1 r i .l_ -II'li.-' "r. ^W- ? '< L 1_ I I -,
DANIEL DE FOE;
A MEMOIR OF THE AUTHOR, AND AN ESSAY
ON HIS WRITINGS.
D. APPLETON & CO.
STEREOTYPED AT THE BOSTON TYPE AND STEREOTYPE FOUNDRY.
MEMOIR OF DE FOE.
DANIEL FOE, or, as he subsequently styled himself, (though at what time and on
what occasion is not known,) DE FOE, was born in the parish of St. Giles's, Crip-
plegate, London, in the year 1661. The earliest of his ancestors, of whom there is
any account, was Daniel Foe, a yeoman, who farmed his own estate at Elton, in
Northamptonshire. He maintained a pack of hounds; from whence it may be reason-
ably inferred that his means were above competency. A custom of the times in be-
stowing party names on brutes is thus mentioned by our author : "I remember," he
says, "my grandfather had a huntsman that used the same familiarity with his dogs;
and he had his Roundhead, and his Cavalier, and his Goring, and his Waller, and
all the generals of both armies were hounds in his pack; till, the times turning, the
old gentleman was fain to scatter the pack, and make them up of more dog-like sur-
names." It is from his grandfather that De Foe is supposed to have inherited landed
property; for in his "Review," a work we shall often have occasion to consult, he
says, "I have both a native and an acquired right of election." Our author's father,
James Foe, followed the trade of butcher in St. Giles's, Cripplegate; and these few
barren facts are all that is to.be gathered of the ancestors of Daniel De Foe. He
had," says Mr. Wilson, in his excellent work, "The Life and Times of Daniel De
Foe," a work abounding with the most curious and minute information on the period
of which it treats-" He had some collateral relatives, to whom he alludes occasion-
ally in his writings, but with too much brevity to ascertain the degree of kindred."
At an early age, De Foe is said to have shown that vivacity of humor, and that
indomitable spirit of independence, that remained with him through after-life," mak-
ing a sunshine in the shady place of a prison, and arming him as the champion of
truth and humanity in the most perilous times. An anecdote related by our author
is illustrative of the discipline that governed the home of his boyhood. During that
part of the reign of Charles II., when the nation feared the ascendency of Popery,
and it was expected that printed Bibles would become rare, many honest people
employed themselves in copying the Bible into short-hand. To this task young De
Foe applied himself; and he tells us that he worked like a horse till he had written
out the whole of the Pentateuch, when he grew so tired that he was willing to risk
the rest." The parents of De Foe were Non-conformists, and his education was
consonant to the practice of that faith. Family religion formed an essential part of
its discipline; and it was made matter of conscience to instruct the children of a
family and its dependants in their social, moral, and religious duties.
Although the enemies of De Foe vainly endeavored to sink his reputation by
representing him as having been bred a tradesman, there is ample evidence to prove
VI MEMOIR OF DE FOE.
that he was originally intended for one of tile learned professions.* When he had,
therefore, sufficiently qualified under inferior tutors, he was, at about fourteen years
of age, placed in an academy at Newington Green, under the direction of that
polite and profound scholar," the Reverend Charles Morton, who was subsequently
defended by his pupil, some aspersions having been cast upon the character of the
master by an ungrateful scholar who had deserted to the church. De Foe writes,
" I must do that learned gentleman's memory the justice to affirm, that neither in
his system of politics, government, and discipline, nor in any other of the exercises
of that school, was there any thing taught or encouraged that was antimonarchical
or destructive to the constitution of England."
Of De Foe's progress under Mr. Morton, it is impossible now to speak with any
certainty. He tells us, in one of his Reviews," that he had been master of five
languages, and that he had studied the mathematics, natural philosophy, logic, geog-
raphy, and history: he was one of the few who, in those days, studied politics as a
science. He went through a complete course of theology, and his knowledge of
ecclesiastical history was also considerable. He was, however, attacked by party
malice as an illiterate person, without education." To this he calmly makes
answer: -" Those gentlemen who reproach my learning to applaud their own, shall
have it proved that I have more learning than either of them-because I have more
manners." He adds, I think I owe this justice to my excellent father, still living,
(1705,) and in whose behalfI fully testify, that if I am a blockhead, it is nobody's
fault but my own." He proceeds to challenge his slanderer "to translate with me
any Latin, French, and Italian author, and after that to re-translate them crossways,
for twenty pounds each book; and by this he shall have an opportunity to show the
world how much De Foe, the hosier, is inferior in learning to Mr. Tutchin, the
At one-and-twenty, De Foe commenced the perilous trade -most perilous in his
day -of author; at the which lie labored through good and through evil report,
with lasting honor to himself, and enduring benefit to mankind, for half a century.
It is now ascertained that De Foe's first publication was a lampooning answer to
" L'Estrange's Guide to the Inferior Clergy," and bore the following quaint title:
-' Speculum Crape-Gownorum; or, a Looking-Glass for the Young Academicks
new Foyl'd : with Reflections on some of the late High Flown Sermons: to which is
added, an Essay towards a Sermon of the Newest Fashion. By a Guide to the
Inferiour Clergie. Ridentem discere Verum Quis Vetat. London: printed for E.
Rydal. 1682." This title De Foe borrowed from the crape gowns then usually
worn by the inferior clergy; and in the book, he fights the fight of the Dissenters
against what lie terms the libels of the established clergy. The fertility of the
subject," says Mr. Wilson, soon produced a second part of the 'Speculum; in
which the author deals more seriously with the government, and by a practical view
of the effect of persecution, exposed its absurdity."
We have entered more at length into the nature and purpose of De Foe's first
book, than will be permitted to us by our limits to do with each of the works that
now followed, in rapid profusion, from the pen of our author. All that we purpose
to ourselves is, to give the strongest outlines of his character, the principal events
of his career; and, avoiding, on one hand, a jejune brevity, that confines itself to
mere dates, attempt not, on the other side, a minute description of events incompat-
ible with our present object.
It is not often," says De Foe, in his Review," vi. 341, that I trouble you with
any of my divinity, the pulpit is none of my office. It was my disaster first to be set
apai t for, and then to be set apart from, the honor of that sacred employ."
MEMOIR OF DE FOE. VII
When the duke of Monmouth landed at Lyme, De Foe was among those who
joined the standard of the hapless nobleman. A romantic kind of invasion," says
Welwood, and scarcely paralleled in history." At the age of four-and-twenty,
we see De Foe, the author of Robinson Crusoe," a soldier; as ready with his
sword as prompt with his pen, in the cause of rational liberty. Of Monmouth, De
Foe seems to have had some previous knowledge, having often seen him at Ayles-
bury races, where the duke rode his own horses -a circumstance alluded to by our
author in his Tour." De Foe had the good fortune to escape the vengeance visited
upon so many of the duke's supporters, and returned in safety to London; where,
leaving the stormy region of politics, he now directed his attention to trade. The
nature of his business has been variously represented. In several publications of the
time, he is styled a hosier;" but, if we may believe his own account, he was a
hose-factor, or the middle man between the manufacturer and the retail dealer.
This agency concern he carried on for some years, in Freeman's Court, Cornhill;
Mr. Chalmers says, from 1685 to 1695. On the 26th of January, 1687-8, having
claimed his freedom by birth, he was admitted a liveryman of London. In the
Chamberlain's book, his name was written Daniel Foe."
When the Revolution took place, De Foe was a resident in Tooting, in Surrey,
where he was the first person who attempted to form the Dissenters in the neigh-
borhood into a regular congregation. De Foe was for many years a resident in this
part of Surrey; it is likely that he had a country-house there during the time that he
carried on his hose-agency in Cornhill. De Foe was one of the most ardent wor-
shippers of the Revolution: he annually commemorated the 4th of November as a
day of deliverance. A day," says he, famous on various accounts, and every
one of them dear to Britons, who love their country, value the Protestant interest,
or have an aversion to tyranny and oppression. On this day, he (King William)
was born; on this day, he married the daughter of England; and on this day, he
rescued the nation from a bondage worse than that of Egypt; a bondage of soul, as
well as bodily servitude; a slavery to the ambition and raging lust of a generation
set on fire by pride, avarice, cruelty, and blood." In order to do honor to the
king, and add to the splendor of the procession, on the royal visit to Guildhall,
many of the citizens volunteered to attend William as a guard of honor on the
occasion. Among these was Daniel De Foe.
The commercial speculations of our author, though at the first prosperous, were
ultimately unsuccessful. That they were of a various character, is evident from the
fact of his having engaged with partners in the Spanish and Portuguese trade. It
is very clear, from a passage in his Review," that he had been a merchant-adven-
turer. In the number for January 27, 1711, he alludes to an old Spanish proverb,
which," says he," I learnt when I was in that country." It further appears that,
while residing there, he made himself a master of the language. De Foe's losses by
shipwreck appear to have been very considerable. The occupations of trade, how-
ever, according to De Foe's own confession, assort ill with literary feelings. A
wit turned tradesman!" he exclaims; no apron-strings will hold him: 'tis in vain
to lock him in behind the counter; he's gone in a moment." He concludes:- A
statute of bankrupt is his Exeunt Omnes, and he generally speaks the epilogue in the
Fleet Prison or Mint."
In allusion to the misfortunes of our author, Mr. Chalmers observes : With
the usual imprudence of genius, he was carried into companies who were gratified
by his wit. He spent those hours with a small society for the cultivation of polite
learning, which he ought to have employed in the calculations of the counting-
house; and, being obliged to abscond from his creditors in 1692, he naturally attrib-
uted those misfortunes to the war, which were probably owing to his own misconduct
MEMOIR OF DE FOE.
An angry creditor took out a commission of bankruptcy, which was soon superseded,
on the petition of those to whom he was most indebted, who accepted a composition
on his single bond. This he punctually paid, by the efforts of unwearied diligence;
but some of these creditors, who had been thus satisfied, falling afterwards into
distress themselves, De Foe voluntarily paid them their whole claim, being then in
rising circumstances, in consequence of King William's favor." De Foe being
subsequently reproached by Lord Haversham for mercenary conduct, he tells him,
in 1705, that, with a numerous family, and no help but his own industry, he had
forced his way, with undiscouraged diligence, through a set of misfortunes, and
reduced his debts, exclusive of composition, from seventeen thousand to less
than five thousand pounds."
It deserves to be remembered that, in the time of De Foe, our laws against bank-
rupts were as inhuman as they were foolish. The cruelty of our laws against
debtors," says De Foe, without distinction of honest or dishonest, is the shame of
our nation. I am persuaded, the honestest man in England, when by necessity he
is compelled to break, will early fly out of the kingdom rather than submit. To
stay here, this is the consequence: as soon as he breaks, he is proscribed as a
criminal, and has thirty to sixty days to surrender both himself and all that he has
to his creditors. If he fails to do it, he has nothing before him but the gallows,
without benefit of clergy; if he surrenders, he is not sure but he shall be thrown
into gaol for life by the commissioners, only on pretence that they doubt his oath !
What must the man do ? We have reformed something of this in our day, yet
much remains undone; for the bankrupt is still left at the mercy of the malevolent
or ignorant creditor.
It is certain that De Foe, whilst under apprehension from his creditors, resided
some time at Bristol. A friend of mine in that city," says Mr. Wilson, informs
me that one of his ancestors remembered De Foe, and sometimes saw him walking
in the streets of Bristol, accoutred in the fashion of the times, with a fine flowing
wig, lace ruffles, and a sword by his side; also, that he there obtained the name of
'the Sunday gentleman,' because, through fear of the bailiffs, he did not dare to
appear in public upon any other day." De Foe was wont to visit The Red Lion,"
kept by one Mark Watkins, who, in after times, used to entertain his company with
an account of a singular personage, who made his appearance in Bristol, clothed in
goat-skins, in which dress lie was in the habit of walking the streets, and went by
the name of Alexander Selkirk, or Robinson Crusoe It was during this retreat
from London that De Foe wrote his celebrated Essay upon Projects," though he
did not publish it until nearly five years afterwards.
It appears that at this time De Foe was invited, by some merchants of his acquaint-
ance residing in Cadiz, to settle in Spain, with the offer of a good commission:
but," says our author, Providence, which had other work for me to do, placed a
secret aversion in my mind to quitting England upon any account, and made me
refuse the best offer of that kind, to be concerned with some eminent persons at
home, in proposing ways and means to the government for raising money to supply
the occasion of the war, then newly begun." De Foe suggested a general assess-
ment of personal property, the amount to be settled by composition, under the
inspection of commissioners appointed by the king. It was, doubtless, owing to
these services, that De Foe was appointed to the office of accountant to the commis-
sioners of the glass duty, in 1695: the commission ceased in 1699. It was probably
about this time that De Foe became secretary to the tile-kiln and brick-kiln works at
Tilbury, in Essex. Pantiles had been hitherto a Dutch manufacture, and were
brought in large quantities to England. To supersede the necessity of their impor-
tation, these works were erected. The speculation proved unsuccessful, De Foe
MEMOIR OF DE FOE.
himself losing by its failure no less than three thousand pounds. He continued the
works, it is believed, until the year 1703, when, being deprived of his liberty for a
libel, the undertaking came to an end.
Towards the close of the war, in 1696-7, De Foe gave to the world his Essay
upon Projects; a work alike admirable for the novelty of the subject, and the clear-
ness and ingenuity with which it is treated. The projects of our author may be
classed-under the heads of politics, commerce, and benevolence; all having some
reference to the public improvement. The first relates to banks in general, and to
the royal or national bank in particular, which he wishes to be rendered subservient
to the relief of the merchant, and the interests of commerce, as well as to the pur-
poses of the state: his next project relates to highways; a third, to the improvement
of the bankrupt laws; a fourth, to the plan of friendly societies, formed by mutual
assurance, for the relief of the members in seasons of distress; a fifth, for the estab-
lishment of an asylum for fools," or, more properly, naturals," whom he de-
scribes as "a particular rent-charge on the great family of mankind : he next sug-
gests the formation of academies, to supply some neglected branches of education;
one of these was for the improvement of the English tongue, to polish and refine
it; and this project combined a reformation of that "foolish vice," swearing: the
next project of our author was an academy for military studies; and, under the head
of Academies," he suggested an institution for the education of females: -" We
reproach the sex every day," says he, with folly and impertinence, while, I am
confident, had they the advantages of education equal to us, they would be guilty of
less than ourselves."
In January, 1700-1, appeared De Foe's celebrated poem of The True-Born
Englishman." It was composed in answer to a vile, abhorred pamphlet, in very
ill verse, written by one Mr. Tuchin, and called The Foreigners,' in which the
author- who he then was, I knew not," says De Foe -" fell personally upon the
king and the Dutch nation." How many thousands familiar with the following
now proverbial lines, know not that with them opens The True-Born Englishman" :
Wherever God erects a house of prayer,
The devil always builds a chapel there;
And 'twill be found, upon examination,
The latter has the largest congregation "
De Foe traces the rise of our ancient families to the Norman invader, who can-
toned out the country to his followers, and every soldier was a denizen." The
folly of indulging this pride of ancestry is finely painted in the following lines :-
These are the heroes who despise the Dutch,
And rail at new-come foreigners so much;
Forgetting that themselves are all derived
From the most scoundrel race that ever lived.
A horrid crowd of rambling thieves and drones,
Who ransacked kingdoms and dispeopled towns;
The Pict, and painted Briton, treacherous Scot,
By hunger, theft, and rapine hither brought;
Norwegian pirates, buccaneering Danes,
Whose red-haired offspring everywhere remains ;
Who, joined with Norman-French, compound the breed
From whence your True-born Englishmen proceed.
And lest by length of time it be pretended
The climate may the modern race have mended,
Wise Providence, to keep us where we are,
Mixes us daily with exceeding care."
MEMOIR OF DE FOE.
De Foe concludes with the following striking lines :-
Could but our ancestors retrieve their fate,
And see their offspring thus degenerate;
H-ow we contend for birth and names unknown,
And build on their past actions, not our own;
They'd cancel records, and their tombs deface,
And then disown the vile, degenerate race
For fame of families is all a cheat;
'TIS PERSONAL VIRTUE ONLY MAKES US GREAT."
When I see the town full of lampoons and invectives against Dutchmen," says
De Foe, in his Explanatory Preface," only because they are foreigners, and the
king reproached and insulted by insolent pedants and ballad-making poets, for
employing foreigners, and being a foreigner himself, I confess myself moved by it
to remind our nation of their own original, thereby to let them see what a banter
they put upon'themselves; since, speaking of Englishmen ab origin, we are really
all foreigners ourselves."
It is to this poem that De Foe was indebted for a personal introduction to King
William. He was sent for to the palace by his majesty, conversed with him, and
had repeated interviews with him afterwards. The manners and sentiments of De
Foe appear to have made such a favorable impression on the king, that he ever
after regarded him with kindness; and conceiving that his talents might be turned
to a beneficial account, he employed him in many secret services, to which he
alludes occasionally in his writings.
The effect produced upon the country by the satire was most beneficial. De Foe
himself, nearly thirty years afterwards, writes, National mistakes, vulgar errors,
and even a general practice, have been reformed by a just satire. None of our
countrymen have been known to boast of being True-born Englishmen, or so much
as use the word as a title or appellation, ever since a late satire upon that national
fblly was published, though almost thirty years before."
In 1700-1, on the meeting of the fifth parliament of King William, we find De
Foe strenuously engaged advocating the necessity of settling the succession in the
Protestant line ; an important object with William, as the only means of perpetua-
ting the benefits which the nation had reaped from the Revolution. To this great
end, De Foe devoted all his energies, laboring with unwearied zeal in the cause.
His conduct on the imprisonment of the Kentish gentlemen, whose names are
historically associated with the presentation of the famous Kentish petition, was
marked with all the intrepidity of his character. The Commons had imprisoned
the petitioners, who prayed the house for the settlement of the Protestant succes-
sion, for having presented a petition scandalous, insolent, and seditious." On
this De Foe drew up his celebrated Legion Paper." In what manner it was
communicated to the house does not appear upon the journals. It was reported at
the time that De Foe, disguised as a woman, presented it to the Speaker as he
entered the House of Commons. The Legion" petition rang like a tocsin
throughout the kingdom. As, however, the author remained concealed, the Com-
mons did not think fit to pass any particular censure upon it. The Kentish petition-
ers were discharged by the prorogation of parliament on the 24th of June : they
were subsequently feasted at Mercers' Hall, where De Foe attended. Next the
Worthies," says a pamphlet of the time, was placed their secretary of state, the
author of the 'Legion Paper;' and one might have read the downfall of parlia-
ments in his very countenance."
