBIDSON CRUSOE.


secure myself from savages and wild beasts, if any
such were on the island.
I found a little plain near a rising hill, the front
towards which, being as steep as a house side, nothing
could descend on me from the top. On the side of
this rock was a little hollow place, resembling the
entrance or door of a cave. Just before this place,
on the circle of the green, I resolved my tent should
stand. This plain did not much exceed a hundred
yards broad, and about twice as long, like a delightful.
green before my door, with a pleasing, though irregular
descent every way to the low grounds by the sea side,
sheltered from the excessive heat of the sun. After
this I drew a semicircle, twenty feet in diameter, driv-
ing down two rows of strong stakes not six inches
from each other. Then, with the pieces of cable which
I had cut on board, I regularly laid them in a circle
between the piles, up to their tops, which were more
than five feet out of the earth, and then drove another
row of piles looking within side against them, between
two or three feet high, which made me conclude it a
little castle impregnable by men and beasts. And for
my better security, I would have no door, but entered in
and came out by the help of a ladder, which I also made.






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Here was my fence and fortress, into which I car-
ried all myriches, ammunition, and stores. Afterwhich,
working on the rock, what with the dirt and stones I
dug out, I not only raised my ground two feet, but
made a little cellar to my mansion house. Fearing
lest I shouldlose my reckoning of time, nay even for-
get the sabbath-days, for want of pen, ink, and paper,
I carved with a knife upon a large post, in great letters,
I came on shore, Sept. 30, 1659, and set it up in the
similitude of a cross, on the seashore, where I landed.
Every day I cut a notch with my knife on the side of
the square post, and that on the sabbath was as long
again as the rest, and every first day of the month, as
long again as that long one. In this manner, I kept
my calendar, weekly, monthly, or yearly reckoning of
time.
I must here add to the description I have given of
my habitation, that having raised a turf-wall against
the outside of it, I thatched it so close as might keep
it from the inclemency of the weather; I also improved
it within, enlarged my cave, and made a passage and a
door in the rock, which came out beyond the pale of
my fortification. I next proceeded to make a chair
and table, and so began to study such mechanical arts as






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


seemed to me practicable. When I wanted a plank
or a board, I hewed down a tree with my hatchet,
making it as thin with my axe as possible, and then
smooth enough with an adze, to answer my designs;
yet though I could make no more this way than
one board out of a tree, in length of time I got boards
enough to shelter all my stores, everything being
regularly placed, and my guns securely hanging against
the side of a rock. This made it a very pleasant sight
to me, beingthe resultof vastlabour andgreatdiligence;
which leaving for a while, and me to the enjoyment
of it, I shall give the reader an account of some parts
of my journal from the day of my landing, till the
settling of my habitation, as heretofore shown.



JOURNAL.

SEPTEMBER 30, 1659. I Robinson Crusoe, having
suffered shipwreck, was driven on this desolate island,
which I named the Desolate Island of Despair, the
rest of my companions being swallowed up in the tem-
pestuous ocean.






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Oct. 1. This morning, with great comfort, I beheld
the ship driven ashore. Some hopes I had, that when
the storm was abated, I might be able to get some
food and necessaries out of her; which Iconceived were
not damaged, because the ship remained upright.
Oct. 5. My raft, and all the goods thereon were
overset; yet recovered most again at low water.
To the 14th of this month, my time was employed
in making voyages every tide, getting what I could out
of the ship.
Oct. 15. It blew hard and rained night and day,
when the ship went to pieces, so that nothing was
seen of her but the wreck at low water.
Oct. 16. Wandered to see where I could find a
place convenient for my abode; fixed beside a rock
in the evening; marked out a half-moon, intending to
erect a wall fortified with piles.
Nov. 3. Shot two wild-fowl, resembling ducks,
which were good to eat, and in the afternoon began
to make a table.
Nov. 4. Began to live regularly. In the morning
allowed myself two or three hours to walk out with
my gun; then worked till near eleven o'clock; and
afterwards refreshed myself with what I had to eat.






ROBIKSON CRUSOE.


From twelve to two, would lie down to sleep. In
the evening go to work again.
Nov. 5. Went out with my gun and dog; shot a
wild cat with a soft skin; but her flesh was good for
nothing. The skins of those killed, preserved.
Nov. 6. Completed my table.
Nov. 7. Worked to the 12th, but omitted the 11th,
which according to my calculation, I supposed to be
Sunday.
Nov. 23. Daily carried on my business: eighteen
days allowed for enlarging my cave, that it might
serve me, not only for a warehouse, but kitchen, par-
lour, and cellar.
Dec. 10. No sooner did I think my habitation
finished, but suddenly a great deal of the top broke in,
so that it was a mercy I was not buried in the ruins.
This occasioned a great deal of pains and trouble to
me, before I could make it firm and durable.
Dec. 17. Nailed up some shelves, and drove nails
and staples in the wall and posts, to hang everything
out of the way.
Dec. 20. Got everything into its place, then
made a sort of dresser, and another table.
Dec. 27. Chanced to light on some goats, shot one,






BOBINSON CRUBOE.


wounded another: I led it home in a string, bound up
its leg, and cured it in a little time; at length it became,
so tame and familiar as to feed before the door, and
follow me where I pleased. This put me in mind to
bring up tame creatures, in order to supply me with
food after my ammunition was spent.
Jan. 3, to 14. My employment this time was to
finish the wall before described, and search the island.
But now a very strange event happened. For, be-
ing in the height of my search, what should come into
my hand, but a bag which was used to hold corn (as
I supposed) for the fowls: so immediately resolving
to put gunpowder into it, I shook all the husks and
dirt upon one side of a rock, little expecting what the
consequence would be. The rain had fallen plentifully
-a few days before; and about a month after, to my
great amazement, something began to look out very
green and flourishing; and when I came to view it
more nicely, every day as it grew, I found about ten
or twelve ears of green barley of the very same shape
and make as that in England.
It was about the latter end of June when the ears
of this corn ripened, which I laid up very carefully, to-
gether with twenty or thirty stalks of rice; expecting






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


one day I should reap the fruit of my labour: yet four
years were expired before I could allow myself to eat
any barley bread, and much longer time, before I had
any rice. After this, with indefatigable pains and in-
dustry for three or four months, at last I finished my
house, having no way to go into it, but by a ladder
against the wall.
April 16. I finished my ladder, and ascended it;
afterwards pulled it up, then let it down on the other
side, and descended into my new habitation, where I
had space enough, and so fortified, that nothing could
attack me without scaling the walls.
Most of my axes and hatchets were useless, occasion-
ed by cutting the hard timber that grew on the island.
It took me up a full week to make my grindstone
of use to me; and at last I found out a way to turn
it about with my foot, by help of a wheel and a string.
April 30. My bread falling short, I allowed myself
but one biscuit a-day.
May 1. As I walked along the sea-shore, I found
a barrel of gunpowder, and several pieces of the wreck
which the sea had flung up. Having secured these, I
made to the ship, whose stern was torn off, and wash-
ed a great distance ashore; but the rest lay in the sands





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


May 3. This day I went on board the wreck,
which still remained upon its bed of rock, though the
waves had carried away all its upper works, and left
nothing standing but the part between decks, and
with my saw sawed off one of the beams, which kept
her quarter-deck.
May 4. I caught some fish, but they were not
wholesome.
May 5. This day also I repaired to the wreck,
and sawed another piece of timber; and when the
flood came, I made a float of three great planks, which
were driven ashore by the tide.
May 6-9. These days, I brought off the iron
bolts, opened the deck with the iron crow, and carried
two planks to land, having made a way into the very
middle of the wreck.
May 10-14. All this time I spent in bringing off
great quantities of iron and timber.
May 15. Took with me two hatchets on purpose
to cut off some lead from the roll, but all in vain, for
it lay too low under water.
May 24. To this day, I worked on the wreck, and
with great difficulty loosened some things so much
with the crow, that at the first blowing tide, several





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


casks floated out, and several of the seamen's chests;
yet that day nothing came to land but pieces of timber,
and a hogshead which had some pork in it. I con-
tinued working at the wreck to the 15th of June.
June 16. As I was wandering towards the sea-
side, I found a large tortoise or turtle, being the first
I had seen on the island.
June 17. This day I spent in cooking it, found in
her threescore eggs, and her flesh the most savoury
and pleasant I ever tasted in my life.
June 18. I staid within this day, there being a
continual rain.
June 19. Exceedingly ill, taken with a trembling
and shivering,
June 20. Awake all night, my head racked with
pain, and feverish.
June 21. Sick unto death, and terrified with dis-
mal apprehensions of my condition. Prayed to God
more frequently, but very confusedly.
June 22. Something better, but still uneasy in
my mind.
June 23. Again relapsed much as before.
June 24. Mended a second time.





ROBINSON CRUSOE. 43
June 25. A violent ague for seven hours, cold and
hot fits, succeeded by faint sweats.
June 26. Better, but very weak; yet I scrambled
out, shot a she-goat, brought it home, and broiled
some of it.
June 27. All this day I was afflicted with an
ague; thirsty, yet could not help myself to water:
prayed to God in these words: Lord, in pity look
upon me: Lord, have mercy upon me! have mercy
upon me! After this I fell asleep, which, when I
awaked, I found had much. refreshed me.
I rose up in a pensive manner, being so thoughtful
that I could not go to sleep; and fearing the dread-
ful return of my distemper, it caused me to remember,
that tWe Brazilians use tobacco for almost all diseases.
I then went to my chest, in order to find some, where
it was my happiness to find a cure, both for soul and
body; for there I found one of the bibles, which, til
this time, I had neither leisure nor inclination to look
into; I took both the tobacco and that out of my chest,
and laid them on the table. Several experiments did
I try with the tobacco: first, I took a piece of least
and chewed it; but it being very green and strong, al-
most stopifed me: next, I steeped it in some rum an





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


hour or two, resolving when I went to bed to take a
dose of it; and, in the third place, I burnt some over
a pan of fire, holding my nose over it so long as I
could endure it without suffocation.
As it now was very late, and the tobacco had dosed
my head, I was inclined to sleep; but before I would
lie down, I fell down on my knees, and implored the
promise that God had made to me in the holy Scrip-
tures, that if I called on him in the day of trouble,
he would deliver me. With much difficulty, I after-
wards drank the rum, wherein I had steeped the to-
bacco, which flying into my head, threw me into such
a profound sleep, that it was three o'clock the next day
before I awoke; or, rather, I believe, I slept two days,
having certainly lost a day in my account, as I after-
wards discovered, and I could never tell any other way.
When I got up, my spirits were lively and cheerful;
my stomach much better, being very hungry; and, in
short, no fit returned the next day, which was the 29th,
but I found myself much altered for the better.
July 3. The fit quite left me, but I was very weak.
July 4. This morning, I began seriously to ponder
on what is written in the New Testament, resolving to
read a chapter every morning and night, as long as my





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


thoughts would engage me. As soon as I set about
this work seriously, I found my heart affected with
the impiety of my past life. Having now been above
nine months in the island; and as I had never seen
any of the human kind, I therefore accounted myself
as sole proprietor: and as I grew better, having secured
my habitation to my mind, I resolved to make a tour
round my domain, in order to make new discoveries.
The 15th of July I began my journey; I first went
to the creek where I had brought my rafts on shore,
and travelling farther, found tht tide went no higher
than two miles up, where there was a little brook of
running water, on the bank of which were many
pleasant savannahs or meadows, smooth, plain, and
covered with grass. On the rising parts, where I
supposed the water did not reach, I perceived a great
deal of tobacco growing to a very strong stalk.
The next day, being the 16th, going the same way,
but farther than the day before, I found the country
more adorned with woods and trees. Here I perceiv-
ed different fruits in great abundance. Melons in
plenty lay on the ground, and clusters of grapes, ripe
and very rich spread over the trees. The grapes I
found of excellent use: for when I dried Abem in the





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


sun, which preserved them as dried raisins are kept,
they proved very wholesome and nourishing, and serv-
ed me in those seasons when no grapes were to be had.
The night drawing on apace, I ascended a tree, and
slept very comfortably, though it was the first time I
had slept out of my habitation. And when the morn-
ing came, I proceeded with great pleasure on my way,
travelling about four miles, as I imagined, by the
length of the valley. At the end of this valley, I came
to an opening, where the country seemed to descend
to the west: there I found a spring of fresh water,
proceeding out of the side of the hill, with its crystal
stream running directly east. And indeed here my
senses were charmed with the most beautiful landscape
nature could afford: for the country appeared so flour-
ishing, green and delightful, that to me it seemed like
a planted garden. I then descended on the side of
that delicious vale, when I found abundance of cocoa,
orange, lemon, and citron trees, but very wild and
barren at that time. As for the limes, they were de-
lightful and wholesome, the juice of which I afterwards
used to mix in water, which made it very cool and
refreshing. And now I was resolved to carry home
and lay up a store of grapes, limes and lemons, against





ROBINSON CRUBOE.


the approaching wet season. So laying them up in
separate parcels, and then taking a few of each with
me, I returned to my little castle, after having spent
three days in this journey.
July 19. Having prepared two bags, I returned
thither again, but to my great surprise, found all the
grapes spread about, trodden to pieces, and abundance
eaten, which made me conclude there were wild beasts
thereabout. To prevent this happening again, I
gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them
upon the out branches of the tree, both to keep them
unhurt, and that they might cure and dry in the sun:
and having well loaded myself with limes and lemons,
I returned once more to my old place of residence.
Aug. 3. Perceiving my grapes to be dry, I took
them from the trees, and they proved excellent raisins:
the most of them I carried to my cave; and happy for
me I did so, by which I saved the best part of my:
winter food.
Aug. 14.' This day it began to rain; and though
I had made me a tent like the other, yet having no
shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave
bdind me to retreat to, I was obliged to return to my
old castle; the rain continued more or less every day:





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


till the middle of October, and sometimes so violently
that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.
To the 26th of this month, I could not stir out, it
rained incessantly: when beginning to want food, I
was compelled to venture twice, the first ofwhichtimes I
shot a goat, and afterwards found a very large tortoise.
The manner of regulating my food was thus: a bunch
of raisins served me for my breakfast: a piece of goat's
flesh or turtle boiled for my dinner, and two or three
turtle eggs for my supper.
Sept. 30. Casting up the notches on my post, they
amounted to 365, I concluded this to be the anniver-
sary of my landing: and therefore, humbly prostrating
myself on the ground, confessing my sins, acknowledg-
ing God's righteous judgment upon me, and praying
to him to have mercy upon me through Jesus Christ,
I fasted for twelve hours till the going down of the sun;
and then eating a biscuit and a bunch of grapes, laid
me on a bed, and with great comfort took my night's
repose. Till this time, though I had always put a
larger notch than ordinary for each sabbath-day, to my
shame I confess it, I had seldom observed it in any
other way. My ink failing soon after, I omitted in
my daily memorandum, things of an indifferent nature,





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


and contented myself to write down only the most re-
markable events of my life. The rainy and dry seasons
appeared now regular to me, and experience taught me
how to provide for them: yet in one thing I am going
to relate, my experience very much failed me. You
may call to mind, what I have mentioned of some
barley and rice which I had saved: about thirty stalks
of the former, and twenty of the latter; and, at that
time, the sun's being in its southern position, going
from me, together with the rains, made me conclude
it a very proper season to sow it. Accordingly I dug
up a piece of ground, with my wooden spade, and
dividing it in two parts, sowed about two-thirds of my
seeds, preserving by me a handful of each. And
happy it was I did so; for no rains falling, it was
choked up, and never appeared above the earth till
the wet season came again, and then part of it grew,
as if it had been newly sown.
I was resolved still to make another trial; and seek-
ing for a moister piece of ground near my bower, I
there sowed the rest of my seed in February, which,
by having the rainy months of March and April to
water it, yielded a noble crop, and sprung up very
pleasantly. I had still saved part of the seed, not





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


daring to venture all; and by the time I found out
the proper seasons to sow it in, and that I might
expect every year two seed times and two harvests.
my stock amounted to above half a peck of each sort
of grain.
No sooner were the rains over, but the stakes which
I had cut from the trees shot out like willows, the
first year after lopping their heads. I was ignorant
of the tree I had cut them from; but they grew so
regularly beautiful, that they made a most lively
appearance and so flourished in three years' time, that
I resolved to cut more of them; and these soon grow-
ing made a glorious fence, as afterwards I shall observe.
And now I perceived that the seasons of the year
might generally be divided, not into summer and
winter, as in Europe, but into wet and dry seasons.
The wet seasons would continue lqpger or shorter,
as the wind continued or ceased to blow. Buthaving
found the ill consequences of being abroad in the rain.
I took care before-hand to furnish myself with
provisions: and, during the wet months, sat within
doors as much as possible. At this time, I contrived
to make many handy things that I wanted, though it
cost me much labour and pains, before I could ac-