MEMOIR OF DE FOE.
By the death of King William, more mortally wounded," says De Foe, with
the pointed rage of parties, and an ungrateful people, than by the fall from his
horse," our author lost a kind friend and powerful protector. Toward the latter
part of this reign, De Foe took up his abode at Hackney, and resided there many
years. Here some of his children were born and buried. In the parish register is
the following entry:-" Sophia, daughter to Daniel De Foe, by Mary his wife,
was baptized, December 24, 1701."
The next important work of De Foe a work that exercised the greatest influ-
ence on his fortunes- was the Shortest Way with the Dissenters; or, Proposals
for the Establishment of the Church; 1702." In this work, the author, assuming
the character of an Ultra High Churchman, advocates the adoption of the severest
measures against the Dissenters. "'Tis vain," writes De Foe, "to trifle in this
matter. The light, foolish handling of them by fines, is their glory and advantage.
If the gallows instead of the computer, and the galleys instead of the fines, were the
reward of going to a conventicle, there would not be so many sufferers." These
arguments found high favor with both the universities. The High Church party
never suspected the sincerity of their partisan, and, charmed and won by the fierce
doctrines of their champion, were unsuspicious of the satire of their extravagance.
It was, however, De Foe's hard fate to be misunderstood by both parties. Whilst
the High Churchmen congratulated themselves on the addition of another advocate,
the Dissenters treated him as a real enemy. The Church party, however, fell into
the trap laid for them by De Foe; for, by expressing their delight at the fiery senti-
ments of the author, they avowed them as their own true feelings on the question. De
Foe subsequently taunts the party thus :-" We have innumerable testimonies,"
he says, with which that party embraced the proposal of sending all the Dissent-
ing ministers to the gallows and the galleys; of having all their meeting-houses
demolished; and being let loose upon the people to plunder and destroy them." In
another place, De Foe characteristically portrays the common fate of the subtlety
of wit, when judged by the multitude. He says, All the fault I can find with
myself as to these people (the Dissenters) is, that when I had drawn the picture, I
did not, like the Dutchman with his man and bear, write under them, This is the
man,' and This is the bear,' lest the people should mistake me; and having, in a
compliment to their judgment, shunned so sharp a reflection upon their senses, I
have left them at liberty to treat me like one that put a value upon their penetration
at the expense of my own." The first detection of our author is said to have been
owing to the industry of the earl of Nottingham, one of the secretaries of state.
When the author's name was known, people were at no loss to decipher his object;
and those who had committed themselves by launching forth in his praises were
stung with madness at their own folly. It was at once resolved by the party in
power to crush De Foe by a state prosecution. In the height of the storm, our
author sought concealment; when a proclamation was issued by the government,
offering 50 for the discovery of his retreat, and advertised in The London
Gazette," for January 10, 1702-3. It is as follows: -
Whereas Daniel De Foe, alias De Fooe, is charged with writing a scandalous
and seditious pamphlet, entitled The Shortest Way with the Dissenters." He is
a middle-sized, spare man, about 40 years old; of a brown complexion, and dark-
brown colored hair, but wears a wig; a hook nose, a sharp chin, gray eyes, and a
large mole near his mouth; was born in London, and for many years was a hose-
factor in Freeman's Yard, Cornhill; and now is owner of the brick and pantile
works, near Tilbury Fort, in Essex: whoever shall discover the said Daniel De Foe
to one of Her Majesty's principal secretaries of state, or any of Her Majesty's jus-
tices of peace, so he may be apprehended, shall have a reward of 50, which Her
Majesty has ordered immediately to be paid upon such discovery."
MEMOIR OF DE FOE.
In the House of Commons, it was resolved that the book be burnt by the hands
of the common hangman in Palace Yard." The printer of the work and the book-
seller being taken into custody, De Foe issued forth from his retirement, to brave
the storm, resolving, as he expresses it, to throw himself upon the favor of gov-
ernment, rather than that others should be ruined by his mistake." De Foe was
indicted at the Old Bailey Sessions, the 24th of February, 1703, and proceeded to
trial in the following July. It may be gathered from his own account of the prose-
cution, that when his enemies had him in their power, they were at a loss to know
what to do with him. He was therefore advised to throw himself on the mercy of
the Queen, with a promise of protection; which induced him to quit his defence,
and acknowledge himself as the author of the offensive work. On this, De Foe
was sentenced to pay a fine of 200 marks to the Queen; to stand three times in the
pillory; to be imprisoned during the Queen's pleasure; and to find sureties for his
good behavior for seven years.
The people, however, were with De Foe. Hence he was guarded to the pillory
by the populace; and descended from it with the triumphant acclamations of the
surrounding multitude. De Foe has himself related, that the people, who were
expected to treat him very ill, on the contrary, pitied him, and wished those who
set him there were placed in his room, and expressed their affections by loud shouts
and acclamations when he was taken down." Tradition reports, that the pillory was
adorned with garlands, it being in the middle of summer. The odium intended for
De Foe fell upon his persecutors, and the pillory became to him a place of honor.
A triumphant evidence of the high spirit of De Foe--a spirit elevated and
strengthened by its unconquerable love of truth- is manifested by the fact that, on
the very day of his exhibition to the people, he published A Hymn to the Pil-
lory." This poem, which successively passed through several editions, being
eagerly bought up by the people, opens nobly as follows: -
Hail, hieroglyphic state machine,
Contrived to punish fancy in ;
Alen that are men, in thee can feel no pain,
And all thy insignificant disdain.
Contempt, that false new word for shame,
Is, without crime, an empty name,
A shadow to amuse mankind,
But never frights the wise or well-fixed mind;
Virtue despises human scorn,
And scandals innocence adorn."
De Foe is now presented to us, stripped of his fortunes, and a prisoner. In con-
sequence of his imprisonment, he could no longer attend to his pantile works,
which produced the chief source of his revenue, and they were consequently given
up. By this affair he lost, as he himself informs us, 3,500; and he had now a
wife and six children dependent upon him, with no other resource for their support
than the product of his pen. Hence the leisure of De Foe, whilst in Newgate, was
not that of idleness or dissipation. Some of his subsequent writings leave no doubt
that he now stored his mind with those facts relative to the habits and pursuits of
the prisoners, which he has detailed with so much nature as well as interest. A
great part of his time was devoted to the composition of political works, which our
limits will not permit us to dwell upon. It was likewise whilst in Newgate that he
projected his Review," a periodical work of four quarto pages, which was pub-
lished for nine successive years, without intermission; during the greater part of
the time, three times a week, and without having received any assistance whatever
MEMOIR OF DE FOE.
in its production. Throughout this work, he carried on an unsparing warfare
against folly and vice in all their disguises: it pointed the way to the Tatlers,"
" Spectators," and Guardians," and may be referred to as containing a vast body
of matter on subjects of high interest, written with all the author's characteristic
spirit and vigor.
The Tories vainly endeavored to buy up De Foe; but Newgate had no terrors for
him, and he continued at once their prisoner and their assailant. Upon the acces-
sion of Mr. Harley to office, his own politics not being dissimilar to those of De Foe,
the minister made a private communication to our author, with the view of obtaining
his support. No immediate arrangement, however, took place between them, as
De Foe remained a prisoner some months afterwards. Notwithstanding, it is most
likely that the queen became acquainted with De Foe's realmerits through the me-
dium of the minister, and was made conscious of the injustice of our author's suf-
ferings, which she now appeared desirous to mitigate. For this purpose, she sent
money to his wife and family, at the same time transmitting to him a sufficient sum
for the payment of his fine, and the expenses attending his discharge from prison.
On his release from prison, De Foe retired to Bury St. Edmunds. Party clamor,
and party malice, however, pursued him there. On the miserable libels issued at
this time against him, he says, I tried retirement, and banished myself from the
town. I thought, as the boys used to say, 'twas but fair they should let me alone,
while I did not meddle with them. But neither a country recess, any more than a
stone doublet, can secure a man from the clamor of the pen." In his elegy on the
author of The True-Born Englishman," he alludes to the report that the Tories
had exerted themselves in his favor. He says in answer: -
So I, by Whigs abandoned, bear
The Satyr's unjust lash ;
Dye with the scandal of their help,
But never saw their cash."
It appears that, in 1705, De Foe was employed by Harley to execute some mis-
sion of a secret nature, which required his presence upon the continent. The mis-
sion, whatever it was, appears to have been attended with some danger, and to
have required his absence for about two months. Harley seems to have been so
well satisfied, that, upon De Foe's return, he was rewarded with an appointment at
home. In 1706, De Foe wrote voluminously on the subject of the union with Scot-
land; which measure he advocated with all the strength of his powers. This ad-
vocacy obtained for him a confidential mission to Scotland, where he was received
with great consideration. While in Edinburgh, he published his Caledonia," &c.,
a poem in honor of Scotland and the Scots nation. Of the union, he says in his
"Review," I have told Scotland of improvement in trade, wealth, and shipping,
that shall accrue to them on the happy conclusion of this affair; and I am pleased
doubly with this, that I am likely to be one of the first men, that shall give them
the pleasure of the experiment." In 1708, De Foe was rewarded with an appoint-
ment and a fixed salary. When the union was completed, he published The
Union of Great Britain." In 1710, De Foe resided at Stoke-Newington, and ap-
pears to have been comfortable in his circumstances. In 1712 was closed the last
volume of the "Review." In a long preface to this volume, De Foe has a most
eloquent defence of this work, and of the mode in which he had conducted it
Nothing can be finer, more manly, or more conclusive. In allusions to his suffer-
ings during the progress of the work, he says, I have gone through a life of
wonders, -and am the subject of a vast variety of providence; 1 have been fed
more by miracle than Elijah when the ravens were his purveyors. I have, some
tinie ago, summed up my life in this distich: -
MEMOIR OF DE FOE.
No man has tasted differing fortunes more,
And thirteen times I have been rich and poor.
In the school of affliction, I have learnt more than at the academy, and more
divinity than from the pulpit: in prison, I have learnt to know that liberty does not
consist in open doors, and the free egress and regress of locomotion. I have seen
the rough side of the world as well as the smooth; and have, in less than half a year,
tasted the difference between the closet of a king and the dungeon of Newgate."
This preface may be considered as a review -a summing up of the events of De
Foe's political life, and, as such, is of the highest value for the noble spirit of con-
scious truth breathing in and animating every line of it. As a piece of English, it
is exquisite for its innate strength, the beauty of its simplicity. De Foe, however,
was again doomed to taste the dungeon sweets of Newgate, being committed there
upon the foolish charge of writing libels in favor of the Pretender.
After the death of Queen Anne, De Foe, who had been a political writer for thirty
years, retired from the thorny field, to the more pleasant paths of instructive fiction.
Whilst writing An Appeal to Honor and Justice," he was struck with apoplexy:
he, however, recovered, and in the early part of 1715, committed to the press one of
his most valuable treatises, The Family Instructor." In 1719 appeared the
immortal Robinson Crusoe." Nearly the whole circle of booksellers had in vain
been canvassed for a publisher. William Taylor, the fortunate speculator, is said to
have cleared a thousand pounds by the work, which rose into immediate popularity,
despite of the rancorous assaults of the petty, vulgar minds abounding amongst De
Foe's political enemies. There can be no doubt, that the idea of the work was first
suggested to De Foe by the story of Alexander Selkirk, which had been given to the
public seven years before. The enemies of De Foe charged him with having obtained
this man's journal, and from its contents, producing Robinson Crusoe." The truth
is, De Foe was as much indebted to Selkirk, for the materials used in his immortal
work, as was Vandyke, for his portraits, to the colorman who furnished him with
pigments. In a number of The Englishman," Sir Richard Steele gave the true
and particular history of Selkirk. The place in which Robinson Crusoe" was
composed, has been variously contested. It seems most probable (says Mr. Wilson)
that De Foe wrote it in his retirement, in Stoke-Newington, where he resided during
the principal part of Queen Anne's reign, in a large white house, rebuilt by himself,
and still standing in Church Street. The work has been printed in almost every
written language-has been the delight of men of all creeds and all distinctions-
from the London apprentice in his garret, to the Arab in his tent.
Robinson Crusoe was speedily followed by the Account of Dickory Crooke,"
the Life and Piracies of Captain Singleton," the History of Duncan Campbell,"
the Fortunes and Misfortunes of Moll Flanders," the "Life of Colonel Jacque,"
the "Memoirs of a Cavalier," and that extraordinary work, the "Account of the
Plague." We might possibly have laid before the reader a correct list of the multi-
farious productions of our author, many of them, until of late, most difficult to be
obtained, had not the spirit of the times called for complete editions of De Foe's
Works; most welcome and valuable offerings to the reading part of the nation.
The latter years of De Foe's life must have been those of competence -a most
honorable competence, insured to him by his works, and the rapidity with which
editions followed editions. There is, however, a too miserable proof of his suffer-
ings, inflicted upon him by the cruelty and undutifulness of his son, who, to quote
a letter of De Foe, written in his anguish," has both ruined my family and broken my
heart." De Foe adds, -" I depended upon him, I trusted him, I gave up my two
dear, unprovided children into his hands; but he has no compassion, and suffers
MEMOIR OF DE FOE.
them and their poor dying mother to beg their bread at his door, and to crave, as if
it were an alms, what he is bound under hand and seal, besides the most sacred
promises, to supply them with; himself, at the same time, living in a profusion of
plenty. It is too much for me."
For some years before his death, De Foe was tormented with those dreadful mal-
adies, the gout and the stone, occasioned, in part, most probably, by his close appli-
cation to study, whilst making posterity the heirs of undying wisdom. De Foe
expired on the 24th of April, 1731, when he was about seventy years of age, having
been born in the year 1661. The parish of St. Giles's, Cripplegate, in which he
drew his first breath, was also destined to receive his last. He was buried from
thence, on the 26th of April, in Tindall's burial-ground, now most known by the
name of Bunhill-Fields. His wife died at the latter end of the following year. De
Foe left six children, two sons and four daughters, whose descendants are living at
the present time.
The character of De Foe was but the practical example of his noblest writings.
As a citizen of the world, his love of truth, and the patience, the cheerfulness with
which he endured the obloquy and persecution of his enemies, endear him to us as a
great working benefactor to his race. His memory is enshrined with the memories
of those who make steadfast our faith in the nobility and goodness of human nature.
As a writer, De Foe has bequeathed to us imperishable stores of the highest and the
most useful wisdom. If he paint vice, it is to show its hideousness; whilst virtue
itself receives a new attraction at his hands. His poetry is chiefly distinguished for
its fine common sense; it has no flights it never wraps us by its imagination, but
convinces us by its terseness; by the irresistible eloquence of its truth. De Foe's
prose, though occasionally careless, is remarkable for its simplicity and strength.
What he has to say, he says in the shortest manner, and in the simplest style. He
does not- the vice of our day hide his thoughts under a glittering mass of words,
but uses words as the pictures of things. It is owing to this happy faculty, this un-
forced power, that De Foe occasionally rises, as in many instances in the golden
volume now offered to the reader, almost to the sublime. In his picture of the
despair of Crusoe, we have, in words intelligible even to infancy, a wondrous delin-
eation of the soul of man in a most trying and most terrible hour. De Foe is, in
the most emphatic sense of the word, an English writer. Cobbett has been com-
pared to him; and in many of the minor parts of authorship there is, certainly, a
similitude; but Cobbett was singularly deficient of imagination, the power which
gave a color and a beauty to all that De Foe touched, even though of the homeliest
and most unpromising materials.
LIFE AND ADVENTURES
SWAS born in the year 1632, in the
city of York, of a good family,
though not of that country, my
father being a foreigner of Bre-
men, who settled first at Hull:
he got a good estate by merchan-
dise, and, leaving off his trade,
lived afterwards at York; firom
whence he had married my moth-
er, whose relations were named
Robinson, a very good family in
that country, and from whom I
was called Robinson Kreutznaer;
but, by the usual corruption of
words in England, we are now
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
called nay, we call ourselves, and write our name- Crusoe; and so my
companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of which was lieutenant-colonel to an Eng-
lish regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel
Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards.
What became of my second brother I never knew, any more than my father
or mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head be-
gan to be filled very early with rambling thoughts: my father, who was very
ancient, had given me a competent share of learning, as far as house-educa-
tion and a country free-school generally go, and designed me for the law;
but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to
this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands of my father, and
against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other friends,
that there seemed to be something fatal in that propension of nature, tending
directly to the life of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent counsel
against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning into his
chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly
with me upon this subject: he asked me what reasons, more than a mere
wandering inclination, I had for leaving my father's house and my native
country, where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my
fortune by application and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told
me it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior
fortunes on the other, and who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by
enterprise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of
the common road; that these things were all either too far above me, or too
far below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be called
the upper station of low life, which he had found, by long experience, was
the best state in the world, the most suited to human happiness, not exposed
to the miseries and hardships, the labor and sufferings of the mechanic part
of mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy
of the upper part of -mankind. He told me I might judge of the happiness
of this state by this one thing, viz., that this was the state of life which all
other people envied; that kings have frequently lamented the miserable con-
sequence of being born to great 1l,.'-.. and wished they had been placed in
the middle of the two extremes, between the mean and the great; that the
wise man gave his testimony to this, as the just standard of true felicity, when
lie prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.
He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the calamities of life
were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind; but that the
middle station had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so many vicis-
situdes as the higher or lower part of mankind; nay, they were not subjected
to so niany distempers, and uneasiness, either of body or mind, as those were
who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagances on one hand, or by hard
labor, want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet on the other hand,
bring distempers upon themselves by the natural consequences of their way
of living; that the middle station of life was calculated for all kind of virtues
and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a
middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all
agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
the middle station of life; that this way men went silently and smoothly
through the world, and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labors
of the hands or of the head, not sold to a life of slavery for daily bread, or
harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and
the body of rest; nor enraged with the passion of envy, or the secret burning
lust of ambition for great things; but, in easy circumstances, sliding gently
through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without the
bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning by every day's experience to
know it more sensibly.
.I |' >
\\ \ l .- -_ : ; .
i ': 2, '
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate manner,
not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which
nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided against;
that I was under no necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do well
for me, and endeavor to enter me fairly into the station of life which he had
been just recommending to me; and that, if I was not very easy and happy
in the world, it must be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it; and that
be should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in
warning me against measures which he knew would be to my hurt; in a
word, that, as he would do very kind things for me if I would stay and settle at
home, as he directed, so he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes
as to give me any encouragement to go away, and, to close all, he told me
1 had my elder brother for an example, to whom he had used the same
earnest persuasions to keep him from going into the Low Country wars, but
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
could not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run into the army,
where he was killed; and though he said he would not cease to pray for me,
yet le would venture to say to me, that, if I did take this foolish step, God
would not bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having
neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in my recovery.
1 observed, in this last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic,-
li .... _. I .1,. -.ose my tether did not know it to be so himself,- I say, I observed
the tears run down his face very plentifidly, especially when he spoke of my
brother nwho was killed; and that when he spoke of my having leisure to
repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off the dis-
course, and told me his heart was so full he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who could be other-
wise ? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at
home, according to my Ithter's desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off;
anl, in short, to prevent any of my father's further importunities, in a few
weeks after, I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did not act
quite so hastily, neither, as the first heat of mny resolution prompted; but I took
my mother, at a time when I thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary,
and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world,
that I should never settle to any thing with resolution enough to go through
with it, and my father had better give me his consent than force me to go
without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too late to go
apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure, if I did, I
should never serve out my time, but I should certainly run away from my
master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak to my
father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not like
it, I would go no more ; and I would promise, by a double diligence, to recover
the time that I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion: she told me she knew it would
be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject; that he knew
too well what was my interest to give his consent to any thing so much for
my hurt; and that she wondered how I could think of any such thing after
the discourse I had had with my father, and such kind and tender expressions
as she knew my father had used to me; and that, in short, if I would ruin
myself, there was no help for me; but I might depend I should never have
their consent to it; that, for her part, she would not have so much hand in
my destruction; and I should never have it to say that my mother was
willing when my hfther was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I heard afterwards,
that she reported all the discourse to him, and that my father, after showing
a great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh, That boy might be happy if he
would stay at home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable
wretch that ever was born; I can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though, in the
mean time, I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to busi-
ness, and frequently expostulating with my father and mother about their
being so positively determined against what they knew my inclinations
prompted me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I went casually, and
without any purpose of making an elopement that time-but, I say, being
there, and one of my companions being going by sea to London, in his
father's ship, and prompting me to go with them, with the common allure-
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
ment of a seafaring man, that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I
consulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them
word of it; but, leaving them to hear of it as they might, without asking
God's blessing or my father's, without any consideration of circumstances or
consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the 1st of September, 1651,
I went on board a ship bound for London. Never any young adventurer's
misfortunes, I believe, began sooner or continued longer than mine. The
ship was no sooner got out of the Humber but the wind began to blow and
the sea to rise in a most frightful manner; and, as I had never been at sea
before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body and terrified in mind. 1 began
now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I was over-
taken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my father's house,
and abandoning my duty. All the good counsels of my parents, my father's
tears and my mother's entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my
conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it has
been since, reproached me with the contempt of advice, and the breach of
my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very high, though
nothing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor what 1 saw a few
days after; but it was enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor,
and had never known any thing of the matter. 1 expected every wave would
have swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down- as I thought
it did in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more: in
this agony of mind, I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would please
God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry
land again, I would go directly home to my father, and never set it into a
ship again while I lived; that I would take his advice, and never run myself
into such miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of
his observations about the middle station of life; how easy, how comfortably
he had lived all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea, or
troubles on shore; and, in short, I resolved that I would, like a true repent-
ing prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm lasted,
and, indeed, some time after; but the next day, the wind was abated, and
the sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it: however, I was very
grave for all that day, being also a little seasick still; but towards night the
weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening
followed; the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning;
and, having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the
sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more seasick, but very
cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea, that was so rough and terrible
the day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after.
And now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my companion, who had
indeed enticed me away, comes to me. Well, Bob," says he, clapping me
upon the shoulder, "how do you do after it? I warrant you were frighted,
wer'n't you, last night, when it blew but a capful of wind?"--"A capful
d'you call it?" said I; "'twas a terrible storm."-"A storm, you fool you,"
replies he, "do you call that a storm? why, it was nothing at all; give us but
a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as
that; but you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
I 1 /) / ii
-- I i I
To make -lort this sad part of my story, we went the way of all sailors; the
punch was iade, and I was made half drunk with it; and in that one night's
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past
conduct, all my resolutions 1or the future. In a word, as the sea was returned
to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abatement of that
storm, so, the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions
of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of my for-
mer desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that I made in
my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection; and the serious
thoughts did, as it were, endeavor to return again sometimes; but I shook
them off, and roused myself from them, as it were, from a distemper, and
app lying myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the return of those
fits, for so I called them; and I had, in five or six days, got as complete a
victory over my conscience, as any young fellow that resolved not to be
troubled with it, could desire: but I was to have another trial for it still; and
Providence, as in such cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely
without excuse; for if I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was
to be such a one ast the worst and most hardened wretch among us would
confess both the danger and the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea, we came into Yarmouth Roads; the
wind having beE w contrary, and the weather calm, we had made but little
way since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here
we lay, the awind continuing contrary, viz., at south-west, for seven or eight
days, during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came into the
same roads, as the common harbor where the sips might wait for a wind
for the river.
for the river.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided it up
the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had lain four or
five days, blew very hard. However, the roads being reckoned as good as
a harbor, the anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men
were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent
the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day,
in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to strike
our topmasts, and make every thing snug and close, that the ship might ride
as easy as possible. By noon, the sea went very high indeed, and our ship
rid forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our
anchor had come home; upon which our master ordered out tile sheet-
anchor, so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out
to the better end.
By this time, it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see
terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves. The
master, though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet, as he
went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say,
several times, "Lord, be mercithl to us! we shall be all lost; we shall be
...- -: : -_. -
dP' .: .: ..7 : .._- .
\ L 11J
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
all undone!" and the like. During these first hurries, 1 was stupid, lying
still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper.
I could ill resume the first penitence which 1 had so apparently trampled
upon, and hardened myself against. I thought the bitterness of death had
been past, and that this would be nothing, too, like the first; but when the
master himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all
lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin, and looked out;
but such a dismal sight I never saw : the sea went mountains high, and
broke upon us every three or four minutes; when I could look about, I
could see nothing but distress round us; two ships that rid near us, we
found, had cut their masts by the board, being deep laden; and our men
cried out, that a ship which rid about a mile ahead of us was foundered.
Two more ships, being driven from their anchors, were run out of the roads
to sea, at all adventures, and that not with a mast standing. The light ships
fared the best, as not so much laboring in the sea; but two or three of them
drove, and came close by us, running away with only their spritsail out
before the wind.
Towards evening, the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship
to let them cut away the foremast, which he was very unwilling to do; but
the boatswain protesting to him that, if he did not, the ship would founder,
he consented ; and when they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood
so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut her away, also,
and make a clear deck.
Any one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was
but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little.
But ifl can express at this distance the thoughts 1 had about me at that time,
I was in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former convictions,
and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly taken
at first, than I was at death itself' and these, added to the terror of the storm,
put me into such a condition, that 1 can by no words describe it. But the
worst was not come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that the seamen
themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We had a good
ship; but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the seamen
every now and then cried out, she would founder It was my advantage, in
one respect, that I did not know what they meant by founder, till I inquired.
However, the storm was so violent, that I saw, what is not often seen, the
master, the boatswain, and some others, more sensible than the rest, at their
prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses, one of the
men that had been down on purpose to see, cried out, we had sprung a leak;
another said, there was four feet water in the hold. Then all hands were
called to the pump. At that very word, my heart, as I thought, died within
me; and I fell backwards, upon the side of my bed where I sat, into the
cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me that I, that was able to
do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another; at which I stirred
up, and went to the pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing,
the master, seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm,
were obliged to slip, and run away to the sea, and would come near us,
ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what they
meant, was so surprised, that I thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful
thing happened. In a word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a swoon.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
As this was a time when every body had his own life to think of, nobody
minded me, or what was become of me; but another man stepped up to
the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had
been dead; and it was a great while before 1 came to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent
that the ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate a little,
yet as it was not possible she could swim till we might run into any port,
so the master continued firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid
it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the
utmost hazard the boat came near us; but it was impossible for us to get
on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's side; till, at last, the men
rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast
them a rope, over the stern, with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great
length, which they, after much labor and hazard, took hold of; and we hauled
them close under our stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no pur-
pose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to think of reaching to their
own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards
shore as much as we could; and our master promised them, that if the boat
was staved upon shore, he would make it good to their master; so, partly
rowing, and partly driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping
towards the shore almost as far as Winterton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship but
we saw her sink; and then I understood for the first time what was meant
by a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to
THE LIFE AND) ADVENTURES
look ull, when the seamen told me she was sinking; for fiom that moment ,
they rather put me into tile boat, than that I might be said to go in; my
heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror
oft mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before ite.
While we were in this clldition,-the men yet laboring at the oar to
bring tile boat near the shore,-- e coul see (wh en, our boat mounting
the waves, we were able to see the shore) a great many people running
along the strand to assist us when we should come near; lbut we made
but slow way s oards thie shore ; nor were we able to reach the shore, till,
being past the lighthouse at Viniterton, the shore falls off to the westward
towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence of the wind.
Here we got in; and, though not without much difficulty, got all sa!f on
shore, and walked aftierwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as fnifortinate
men, we were used witl great humanity, as well by the iimia-ritrates o' thie
town, who assigned us good quarters, as by particular mn IrIliaits and
owners of ships, and had money given us slficieint to carrj us either to
London, or back to lull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone home,
I hadl been happy, and my father, an emblem of our blessed Savior's parable,
had even killed tie fatted calf fotr ine; tor, hearing the ship I went away
in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before lie had
any assurances that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could
resist; and though I had several times loud calls frolm my reason, and my
more composed judgment, to go homei, yet I hadt no power to do it. I know
not what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret, overruling decree,
that hurries us on to be the instrumllents of our own destruction, even though
it ie before tus, and that we rush upon it witl our eyes open. Certainly,
nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery attending, and which
it was impossible for ime to escape, could have pushed ine forward against
the calm reasoning and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against
two such visible instructions as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the
master's son, was now less bfrward than I. The first time lie spoke to me
after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we
were separated in the town to several quarters,-I say, the first time he
saw me, it appeared his tone was altered, and looking very melancholy, and
slaking his head, asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was, and
how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther abroad
His father turning to me, with a very grave and concerned tone, "Young
man," says he, you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take
this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a seafaring man."
"Wlhy, sir," said I, "will you go to sea no more ? ""That is another case,"
said lie; "it is nly calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made this
voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven lhas given you of what you
are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your ac-
count, like Jonah in the ship of 'u-rshish. Pray," continues he, "what
are yout? and on what account did i go to sea?" Upon that, I told him
some of my story; at the end of wmuch he burst out into a strange kind of
passion. "\What had I done," says he, that such an unhappy wretch should
come into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same ship w-ith thee
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
again for a thousand pounds." This, indeed, was, as I said, an excursion
of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was
farther than lie could have authority to go. However, he afterwards talked
very gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and not tempt
Providence to my ruin; told me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against
me. "And, young man," said lie, "depend upon it, if you do not go back,
wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappoint-
ments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw him no
more; which way he went, I know not. As for me, having some money
in my pocket, I travelled to London by land; and there, as well as on the
road, had many struggles with myself what course of life I should take, and
whether I should go home, or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my
thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at
among the neighbors, and should be ashamed to see, not my father and
mother only, but even every body else; fiom whence I have since often
observed how incongruous and irrational the common temper of mankind
is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in such
cases, viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent;
not ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools,
but are ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed
In this state of life, however, I a.ined some time, uncertain what
measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance
continued to going home; and as I staid awhile, the remembrance of the
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
distress I had been in wore off; and as that abated, the little motion I had
in my desires to return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the
thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house,-
which hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune,
and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf
to all good advice, and to the entreaties, and even the commands, of my
father,- I say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most
unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel
bound to the coast of Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to
It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not ship
myself as a sailor, whereby, though I might, indeed, have worked a little
harder than ordinary, yet at the same time I had learnt the duty and office
of a foremast-man, and, in time, might have qualified myself for a mate, or
lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it was always my fate to choose for
the worse, so I did here; for having money in my pocket, and good clothes
upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a gentleman; and
so I neither had any business in the ship, nor learnt to do any.
It was my lot, first of all, to fall into pretty good company in London;
which does not always happen to such loose and unguided young fellows
as I then was; the devil generally not omitting to lay some snare for them
very early; but it was not so with me. I first fell acquainted with the
master of a ship who had been on the coast of Guinea, and who, having
had very good success there, was resolved to go again; this captain, taking
a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that time,
hearing ime say I had a mind to see the world, told me, if I would go the
voyage with him, I should be at no expense; I should be his messmate and
his companion; and if I could carry any thing with me, I should have all
the advantage of it that the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet
with some cl courage ent.
I embraced the ofibr; and entering into a strict friendship with this cap-
tain, -who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him,
and carried a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty
of my friend, the captain, I increased very considerably; for 1 carried about
40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This 40
I had mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations whom I
corresponded with; and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my mother,
to contribute so much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful, in all my
adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend, the
captain; under whom, also, I got a competent knowledge of the mathematics
and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship's
course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some things that
were needful to be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to intro-
duce me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both
a sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of
gold dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return,
almost 300; and tlis filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have
since so completed my ruin.
Yet even il this voyage I had my misfortunes, too; particularly that I
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
was continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive
heat of the climate; our principal trading being upon the coast, from the
latitude of 15 degrees north even to the line itself
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great mis-
fortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again;
and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the former
voyage, and had now got the command of the ship. This was the unhap-
piest voyage that ever man made; for though I did not carry quite 100 of
my new-gained wealth, so that I had 200 left, and which I lodged with my
friend's widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes
in this voyage; and the first was this, viz.: our ship, making her course
towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and the African
shore, was surprised, in the gray of the morning, by a Turkish rover of
Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded,
also, as much canvass as our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to have
got clear; but, finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly come
up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight; our ship having twelve
guns, and the rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon, he came up
with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of
athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on
that side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off
again, after returning our fire, and pouring in also his small shot from near
two hundred men, which he had on board. However, we had not a man
touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and
we to defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next time upon our
other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell
to cutting and hacking the sails and rigging. We plied them with small
shot, half-pikes, powder chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them
twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship
being disabled, and three of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were
obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging
to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended; nor
was I carried up the country to the emperor's court, as the rest of our men
14 THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
were; but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and
made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this
surprising change of my circumstances, fiom a merchant to a miserable
slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my fa-
ther's prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable, and have none
to relieve me, which I thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that
1 could not be worse; that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and
I was undone without redemption; but, alas! this was but a taste of the
misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I was
i hopes that he would take mie with him when he went to sea again, be-
lieving that it would some time or other be his thte to be taken by a Spanish
or Portugal man-of-war; and that then I should be set at liberty. But this
hope of mine was soon taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me
on shore to look after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of
slaves about his house ; and when lie came home again from his cruise, he
ordered me to lie in tie cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might take
to effect it; but found no way that had the least probability in it; nothing
presented to make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to com-
municate it to, that would embark with me; no fellow-slave, no English-
man, Irishlian, or Scotsman there, but myself; so that for two years, though
I often pleased myself witl the imagination, yet I never had the least en-
couraging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which put
the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head.
My patron lying at home longer than usual without fitting out his ship,-
which, as I heard, was for want of money, lie used, constantly, once or twice
a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace,
and go out into the road a-fishing; and, as he always took me and a young
Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I proved
very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me
with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth the Maresco, as they called
him -to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time that, going a-fishing in a stark calm morning, a fog
rose so thick that, though we were not half a league from tile shore, we lost
sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither or which way, we labored all
day and all the next night, and when the morning came, we found we had
pulled off to sea instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were at least
two leagues from the shore: however, we got well in again, though with a
great deal of labor and some danger, for the wind began to blow pretty fresh
in the morning; but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of him-
self for the future; and having lying by him the long-boat of our English
ship he had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without, a
compass and some provision; so lie ordered the carpenter of his ship, who
also was an English slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle
of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer,
and haul home the main-sheet; and room before for a hand or two to stand
and work the sails; she sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail;
and the boom gibed over the top of the cabin; which lay very snug and low,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 1I
and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on,
with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he thought
fit to drink; and particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and as I was most dexterous
to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened that he had
appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or
three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for whom lie had provided
extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat over-night a larger
store of provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me to get ready three
fizees, witl powder and shot, which were on board his ship, for that they
designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as lie had directed, and waited the next morning with
the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants out, and every thing to ac-
coumodate his guests; when by-and-by my patron came ol board alone, and
told me his guests had put off going, upon some business that fell out, and
ordered me, with tle man and boy, as usual, to go out witl tie boat and catch
them soute tish, tbr that his ti'ieuds were to sup at his house; and commanded
that as soon as I got some fish, I should bring it home to his house ; all which
I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts,
for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my command; and my
master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but
~-~-~\'I IC~33'~, c-~
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither
I should steer; for any where, to get out of that place, was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor, to get
something for our subsistence on board, for I told him we must not presume
to eat of our patron's bread; he said, that was true: so he brought a large
basket of rusk, or biscuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into
the boat. 1 knew where my patron's case of bottles stood, which it was evi-
dent, by the make, were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed
them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there
before for our master: I conveyed also a great lump of beeswax into the boat,
which weighed above half a hundred weight, with a parcel of twine or thread,
a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which were of great use to us after-
wards, especially the wax to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him,
which he innocently came into also: his name was Ismael, whom they call
Muley, or Moely; so I called to him; "Moely," said I, "our patron's guns are
on board the boat; can you not get a little powder and shot? it may be we
may kill some alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he
keeps the gunner's stores in the ship." "Yes," says he, "I'll bring some;"
and accordingly lie brought a great leather pouch, which held a pound and a
half of powder, or rather more; and another with shot, that had five or six
pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the boat; at the same time, I had
found some powder of my master's in the great cabin, with which 1 filled
one of the large bottles in the case, which was almost empty, pouring what
was in it into another; and thus furnished with every thing needful, we sailed
out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew
who we were, and took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out
of the port before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The wind
blew from the N. N. E., which was contrary to my desire; for, had it blown
southerly, I had been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least
reached to the Bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way it
would, I would be gone from that horrid place where I was, and leave the
rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for, when I had fish
on my hook, I would not pull them up, that he might not see them, -I said to
the Moor, "This will not do; our master will not be thus served; we must
stand farther off" He, thinking no harm, agreed, and, being in the head of
the boat, set the sails; and, as I had the helm, I run the boat out near a league
farther, and then brought her to, as if I would fish; when, giving the boy the
helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped
for something behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm under his
twist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for
he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, told me he
would go all over the world with me. He swam so strong after the boat that
he would have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon
which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I pre-
sented it at him, and told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be
quiet, I would do him none. "But," said I, "you swim well enough to reach
to the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and I
will do you no harm; but if you come near the boat, I'll shoot you through
the head, for I am resolved to have my liberty." So he turned himself about,
and swam for the shore; and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for
he was an excellent swimmer.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and have
drowned the boy; but there was no venturing to trust him. When he was
gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him, "Xury,
if you will be faithful to me, I'll make you a great man; but if you will not
stroke your face to be true to me,"--that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's
beard, -" must throw you into the sea too." The boy smiled in my face, and
spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him, and swore to be faithful to
me, and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out directly
to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that they might think me
gone towards the strait's mouth, (as indeed any one that had been in their
wits must have been supposed to do;) for who would have supposed we
were sailed on to the southward to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole
nations of Negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes, and destroy
us; where we could never once go on shore but we should be devoured by
savage beasts, or more merciless savages of human kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course, and
steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little towards the
east, that I might keep in with the shore; and having a fair, fresh gale of
wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe by the next day
at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be
less than one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee; quite beyond the em-
peror of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts, for
we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright 1 had taken at the Moors, and the dreadful appre-
hensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop, or go on
shore, or come to an anchor: the wind continuing fair till I had sailed in that
manner five days, and then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded
also that, if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now give
over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth
of a little river, I knew not what, or where; neither what latitude, what
country, what nation, or what river: I neither saw, or desired to see, any
people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this
creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and
discover the country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dread-
ful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, ofwe knew
not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of
me not to go on shore till day. "Well, Xury," said I, "then I won't; but it
may be we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions."