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


complish them. The first I tried was to make a
basket, but all the twigs I could get, proved so brittle,
that I could not then perform it. It now proved of
great use to me, that when a boy I took great delight
in standing at a basket-maker's, in the same town
where my father lived, to view them at work: like
other boys, being curious to see the manner of their
working these things, and very officious to assist, I
perfectly learned the method of it, and wanted nothing
but the tools. And it coming into my mind, that the
twigs of that tree of which I made mystakes,might beas
tough as a sallow willow, or osiers growing in England,
I resolved to make an experiment, and went the next
day to my country seat, and found some fit for my turn;
and after cutting down a quantity with my hatchet, I
dried them in my pale, and, when fit to work with,
carried them to my cave, where I employed myself in
making several sorts of baskets, insomuch that I could
put in whatsoever I pleased. It is true they were not
cleverly made, yet they served my turn on all occa-
sions.
But still I wanted two necessary things. I had no
cask to hold my liquor, except two, almost full of rum,
a few bottles of an ordinary size, and some square case


-W-4





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


bottles; neither had I a pot to boil anything in, only
a large kettle, unfit to make broth, or stew a bit of
meat: I wanted likewise at the beginning of this dry
season a tobacco-pipe; but for this I afterwards found
an expedient.
I kept myself employed in planting my second row
of stakes. But remembering that when I travelled up
to the brook I had a mind to see the whole island, I
now resumed my intention, and taking my dog, gun,
hatchet, two biscuit cakes, a great bunch of raisins,
with a larger quantity of powder and shot than usual,
I began my journey. Having passed the vale where
my bower stood, I came within view of the sea, lying
to the west; when, it being a clear day, I fairly des-
cried land, extending from the W. to the S.W. about
10 or 15 leagues, as I concluded; but could not say
whether it was an island or a continent. Neither
could I tell what this place might be; only thought
it was part of America, and where I might have been
in a miserable condition had I landed. Again I con-
sidered, that if this was the Spanish coast, certainly,
one time or other, I should see some ships pass by;
and if it was not, then it must be the savage coast





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


between the Spanish country and Brazil, which a-
bounds with cannibals or man-eaters.
In this journey, I did not travel above two miles a
day, because I took several turns and windings, to see
what discoveries I could make, returning weary enough
to the place where I designed to rest all night, which
was either in a tree, or to a place which I surrounded
with stakes, that no wild creature might suddenly
surprise me.
Now, though this journey produced the most pleas-
ing satisfaction, yet my habitation was so much to
my liking, that I did not repine at my being seated
on the worst part of the island. I continued my
journey, travelling about twelve miles further to-
wards the east, where I set a great pile on the short
for a mark, concluding that my next journey should
bring me to the other side of the island, east from my
castle, and so round till I came to my post again.
As I had a constant view of the country, I thought
I could not miss my way; but scarcely had I travel-
led three miles, when I descended into a very large
valley, so surrounded with hills covered with wood,
that having no guide but the sun, and to add to my
misfortune, the weather proving very hazy, I was





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


obliged to return to my post by the sea-side, and so
backwards the same way I came. In this journey,
my dog surprised a kid, and would have killed it, had
I not prevented him. As I had often been thinking
of getting a kid or two, and so raising a breed of tame
goats to supply me, after my ammunition was spent,
I took this opportunity of beginning; and, having
made a collar for this little creature, with a string,
made of rope yarn, I brought it to my bower, and
there enclosed and left him; and having spent a month
in this journey, at length I returned to my old habi-
tation.
Nobody can doubt of my satisfaction, when I re-
turned to my little castle, and reposed myself in my
hammock. After my journey, I rested myself a week,
which time I employed in making a cage for my
pretty poll. I now began to recollect the poor kid
I had left in the bower, and immediately went to fetch
it home. When I came there, I found the young
creature almost starved; I gave it some food, and tied
it as before; but there was no occasion for it follow-
ed me like a dog; and as I constantly fed it, it became
so loving, gentle, and fond, that it commenced one of
my domestics, and would never leave me.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


The harvest months, November and December,
were now at hand, in which I had the pleasing pros-
pect of a very good crop. But here I met with a
new misfortune, for the goats and hares, having tasted
of the sweetness of the blade, kept it so short, that it
had no strength to shoot up into a stalk. To pre-
vent this, I enclosed it with a hedge, and by day shot
some of its devourers; and my dog, which I had
tied to the field gate, keeping barking all night, so
frightened these creatures that I got entirely rid of
them.
My corn having ripened apace, the latter end of
December, which was my second harvest, I reaped it
with a scythe made of one of my broadswords. I
had no fatigue in cutting down my first crop, it was
so slender. The ears I carried home in a basket,
rubbing the grain out with my hands, instead of
thrashing it; and when my harvest was over, found
my half-peck of seed had produced nearly two bushels
of rice and two bushels and a half of barley. And
now I plainly foresaw, that, by God's goodness, I
should be furnished with bread; but yet I was con-
cerned, because I knew not how to grind or make
meal of my corn, neither knew I how to bake it into





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


bread. I would not, however, taste any of the crop,
but resolved, to preserve it against next season, and,
in the mean while, use my best endeavours to pro-
vide myself with other food.
But where were my labours to end ? the want of a
plough to turn up the earth, or shovel to dig it, I con-
quered by making me a wooden spade. The want
of a harrow I supplied by dragging over the corn a
great bough of a tree. When it was growing, I was
forced to fence it; when ripe, to mow it, carry it home,
thrash it, part it from the chaflf and save it. And,
after all, I wanted a mill to grind it, a sieve to dress
it, yeast and salt to make it into bread, and an oven
to bake it. This set my brains to work, to find some
expedient for every one of these necessaries, against
the next harvest.
And now having more seed, my first care was to
prepare me more land. I pitched upon two large flat
pieces of ground, near my castle, for that purpose, in
which I sowed my seed, and fenced it with a good
hedge. This took me up three months; by which
time, the wet season coming on, and the rain keeping
me within doors, I ibund several occasions to empla'
myself; and, while at work, used to divert imyl





aOBINSON CRUsoE. 57

with talking to my parrot, teaching him to know and
speak his own name Poll, the first welcome word I
had ever heard spoken in the island. I had been a
long time contriving, how to make earthen vessels,
which I wanted extremely; and when I considered
the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but, if I could
find any such clay, I might botch up a pot, strong
enough, when dried in the sun, to bear handling, and
to hold anything that was dry, as corn, meal, and
other things.
To be short, the clay I found; but it would ocMioM
the most serious person to smile, to see what Mc-
ward ways I took, and what ugly misshapen tMigs I
made; how many either fell out or cracked, by the
violent heat of the sun, and fell in pieces when they
were removed; so that I think it was two months
before I could perfect anything' and even then, but
two clumsy things in imitation of earthen jars.-
These, however, I very gently placed in wicker baskets,
made, on purpose for them, and between the pot and
the baskets, stuffed it full of rice and barley straw;
and these I presumed would hold my dried corn, and'
perhaps the meal, when the corn was bruised. As
fr, the smaller things, I made them with better sw-
c2





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


cess; such as little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers,
and pipkins, the sun baking them very hard.
Yet still I wanted one thing absolutely necessary,
and that was an earthen pot, not only to hold my
liquid, but also to bear the fire, which none of these
could do. It once happened, that as I was putting
out my fire, I found therein a broken piece of one of
my vessels burnt hard as a rock, and red as a tile;
this made me think of burning some pots; and having
no notion of a kiln, or of glazing them with lead, I
fixed three large pipkins, and two or three pots in a
pile one upon another. The fire I piled round the
outside, and dry wood on the top, till I saw the pots
in the inside red-hot, and found that they did not crack
at all: and when I perceived them perfectly red, I let
them stand in the fire about five or six hours, till the
clay melted by the extremity of the heat, and would
have run to glass had I suffered it; upon which, I
slacked my fire by degrees, till the redness abated;
and watching them till the morning, I found I had
three very good pipkins, and two earthen pots, as well
burnt and fit for my turn as I could desire.
The first use to which I turned my pipkins, was to
make some salt, which I had long wanted. For this