"Then we give them the shoot gun," says Xury, laughing, "make them run
wey." Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. However,
I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out oi our
patron's case of bottles) to cheer him up. After all, Xury's advice was good,
and I took it; we dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night; I say still,
fbr we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw vast, great creatures (we
knew not what to call them) of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and
run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the pleasure of
cooling themselves; and they made such hideous bowling and yelling, that
I never, indeed, heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and, indeed, so was I too; but we were both
more frighted when we heard one of these mighty creatures come swimming
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
towards our boat; we could not see him, but we might hear him by his
blowing to be a monstrous, huge, and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion,
and it might be so, for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh
the anchor and row away. "No," says I, "Xury; we can slip our cable,
with the buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot follow us far." I had no
sooner said so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two oars?
length, which something surprised me; however, 1 immediately stepped to
the cabin-door, and, taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which he imme-
diately turned about, and swam towards the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hideous cries and
cowlings, that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher
within the country, upon the noise or report of the gun,- a thing I have some
reason to believe those creatures had never heard before: this convinced me
that there was no going on shore for us in the night on that coast; and how to
venture on shore in the day, was another question, too; for to have fallen into
the hands of any of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the
hands of lions and tigers; at least, we were equally apprehensive of the
danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or other
for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat; when or where to get it
was the point. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with one of the
jars, he would find if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked
him why he would go; why I should not go, and he stay in the boat. The
boy answered with so much affection, that made me love him ever after.
Says he, "If wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey." Well, Xury,"
said I, we will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them; they
shall eat neither of us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a
dram out of our patron's case of bottles, which I mentioned before; and we
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
hauled the boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and so waded
on shore, carrying nothing but our arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of canoes
with savages down the river; but the boy, seeing a low place about a mile up
the country, rambled to it; and by-and-by I saw him come running towards
me. I thought he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild
beast, and I ran forwards towards him to help him; but when I came nearer
to him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature
that he had shot, like a hare, but different in color, and longer legs: however,
we were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that
poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water, for, a
little higher up the creek where we were, we found the water fresh when the
tide was out, which flowed but a little way up; so we filled our jars, and
feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having
seen no footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well that the
islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not far off
from the coast But as I had no instruments to take an observation to know
what latitude we were in, and not exactly knowing, or at least remembering,
what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them, or when to
stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now easily have found some
.--: =.-:--..:-- ---- : ?. -- :
of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I came
to that part where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels
upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was, must be that
country which, lying between the emperor of Morocco's dominions and the
Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the Negroes
having abandoned it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors, and the
Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness; and,
indeed, both forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions,
leopards, and other furious creatures which, harbor there; so that the Moors
use it for their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three thou-
sand men at a time; and, indeed, for near a hundred miles together upon
this coast, we saw nothing but a waste, uninhabited country by day, and
heard nothing but howlings and roaring of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice in the daytime, I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe, being
the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries, and had a great
mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but, having tried twice,
I was forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for
my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had left this
place; and, once in particular, being early in the morning, we came to an
anchor under a little point of land which was pretty high; and, the tide be-
ginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more
about him than, it seems, mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that we
had best go farther off the shore; for," says he, look, yonder lies a dreadful
monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep." I looked where he pointed,
and saw a dreadful monster, indeed; for it was a terrible great lion, that lay
on the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill, that hung, as
it were, a little over him. Xury," says I, you shall go on shore and kill
him." Xury looked frighted, and said, "Me kill! he eat me at one mouth;"
one mouthful, lie meant. However, I said no more to the boy, but bade him
lie still; and I took our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and
loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down;
then I loaded another gun with two bullets; and the third (for we had three
pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I could
with the first piece to have shot him in the head ; but he lay so with his
leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee,
and broke the bone. He started up, growling at first, but, finding his leg
broke, fell down again; and then got up upon three legs, and gave the most
hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit him
on the head; however, I took up the second piece immediately, and, though
he began to move off; fired again, and shot him in the head, and had the
pleasure to see him drop, and make but little noise, but lie struggling for life.
Then Xury took heart, and would have me let him go on shore. Well, go,"
said I; so the boy jumped into the water, and, taking a little gun in one
hand, swam to shore with the other hand; and, coming close to the creature,
put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head again, which
despatched him quite.
This was game, indeed, to us, but this was no food; and I was very sorry
to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good for
nothing to us. However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he
comes on board, and asked me to give him the hatchet. For what, Xury ? "
said I. "Me cut off his head," said he. However, Xury could not cut oft
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a mon-
strous great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might, one way
or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to take offthis skin if I could.
So Xury and I went to work with him ; but Xury was much the better
workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us both up
the whole day; but at last we got off the hide of hiii, and, spreading it on the
top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days' time, and it after-
wards served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten or twelve
days, living very sparing on our provisions, which began to abate very much,
and going no oftener into the shore than we were obliged to for fresh water;
my design in this was, to make the River Gambia or Senegal, that is to say,
any where about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some
European ship; and if 1 did not, I knew not what course I had to take, but
to seek for the islands, or perish there among the Negroes. I knew that all
the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to
Brasil, or to the East Indies, made this cape, or those islands; and, in a
word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that I must
meet with some ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have said,
I began to see that the land was inhabited; and, in two or three places, as
we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to look at rus; we could
also perceive they were quite black, and stark naked. I was once in-
clined to have gone on shore to them; but Xury was my better counsellor,
and said to me, "No go, no go." However, I hauled in nearer the shore,
that I might talk to them, and 1 found they ran along the shore by me a
good way. I observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who
had a long, slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they would
throw them a great way with good aim ; so I kept at a distance, but talked
with them by signs as well as I could; and, particularly, made signs for
something to eat; they beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would
fetch me some meat. Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by,
and two of them ran up into the country, and in less than half an hour came
back, and brought with them two pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as
is the produce of their country; but we neither knew what the one or the
other was: however, we were willing to accept it; but how to come at it
was our next dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to them, and they
were as much afitaid of us; but they took a safe way for us all, for they
brought it to the shore, and laid it down, and went and stood a great way
off till we fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them
amends; but an opportunity offered, that very instant, to oblige them
wonderfully; for while we were lying by the shore, came two mighty
creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury from the
mountains towards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female, or
whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we
could tell whether it was usual or strange; but I believe it was the latter,
because, in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the
night; and, in the second place, we found the people terribly frighted,
especially the women. The man that had the lance, or dart, did not fly from
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
them, but the rest did; however, as the two creatures ran directly into
the water, they did not seem to offer to fall upon any of the Negroes, but
plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for
their diversion. At last, one of them began to come nearer our boat than at
first I expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all
possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he
came fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head:
immediately he sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged
up and down, as if he was struggling for life; and so, indeed, he was: he
immediately made to the shore; but between the wound, which was his
mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died just before he reached
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at the
noise and fire of my gun; some of them were even ready to die for fear,
and fell down as dead with the very terror; but when they saw the crea-
ture dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them to come to
the shore, they took heart, and came to the shore, and began to search for
the creature. I found him by his blood staining the water; and by the help
of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the Negroes to haul, they
dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted,
and fine to an admirable degree; and the Negroes held up their hands with
admiration, to think what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of the gun,
swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from whence they came ;
nor could I, at that distance, know what it was. 1 found quickly the Negroes
were for eating the flesh of this creature; so I was willing to have them take
it as a favor from me; which, when I made signs to them that they might
tirgz. *''. 3z I
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
take him, they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to work with
him; and though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood,
they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we could have
done with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined,
making as if I would give it them ; but made signs for the skin, which they
gave me very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their provisions,
which, though I did not understand, yet I accepted. 1 then made signs to
them for some water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom
upward, to show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They
called immediately to some of their friends, and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I supposed, in the sun;
this they set down to me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars,
and filled them all three. The women were as stark naked as the men.
1 was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water; and,
leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for about eleven days more,
without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great
length into the sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues before me;
and, the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing, to make this point. At
length, doubling the point, at about two leagues from the land, I saw, plainly,
land on the other side, to seaward: then I concluded, as it was most certain
indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called, from
thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great distance, and
I could not well tell what I had best to do; for if 1 should be taken with a
fresh of wind, I might neither reach one 4r other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin, and sat
me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out,
"Master, master, a ship with a sail! and the fbolish boy was frighted out
of his wits, thinking it must needs be some of his master's ships, sent to
pursue us, when I knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach. I
jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but what
she was, viz., that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bound to
the coast of Guinea, for Negroes. But, when I oh-erved the course she
steered, I was soon convinced they were bound some other way, and did not
design to come any nearer to the shore; upon which I stretched out to sea
as much as I could, resolving to speak with them, if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in
their way, but that they would be gone by before I could make any signal to
them; but after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it
seems, saw me, by the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was some
European boat, which they supposed must belong to some ship that was lost;
so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with this, and
as I had my patron's ancient on board, I made a watt of it to them, for a
signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told me
they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals,
they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in about three hours'
time, I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in French,
but I understood none of them; but, at last, a Scots sailor, who was on board,
called to me; and I answered him, and told him I was an Englishman, that
I had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee; they then
bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that I was
thus delivered, as I esteemed it, ftiom such a miserable, and almost hopeless
condition as I was in; and I immediately offered all I had to the captain
of the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he generously told me he
would take nothing from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to
me, when I came to the Brasils. "For," says he, "I have saved your life
on no other terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one
time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides,"
said he, "when I carry you to the Brasils, so great a way from your own
country, if I should take from you what you have, you will be starved there,
and then 1 only take away that life I have given. No, no," says he, "Seignior
Inglese," (3Ir. Englishman,) "I will carry you thither in charity, and those
things will help to buy your subsistence there, and your passage home again."
As hlie was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the performance,
to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen, that none should offer to touch any
thing I had: then he took every thing into his own possession, and gave me
back an exact inventory of them, that I might have them, even so much as
my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told me he
would buy it of me for the ship's use; and asked me what I would have for
it. I told him, lie had been so generous to me in every thing, that I could
not oe!r to make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon
which lie told me lie would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty pieces
of eight for it, at Brasil; and when it came there, if any one offered to give
more, lie would make it up. lie offered me, also, sixty pieces of eight more
for iy boy Xury, which I was loath to take; not that I was not willing to
let the captain have liii, but I was very loath to sell the poor boy's liberty,
who had assisted mle so tithflillly in procuring my own. However, when I
let himl know my reason, lie owned it to be just, and offered me this medium,
that lie would give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he
turned Christian. Upon this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him,
I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brasils, and arrived in the Bay de
Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And
now I was once more delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of
life; and what to do next with myself, I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough remem-
ber: lie would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats
for the leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I had in my boat,
and caused every thing I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me;
and what I was willing to sell, le bought of me; such as the case of bottles,
two of imy guns, and a piece of the lump of beeswax,- for I had made
candles of the rest: in a word, 1 made about two hundred and twenty pieces
of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock, I went on shore in the Brasils.
I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the house of a
good, honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio, as they call it, (that is, a
plantation and a sugar-house.) I lived with him some time, and acquainted
myself, by that means, with the manner of planting and making of sugar; and,
seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I resolved,
if I could get a license to settle there, I would turn planter among them; re-
solving, in the mean time, to find out some way to get my money, which I
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
-. ',- tN, Jr
had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of a
letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land that was uncured as my
money would reach, and formed a plan fbor my plantation and settlement;
such a one as might be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to
receive from England.
I had a neighbor, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English parents,
whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as I was. I call
him my neighbor, because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on
very sociably together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather
planted for food than any thing else, for about two years. However, we
began to increase, and our land began to come into order; so that the third
year we planted some tobacco, and made, each of us, a large piece of ground
ready for planting canes in the year to come: but we both wanted help;
and now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting with my
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right, was no great wonder.
I had no remedy but to go on: I had got into an employment quite remote
to my genius, and directly contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which I
forsook my father's house, and broke through all his good advice; nay, I
was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of low life, which
my father advised me to before; and which, if I resolved to go on with, I might
as well have staid at home, and never have fatigued myself in the world, as
I bad done; and I used often to say to myself, I could have done this as well
in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to do it
among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such a distance as
never to hear from any part of the world that had the least knowledge of me.
In this manner, I used to look upon my condition with the utmost regret.
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
1 bad nobody to converse with, but now and then this neighbor; no work to
be done, but by the labor of my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a
man cast away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but himself:
But how just has it been! and how should all men reflect that, when they
compare their present conditions with others that are worse, Heaven may
oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity
by their experience! I say, how just has it been that the truly solitary life 1
reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so
often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in which, had I
continued, I had, in all probability, been exceeding prosperous and rich!
I was in some degree settled in my measures for carrying on the plan-
tation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up at sea,
went back; for the ship remained there, in providing his lading, and pre-
paring for his voyage, near three months; when, telling him what little
stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere
advice: Seignior Inglese," says he,- for so he always called me,-"if you
will give me letters, and a procuration here in form to me, with orders to the
person who has your money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to
such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this coun-
try, I will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my return; but,
since human aflhirs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would have
you give orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half
your stock, and let the hazard be run for the first, so that if it come safe, you
may order the rest the same way; and, if it miscarry, you may have the
other half to have recourse to bor your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not
but be convinced it was the best course I could take; so I accordingly
prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and
a procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my adventures-
my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portugal captain at sea, the
humanity of his behavior, and what condition I was now in, with all other
necessary directions for my supply; and when this honest captain came to
Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants there, to send
over, not the order only, but a full account of my story, to a merchant at
London, who represented it effectually to her; whereupon she not only
delivered the money, but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portugal captain
a very handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in English goods,
such as the captain had writ for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and
he brought them all safe to me to the Brasils; among which, without my
direction, (for I was too young in my business to think of them,) he had
taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils, necessary for
my plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made, for I was surprised
with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid out the five
pounds, which my friend had sent him for a present for himself, to purchase
and bring me over a servant, under bond for six years';service, and would
not accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have
him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods being all English manufactures, such
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the
country, I found means to sell them to a very great advantage; so that I
might say, I had more than four times the value of my first cargo, and was
now infinitely beyond my poor neighbor, I mean in the advancement of my
plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me a Negro slave, and a
European servant also; I mean another besides that which the captain
brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of our great-
est adversity, so was it with me. I went on, the next year, with great success
in my plantation; I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own ground,
more than I had disposed of for necessaries among my neighbors; and these
fifty rolls, being each of above a hundred weight, were well cured, and laid
by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon; and now, increasing in busi-
ness and in wealth, my head began to be full of projects and undertakings
beyond my reach; such as are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in
business. Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for all
the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so earnestly
recommended a quiet, retired life, and of which he had so sensibly described
the middle station of life to be full of; but other things attended me, and 1
was still to be the wilful agent of all my own miseries; and, particularly, to
increase my fault, and double the reflections upon myself, which in my future
sorrows I should have leisure to make, all these miscarriages were procured
by my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering
abroad; and pursuing that inclination, in contradiction to the clearest views
of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects, and those
measures of life, which nature and Providence concurred to present me with,
and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my parents, so I
could not be content now, but I must go and leave the happy view I had of
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
being a rich and thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash
and imnnoderate desire of rising faster tlha the nature of the thing admitted;
and thus I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery
that ever man fell into, or, perhaps, could be consistent with life, and a state
of health in tle world.
To come, then, by the just degrees, to the particulars of this part of my
story: You may suppose, that, having now lived ahnost four years in tlhe
Brasils, and beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation,
I had not only learned the language, but had contracted acquaintance and
friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at
St. Salvador, which was our port; and that, in my discourses among them,
1 lad frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the coast of
Guinea; the manner of trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it was
to purchase, upon the coast, for trifles, such as beads, toys, knives, scissors,
hatchets, hits of glass, and the like,-not only gold dust, Guinea grains,
elephants' teeth, &c., but Negroes, for the service of the Brasils, in great
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these heads,
but especially to that part which related to thie buying Negroes; which was
a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into, but, as f:r as it was, had
been carried on hy the assientos, or permission of the kings of SIain and
Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock; so that few Negroes were
brought, and those excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters of my
acquaintances, and talking of those things very earnestly, three of them came
to me the next morning, and told ime they had been musing very much upon
what I had discoursed Nwith them of the last night, and they came to make
a secret proposal to me; iand, after enjoining me secrecy, they told me that
they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all plan-
II," q ,
i ,9 I ,', -
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
stations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so much as servants;
that, as it was a trade that could not be carried on, because they could not
publicly sell the Negroes when they came home, so they desired to make
but one voyage, to bring the Negroes oil shore privately, and divide them
among their own plantations; and, in a word, the question was, whether I
would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part, upon the
coast of Guinea; and they otiered me that 1 should have my equal share of
the Negroes, without providing any part of the stock.