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


purpose, I filled them with sea-water, and kept it slow-
ly boiling over the fire, till the whole of the water had
boiled away in steam, leaving, at the bottom of the
vessel, a thin crust of salt, which I found very good
for giving a relish to my food.
The next concern I had, was to get me a stone-
mortar to beat some corn in, instead of a mill to grind
it. Here, indeed, I was at a great loss, as not being
fit for a stone-cutter; and many days I spent to find
out a great stone big enough to cut hollow and make
it fit for a mortar, and strong enough to bear the
weight of a pestle, that would break the corn without
filling it with sand. But all the stones of the island
being of a mouldering nature, rendered my search
fruitless; and then I resolved to look out a great
block of hard wood; which having found, I formed it
by my axe and hammer, and then, with infinite labour,
made a hollow in it, just as the Indians of Brazil
make their canoes. When I had finished this, I
made a great pestle of ironwood, and then laid them
up against my succeeding harvest.
My next business was to make me a sieve, to sift my
meal and part it from the bran and husk. Having no
fine thin canvass to search the meal through, I could






Wu ROBINSON CRUSOE.

not tell what to do. What linen I had was reduced
to rags; I had goat's hair enough, but neither tools to
work it, nor did I know how to spin it. At length, I
remembered I had some neckcloths of calico or muslin,
of the sailors, which I had brought out of the ship, and
with these, I made three small sieves proper enough
for the work.
I come now to consider the baking part. The
want of an oven I supplied, by making some earthen
pans very broad, but not deep. When I had a mind
to bake, I made a great fire upon my hearth the tiles
of which, I had made myself and when the wood was
burnt into live coals, I spread them over it, till it be-
came very hot; then sweeping them away I set down
my loaves, and whelming down the earthen pots upon
them, drew the ashes and coals all around the outsides
of the pots to continue the heat; and in this manner,
I baked my barley loaves, as well as if I had been a
complete pastry cook, and also made of the rice several
cakes and puddings.
It is no wonder that all these things took me up the
best part of the year, since what intermediate time I
had, was bestowed in managing my new harvest and
husbandry; for in the proper season, I reaped my corn,





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


carried it home, and laid it up in the ear, in my large
baskets, till I had time to rub, instead of thrashing it.
All this while, the prospect of land, which I had
seen from the other side of the island, ran in my mind.
I still meditated a deliverance from this place, though
the fear of greater misfortunes might have deterred me
from it. I went to the ship's boat, that had been cast
a great way on the shore, in the late storm. She was
removed but a little; but her bottom being turned up
by the impetuosity and surge of the waves and wind,
I fell to work with all the strength I had, and with
levers and rollers which I had cut from the wood, to
turn her, and repair the damages she had sustained.
This work took me up three or four weeks, when find-
ing my little strength all in vain, I fell to undermining
it, by digging away the sand, and so to make itfall
down, setting pieces of wood to thrust and guide it in
the fall. But after this was done, I was still unable
to stir it uj* or to get under it, much less to move it
forward towards the water, and so I was forced to
give it over.
This disappointment, however, did not frighten me.
I began to think whether it was not possible for me to
make a canoe or Perigna, such as the Indians make





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


of the trunk of a tree. But here I lay under par-
ticular inconveniences; want of tools to make it, and
want of hands to move it into the water when it was
made. However, to work I went upon it, stopping
all the inquiries I could make, with this very simple
answer I made to myself let's first make it, I'll
warrant I'll find some way or other to get along when
it is done.
I first cut down a cedar-tree, which was five feet ten
inches diameter at the lower part next the stump, and
four feet eleven inches diameter at the end of twenty-
two feet, after which it lessened for a space, and then
parted into branches. Twenty days was I hacking
and hewing it at the bottom, fourteen more in cutting
off the branches and limbs, and a whole month in
shaping it like the bottom of a boat. As for the in-
side, I was three weeks with a mallet and chissel,
clearing it in such a manner, as that it was big enough
to carry twenty-six men, being much bigger than any
canoe I ever saw in my life, and consequently sufficient
to transport me and all my effects to that wished-for
shore I so ardently desired.
Nothing remained now, but, indeed, the greatest
difficulty, to get it into the water, it lying about 100





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


yards from it. To remedy the first inconvenience,
which was a rising hill between this boat and the creek,
with wonderful pains and labour I dug into the surface
of the earth, and made a declivity. But when this
was done, all the strength I had was as insufficient to
move it, as it was when I first made the attempt. I
then proceeded to measure the distance of ground, re-
solving to make a canal, in order to bring the water to
the canoe, since I could not bring the canoe to the
water. But as this seemed to be impracticable to my-
self alone under the space of eleven or twelve years,
it brought me under some sort of consideration; so
that I concluded this also to be impossible, and the
attempt vain. I now saw, and not before, what stupid-
ity it is to begin work before we reckon its costs, or
judge rightly our own abilities to go through with its
performance.
In the height of this work, my fourth year expired
from the time I was cast on this island.
As long as my ink continued, which with water I
made last as long as I could, I used to minute down
the days of the month on which any remarkable thing
happened.
The next thing that wasted after my ink, was the





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


biscuit, which I had brought out of the ship; and
though I allowed myself but one cake a-day for above
a twelvemonth, yet I was quite out of bread for nearly
a year, before I got any corn of my own.
In the next place, my clothes began to decay, and
my linen had been gone long before; however, I had
preserved about three dozen of the sailors' chequered
shirts, which proved a great refreshment to me, when
the violent beams of the sun would not suffer me to
bear any of the seamen's heavy watch-coats; which
made me turn tailor; and, after a miserable botching
manner convert them to jackets. To preserve my
head, I made a cap of goatskins, with the hair outwards
to keep out the rain: which indeed served me so well
that afterwards I made a waistcoat and open-kneed
breeches of the same: and then I contrived a sort of
umbrella, covering it with skins, which not only kept
out the heat of the sun, but the rain also.
For five years after this, I cannot say any
thing extraordinary occurred to me. My chief employ-
ment was to cure my raisins, and plant my barley and
rice, of both which I had a year's provision before-hand.
But though I was disappointed in my first canoe, I
made it at intermediate times my business, to make a





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


second of much inferior size: and it was two years
before I had finished it. But as I perceived it would
in no wise answer my design of sailing to the other
shore, my thoughts were confined to take a tour round
the island, to see what further discoveries I could make.
To this intent, after having moved her to the water,
and tried how she would sail, I fitted up a little mast
to my boat, and made a sail of the ship's sails that lay
by me. I then made lockers or boxes at the end of it,
to put in necessaries, provision and ammunition, which
would preserve them dry either from the rain, or the
spray of the sea; and in the inside of the boat, I cut a
long hollow place to lay my gun; and, to keep it dry
made a cover for it. My umbrella, I fixed in a step
in the stern, like a mast, to keep off the heat of the
sun. And now resolving to see the circumference of
my little kingdom, I victualled my ship for the voyage,
putting in two dozen of my barley-bread loaves, an
earthen pot full of parched rice, a little bottle of rum,
half a goat, powder and shot, and two watch-coats.
It was the 6th of November, in the 6th year of my
reign, or captivity, that I set out on this voyage,
which was much longer than I expected, being obliged





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


to put farther out, by reason of the rocks that lay a
great way into the sea.
And indeed, so much did these iocks surprise me,
that I was for putting back, fearing that if I ventured
farther, it would be out of my power to return; in
this uncertainty I came to anchor just off the shore,
to which I waded with my gun on my shoulder, and
then climbing up a hill, which overlooked that point,
I saw the full extent of it, and so I resolved to run all
hazards.
In this prospect from the hill, I perceived a violent
current running to the east, coming very close to the
point, which I the more carefully observed, thinking it
dangerous; and that when I came to it, I might be
driven into the sea by its force, and not able to return
to the island: and certainly it must have been so, had
I not made this observation; for on the other side
was the like current, with this difference, that it set off
at a greater distance; and I perceived there was a
strong eddy under the land: so that my chief business
was to work out of the first current, and conveniently
get into the eddy. Two days I staid here, the wind
blowing very briskly E. S.E. which being contrary to the





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


current, left a great breach of the sea upon the
point; so it was neither fit for me to keep too near the
shore, on account of the breach, nor stand at too great
a distance for fear of the streams. That night the wind
abating, it grew so calm, that I ventured out: and
here I may be a monument to all rash and ignorant
pilots: for I was no sooner come to the point, and not
above the boat's length from shore, but I was got into
a deep water, with a current like a mill-race, which
drove my boat along so violently, that it was impossible
for me to keep near the edge of it, being forced more
and more out from the eddy to the left of me; and all
I could do with my paddles was useless, there being no
wind to help me.
Now I began to look upon myself as quite lost;
since, as the current ran on both sides of the island,
I was very certain they must join again, and then I
had no hopes but of perishing on the sea for want,
after what provision I had was spent, or before, if a
storm should happen to arise.
Who can conceive the present anguish of my mind
at this calamity? with longing eyes did I look upon
my little kingdom, and thought the island the pleas-
antest place in the universe. I laboured till my strength





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


was far spent, to keep my boat as far north as possibly
I could, to that side of the current where the eddy lay.
About noon I perceived a little breeze of wind spring
up from the S.S.E. which overjoyed my heart; and
I was still more elated, when, in about half an hour,
it blew a fine gentle gale. Had any thick weather
sprung up, I had been lost another way: for, having no
compass on board, I should never have found the way
to steer towards the island, if once it had disappeared:
but it proving the contrary, I set up my mast again,
spread my sail, and stood away northward, as much as
I could, to get rid of the current. And no sooner did
the boat begin to stretch away, but I perceived, by the
clearness of the water, that a change of the current
was near; for, where it was strong, the water was foul,
and where it was clear, the current abated.
On landing, I perceived myself not far from the
place, where before I had travelled on foot; so tak-
ing nothing with me, except my gun and umbrella,
I began my journey, and in the evening came to my
bower, where I laid me down to rest. I had not slept
long before I wakened in great surprise, by a strange
voice that called me several times, Robin, Robin,
Robinson Crusoe, poor Robin! Where are you,





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Robinson Crusoe ? Where are you? Where have
you been ?"
So fast was I asleep, that at first I did not awake
thoroughly; but half-asleep and half-awake, I thought
I dreamed that somebody spoke to me. But as the
voice repeated, "Robinson Crusoe," several times, being
terribly frightened, I started up in the utmost con-
fusion; and, no sooner were my eyes fully open, but I
beheld my pretty Poll sitting on the top of the hedge,
and soon knew that it was he that called me.
I was now pretty well cured of rambling to sea;
yet I could have wished my boat, which had cost me so
much trouble and pains, on this side the island once
more; but this, indeed, was impracticable.
My powder beginning to fail, made me examine
after what manner I should kill the goats or birds
to live on, after it was all gone. Upon which, I con-
trived many ways to insnare the goats, and see if I
could catch them alive, particularly a she-goat with
young.
At last I had my desire; for, making pit-falls and
traps, baited with barley and rice; I found, one morn-
ing, in one of them, an old he-goat, and in the other,
three kids; one male, the other two females.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


So boisterous was the old one, that I could not
bring him away. The others I bound with strings
together; but I had great difficulty before I could bring
them to my habitation. It was some time before
they would feed; but, throwing them sweet corn, it
so much tempted them, that they began to be tamer.
From hence I concluded, that if I designed to furnish
myself with goats' flesh,'when my ammunition was
spent, the tamely breeding them up, like a flock of
sheep, about my settlement, was the only method I
could take. I concluded also I must separate the
wild from the tame, or else they would always run
wild as they grew up; and the best way for this, was
to have some enclosed piece of ground, well-fenced,
either with a hedge or pale, to keep them so effect-.
ually, that those within might not break out, nor those
without might not break in. I therefore resolved to
enclose a piece of ground, about 150 yards in length,
and 100 in breadth, large enough for as many as
would maintain me, till such time as my flock increas-
ed, and then I could add more ground. I now vigor-
ously prosecuted my work, and it took me about three
months in hedging the first piece; in which time, I
tethered the three kids in the best part of it; feeding





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


them as near me as possible, to make them familiar;
and, indeed, I very often would carry some ears
of barley, or a handful of rice, and feed them out of
my hand; by which they grew so tame, that when my
enclosure was finished, and I had let them loose, they
would run after me for a handful of corn. This in-
deed answered my end: and in a year and a half
time, I had a flock of about twelve goats, kids and all;
and in two years after, they amounted to forty-three,
besides what I had taken and killed for my sustenance.
After which, I enclosed five several pieces of ground
to feed them in, with pens to drive them into, that I
might take them as I had occasion.
In this project I likewise found additional blessings;
for I not only had plenty of goat's flesh, but milk too,
which in the beginning, I did not so much as think of.
In this plentiful manner did I live, wanting for no-
thing but conversation. One thing indeed concerned
me, the want of my boat; I knew not which way to
get her round the island. One time I resolved to go
along the shore by land to her; but had any one at
home met such a figure, it would either have affright-
ed him, or made him burst into laughter; nay, I





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


could not but smile myself at my habit, which I think
in this place will be very proper to describe.
The cap I wore upon my head, was great, high,
and shapeless, made of a goat's skin, with a flap or
pent-house hanging down behind, not only to keep the
sun from me, but to shoot the rain off from running
into my neck, nothing being more pernicious than the
rain falling upon the flesh in these climates. I had a
short jacket of goat's skin, whose hair hung down such
a length on each side, that it reached down to the calves
of my legs. As for shoes and stockings, I had none,
but made a resemblance of something, I knew not
what to call them; they were made like buskins, and
laced on the side like spatterdashes, barbarously
shaped, like the rest of my habit. I had a broad belt of
goat's skin dried, girt round me with a couple of thongs,
instead of buckles ; on each of which, to supply the de-
ficiency of sword and dagger, hung my hatchet and
saw. I had another belt, not so broad, yet fastened
in the same manner, which hung over my shoulder,
and at the end of it, under my left arm, hung two
pouches, made of goat's skin, to hold my powder and
shot. My basket I carried on my back, and my gun






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


on my shoulder; and over my head, a great clumsy
ugly goat's skin umbrella, which, however, next to
my gun, was the most necessary thing about me. As
for my face, the colour was not so swarthy as the
mulattoes, or as might have been expected from one
who took so little care of it, in a climate within nine
or ten degrees of the line. At one time, my beard
grew so long, that it hung down above a quarter of a
yard: but as I had both razors and scissars in store,
I cut it all off, and suffered none to grow, except a
large pair of whiskers, the like of which I had seen
worn by some Turks at Salee, not long enough indeed
to hang a hat upon, but of such a monstrous size, as
completely to alter my appearance.
Very frequently did I use to visit my boat, and keep
her in very good order. And, sometimes, would I
venture in her a cast or two from shore, but no farther.
But now, I entreat your attention, whilst I proceed
to inform you of a new, but most surprising scene of
life which here befell me.
You may easily suppose, that, after having been here
so long, nothing could be more amazing than to see a
human creature. One day it happened, that going to
my boat, I saw the print of a man's naked foot on the
1)





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


shore, very evident on the sand, as the toes, heels, and
every part of it. Had I seen a monster of the most
frightful shape, I could not have been more confound-
ed. My willing ears gave the strictest attention. I
cast my eyes around, but could satisfy neither the one
nor the other. I proceeded alternately to every part
of the shore, but with equal effect: neither could I see
any other mark, though the sand about it was as sus-
ceptible to take impression, as that which was so plain-
ly stamped. Thus, struck with confusion and horror,
I returned to my habitation, frightened at every bush
and tree, taking everything for men; and possessed
with the wildest ideas! That night my eyes never
closed. I formed nothing but the most dismal ima-
ginations.
After a world of apprehensions and fears, for three
days and nights, I at last ventured out of my castle,
and milked my goats, one of which was almost spoiled
for want of it. I next, (though in great fear,) visited
my bower, and milked my flocks there also; when
growing bolder, I went down to the shore again, and
measuring the print of the foot to mine, to see perhaps
whetherI myself had not occasioned that mark, I found
it much superior in largeness: and so returned home





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


absolutely convinced, that either some men had been
ashore, or that the island must be inhabited; and there-
fore that I might be surprised before I was aware.
I now began to think of providing for my security,
and revolved in my mind many different schemes for
that purpose. I first proposed to cut down my en-
closures, and turn my tame cattle wild into the woods,
that the enemy might not find them, and frequent the
island in hopes of killing the same. Secondly, I was
for digging up my corn fields for the very same reason.
And, lastly, I concluded to demolish my bower, lest,
seeing a place of human contrivance, they might come
farther, and find out, and attack me in my castle.
Sleep was an utter stranger to my eyes that night:
yet nature, spent and tired, submitted to a silent re-
pose the next morning, and then joining reason with
fear, I considered, that this delightful and pleasant
island might not be so entirely forsaken as I might
think; but that the inhabitants from the other shore
might sail, either with design, or from necessity, by
cross winds; and, if the latter circumstance, I had
reason to believe they would depart the first oppor-
tunity. However, my fear made me think of a place
of retreat upon an attack. I now repented that I had