This was a their proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any
one that had not had a settlement and plantation of his own to look after,
which was in a Itir way of coming to he very considerable, and with a good
stock upon it. But for me, that was thus entered and established, and had
nothing to do but go on as I had begun, lor three or four years more, and
to have sent for the other hundred pounds firom England; and who, in that
time, and with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth
three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too; for me to
think of such a voyage, was the most preposterous thing that ever man, in
such circumstances, could be guilty olf
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the
offer, than 1 could restrain my first rambling designs, when my father's good
counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would go, with all
my heart, if they would undertake to look after miy plantation in lmy absence,
and would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This they
all engaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants to do so; and I
made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects, in case of my
death, making the captain of the ship, that had saved ily life, as betfre,
my universal heir; but obliging him to dispose of my ffetcts as I had
directed in my will; one half of the produce being to himself; and the other
to be shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to keep up
my plantation: had I used half as much prudence to have looked into my
own interest, and have made a judgment of what I ought to have done and
not to have done, I had certainly never gone away fiom so prosperous an
undertaking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and
gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say
nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular misfbrtunes to myself
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy, rather
than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo
furnished, and all things done as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage,
I went on board in an evil hour, the 1st of September, 1659, being the same
day eight year that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in order to act
the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty ton burden, carried six guns,
and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself; we had on board
no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade with
the Negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles, especially
little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board, we set sail, standing away to the northward
upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the African coast, when
they came about 10 or 12 degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was
the manner of their course in those days. We had very good weather, only
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
excessive hot, all the way upon our own coast, till we came to the height of
Cape St. Augustino; fi-om whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight
of land, and steered as if we were bound for the Isle Fernando de Noronha,
holding our course N. E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east. In this
course, we passed the line in about twelve days' time, and were, by our last
observation, in 7 degrees 22 minutes northern latitude, when a violent tor-
nado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge; it began from the
south-east, came about to the north-west, and then settled in the north-east;
from whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that, for twelve days together,
we could do nothing but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us
whither ever hfte and the ftry of the winds directed; and, during these
twelve days, 1 need not say that I expected every day to be swallowed up;
nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men
die of the calenture, and one nian and the boy washed overboard. About
the tweelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master made an observation
as well as lie could, and found that lie was in about 11 degrees north latitude,
but that lie was 22 degrees of longitude difference west from Cape St. Au-
gustiio ; so that lie found he was gotten upon the coast of Guiana, or the
north part of Brasil, beyond the River Amazons, toward that of the River
Oroonoque, commnonly called the Great River; and began to consult w ith
me what course lie should take, for the ship was leaky and very much
disabled, and lie was going directly back to the coast of Brasil.
I was positively against that ; and, looking over the charts of the sea-coast
of Amierica with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country for us to
have recourse to, till we came within the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and,
tlherefbr, resolved to stand away for Barbadoes; which, by keeping off at
sea, to avoid the in-draft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily
perlbrm, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; 'whereas we could not
possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance,
both to our ship and to ourselves.
With this design, we changed our course, and steered away N. W. by W.,
in order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief; but
our voyage was otherwise determined; for, being in the latitude of 12
degrees 18 minutes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us away
with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the way of all
human commerce, that, had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we were
rather in danger of being devoured by savages than ever returning to our
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men, early in
the morning, cried out, "Land!" and we had no sooner run out of the cabin
to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, but the
ship struck upon a sand; and, in a moment, ier motion being so stopped, the
sea broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we should all have
perished immediately; and we were immediately driven into our close
quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the like condition, to
describe or conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances. We
knew nothing where we were, or upon what land it was we were driven;
whether an island or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and, as
the rage of the wind was still great, though rather less than at first, we could
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 35
not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes, without breaking
in pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately
about. In a word, we sat looking upon one another, and expecting death
every moment, and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for another
world; for there was little or nothing more for us to do in this: that which
was our present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was, that, contrary to
our expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the master said the wind
began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet, the ship hav-
ing thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her
getting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do
but to think of saving our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our
stern, just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the
ship's rudder, and, in the next place, she broke away, and either sunk, or was
driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her. We had another boat on
board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing: however,
there was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces
every minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat, and, with the
help of the rest of the men, they got her slung over the ship's side; and,
getting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number,
to God's mercy, and the wild sea; for, though the storm was abated consid-
erably, yet the sea went dreadful high upon the shore, and might be well
called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw plainly that the
sea went so high that the boat could not live, and that we should be inevita-
--- / 7
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THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
bly drowned. As to making sail, we had none; nor, if we had, could we
have done any thing with it: so we worked at the oar towards the land,
though with heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all knew that,
when the boat came nearer the shore, she would be dashed in a thousand
pieces by the breach of the sea. I however, we committed our souls to God
in the most earnest manner; and, the wind driving us towards the shore, we
hastened our destruction with our own hands, pulling, as well as we could,
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal, we
knew not; the only hope, that could rationally give us the least shadow of
expectation, was, if we might happen into some bay or gulf; or the mouth of
soime river, where by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got
under the lee of the land, anld perhaps made smooth water. But there was
nothing of this appeared; but, as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the
land looked more fiightfill than tile sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a half, as we
reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and
plainly bade us expect tle cotp de grace. In a word, it took us with such a
thry, tliat it overset the boat at once, and, separating us, as well from the boat
as ofom one another, gave us not time hardly to say, "0 God!" for we were
all swallowed tup in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when I sunk
into the water; for, though I swam very well, yet 1 could not deliver myself
from tie. waves so as to draw breath, till that wave, having driven me, or
rather carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself
wvent back, and left me upon the land anlost dry, but half dead with the water
1 took in. 1 had so much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that, see-
ing myself nearer the maini land than I expected, I got upon my feet, and
endeavored to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before another
wave should return and take me up again. But I soon found it was impossi-
ble to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and
as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to contend with.
My business was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I
could; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself
towards the shore, if possible,- my greatest concern now being that the sea,
as it would carry me a great way towards the shore when it came on, might
not carry me back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once twenty or thirty
feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force
and swiftness towards the shore a very great way; but I held my breath, and
assisted myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready to
burst with holding my breath, when, as 1 felt myself rising up, so, to my im-
mediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the surface of the
water; and though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep myself
so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was cov-
ered again with water a good while, but not so long but I held it out; and,
finding the water had spent itself, and began to return, 1 struck forward
against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood
still a few moments, to recover breath, and till the waters went from me, and
then took to my heels, and ran, with what strength I had, farther towards the
shore. But neither would this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
cane pouring in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the
waves, and carried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well nigh been tatal to me ; for the sea,
having hurried me along, as betbre, landed me, or rather dashed me, against
a piece of a rock, and that with such fbrce, as it left me senseless, and
indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the blow, taking my side and
breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of lly body; and, had it re-
turned again immediately, I must have been strangled in the water: but 1
recovered a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be cov-
ered again with the water, I resolved to hold fhst by a piece of the rock, and
so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the
waves were not so high as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the
wave abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me so near the
shore, that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me
up as to carry me away; and the next run I took, I got to the main land; where,
to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down
upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of tile reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and thank God
that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was, some minutes before,
scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to express, to the life,
what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I
may say, out of tile very grave; and I do not wonder now at the custom,
viz., that when a malefector, who has the halter about his neck, is tied up,
and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him, say, I
do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very
moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits
from the heart, and overwhelm him.
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands; and my whole being, as
I may say, wrapt up in the contemplation of my deliverance; making a thou-
sand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe; reflecting upon all my
comrades that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved
but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of
them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth of the
sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so fir off and considered,
Lord how was it possible I could get on shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition,
I began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, and what was
next to be done; and 1 soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I
had a dreadful deliverance; for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor
any thing either to eat or drink, to comfort me. Neither did I see any pros-
pect before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by
wild beasts; and that which was particularly afflicting to me was, that I had
no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to
defend myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me for
theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a
little tobacco in a box. This was all my provision; and this threw me into
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
terrible agonies of mind, that, for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night
coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my
lot, if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night they
always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was, to get up
into a thick, bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and
where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day what death I
should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong
from the shore, to see if 1 could find any fresh water to drink, which I did,
to my great joy; and, having drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to
prevent hunger,I went to the tree, and, getting up into it, endeavored to place
myself so as that, if I should sleep, I might not fall; and, having cut me a
short stick, like a'truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging; and,
having been excessively fatigued, 1 fell fast asleep, and slept as comforta-
bly as, I believe, few could have done in my condition; and found myself
the most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked, it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm abated,
so that the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that which surprised
me most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where
she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the
rock which I at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave
dashing me against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where
I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on board,
that, at least, I might save some necessary things for my use.
When 1 came down from my apartment in the tree, 1 looked about me
again; and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the wind and
the sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about two miles on my right hand.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 41
I walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her, but found a
neck or inlet of water between nm and the boat, which was about half a mile
broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon getting at the
ship, where I hoped to find something lbr my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I bound the sea very cali, and the tide ebbed so far
out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship. And here I
found a fresh renewing of my grief; lbr I saw evidently, that if we had kept
on board, we had been all sale; that is to say, we had all got safe on shore,
and I had not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort
and company, as I now was. This tircedi tears froin my eyes again; but, as
there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I
pulled off my clothes,- for the weather was hot to extremity,--and took
the water. Bit, when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to
know how to get oil board ; ibr, as she lay aground, and high out of the
water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold o:. I swamr round her
twice; and thle secondltiime I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered
I did not see at tirst, hang down y tile fore-chains so low, as that, with great
ditliculty, 1 got hold of it; and, by tile help of that rope, I got upt into the
forecastle of the ship. Here I litund that the ship was bulged, and had a
great deal of water in her hold, but that she lay so oil the side of a bank of
hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and
her head low, almost to the water. By this means, all her quarter was free,
and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first work was
to search, and to see what was spoiled and what was free: and, first, 1 found
that all the ship's provisions were dry and untouched by tie water; and,
being very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room, and filled my pock-
ets with biscuit, and eat it as I went about other things ; for I had no time to
lose. I also found some rum in thie great cabin, of which I took a large
drain, and which I had indeed need enough of, to spirit me for what was
beibre me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many
things which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had; and this
extremity roused my application. We had several spare yards, and two or
three large spars of wood, and a spare topmast or two in the ship. I resolved
to fall to work with these; and I flung as many of them overboard as I could
manage for their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not
drive away. When this was done, 1 went down the ship's side; and, pulling
them to me, I tied four of them together at both ends, as well as I could, in
the form of a raft, and, laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them,
crossways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not able
to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light: so I went to work, and
with the carpenter's saw I cut a spare topmast into three lengths, and added
them to my raft, with a great deal of labor and pains. But the hope of fur-
nishing myself with necessaries, encouraged me to go beyond what I should
have been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight. My next
care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering this. I first laid all the
plank or boards upon it that I could get; and, having considered well what
1 most wanted, I first got three of the seamen's chests, which I had broken
open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft. The first of these
42 THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
I filled with provisions, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of
dried goats' flesh, (which we lived much upon,) and a little remainder of
European corn, which had been laid liy for some fowls which we brought to
sea with us; but the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and
wheat together ; but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards that the
rats had clten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, 1 fotnd several cases of bot
ties belonging to our skipper, in whicl were some cordial waters, and, in all,
about five or six gallons of rack. These I stowed by themselves, there being
no need to put them into the chest, nor no room for them. While I was
doing this, I loud the tide began to flow, though very cali ; and I had the
mortifieation to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore,
upon the sand, swim away: as for my breeches, which were only linen, and
open-kneed, I swam on board in them and my stockings. However, this put
me upon rummaging bfr clothes, of which I lound enough, but took no nore
than I wanted for present use, for I had other things whicl my eye was more
upon ; as, first, tools to work with on shore: and it was after long searching
that I tbond out the carpenter's chest, which was indeed a very useful prize
to me, and unich more valuable than a shlip-lading of gold would have been
at that time. I got it down to my raft, even whole as it was, without losing
time to look into it; for I knew, in general, what it contained.
lIy next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were two very
good fbo ling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols; these I secured first,
with some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords.
I knew there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed tlem ; but with much search 1 found them, two of
5. -- -
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-L9S~ .-IP %
,, -I '
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
them dry and good; the third had taken water. Those two I got to my raft,
with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and began
to think how I should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, or
rudder; and the least capful of wind would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: 1st, a smooth, calm sea; 2dly, the tide rising,
and setting in to the shore; 3dly, what little wind there was blew me towards
the land. And thus, having found two or three broken oars belonging to the
boat, and, besides, the tools which were in the chest, 1 found two saws, an
axe, and a hammer; and with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or there-
abouts, my raft went very well, only that I found it drive a little distant from
the place where I had landed before; by which I perceived that there was
some indraft of the water, and consequently I hoped to find some creek or
river there, which I might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before me a little opening of the
land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so 1 guided my raft,
as well as I could, to keep in the middle of the stream.
But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had, 1
think verily would have broke my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast,
my raft ran aground, at one end of it, upon a shoal, and, not being aground at
the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped offtowards
the end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by
setting my back against the chests, to keep them in their places, but could
not thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither durst 1 stir from the pos-
ture I was in; but, holding up the chests with all my might, 1 stood in that
manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water brought me
a little more upon a level; and a little after, the water still rising, my raft
floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel, and
then, driving up higher, I, at length, found myself in the mouth of a little
river, with land on both sides, and a strong current or tide running up. I
looked on both sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing
to be driven too high up the river; hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea,
and, therefore, resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to which,
with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near, as
that, reaching ground with my oar, 1 could thrust her directly in; but here I
had like to have dipped all my cargo into the sea again; for, that shore lying
pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no place to land, but where
one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink
lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo again. All that 1 could
do, was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar
like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of
ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as
I found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of water, -1 thrust her
on upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by stick-
ing my two broken oars into the ground; one on one side, near one end, and
one on the other side, near the other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed
away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place for my
habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure them from whatever might
happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether on the continent, or an
island; whether inhabited, or not inhabited; whether in danger f wild beasts,
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
or not. There was a hill not above a mile fi-om me, which rose up very steep
and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills, which lay as in a
ridge fi'om it, northward. I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of
the pistols, and a horn of powder; and, thus armed, 1 travelled for discovery
up to the top of that hill; where, after I had, with great labor and difficulty,
got to the top, 1 saw jmy lte, to my great affliction, viz., that I was in an
island, environed every way witl the sea; no land to be seen, except some
rocks, which lay a great way off; and two small islands, less than this, which
lay about three leagues to the west.
I fund also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good reason
to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of wliom, however, I saw none;
yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither, when I
killed them, could 1 tell what was fit fbr fbod, and what not. At my coming
back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the side of a
great wvood. I believe it was the first gun that had been fired there since the
creation of the world. I had no sooner fired, but from all the parts of the
wood, there arose an iniunerable number of fowls, of many sorts, making a
confused screaming, and crying, every one according to his usual note; but
not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took
it to be a kind of a hawk, its color and beak resembling it, but it had no
talons or claws more than comnion. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to work to
bring my cargo on shore, which took mie up the rest of that day: what to do
with m myself at night 1 knew not, nor, indeed, where to rest; for I was afraid
to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour
nme; though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for those fears.
however, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself round with the chests
and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of a hut for that
night's lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, ex-
cept that 1 had seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood
where I shot the fobl.
I now began to consider, that I might yet get a great many things out of
the ship, which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging
and sails, and such other things as might come to land; and I resolved to
make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that
the first storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved
to set all other things apart, till I had got every thing out of the ship that I
could get. Then I called a council,- that is to say, in my thoughts,-
whether I should take back the raft; but this appeared impracticable: so I
resolved to go, as before, when the tide was down; and 1 did so, only that I
stripped before 1 went fiom my hut, having nothing on but a checkered
shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and, having
had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so
hard, but yet I brought away several things very useful to me: as, first, in the
carpenter's stores, I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great
screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets; and, above all, that most useful thing
called a grindstone. All these I secured together, with several things belong-
ing to the gunner; particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of
musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small
quantity of powder more; a large bag full of small shot, and a great roll of
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
sheet lead; but this last was so heavy I could not hoist it up to get it over
the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could find, and a
spare foretopsail, a hannmock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded
my second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions, during my absence from the land, that,
at least, my provisions might be devoured on shore; but, when I came back,
I found no sign of any visitor; only there sat a creature, like a wildcat, upon
one of the chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away a little distance,
and then stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked
full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with rme. 1 presented
my gun to her, but, as she did not understand it, she was perfectly uncon-
cerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away ; upon which I tossed her a bit of
biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very tfee of it, for my store was not
great; however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled of it,
and ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could
spare no more; so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore,-though I was fain to open the
barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being
large casks,-1 went to work to make me a little tent, with the sail, and
some poles which I cut for that purpose; iad into this tent I brought
every thing that I knew would spoil, either with rain or sun; and I piled
all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt, either from mnan or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some boards
within, and an empty chest set up on end without; and spreading one of the
beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at
length by me, I went to bed bfr the first time, and slept very quietly all night,
for I was very weary and heavy; for the night before I had slept little, and
had labored very hard all day, as well to fetch all those things from the ship,
as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds, now, that ever was laid up, I
believe, for one man; but I was not satisfied still; for, while the ship sat
upright in that posture, 1 thought I ought to get every thing out of her that
1 could; so every day, at low water, I went on board, and brought away
something or other; but, particularly, the third time I went, I brought away
as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine
I could get, with a piece of spare canvass,-which was to mend the sails
upon occasion,--and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought
away all the sails, first and last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces,
and bring as much at a time as I could; for they were no more useful to be
sails, but as mere canvass only.
But that which comforted me more, still, was, that at last of all, after I had
made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing more to
expect from the ship that was worth my meddling with,-I say, after all this
I found a great hogshead of bread, and three large runlets of rum, or spirits
and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me,
because I had given over expecting any more provisions, except what was
spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of that bread, and
wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and,
in a word, I got all this safe on shore also.