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


made my door to come out beyond my fortification;
to remedy which, I resolved to make a second one; I
fell to work, therefore, and drove betwixt that double
row of trees which I planted above twelve years before,
several strong piles, thickening it with pieces of timber
and old cables, and strengthening the foot of it with
earth which I dug out of my cave: I also made me
seven holes, wherein I planted my muskets like cannon,
fitting them into frames resembling carriages. This
being finished with indefatigable industry, for a great
way everywhere, I planted sticks of osier like a wood,
about twenty thousand of them, leaving a large space
between them and my wall, that I might have room
to see an enemy, and that they might not be sheltered
among the young trees, if they offered to approach the
outer wall. And indeed, scarcely two years had passed
over my head,when there appeared a lovelyshadygrove,
and in six years, it became a thick wood, perfectly im-
passable. For my safety, I left no avenue to goinor out;
instead of which, I set two ladders, one to a part of the
rock which was low, and then broke in, leaving room
to place another ladder upon that; so that when I took
those down, it was impossible for any man to descend
without hurting himself; and if they had, they would





ROBIKSON CRUSOE.


still be at the outside of my outer wall. But while I
took all these measures of human prudence for my
own preservation, I was not altogether unmindful of
other affairs. To preserve my stock of tame goats,
that the enemy should not take all at once, I looked
out for the most retired part of the island, which was
the place before mentioned where I had lost myself and
there finding a clear piece of land, containing three
acres, surrounded with thick woods, I wrought so
hard, that in less than a month's time, I fenced it so
well round, that my flocks were very well secured in
it, and I put therein two he-goats, and ten she ones.
All this labour was occasioned purely by fearful ap-
prehensions, on account of seeing the print of a man's
foot. And not contented yet with what I had done,
I searched for another place towards the west part of
the island, where I might also retain another flock.
Then wandering on this errand more to the west of
the island than ever I had yet done, and castig my
eyes towards the sea, methought I perceived a boat at
a great distance; but could not possibly tell what it was,
for want of my spy-glass. I considered then, it was no
strange thing to see the print of a man's foot: and,
concluding them cannibals, blessed God for being east





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


on the other side of the island, where none of the
savages, as I thought, ever came. But when I came
down the hill to the shore, which was the S.W. point
of the island, I was soon confirmed in my opinion; nor
can any one describe my horror and amazement, when
I saw the ground spread with skulls, hands, feet, and
bones of human bodies; and particularly, I perceived
a space like a circle, in the midst of which had been a
fire, about which I conjectured those wretches sat,
and unnaturally sacrificed and devoured their fellow-
creatures. I returned towards my habitation; and in
my way thither, shedding floods of tears, and falling
on my bended knees, gave God thanks for making my
nature contrary to those wretches, and delivering me so
long out of their hands.
Though reason and long residence here had assured
me, that the savages never came up to the thick woody
part of the country, and that I had no reason to be
apprehensive of a discovery, yet such an abhorrence
did I still retain, that, for two years after, I confined
myself only to my three plantations; I mean my castle,
country-seat, and enclosure in the woods, though in
process of time, my dreadful apprehensions began to
wear away.





ROBINSON CRUSOE. 79
Thus my circumstances for some time remained
very calm and undisturbed: though indeed, the terror
which the savages had put me in, spoiled some inven-
tions for my own convenience. One of my projects was
to brew me some beer; a very whimsical one indeed,
when it is considered that I had neither casks suf-
ficient, nor could I make any to preserve it in: neither
had I hops to make it keep, yest to make it work, nor
a copper or kettle to make it boil. Perhaps, indeed,
after some years, I might bring this to bear, as I had
done other things. But now my inventions were
placed another way; and day and night I could think of
nothing but how I might destroy some ofthese cannibals,
when proceeding to their bloody entertainments: and so
saving a victim from being sacrificed, that he might
afterwards become my servant. Many were my con-
trivances for this purpose, and many more objections
occurred, after I had hatched them. I once contrived
to dig a hole under the place where they made their fire,
and put therein five or six pounds of gunpowder, which
would consequently blow up all those that were near
it; but then I was loth to spend so much upon
them, lest it should not do that certain execution I
desired, and only affight and them. Hav-





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


ing laid this design aside, I again proposed to myself
to lie privately in ambush in some convenient place,
with my three guns double loaded, and let fly at them
in the midst of their dreadful ceremony: and having
killed two or three of them at every shot, fall upon
the rest suddenly with my three pistols, and let not
one of them escape. This plan appeared to me so
practicable that I used to dream of it in the night
time. To put my design into execution, I was not
long in seeking for a place convenient for my purpose,
where, unseen, I might behold every action of the
savages. Here I placed my two muskets, each of
which was loaded with a brace of slugs, and four
or five smaller bullets about the size of pistol bullets;
the fowling-piece was charged with nearly a handful
of the largest swan shot, and in every pistol about four
bullets. And thus all things being prepared, no sooner
did the welcome light spread over the element, but I
would issue forth from my castle, and from a lofty hill,
three miles distant, try if I could see any invaders ap-
proachunlawfully to my kingdom. Buthavingwaited in
vain two or three months, it grew very tiresome to me.
I now argued with myself it was better for me
never to attack, but to remain undiscovered as long as





ROBINSON CRUBOE.


I possibly could; that an opposite conduct weald
certainly prove destructive; for as it was scarcely to be
supposed I could kill them all, I might either be over-
powered by those remaining, or that some escaping
might bring thousands to my certain destruction.
And indeed, religion took their part so much, as to
convince me how contrary it was to my duty, to be
guilty of shedding human blood, innocent blood, inno-
cent as to me in particular, whatever they are to one
another; that I had nothing to do with it, but leave it
to the God of all power and dominion, as I said before,
to do therein what seemed convenient to his heavenly
wisdom. And, therefore, on my knees I thanked the
Almighty for delivering me from blood-guiltiness, and
begged his protection, that I might never fall into their
hands.
Thus giving over an attempt which I hadsorashly be-
gun, Inever ascendedthe hillonthatoccasionafterwards;
I only removed my boat which lay on the other side of
the island, and everything that belonged to her, towards
the east, into a little cove, that there might not be the
least shadow of any boat near, or habitation upon the
island. My castle then became my cell, keeping always
retired in it, except when I went out to milk my she-
D2





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


goats, or my little flock in the wood, which was quite out
of danger; for sure I was, that these savages never came
here with expectation tofind anything, and consequently
never wandered from the coast; however, as they might
have severaltimesbeeh onshore,aswell beforeas aftermy
dreadful apprehensions, I looked back with horror to
think in what state I might have been, had I suddenly
met them, slenderly armed, with one gun only loaded
with small shot; and how great would have been my
amazement, it instead of seeing the print of one man's
foot, I had perceived fifteen or twenty savages, who,
having once set their eyes upon me, by the swiftness of
their feet would have left me no possibility of escaping?
These thoughts would sink my very soul, so that I
would fall into a deep melancholy, till such time as the
consideration of my gratitude to the divine Being
moved it from my heart. I then fell into a contempla-
tion of the secret springs of Providence, and how won-
derfully we are delivered, when insensible of it; and
when in uncertain mazes or labyrinths of doubt or hesi-
tation, what secret hint directs us in the right way,
when we intended to go out of it: nay perhaps con-
trary to our business, sense, or inclination.
Anxieties of mind, and the care of my preservation,





ROBINBON CRUSOE.


put a period to all future inventions and contrivances,
either for accommodation, or convenience I now
cared not to drive a nail, chop a stick, fire a gun, or
make a fire, lest either the noise should be heard, or
the smoke discover me. And, on this account, I used
to burn my earthenware privately in a cave, which I
found in the wood, and which I made convenient for
that purpose: the principal cause that brought me
here was to make charcoal, so that I might bake and
dress my bread and meat without any danger.
At that time, a curious accident happened to me,
which I shall now relate.
While I was cutting down some wood, for making
my charcoal, I perceived a cavity behind a very thick
branch of underwood. Curious to look into it, I
attained its mouth, and perceived it sufficient for me
to stand upright in.
But when I had entered, having crept upon .my
hands and feet through this strait, I found the roof
higher up, I think about twenty feet. But surely
never had I seen such a glorious sight before; the
roof and walls of this cave reflected a hundred thou-
sand lights to me from my two candles, as though they
were indented with shining gold, precious stones, or





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


sparkling diamonds. And indeed it was the most
delightful cavity or grotto of its kind that could be
desired, though entirely dark. The floor was dry and
level, and had a kind of gravel upon it; no nauseous
venomous creatures to be seen there, neither any damp
or wet about it. I could find no fault but in the en-
trance, and I began to think, that even this might be
very necessary for my defence, and therefore resolved
to make it my principal magazine. I brought hither
two fowling-pieces and three muskets, leaving only five
pieces at my castle, planted in the nature of cannon.
In a barrel of gunpowder, which I took out of the
sea, I brought away about sixty pounds of good pow-
der, which was not damaged; and this, with a great
quantity of lead for bullets, I removed from my castle
to this retreat, now fortified both by art and nature.
I fancied myself now like one of the giants of old,
who were said to live in caves and holes among the
rocks, inaccessible to any but themselves, or, at least,
most dangerous to attempt. And now I defied both
the cunning and strength of the savages, either to find
me out or to hunt me.
I think I was now in the twenty-third year of my
reign, and my thoughts became easier than formerly,





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


having contrived several petty amusements and diver-
sions to pass away the time in a pleasant manner.
By this time, my pretty Poll had learned to speak
English, and pronounce his words very articulately and
plain; so that for many hours we used to chat together
after a very familiar manner, and he lived no less than
twenty-six years. My dog which was nineteen years
old, sixteen of which he lived with me, had died some
time ago, of mere old age. As for my cats, they
multiplied so fast, that I was' forced to kill or drive
them into the woods, except two or three which be-
came my particular favourites. Besides these, I con-
tinually kept two or three household kids about me,
which I taught to feed out of my hand, and two more
parrots which could talk indifferently, and call Robinson
Crusoe, but not so excellently as the first, by my not
taking so much pains with them. I had also several
seafowls which I had wounded and cut their wings:
and growing tame, they used to breed among the low
trees about my castle walks, all of which made my
abode very agreeable.
But what unforeseen events suddenly destroy the en-
joyments of this uncertain state of life, when weleast
expect them! It was now the month of December,





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


and the particular time in my harvest, which required
my attendance in the fields; when going out pretty
early in the morning, before it was daylight, there ap-
peared to me from the seashore a flaming light, about
two miles from me at the east end of the island, where
I had observed some savages had been before; not on
the other side, and to my great affliction it was on my
side of the island.
Struck with a terrible surprise, and my usual appre-
hensions, that the savages would perceive my improve-
ments, I returned directly to my castle, pulled the
ladder after me, making all things look as wild and
natural as I possibly could. In the next place, I put
myself in a posture of defence, loaded my muskets and
pistols, and committing myself to God's protection, I
resolved to defend myself till my last breath. Two
hours after, impatient for intelligence, I set my
ladder up to the side of the hill, where there was a flat
place, and then pulling the ladder after me, ascended
to the top, where laying myself on my belly, with my
perspective glass I perceived no less than nine naked
savages, sitting round a small fire, eating as I suppos-
ed, human flesh, with their two canoes hauled on shore,
waiting for the flood to carry them off again. The





ROBINSON CBRUOE. 87
consternation I was in at this sight, especially seeing
them near me, was very great; but when I perceived,
however, that their coming must be always with
the current of the ebb, I became more easy in my
thoughts; being fully convinced, that I might go
abroad with security all the time of the flood, if
they were not before landed. And, indeed, this proved
just as I imagined; for no sooner did the tide make,
but they all took boat and paddled away N.W.
When I saw them gone, I took two guns upon my
shoulders, and placing a couple of pistols in my belt,
with my great sword hanging by my side, I went to
the hill, where at first I made a discovery of these
cannibals, and then sathere had been three canoes
more of the savages on shoKat that place, which with
the rest, were making over to the mainland.
But nothing could be more horrid to me, when, go-
ing to the place of sacrifice, the blood, the bones, and
other mangled parts of human bodies, appeared in my
sight; and so fired was I with indignation, that I was
fully resolved to use my firearms in endeavouring to
check their cruel practices, though I lost my life in the
execution. It then appeared to me, that the visits
which they make to this island are not very frequent,
-a... -. A m lii





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


it being fifteen months before they came again: but
still I was very uneasy, by reason of the dismal
apprehensions of their surprising me unawares; nor
dared I offer to fire a gun on that side of the island
where they used to appear, lest taking the alarm, they
might return with many hundred canoes, and then
God only knows in what manner I should have made
my end. It was a year or more, before I saw any
of these devouring cannibals again.
But to waive this, the following accident, which de-
mands attention, for a while diverted my thoughts
from these cannibals.
On the 16th of May (according to my wooden cal-
endar) the wind blew exceedingly hard, accompanied
with abundance of thunder and lightning all day, and
succeeded by a very stormy night. I had gone to bed
at my usual time, but finding it impossible to sleep, I
arose, and having stirred up the embers of my fire, sat
down to my Bible. Whilst I was seriously pondering
upon it, I was suddenly alarmed with the noise of a
gun, which I conjectured was fired upon the ocean.
Such an unusual surprise made me start up in a min-
ute; when, with my ladder ascending the mountain as
before, that very moment, a flash of fire presaged the





ROBINSON CRUSOE. 89
report of another gun, which I presently heard, and
found it was from the part of the sea where the cur-
rent drove me away. I could not but then think, that
this must be a ship in distress, and that these were the
melancholy signals for a speedy deliverance. Great,
indeed, was my sorrow upon this occasion: but my
labours to assist them must have proved altogether
vain and fruitless. However, I brought together all
the dry wood that was at hand, and making a pretty
large pile, set it on fire on the hill. I was certain
they plainly perceived it, by their firing another gun
as soon as it began to blaze, and after that, several
more from the same quarter. All night long, I kept
up my fire, and when the air cleared up, I perceived
something a great way at sea, directly east, but could
not distinguish what it was, even with my glass, the
weather being so very foggy out at sea. However,
keeping my eyes directly fixed upon it, and perceiving
it did not stir, I presently concluded it must be a ship
at anchor, and so very hasty was I to be satisfied, that,
taking my gun, I went to the S.W. part of the island,
to the same rocks where I had been formerly driven
away by the current; in which time the weather
being perfectly cleared up, to my great sorrow, I per-
g,





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


ceived the wreck of a ship cast away upon those hid-
den rocks I had found when I was out with my boat;
and which, by making a kind of an eddy, were the
occasion of my preservation.
When I considered seriously everything concerning
this wreck, and could perceive no room to suppose any
of them saved, I cannot explain, by any possible force
of words, what longings my soul felt on this occasion,
often breaking out in this manner.-O that there had
been but two or- three, nay, even one person saved, that
we might have lived together, conversed with, and com-
forted one another! and so much were mydesires moved,
that when I repeated these words, Oh! that there had
been but one!" my hands would so clench together, and
my fingers press the palms of my hands so close, that,
had anything soft been between, they would have
crushed it; while my teeth would strike together, and
set against each other so strong, that it required some
time for me to part them.
Till the last year of my being on this island, I never
knew whether or not any one had been saved out of
this ship. I had the affliction, some time after, to see
the corpse of a drowned boy come on shore, at the end
of the island that was next the shipwreck; there was no





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


thing on him but a seaman's waistcoat, a pair of open-
kneed linen drawers, and a blue linen shirt; but no
particular mark to guess what nation he was of. In
his pocket were two pieces of eight, and a tobacco pipe,
the last of which I preferred much more than I did
the first. And now the calmness of the sea
tempted me to venture out in my boat to this wreck,
not only to get something necessary out of the ship; but
perhaps, some living creature might be on board, whose
life I might preserve. This had such an influence qpon
my mind, that I immediately went home, and prepared
everything necessary for the voyage, carrying on board
my boat, provisions of all sorts, with some fresh water,
and a compass; so putting oft I paddled the canoe
along the shore, till I came to the N. E. part of the
island, from whence I was to launch into the ocean;
but here the current ran so violently, and appeared so
terrible, that my heart began to fail me; foreseeing,
that if I was driven into any of these currents, I might
be carried not only out of the reach or sight of the
island, but even inevitably lost in the surges of the
ocean.
So oppressed was I at those troubles, that I gave
over my enterprise, sailing to a little creek on the