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
The next day, I made another voyage; and now, having plundered the
ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cables, and,
cutting the great cable into pieces, such as I could move, 1 got two cables
and a hawser on shore, with all the iron work I could get; and, having cut
down the spritsail-yard, and the mizzen-yard, and every thing 1 could, to
make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and came away;
but my good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldy, and
so overladen, that, after I was entered the little cove where I had landed the
rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it
overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water; as for myself, it was
no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was a great
part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have been of great
use to me; however, when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable
ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite labor; for I was fain to dip
for it into the water-a work which fatigued me very much. After this, I
went every day on board, and brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times, on
board the ship; in which time I had brought away all that one pair of hands
could well be supposed capable to bring; though I believe, verily, had the
calm weather held, I should have brought away the whole ship, piece by
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
piece; but, preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind be-
gan to rise; however, at low water, I went on board; and though I thought
I had rummaged the cabin so effectually as that nothing more could be
found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found
two or three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen
of good knives and forks; in another, I found about thirty-six pounds value
in money,-some European coin, some Brasil, some pieces of eight, some
gold, and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. drug !" said I, aloud,
"what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me, no, not the taking off
of the ground; one of those knives is worth all this heap; I have no manner
of use for thee; e'en remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a
creature whose life is not worth saving." However, upon second thoughts,
I took it away; and, wrapping all this in a piece of canvass, I began to think
of making another raft; but while I was preparing this, I found the sky
overcast, and tile wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a
fish gale from the shore. It presently occurred to me, that it was in vain
to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore; and that it was my busi-
ness to be gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able
to reach the shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself down into the water,
and swam across the channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and
even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the things I had
about me, and partly the roughness of the water; for the wind rose very
hliatily, and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my wealth
about me, very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and, in the morn-
ing, when I looked out, behold! no more ship was to be seen! I was a little
surprised; but recovered myself with this satisfactory reflection, viz., that 1
had lost no time, nor abated no diligence, to get every thing out of her that
could be useful to me; and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was
able to bring away, if I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of any thing out of her,
except what might drive on shore from her wreck; as, indeed, divers pieces
of her afterwards did; but those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against
either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island;
and I had many thoughts of the method how to do this, and what kind of
dwelling to make; whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent
upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both; the manner and de-
scription of which, it may not be improper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement, particularly
because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea, and 1 believed it
would not be wholesome; and, more particularly, because there was no fresh
water near it; so I resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would be proper
for me: 1st, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned; 2dly, shelter from
thle heat of the sun; 3dly, security from ravenous creatures, whether men or
beasts; 4thly, a view to the sea, that, if God sent any ship in sight, I might
not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing to
banish all my expectation yet.
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side of a
rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep as a house-side, so
that nothing could come down upon me from the top. On the side of this
rock there was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door
of a cave; but there was not really any cave, or way into the rock, at all.
On the flat of the green, just betbre this hollow place, I resolved to pitch
my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice
as long, and lay like a green before my door; and, at the end of it, descended
irregularly every way down into the low ground by the sea-side. It was on
the N. N. W. side of the hill; so that it was sheltered fi-om the heat every
day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which, in those
countries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow place,
which took in about ten yards, in its seimi-diaincter, f-om the rock, and twenty
yards, in its diameter, from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into
the ground till they stood very firm, like piles, the biggest end being out of
the ground about five feet and a hall; and sharpened on tile top. The two
rows did not stand above six inches li'oi one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the shil, and laid them
in rows, one upon another, within the circle, between these two rows of
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them,
about two feet and a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so
strong, that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This cost me
a great deal of time and labor, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring
them to the place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short
ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when 1 was in, I lifted over after
me; and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all
the world, and consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise 1
could not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need
of all this caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried all my riches, all
my provisions, annunition, and stores, of which you have the account
above ; and I made me a large tent, which, to preserve me from the rains,
that in one part of the year are very violent there, I made double, viz., one
smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it; and covered the upper-
most with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had brought on
shore, but in a hanunock, which was, indeed, a very good one, and belonged
to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every thing that would spoil
by the wet; and, having thus enclosed all my goods, 1 made up the entrance,
which, till now, I had lelt open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and, bring-
ing all the earth and stones that I dug down, out, through my tent, I laid
them up within my fence, in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the
ground within about a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just
behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labor and many days before all these things were brought
to perfection; and therefore I must go back to some other things which took
up some of my thoughts. At the same time, it happened, after I had laid my
scheme for the setting up my tent, and making the cave, that, a storm of rain
falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and,
after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not
so much surprised with the lightning, as I was with a thought which darted
into my mind as swift as the lightning itself: 0, my powder! My very heart
sank within me when I thought that, at one blast, all my powder might be
destroyed, on which, not my defence only, but the providing me food, as I
thought, entirely depended. 1 was nothing near so anxious about my own
danger, though, had the powder took fire, I had never known who had
Such impression did this make upon me, that, after the storm was over,
I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and applied myself to
make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a
little in a parcel, in hope that, whatever might come, it might not all take fire
at once; and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to make one
part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight; and I think my
powder, which, in all, was about two hundred and forty pounds weight, was
divided in not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had been
wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I placed it in my new
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and
down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might conic to it, marking
very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out, once at least every
day, with my gun, as well to divert myself; as to see if I could kill any thing
fit for food; and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island
produced. The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there were
goats in the island, which was a great satisfiltion to me; but then it was
attended with this misfortune to ime, viz., that they were so shy, so subtle,
and so swift of foot, that it was the difficulties thing in the world to cole at
them; but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now and
then shoot one, as it soon happened ; for, after I had found their haunts a
little, I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed, if they saw me in the
valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run away, as in a ter-
rible fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon tile
rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I concluded, that, by the
position of their optics, their sight was so directed downward, that they did
not readily see objects that were above them; so, afterwards, I took this
method, I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had
frequently a fhir mark.
The first shot I made ainong these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which
had a little kid by her, which shei gave suck to, which grieved me heartily;
but when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came and
took her lupl; and not only so, but when I carried the old one with me, upon
my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon which I
laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my
pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would not cat; so I was forced
to kill it, uand ate it mysell These two supplied mIe with flesh a great while,
for I eat sparingly, and saved my provisions-my bread especially-as much
as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to provide
a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn ; and what I did for that, as also
how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a fill
account of in its place; but I must now give some little account of myself;
and of my thoughts about living, which, it may well be supposed, were not
I had a dismal prospect of my condition ; for, as I was not cast away
upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm, quite
out of the course of our intended voyage, and a great way, viz., some huln-
dreds of leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, 1 had
great reason to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this desolate
place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears would
run plentifilly down my face when I made these reflections; and, some-
times, I would expostulate with myself why Providence should thus com-
pletely ruin its creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable; so
without help, abandoned, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be ra-
tional to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check these thoughts,
and to reprove me; and, particularly, one day, walking, with my gun in my
hand, by the sea-side, 1 was very pensive upon the subject of my present
condition, when reason, as it were, expostulated with me the other way,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
thus: Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but, pray remember,
where are the rest of you? Did not you come, eleven of you, into the boat?
Where are the ten? Why were not they saved, zmd you lost? Why were
you singled out? Is it better to be here, or there?" And then I pointed to
the sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that is in them, and
with what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my sub-
sistence, and what would have been my case if it had not happened (which
was a hundred thousand to one) that the ship floated from the place where
she first struck, and was driven so near to the shore, that I had time to get
all these things out of her; what would have been my case, if I had been to
have lived in the condition in which I at first came on shore, without neces-
saries of life, or necessaries to supply and procure them; "Particularly," said
I, aloud, (though to myself,) "what should I have done without a gun,
without ammunition, without any tools to make any thing, or to work with,
without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering ?" and that now
I had all these to a sufficient quantity, and was in a tlir way to provide
myself in such a manner as to live without my gun, when my ammunition
was spent; so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting without any want, as
long as I lived; for 1 considered, from the beginning, how I would provide
for the accidents that might happen, and for the time that was to come, even
not only after my ammunition should be spent, but even after my health and
strength should decay.
I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition being de-
stroyed at one blast,--I mean my powder being blown up by lightning; and
this made the thoughts of it so surprising to me, when it lightened and
thundered, as I observed just now.
And now, being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent life,
such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall take it from
its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th
of September, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this
horrid island; when the sun, being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost
just over my head; for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the
latitude of 9 degrees 22 minutes north of the Line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my thoughts,
that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of books, and pen and ink,
and should even forget the Sabbath days from the working days; but, to
prevent this, I cut it with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters; and,
making it into a great cross, I set it up on the shore where I first landed, viz,
"I came on shore here on the 30th of September, 1659."
Upon the sides of this square post I cut, every day, a notch with my knife,
and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every first day of
the month as long again as that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or
weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place, we are to observe that, among the many things which 1
brought out of the ship, in the several voyages which, as above mentioned, I
made to it, I got several things of less value, hut not all less useful to me,
which I omitted setting down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper;
several parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keeping;
three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives,
charts, and books of navigation; all which I huddled together, whether 1
TIE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
might want then or no ; also, I found three very good Bibles, which came to
me ill iy n~rgo firout England, and wvliiich I lad packed up iamiong my things;
sollie Iortuguese l ook, aso; aild, ailmoglll tlihe, two or three Popish prayer
books, and several other books, all tlwhich I arefitl'lly secured. And I nmust
lnot ibrgel,l that \\w hlia i ll tie ship a ldog, and Itwo cats, of vlltose ieminent his-
tory I lilay ave occasion to say someltlihig, il its place ; fir I carried both the
cats with iie; a and as fr tile dog, he( jumllped oult of the ship of himself; andl
swanl oil l(ore to lim tlhe day alter I w\ent on shore with iy first cargo, and
was a trusty servant to mle illaniy Vears; I wantiled nothing that lie cold fetch
lme, nor ally comllpalny lhat hie (coild iiake iiup to ime ; I only wanted to have
himi talk to ime, lbut that would not do. As I observed lblore, I find pens,
ink, inld pape]lr, and I husbanii )ided tllem to the iuttmost ; iand I shall show that,
whiilhe ilnk lasted, I kept tlilngs very exact, bllt after that was gone, I could
not ; fir I could not niake any ink, iby iiany mllieanis lhat I could devise.
And this puit lie ihn ilind that I wnilittid iilanly things, niotwithstanding all
that I hal ai:,llnssed togelthler; and, oft tlese, this (of ink wa s one; as, also, a
spade, pick-axe, anti slholtel, to dig or removet lhti earthly; needles, pins, and
thread ; as ior linit, I suou learned to wiallt that without much difficulty.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and it was near
a whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded my
habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift,
were a long time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more, by tar, in
bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing
home one of those posts, andl a third day in driving it into the ground; for
which purpose, I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought
myself of one of the iron crows; which, however, though I found it, yet it
made driving those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But
what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of any thing I had to
do, seeing I had time enough to do it in ? nor had I any other employment,
if that had been over, at least that I could lfresee, except the ranging the
island to seek bfr food, which I did, more or less, every day.
I now Iegan to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstance I
was reduced to; and I drew up tlhe state of my atthirs in writing, not so
much to leave them to any that were to come after me lor I was like to have
,but tiw heirs- as to deliver my thoughts tromI daily poring upon them, and
alllictiig my inindl; and, as my reason began now to master my despond-
ency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the good against
the evil, that [ might have something to distinguish my case from worse ; and
I stated it very impartially, like debtor and creditor,-tlhe comforts I enjoyed
against the miseries I suffered, -thus:-
I Iam cast upon a horrible desolate
islind, void of all hope of recovery.
I am singled out and separated, as it
were, from all the world, to be miserable.
I am divided from mankind,-a soli-
taire; one banished from human society.
I have not clothes to cover me.
I am without any defence, or means
to resist any violence of man or beast.
I have no soul to speak to or relieve
But I am alive; and not drowned, as
all my ship's company were.
But I am singled out, too, from all the
ship's crew, to be spared from death;
and lie that miraculously saved me from
death, can deliver me from this condition.
But I am not starved, and perishiing
on a barren place, affording no suste-
But I am in a hot climate, where, if I
had clothes, I could hardly wear them.
But I am cast on an island where I
see no wild beasts to hurt mie, as I saw
on the coast of Africa; and what if I
had been shipwrecked there !
But God wonderfully sent the ship in
near enough to the shore, that I have
gotten out so many necessary things as
will either supply ny wants, or enable me
to supply myself, even as long as I live.
Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that there was scarce
any condition in the world so miserable, but there was something negative,
or something positive, to be thankill for in it; and let this stand as a direc-
tion, from the experience of tlle most miserable of all conditions in this world,
that we may always find in it something to confobrt ourselves from, and to
set, in the description of good and evil, on the credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and given
over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship,-I say, giving over these
things, I began to apply myself to accommodate my way of living, and to
make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I might
now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs,
about two fbet thick on the outside; and, after some time, (I think it was a
year and a half,.) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or
covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get, to keep out
the rain; which I found, at some times of the year, very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and
into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must observe, too, that at
first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so
they took up all my place ; I had no room to turn myself; so I set myself to
enlarge my cave, and work farther into the earth; for it was a loose, sandy
rock, which yielded easily to the labor I bestowed on it; and so, when I
found I was pretty safb as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right
hand into the rock; and then, turning to the right again, worked quite out,
and made me a door to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification.
">" 7,' -$2 7-, c- : o L : -
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back way to my tent
and to my storehouse, but gave me room to store my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I
found I most wanted, as, particularly, a chair and a table; for without these
I was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world; I could not
write, or eat, or do several things with so much pleasure, without a table;
so I went to work. And here I must needs observe, that, as reason is
the substance and original of the mathematics, so, by stating and squaring
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
every thing by reason, and by making the most rational judgment of things,
every man may be, in time, master of every mechanic art. I had never
handled a tool in my life; and yet, in time, by labor, application, and con-
trivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made it,
especially it I had had tools. However, I made abundance of things, even
without tools ; and some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which,
perhaps, were never made that way before, and that with infinite labor. For
example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set
it on an edge betbre ime, and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I had
brought it to be thin as a plank, and then dlub it smooth with my adze. It is
true, by this method I could make but one board out of a whole tree; but
this I had no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for the prodigious
deal of time and labor which it took me up to imkei a plank or board; but
my time or labor was little worth, and so it was as well employed one way
However, I made me a table, and a chair, as I observed above, in the first
place; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that 1 brouhlt on Ily
raft troln the ship. But, when I had wrought out some boards, as above, I
made large shelves, of the breadth ofa lott andt a hal;t one ovefi another, all
along one side of my cave, to lay alll my tools, nails, and iron work on ; ald,
in a word, to separate every thing at large in their places, that I nigilit come
easily at them. I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hanlg tmy gluts
and all things that would lang up ; so that, had miy cav e been t be seen, it
looked like a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had every thing
so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to nie to see all my goods
in such order, and especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every day's employ-
ment ; for, indeed, at first, I was in too miucl hurry, atd not only hurry as to
labor, but in too nmuch discomposure of mind ; and my journal would have
been full of many dull things: for example, 1 must have said thus -" Sept.
30th. After I got to shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being
thankful to God for my deliverance, having first vomited with the great
quantity of salt water which was gotten into mly stomach, and recovering
myself a little, I ran about the shore, wringing my hands, and beating lmy
head and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out, I was undone, un-
done !' till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose,
but durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured."
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, anti got all
that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top of a
little mountain, and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then tihncy
at a vast distance I spied a sail, please myself with tie hopes oft it, and then,
after looking steadily till I wa s almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and
weep like a child, and thus increase ily miser y by y olly.
But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settled
my household stuff and habitation, made ile a table and a chair, and all as
handsome about me as I could, I began to keep imy journal; of which I shall
here give you the copy, (though in it will be told all these particulars over
again,) as long as it lasted; for, having no more ink, I was forced to leave
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
September 30, 1659. 1, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe, being ship-
wrecked, during a dreadfli storm, in the olling, came on shore on this
dismal, unfirtlunate island, which I called "The Island of Despair;" all the
rest of the ship's company being drowned, and nimelf almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circum-
stances I was brought to, viz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor
place to fly to; and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death bebfre
me; either that 1 should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages,
or starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night, I slept in a
tree, ftr liar of wild creatures, but slept soundly, though it rained all night.
October 1. In tile morning 1 saw, to my great surprise, the ship had floated
witli the high tide, and was driven on shore again much nearer the island;
whici, as it was some comfort on one hand, -for, seeing her sit upright, and
not broken to pieces, 1 hoped, if tie wind abated, 1 might get on board, and
get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief, -so, on the other
hand, it renewed imy grief at the loss of 1my comrades, who, 1 imagined, if we
had all staid on board, might have saved the ship, or, at least, that they would
not have been all drowned, as they were ; and that, had the men been saved,
we might perhaps have built us a boat, out of the ruins of the ship, to have
carried us to some other part of tie world. I spent great part of this day in
perplexing myself on these thIings; but, at length, seeing the ship almost dry,
I went upon the sanil as near as I could, and then swan on board. This
day also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.
Fromi the ]st of October to the 24th. All these days entirely spent in
nimany several voyages to get all 1 could out of the ship, which I brought on
sore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much rain also in the days, though
witli some intervals of ftir weather; but, it seems, this was the rainy season.
Oct. 20. 1 overset mly raft, and all the goods I liad got upon it; but, being
in sioal water, and the things being hi. il., heavy, I recovered many of them
whlien the tide was out.
Oct. 25. It rained all night aall iit d ll day, witli some gusts of wind; during
which time the ship broke in pieces, (the wind blowing a little harder than
before,) and was no more to be seen, except tie wreck of her, and that only
at low water. I spent this dlay in covering and securing the goods which 1
had saved, that the rain might not spoil tleilm.
Oct. 26. 1 walked about tile sore almost all day, to find out a place to fix
my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack in the
niglit, either from wild beasts or men. Towards night, I fixed upon a proper
place, under a rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encampment;
which I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made of
double piles, lined within wiitl cables, and without with turf:
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all my goods to
imy new habitation, though, some part of the time, it rained exceeding hard.
The :hst, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun, to seek
for some bfod, and discover the country; when I killed a she-goat, and her
kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also, because it would not
NJovember 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the first
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 01
night, making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing my ham-
Nov. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of timber which
made lly rafts, and with them formed a fence round me, a little within the
place I had marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 3. I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks, which
were very good food. In the afternoon, went to work to make me a table.
,Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times of work, of going out
with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion; viz., every morning I
walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then em-
ployed myself to work till about eleven o'clock; then eat what I had to live
on; and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being excessive
hot; and then, in the evening, to work again. The working part of this day
and of the next were wholly employed in making my table; for I was yet but
a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made me a complete natu-
ral mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any one else.
.N'ov. 5. This day, went abroad witl my gun and lly dog, and killed a
wildcat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing: every creature
that I killed, I took off the skins, and preserved then. Coming back by tlhe
sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-bfwls, which I did not understand; but
was surprised, and almost fiiglhted, witl two or three seals, which, while I
was gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea, and
escaped mile for that time.
.Yot. (i. After my morning walk, I went to work with my table again, and
finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long before I learned to
I' -, 1
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled, fair weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th,
and part of the 12th, (for the 11th was Sunday,) I took wholly up to make
me a chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to
please me; and, even in the making, I pulled it in pieces several times.
Note. I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting my mark for
them on my post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 13. This day it rained; which refreshed me exceedingly, and cooled
the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and lightning, which
frighted me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over,
I resolved to separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as
possible, that it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making little square chests
or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two pound at most, of powder;
and so, putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote
from one another as possible. On one of these three days, I killed a large
bird that was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.
Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent, into the rock, to make
room for my farther convenience.
Note. Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work, viz., a pick-axe,
a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I desisted from my work, and
began to consider how to supply that want, and make me some tools. As
for a pick-axe, I made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough,
though heavy; but the next thing was a shovel or spade; this was so abso-
lutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually without it; but
what kind of one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of that
wood, or like it, which, in the Brasils, they call the iron tree, for its exceeding
hardness; of this, with great labor, and almost spoiling my axe, 1 cut apiece,
and brought it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy.
The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having no other way, made me
a long while upon this machine; for I worked it effectually, by little and
little, into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours
in England, only that the board part having no iron shod upon it at bottom,
it would not last me so long; however, it served well enough for the uses
which I had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made
after that fashion, or so long a-making.
I was still deficient, for 1 wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow. A basket I
could not make by any means, having no such things as twigs that would
bend to make wicker-ware, at least, none yet found out; and as to a wheel-
barrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel, but that I had no notion of;
neither did I know how to go about it; besides, I had no possible way to
make the iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in; so I
gave it over; and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out of the cave,
I made me a thing like a hod, which the laborers carry mortar in, when they
serve the bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as the making the
shovel; and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to
make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four days,-I mean always
excepting my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom failed, and very
seldom failed also bringing home something fit to eat.
Nov. 23. My other work having now stood still, because of my making
these tools, when they were finished I went on, and, working every day, as
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
my strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening
and deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.
Note.--During all this time, I worked to make this room, or cave, spa-
cious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or magazine, a kitchen, a
dining-room, and a cellar. As for my lodging, I kept to the tent; except that
sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not
keep myself dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my place within
my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and
load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.
December 10. I began now to think my cave or vault finished; when, on a
sudden, (it seems I had made it too large,) a great quantity of earth fell down
from the top and one side; so much, that, in short, it :i .i. .1 me, and not
without reason, too; for if I had been under it, I had never wanted a grave-
digger. Upon this disaster, 1 had a great deal of work to do over again, for I
had the loose earth to carry out; and, which was of more importance, I had
the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come down.
Dec. 11. This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got two shores,
or posts, pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of boards across over
each post; this I finished the next day; and, setting more posts up with
boards, in about a week more 1 had the roof secured; and the posts, standing
in rows, served me for partitions to part off my house.
TIHE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
Dec. 17. From this day to the 20th, I placed shelves, and knocked up
nails on the posts, to hung every thing up that could be hung up ; and now I
began to be in sonic order within doors.
Dec. 20. Now 1 carried every thing into the cave, and began to finish
my house, and set up1 some pieces of boards, like a dresser, to order my
victuals upon ; but boards began to be very scarce with me: also 1 made me
Dec. 24. Much rain all night and all day; no stirring out.
Dec. 25. Rain ill day.
Dec. 26. No riin, and the earth much cooler than before, and pleasanter.
Dec. 27. Killed a young goat, and lamed another, so as that 1 watched it,
and led it homen in a string ; when I had it home, I bound and splintered up
its leg, which was broke.
N. B. -1 took sucl care of it that it lived ; and the leg grew well, and as
strong as ever; but, by liy unlrsing it so long, it grew tame, and fed upon
the little green at my door, and would not go away. This was the first time
that I entertained a thought of breedilng upl some tame creatures, that I might
have foid when iny powder and shot was all Ispent.
Dec. 28, 29, 80(), 31. Great heats, and no breeze; so that there was no
stirring abroad, except in the evening, flr food; this time I spent in putting
all mny things in order within doors.
Jtnltun/r 1. Very hot still; but 1 went abroad early and late with my gun,
and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going further into the
valleys which lay towards the centre of the island, I fund there were plenty
of goats, though exceeding shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved to
try ifl could not bring my dog to lhunt them down.
Jan. 2. Accordinly the next day, 1 went out with my dog, and set him
upon the goats; Ibt 1 was mistaken, lir they all fhced about upon the dog,
and lie knew his danger too well, for lie would not come near them.
Janl.. 1. 1 began m1y fence or wall; which, being still jealous of my being
attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.
N. II. This wall being described before, I purposely omit what was said in
the journal; it is sufficient to observe, that I was no less time than from the 3d
of January to the 14th of April, working, finishing, and perfecting this wall;
though it was no more tlan about twenty-four yards in length, being a half
circle, fi-om one place in the rock to another place, about eight yards irom it,
the door of the cave being in the centre, behind it.
All this time, I worked very hard; the rains hindering me many days,
nay, sometimes weeks t... i. i; biut I thought I should never be perfectly
secure till this wall was finished ; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible
labor every thing was done with, especially the bringing piles out of the
woods, and driving them into the ground; for I made them much bigger
than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with a turf-
wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any people were to come
on shore there, they would not perceive any thing like a habitation; and it
was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remark-
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for game every day,
when the rain ipermlitted mie, and made frequent discoveries, in these walks,
of something or other to my advantage; particularly I found a kind of wild
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
pigeons, who build, not as wood-pigeons, in a tree, but rather as house-
pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and, taking some young ones, I endeav-
ored to breed them up tame, and did so; but when they grew older, they
flew all away, which, perhaps, was at first for want of feeding them, for I had
nothing to give them; however, I frequently found their nests, and got their
young ones, which were very good meat. And now, in the managing my
household affairs, I found myself wanting in many things, which I thought
at first it was impossible for me to make; as, indeed, as to some of them, it
was: for instance, I could never make a cask to he hooped. I had a small
runlet or two, as I observed before, but I could never arrive to the capacity
of making one by them, though I spent many weeks about it: I could neither
put in the heads, or join the staves so true to one another as to make them
hold water; so I gave that also over. hi the next place, I was at a great loss
for candles; so that as soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by
seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. 1 remembered the lump of bees'-
wax with which I made candles in my African adventure; but I had none
of that now; the only remedy I had was tlat, when 1 had killed a goat, I
saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the
sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp; and this
gave me light, though not a clear, steady light, like a candle. In the middle
of all my labors, it happened, that, rummaging my things, I found a little bag;
which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn, for the feeding of poul-
try, not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from
Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had been in the bag was all devoured
with the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks and dust; and, being
willing to have the bag for some other use, (I think it was to put powder in,
when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use,) I shook the
Ihusks of corn out of it, on one side of my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned, that I threw this
stuff away, taking no notice of any thing, and not so much as remembering
that I had thrown any thing there; when, about a month after, or there-
abouts, I saw some few stalks of something green, shooting out of the ground,
which I fancied might be some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised,
and perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw about ten or
twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley, of the same kind as
our European, -nay, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my thoughts
on this occasion: 1 had hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all;
indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my head, nor had entertained
any sense of any thing that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or, as
we lightly say, what pleases God; without so much as inquiring into the end
of Providence in these things, or his order in governing events in the world.
But after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I knew was not proper
for corn, and especially that 1 knew not how it came there, it startled me
strangely, and I began to suggest, that God had miraculously caused his
grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed
purely for my sustenance, on that wild, miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes, and I
began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature should happen upon my
account; and this was the more strange to me, because I saw, near it still,
all along by the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa,
when I w as ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence for my sup-
port, but, not doubting but that there was more in the place, I went all over
that part ot'the island where I hadt been before, peering in every corner, and
under every rock, to see bfr more of it, but L could not find any. At last, it
occurred to my thoughts that I had shook a bag of chicken's meat out in that
place, and then the wonder began to cease ; and I must confess, iny religious
thankfulness to old'ss providence began to abate, too, upon the discovering
that all this was nothing but -lhat was coll11inonl; though I ought to have
been as thankfli fir so strange and unlfreseen providence, as if it had
been miraculous; for it was really the work of Providence as to me, that
should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain
unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropped
from heaven; as, also, that I should throw it out in that particular place,
where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately;
whereas, if I had thrown it any where else, at that time, it had been burnt
up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their season,
which was about the end of June; and, laying up every corn, I resolved to
sow them all again, hoping, in time, to have some quantity sufficient to sup-
ply me with bread. But it was not till the fourth year that I could allow
myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I
shall say afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first season,
by not observing the proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry season,
so that it never came up at all, at least hnot as it would have done; of which
in its place.
-----I I`t ~,%-~t
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice,
which I preserved with the same care, and whose use was of the same kind,
or to the same purpose, viz., to make me bread, or rather food; for I found
ways to cook it up without baking, though I did that also after some time.
But to return to my journal:-
I worked excessive hard these three or four months, to get my wall done;
and the 14th of April, I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door,
but over the wall, by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of
.pril 16. I finished the ladder; so I went up with the ladder to the top,
and then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the inside: this was a com-
plete enclosure to me; for within I had room enough, and nothing could
come at me fiom without, unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had all my
labor overthrown at once, and myself killed; the case was thus:-As I was
busy in the inside of it, behind my tent, just at the entrance into my cave, I
was terribly firighted with a most dreadful, surprising thing indeed; for, all on
a sudden, I found the earth come crumbling down tiom the roof of my cave,
aid from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts I had set
up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was heartily scared; but
thought nothing of what was really the cause, only thinking that the top of
my cave was fallen in, as some of it had done before; and, for fear I should
be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe
there neither, I got over my wall, for fear of the pieces of the hill which I
expected might roll down upon me. I was no sooner stepped down upon
the firm ground, but I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake; for the
ground I stood on shook three times, at about eight minutes' distance, with
three such shocks as would have overturned the strongest building that could
be supposed to have stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a
rock, which stood about half a mile from me, next the sea, fell down, with
such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life. I perceived, also, the
very sea was put into violent motion by it; and I believe the shocks were
stronger under the water than on the island.
I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like, nor
discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupefied; and
the motion of the earth made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at
sea; but the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it were, and,
rousing me from the stupefied condition 1 was in, filled me with horror; and
I thought of nothing then but the hill falling upon my tent and all my house-
hold goods, and burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul within me a
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time, I began
to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough to go over my wall again,
for fear of being buried alive, but sat still upon the ground, greatly cast down
and disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All this while, 1 had not the least
serious, religious thought; nothing but the common Lord, have mercy upon
me!" and when it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as if it would
rain; soon after that, the wind arose, by little and little, so that, in less than
half an hour, it blew a most dreadful hurricane; the sea was, all on a sudden,
covered over with foam and froth; the shore was covered with the breach
TIE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
of the water; the trees were torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it
was. This held about tllree hours, and then began to abate; and in two
hours more, it was stark cain, and began to rain very hard. All this while, I
sat upO111 till ground, very niIlch terrified and dejected ; when, on a sudden,
it ralIe ilto lily llthoughits, that these winds and rain being the consequences
of the earlthlquake, tle earthquake itself' was spent and over, and I might
ventulreu into I)y ave again. With this thought, my spirits began to revive;
Iandl, thie rail also ellingi to lpersuadle tile, I went ill, and sat down ill my
tent; blit the rail was so violent, llhat llmy tent was ready to be beaten down
willi it ; and I was flrced to go into mily cave, though very Illich afraid and
uneasy, tir ler iar it shouldl flil il on my lhead. Thlis violent rain fibrced el (n to a
lnew work, iz., to eul a liole through lly new fbrtification, like a sink, to let
tlle water go out, which Nwould else Ihave drowned Imy cave. After I had
beeill in my cave for some tilli, and luiind still no more shocks of tle earth-
quakl:e fellow, be ganll to be more composed. And iow, to support my
spirits, w\hih iideied wanted it \ ry inclih, I went to Imy little store, and took
a small sup of' rin; which], however, I did then, and always, very sparingly,
knowing I couhl Ih:ve no more when tliat was gone. It continued raining
all that night, and ,great part of tlie next day, so that I could not stir abroad;
i tl, iimy mind being nilire composed, I began to think of what I hiad best do;
'concllidinl Ii that, i' tliie island was subject to these earthquakes, there would
lie no li intg lir ine ill a cave, lut I nuist consider of building ile some little
hutl ill ai open plaice, which I i iglt surround with a wall, as I had doie
here, ian llso initial w n sell secure lioi-o wild ieasts or ileni ; but concluded,
if I staid lhere I was, I sloiill cIertainly, onie timlie or other, be buried alive.
Will these tlhoulghts, I resolved to remove I i tent lroill tle place where it
now sllod, which was just utlder tile haginii precipice of the hill; and
whlilch, if it should lie shiakei again, would certainly lahl llponi ily tent; and I
spent tie two inext days, lleilg thle 19th iand 20th of April, in contriving where
aind hlow to remilove lmy habitation. The tlar of being swallowed iup alive,
inlade iie, thalt I lnev er slept ill quiet; and yet tlie apprehension of lying
abroad, without any ti iencee, was almost equal to it; but still, when I looked
about, tand siaw how every tiling was put iln order, how pleasantly concealed
I was, and how safei frioln danger, it made mie very loalli to remove. In the
ilnSan linl\, it ovue rred to iile that it wou ld require a vast deal of tile for me
to do tilis, and that 1ll must be lonieteled to runi thle venture where I was, till
I hald Ibrnlied a iliip ir mysell, and li lad secured it so as to remove to it.
So, wilh this resolution, I compliosed lilm sell lbr a time, and resolved that I
woulid go to work with all speed to build mie a wall with piles and cables,
&e v., ii : cir le, as belire, and set Ily tent upll iln it when it was finished; but
that I would venture to stay where I was till it was finished, and fit to re-
move. This was the 21st.
.'1pril 2-2. lThe next morning I began to, consider of means to put this
resolve into execution ; but I was at a great loss about lmy tools. I had three
large axes, and abundance of h1utchets, (fbr we carried the hatchets for traffic
with the Indians;) hilut with illuch chopping and cutting knotty, hard wood,
they were all flll of notches, and dull, ai nd, though I had a grindstone, I could
not turn it, and grind lilmy tools too. This cost ile as much thought as a
statesmiian would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics, or a judge
upon the life and death of a tian. At length, I contrived a wheel with a
string, to turn it with my foot, that 1 might have both my hands at liberty.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
Note.-I had never seen any such thing in England,-or, at least, not to
take notice how it was done,-- though since I have observed it is very com-
mon there; besides that, my grindstone was very large and heavy. This
machine cost me a fill week's work to bring it to perfection.
April 28, 2). These two whole days I took up in grinding my tools; my
machine for turning my grindstone pertlrming very well.
April 30. Having perceived my bread had been low a great while, now I
took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day, which
made my heart very heavy.
May 1. In the morning, looking toward the sea-side, the tide being low,
J saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a
cask; when I came to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three pieces of
the wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and,
looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the
water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which was driven on shore,
and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken water, and the
powder was caked as hard as a stone; however, I rolled it tfrther on shore
bor the present, and went on upon the sands, as near as 1 could to the wreck
of the ship to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed. The fore-
castle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six feet,
TIE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
and the stern, which was broke in pieces, and parted from the rest, by the
force of the sea, soon after J had left rummniaging her, was tossed, as it were,
up, and cast on one side ; and the sand was thrown so high on that side next
her stern, that, whereas there was a great place of water before, so that I
could not cone within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without swimming, I
could now walk quite up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised
witll this, at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the earthquake;
and, as by tlis violence the ship was more broke open than bfrmerly, so
malny things came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and which
the winds and water rolled by degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts fiom the design of removing my habita-
tion, andm I busied myself miightily, that day especially, in searching whether
I could make any way into the ship; but I found nothing was to be ex-
pected of that kind, for all the inside of the ship was choked up with
sand. however, as I had learned not to despair of any tling, I resolved to
pull every thing to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding that every
thing I could get fi-om her would he ofsome use or other to me.
May 3. I began witlh my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through, which
I thought hiie some of the upper part or quarter-deck together; and when I
Ihad cut it through, I cleared away the sand, as well as I could, from the side
Which lay highest; but, tlhe tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for
.Maqj 4. 1 went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of, till 1
was weary of iy' sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught a young dol-
phin. I lhad made ime a long line of some rope-yarn, but 1 had no hooks;
yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I
dried in the sun, and eat them dry.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 73
May 5. Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder, and brought
three great fir-planks off from the decks, which I tied together, and made
swim on shore when the tide of flood came on.
May 6. Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out of her, and other
pieces of iron-work; worked very hard, and came home very much tired,
and had thoughts of giving it over.
AMay 7. Went to the wreck again, but not with an intent to work, but
found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the beams being cut;
that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold
lay so open that I could see into it, but almost fill of water and sand.
.lMay 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench up the
deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I wrenched open two
planks, and brought them on shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow
in the wreck for next day.
May 9. Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the body
of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with tile crow, but
could not break them up. 1 felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir it,
but it was too heavy to remove.
May 10-14. Went every day to the Treck; and got a great many pieces
of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three hundred weight of iron.
M3ay 15. 1 carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece off of
the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the
other; but as it lay about a fbot and a half in the water, I could not make
any blow to drive the hatchet.
.May 16. It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more
broken by the force of the water; but I staid so long in the woods to get
pigeons for food, that the tide prevented my going to the wreck that day.
May 17. I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a great dis-
tance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and found
it was a piece of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.