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


shore, where, stepping out, I sat me down on a rising
hill, very pensive and thoughtful. I then perceived that
the tide was turned, and the flood come on, which
made it impracticable for me to go out for so many
hours.
That night, I reposed myself in my canoe, covered
with my watch-coat instead of a blanket, the heavens
being my tester. The next morning I set out with
the first of the tide full north, till I felt the benefit of
the current, which carried me at a great rate eastward,
yet not with such impetuosity as before, as to take from
me all government of my canoe; so that in two hours
I came up to the wreck, which appeared to me a most
melancholy sight. It seemed to be a Spanish vessel
by its building, stuck fast between two rocks, her
stern and quarters beaten to pieces by the sea; her
main-mast and fore-mast were brought off by the board;
that is, broken short off. As I approached nearer, I
perceived a dog on board, which, seeing me coming,
yelped and cried; and no sooner did I call him, but the
poor creature jumped into the sea, out of which I took
him up almost famished with hunger and thirst, so
that when I gave him a cake of bread, no ravenous
wolf could devour it more greedily; and he drank to





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


that degree of fresh water, that he would have. burst
himself had I suffered him.
The first sight I met with in the ship, was two
men drowned in the cock-room or forecastle, enclosed
in one another's arms: hence I very probably supposed,
that when the vessel struck in the storm, so high and
incessantly did the waters break in and over her, that
the men not being able to bear it, were strangled by
the constant rushing of the waves. There were
several casks of liquor, whether wine or brndy I could
not be positive, which lay in the lower hold, as were
plainly perceptible by the ebbing out of the water, yet
were too large forme to pretend to meddle with: likewise
I perceived several chests, which I supposed belonged
to the seamen, two of which I got into my boat, without
examining what was in them. What became of the
rest of the sailors I could not certainly tell; and all
her riches signified nothing at that time to any body.
Searching farther, I found a cask, containing about
twenty gallons full of liquor, which with some labour
I got into my boat; and in a cabin were several muskets,
which I let remain there; but took away with me a
great powder-horn, with about four pounds of powder
nj it. I took also a fire-shovel and tongs, with two





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


kettles, a copper-pot to make chocolate, and a gridiron,
all which I thought must prove highly useful to me,
especially the fire-shovel and tongs. And so with this
cargo, accompanied by my dog, I came away, the tide
serving for that purpose; and the same evening, about
an hour within night, I attained the island, after the
greatest toil and fatigue imaginable.
That night I reposed my weary limbs in the boat,
resolving the next morning to harbour what I had
gotten, in my new found under-ground grotto, and not
carry my cargo home to my ancient castle. Having
refreshed myself and got all my effects on shore, I now
proceeded to examine the particulars; and so tapping
the cask, I found the liquor to be a kind of rum, but
not like what we had at the Brazils, nor indeed near
so good. At the opening of the chests, several things
appeared very useful to me; for instance, I found in
one, a very fine case of bottles, containing the finest
and best sort of cordial waters; each bottle held about
three pints, curiously tipt with silver. I found also two
pots full of the choicest sweetmeats, and two more which
the water had utterly spoiled. There were likewise
several good shirts, exceedingly welcome to me, and
about one dozen and a half of white linen handker-





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


chiefs, and coloured neckcloths, the former of which
were useful for wiping my face in a hot day; and in
the till, I found three bags of money, in one of which,
decently wrapt up in a piece of paper, were six doub-
loons of gold; and some small bars and wedges of the
same metal, which I believe might weigh near a pound.
In the other chest, I found only some clothes, of very
little value, and about two pounds of fine glazed pow-
der, in three flasks, kept as I believe for charging their
fowling-pieces on any occasion, so that, on the whole,
I made very little of this voyage. The money was
indeed as mere dirt to me, useless and unprofitable, all
which I would have freely parted with for two or three
pair of English shoes and stockings, things that for
many years I had not worn, except those which I had
lately taken off the feet of the unfortunate men I found
drowned in the wreck, yet not so good as English
shoes either for ease or service. I found no gold in
the second chest; so concluded that what I took from
the first belonged to an officer, the latter appearing to
have a much inferior person for its owner. However,
as despicable as the money seemed, I likewise lugged
it to my cave, laying it up securely, as I did the rest
of my cargo, and intending to seek out, and return it






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


to the family of the unfortunate owner, if ever I should
return to Europe: and after I had done all this, as
there was nothing more on board which I could remove,
I returned back to my boat, rowing or paddling her
along till I came to my old harbour, where I carefully
laid her up, and so made the best of my way to my
castle. When I arrived there, everything seemed safe
and quiet; so that now, my only business was to repose
myself after my wonted manner, and take care of my
domestic affairs. But though I might have lived very
easy, as wanting for nothing absolutely needful; yet
still I was more vigilant than usual, upon account of
the savages, never going much abroad; or, if I did, it
was to the east part of the island, where I was well
assured that the savages never came, and where I
might not be troubled to carry such a heavy load of
weapons for my defence, as I thought necessary to do
if I went the other way.
Two years did I live in this anxious condition, in
all which time, contrary to my former resolutions, my
head was filled with nothing but projects and designs
how I might escape from this island; and so much were
my wandering thoughts bent upon a rambling expedi-
tion, that had I had the same boat that I went from





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Salee in, I should have ventured once more to the
uncertainty of the raging ocean.
Having retired to my castle; after my late voyage
to the ship, my boat laid up and secured, as usual, and
my condition the same as before, except being richer,
though I had as little occasion for riches as the Indians
of Peru had for gold, before the Spaniards came among
them, one night in March, being the rainy season,
in the four and twentieth year of my solitude, I lay
down to sleep, very well in health, without distemper,
pain, or uncommon uneasiness either of body or mind;
yet notwithstanding, I could not compose myself to
sleep all the night long. All this tedious while, it is
impossible to express what innumerable thoughts came
into my head. I traced quite over, the whole history
of my life in miniature, from my utmost remembrance
of things till I came to this island; and then proceeded
to examine every action and passage that had occurred
since I had taken possession of my kingdom. In my
reflections upon the latter, I was comparing the happy
posture of my affairs in the beginning of my reign, to
this life of anxiety, fear, and concern, since I had dis-
covered the print of a foot in the sand; and that while
I continued without apprehension, I was incapable of





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


feeling the dread and terror I now suffered. How
thankful rather ought I to have been for the knowledge
of my danger, since the greatest happiness a man can
be possessed of is to have sufficient time to provide
against it ? How stupendous is the goodness of Pro-
vidence, which sets such narrow bounds to the sight
and knowledge of human nature, that while men walk
in the midst of so many dangers, they are kept serene
and calm, by having the events of things hid from their
eyes, and knowing nothing of those many dangers that
surround them, till perhaps they are dissipated and
vanished away.
About a year and a half after, one morning early, I
was very much surprised by seeing no less than five
canoes all on shore together, on my side of the island,
and the savages that belonged to them all landed, and
out of my sight. Upon which, much dispirited and per-
plexed, I lay still in my castle; which, however, I put in
a proper posture for an attack; and, having formerly
provided all that was necessary, was soon ready to enter
upon an engagement, should they attempt it. Having
waited for some time, my impatient temper would let
me bear it no longer; I set my guns at the foot of my
ladder, and, as usual, ascended up to the top of the





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


hill at two stages, standing, however, in such a man-
ner, that my head did not appear above the hill, so
that they could not easily perceive me; and here, by
the assistance of my perspective glass, I observed no
less than thirty in number around a fire, feasting upon
what meat they had dressed; how they cooked it, or
what it was, I could not then perfectly tell; but they
were all dancing and capering about the flames, using
many frightful and barbarous gestures.
But while, with a curious eye, I was beholding these
wretches, my spirits sunk within me, when I perceived
them drag two miserable creatures from the boats,
to act afresh the dreadful tragedy, as I supposed they
had done before. It was not long before one of them
fell upon the ground, knocked down, as I suppose, with
a club or wooden sword-for that was their manner-
while two or three others went immediately to work,
cutting him open for their cookery, and then fell to
devour him as they had done the former; while the last
unhappy captive was left by himself, till such time as
.were ready for him. The poor creature looked
r him with a sorrowful eye, trembling at the
thoe.ts of death; yet, seeing himself a little at
ibeity, nature, that very moment, as it were, inspired




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