May 24. Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and, witl hard
labor, I loosened some things so much with the crow, that, tile first blowing
tide, several casks floated out, and two of the seamen's chests; but the wind
blowing from the shore, uothling came to land that day but pieces of timber,
and a hogshead, which had some Brasil pork in it, but the salt water and the
sand had spoiled it. 1 continued this work every day to the 15th of June,
except the time necessary to get food, which I always appointed, during this
part of my employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready
when it was ebbed out; and, by this time, I had gotten timber, and plank,
and iron-work, enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how; and
also I got, at several times, and in several pieces, near one hundred weight
of the sheet-lead.
June 16. Going down to the sea-side, 1 found a large tortoise, or turtle.
This was the first I had seen; which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not
any defect of the place, or scarcity; for, had i happened to be on the other
side of the island, I might have had hundreds of them every day, as I found
afterwards, but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.
June 17 I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore eggs;
and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savory and pleasant that ever
I tasted in my life, having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed
in this horrid place.
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
June 18. Rained all day, and I staid within. I thought, at this time, the
rain felt cold, and I was something chilly, which I knew was not usual in
June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.
June 20. No rest all night; violent pains in iny head, and feverish.
June 21. Very ill; fi'ighted almost to death with the apprehensions of my
sad condition,-- to be sick, and no help ; prayed to God, for the first time
since the storm off of Hull, but scarce knew what I said, or why, my thoughts
being all confused.
June 22. A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions of sickness.
June 23. Very had again; cold and shivering, and then a violent headache.
June 24. Much better.
Jaue 25. An ague very violent: the fit held me seven hours; cold fit, and
hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26. Better; and, having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but found
myself very weak; however, I killed a she-gout, and w itlh much ditiiculty got
it home, and broiled some of it, and eat. 1 would filn have stewed it, and
made some broth, but had no pot.
June 27. The ague again so violent that I lay aled all day, and neither
eat nor drank. I was ready to perish fir thirst; but so weak, I had not
strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God
again, but was light-headed ; and when I was not, I was so ignorant that 1
knew not what to say; only I lay and cried, Lord, look upon me! Lord,
pity me Lord, have mercy upon me !" I suppose I did nothing else for two
or three hours; till, the fit wearing oftl I fell asleep, and did not wake till far
in the night. When 1 awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and
exceeding thirsty: however, as I had no water in my whole habitation, I was
forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep again. In this second sleep, I
had this terrible dream:-1 thought that 1 was sitting on thle ground, on the
outside of my wall, where I sat wxlen the storm blew, after the earthquake,
and that I "3w a mian descend from a great, black cloud, in a bright flame of
fire, and light upon the ground: lie was all over as bright as a flame, so that
1 could hut just bear to look towards him: his countenance was most inex-
pressibly dreadful, impossible lfr words to describe ; when lie stepped upon
the ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done
before in the earthquake,d nd all the air looked, to my apprehension, as if
it had been filled witl flashes of fire. Ile was no sooner landed upon tlhe
earth, but lie moved forward towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his
hand, to kill me ; and, when lie came to a rising ground, at some distance, he
spoke to me, or I heard a voice so terrible that it is impossible to express the
terror of it. All that I can say I understood was this :--- iI. all these
things have not brought thee to repentance, now thou shlalt die;" at which
words, I thought hIe lifted up the spear that was in his hand, to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account, will expect that I should be able
to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision; I mean, that even
while it was a dream, I even dreamed of those horrors; nor is it any more
possible to describe the impression that remained upon my mind when I
awaked, and found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowledge; what I had received by the good instruc-
tion of my father was then worn out, by an uninterrupted series, for eight
years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant conversation with none but
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
such as were, like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not
remember that I had, in all that time, one thought that so much as tended
either to looking upwards towards God, or inwards towards a reflection upon
my own ways; but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire of good, or
conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all that the
most hardened, unthinking, wicked creature, among our common sailors, can
be supposed to be; not having the least sense, either of the tear of God irt
danger or of thankfiuless to God in deliverance.
In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be the more easily
believed, when I shall add, that, through all the variety of miseries that had
to this (lay bethllen me, I never had so much as one thought of it being the
hand of God, or that it was a just punishment for my sin, -my rebellious
behavior against my father, or my present sins, which were great,--or so
much as a punishment for the general course of my wicked life. When I
was on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of Africa, I never had
so much as one thought of what would become of me, or one wish to God
to direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from the danger which
apparently surrounded nme, as well from voracious creatures as cruel savages;
blit I was merely thoughtless of a God or a providence, -acted like a mere
brute, from the principles of nature, and by the dictates of common sense only,
and indeed hardly that. When I was delivered, and taken up at sea by the
Portugal captain, well used, and dealt justly and honorably with, as well as
charitably, I had not the least thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again, 1
was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning, on this island, I was as
fir fiom remorse, or looking on it as a judgment; I only said to myself often,
that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to he always miserable.
It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my ship's crew
drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of ecstasy, and
some transports of soul, which, had the grace of God assisted, might have
come up to true thankfulness; but it ended where it began, in a mere com-
mon flight of joy, or, as 1 may say, being glad 1 was alive, without the least
reflection upon the distinguished goodness of the hand which hl preserved
me, and had singled me out to be preserved when all the rest were destroyed;
or an inquiry why Providence had been thus mercifld unto me; even just
the same common sort of joy which seamen generally have, after they are
got safe ashore from a shipwreck, which they drown all in the next bowl of
punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over; and all the rest of my life was
like it. Even when I was, afterwards, on due consideration, made sensible
of my condition,-how I was cast on this dreadful place, out of the reach of
human kind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of redemption,-as soon
as 1 saw but a prospect of living, and that I should not starve and perish for
hunger, all the sense of my affliction wore off; and I began to be very easy,
applied myself to the works proper for my preservation and supply, and was
far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a judgment from Heaven,
or as the hand of God against me; these were thoughts which very seldom
entered my head.
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my journal, had, at first, some
little influence upon me, and began to affect me with seriousness, as long as
I thought it had something miraculous in it; but as soon as ever that part
of the thought was removed, all the impression that was raised from it wore
off also, as I have noted already. Even the earthquake, though nothing
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
could be more terrible in its nature, or more immediately directing to the
invisible Power which alone directs such things, yet no sooner was the
first fright over, but the impression it had made went off also. I had no
more sense of God, or His judgmcents,- much less of the present affliction
of miy cirrclnstances being fiom I is liand,-than ifl Ihad been in the most
prosperous- condition of life. Bit now, when I began to be sick, and a
leisurely view of the miseries of death came to place itself before me; when
my spirits beIgan to sink under tile burden of a strong distemper, and nature
was exhausted with the violence of the fever, -conscience, that had slept so
lonl, Inbega to awake, and I began to reproach myself with mly past life,
in w which I l ad so evidently, by unconinon wickedness, provoked the justice
of' (od to lay Ine under Uilco(nition strokes, and to deal with me ill so
vinldictive la maner. These reflections oppressed mie fbr the second or third
da\ of miy distemper, ; and in the violence, as well of the fever as of the
ldrteadflil reproaches of my conlsciencle, extorted some words froml me like
prat ing to God, thoug.,h I cannot say they were either a prayer attended with
desires or with hopes; it was rather the voice of mere fi'ight and distress.
IMly thoughts were conlsedl, the convictions great upon miy mind, and the
horror of dying in such a miserable condition, raised vapors into my head
vith Ille mrcit apprehension; and, in these hurries of miy soul, I knew not
what imy tongue might express; but it was rather exclamation, such as,
SLord, what a miserable creature am 1! If I should be sick, I shall certainly
die flr want of help ; and what will become of me ? Then the tears burst
out of Imy eyes, and I could say no more fir a good while. hi this interval,
tlie _good advice of my fitther came to my mind, and presently his prediction,
which l mItntitned at thel beginning of this story, viz., that if I did take this
ftolilsl step., God would not bless lme, and I would have leisure hereafter to
reflect upon having neglected his comuiLel, when there might be none to
assist in my recovery. "Now," said 1 aloud, "1my dear father's words are
come to pass ; God's justice has overtaken nme, alnd I have none to help or
hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me
in a posture or station of life wherein I night have heen happy and easy;
but I olld neithler see it myself, or learn to know the blessing of it from
Imy parents. I l eft thleim to mIourn over iy folly, and now I aml left to mourn
under tile colnsilluence's of it: I lre'fsed their help and assistance, who would
Ihale lilltd itme in thc world, and would havIe made every thing easy to me;
and notw I have difficulties to struggle with, too great for even nature itself
to support, iand no assistance, no lielp, no comnifrt, no advice." Then I cried
out, Lord, lie miy lielp, ftr I am in great distress." This was the first prayer,
if I may call it so, that I hall made for many years.
But I return to my journal : -
June 2 l. Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had, and
the fit being entirely off, I got up ; and, though the flight and terror of my
dream was very great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would return
again the next day, and now was my time to get something to refresh and
support himself when I should be ill; and the first thing I did, I filled a large,
square case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach of my bed;
and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the water, I put about a
quarter of a pint of runn into it, and mixed them together. Then I got me a
piece of the goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little.
I walked about; but was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy hearted,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
under a sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return of my dis-
temper the next day. At night, I made my supper of three of the turtle's
eggs; which I roasted in the ashes, and eat, as we call it, in the shell; and
this was the first bit of meat 1 had ever asked God's blessing to, even, as I
could remember, in my whole lite. Aiter 1 had eaten, I tried to walk, but
found myself so weak, that I could hardly carry a gun, for 1 never went out
without that; so I went but a little way, and sat down upon the ground,
looking out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very calm and
smooth. As 1 sat here, some such thoughts as these occurred to me:- What
is this earth and sea, of which I have seen so much? Whence is it pro-
duced ? And what am I, and all the other creatures, wild and tamte, human
and brutal ? Whence are w e ? Sure we are all made by some secret power,
wlio formed the earth and sea, the air and sky. And who is that? Then it
followed, most naturally, It is God that has made all. Well; but, then, it came
on strangely, if God has made all these things, lie guides and governs them
all, and all things that concern tlhoeI ; (or tle power that could make all
things, nst certainly have power to guidv e and direct then; if so, nothing
cae happen in the great circuit of His works, either without His knowledge
And if nothing happens without His knowledge, Hle knows that I am here,
and a, in this dreadful condition ; atl d if nothing happens without His ap-
pointment, iHe has appointed all this to bethll me. Nothing occurred to my
thought, to contradict any of these conclusions; and therefore it rested upon
me with the greater force, that it must needs he that God had appointed all
this to befall me ; that I was brought into this miserable circumstance by His
direction, 1He having tle sole power, not of me only, but of every thing that
happened in the world. Immediately it followed, Why has God done this to
me ? What have I done to be thus used ? My conscience presently checked
me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed; and rethought it spoke tome like
a voice,-" Wretch! dost thou ask what thou hast done ? Look back upon a
dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself what thou hast not done. Ask, Why is
TIE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
it that thou wert not long ago destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in
Yarmouth Roads ? killed in the fight when the ship was taken by tie Sallee
Iman-of-war ? devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa ? or drowned
here, whel all the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou ask, What have I
done ? I was struck dumbll with these reflections, as one astonished, and had
not a word to say, no, not to answer to myself, but rose up pensive and sad,
walked back to my retreat, and went up over my wall, as if I lad been going
to bed; but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and 1 had no inclination to
sleep ; so 1 sat down in lly chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be
dark. Nowi, as tile apprehension of the return of miy distemper terrified lme
very mlllilh, it occurred to mly thought, that the Brasilians take no physic but
their tobacco, lor almost all distempers, and 1 liad a piece of a roll of tobacco
in one of tlie chests, which was quite cured, and some also that was green,
and not quite cured.
1 went, directed by lHeaven, no doubt; for in this chest I found a cure both
for soul and body. I opened the chest, and found what 1 looked for, viz., the
tobacco; and, as the t~xw books 1 had saved lay there too, I took out one of
the Bibles which I mentioned before, and which, to this time, I had not found
leisure, or so much as inclination, to look into. I say, I took it out, and
brought both that and tile tobacco with me to the table. What use to make
of the tobacco 1 knew not, as to my distemper, or whether it was good for it
or no; but I tried several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should
hit one way otr oler. 1 first took a piece of a leaf, and chewed it in my
lmoollth, which, indeed, at fir't, almost stulpefied my brain, tle tobacco being
green and strong, and that I had not been much used to. Then I took some
and steeped it an hour or two in sonme rum, and resolved to take a dose of it
when 1 lay down ; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held
my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear it, as well for the
heat, as almost lor suffocation. In the interval of this operation, I took
up the Bible, anil began to read, but lly head was too much disturbed
with the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time ; only, having opened
the book casually, the first words that occurred to me were these "Call
on me in the day of trouble, and 1 will deliver thee, and thou shalt
glorify me." These words were very apt to mly case, and made some
impression upon my thoughts at thle time of reading them, though not so
much as they did afterwards; fhr, as for being delivered, the word had no
sound, as I may say, to me; the thing was so remote, so impossible in my
apprehension of things, that I began to say as the children of Israel did
when they were promised flesh to eat, "Can God spread a table in the
wilderness?" so 1 began to say, "Can God himself deliver me from this
place ? Andl, as it was not fbr many years that any hopes appeared, this
prevailed very often upon imy thoughts; but, however, the words made a
great impression upon ime, and I nmused upon them very often. It grew now
late, and the tobacco hadl, as I said, dozed miy head so much that 1 inclined
to sleep; so 1 left mly lamp burning in tile cave, lest 1 should want any thing
in the night, and went to bed. But before 1 lay down. I did what I never
had done in all my life; I kneeled down, and prayed to God to fulfil the
promise to me, that if I called upon him in the day of trouble, he would
deliver me. After my broken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank the
rum in which I had steeped the tobacco; which was so strong and rank of
the tobacco, that indeed I could scarce get it down; immediately upon this I
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
went to bed. I found presently it flew up into my head violently; but I fell
into a sound sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it must necessarily
be near three o'clock in the afternoon the next day; nay, to this hour I am
partly of opinion, that 1 slept all the next day and night, and till almost three
tih day after; for, otherwise, I know not how I should lose a day out of my
reckoning in the days of the week, as it appeared, some years after, I had
done; for if 1 had lost it by crossing and recrossing the Line, I should have
lost more than one day; but certainly I lost a day in my account, and never
knew which way. Be that, however, one way or the other, when I awaked,
I found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful;
when I got up, I was stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach
better, for I was hungry; and, in short, I had no fit the next day, but con-
tinued much altered for the better. This was the 29th.
The 30th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad with my gun, but
did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl or two, something like a
brand goose, and brought them home; but was not very forward to eat
them; so I eat some more of the turtle's eggs, which were very good.
This evening, I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did me good
the day before, viz., the tobacco steeped in rum; only I did not take so much
as before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke;
however, I was not so well the next day, which was the first of July, as I hoped
I shouldd have been; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.
July 2. I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and dosed myself
with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.
July 3. 1 missed the fit for good and all, though I did not recover my full
strength for some weeks after. While I was thus gathering strength, my
thoughts ran exceedingly upon this scripture "1 will deliver thee;" and the
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
impossibility of my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever
expecting it; but, as I was discouraging myself with such thoughts, it
occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon my deliverance from the
main affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had received; and I was,
as it were, made to ask myself such questions as these, viz.:-Have I not
been delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness ? from the most distressed
condition that could be, and that was so frightful to me ? And what notice
had I taken of it? Had I done my part? God had delivered me, but I had
not glorified him; that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for that
as a deliverance; and how could I expect greater deliverance ? This touched
my heart very much; and immediately I knelt down, and gave God thanks
aloud, for my recovery from my sickness.
July 4. In the morning, I took the Bible, and, beginning at the New
Testament, I began seriously to read it, and imposed upon myself to read
awhile every morning and every night; not'tying myself to the number of
chapters, but as long as my thoughts should engage me. It was not long
after I set seriously to this work, but I found my heart more deeply and
sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past life. The impression
of my dream revived; and the words, "All these things have not brought
thee to repentance," ran seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging
of God to give me repentance, when it happened providentially, the very
day, that, reading the Scripture, I came to these words: "He is exalted a
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
Prince and a Savior, to give repentance, and to give remission." I threw
down the book; and, with my heart as well as my hands lifted up to heaven,
in a kind of ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud, "Jesus, thou son of David!
Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour! give me repentance!" This was
the first time I could say, in the true sense of the words, that 1 prayed in all
my life; for now 1 prayed with a sense of my condition, and with a true
Scripture view of hope, founded on the encouragement of the word of God;
and from this time, I may say, I began to have hope that God would
Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, Call on me, and I
will deliver thee," in a different sense from what I had ever done before; for
then I had no notion of any thing being called deliverance, but my-being de-
livered from the captivity I was in; for though I was indeed at large in the
place, yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and that in the worst sense
in the world. But now I learned to take it in another sense; now I looked
back upon my past life with such horror, and my sins appeared so dreadful,
that my soul sought nothing of God but deliverance from the load of guilt
that bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was nothing; I
did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it; it was all of
no consideration, in comparison to this.- And I add this part here, to hint to
whoever shall read it, that whenever they come to a true sense of things,
they will find deliverance from sin a much greater blessing than deliverance
9, ., 1. ."
But, leaving this part, I return to my journal: -
My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as to my way
of living, yet much easier to my mind; and my thoughts being directed, by a
constant reading the Scripture and praying to God, to things of a higher
TIlE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
nature, 1 had a great deal of comfort within, which, till now, I knew nothing
of; also, as my health anid strength returned, I bestirred myself to furnish
myself witl every thing that 1 wanted, and make my way of living as
regular as 1 could.
From the 4Ith of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employii ed in walking about
with imy gun iln my hald, a little and a little at a time, as a mIan that was
gathering Ilup his strength after a fit of sickness; for it is hardly to be
imagined how low 1 was, and to what weakness I was reduced. Thie appli-
cation which I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps what had never
icu red an agule hefilre ; neither can I recolulillend it to ally one to practise, by
this experiment ; ald, llough it did carry oti the lit, yet it rather contributed
to weakening ime ; for I had fliequent convulsions in my nerves and libs fobr
somei time: 1 learned f11om1 it also this, in particular, that being abroad in tlie
rainy season was the most pernicious things to mly health that could be,
especially in those rains whichI canme attended with storms and hurricanes
of wind: for, as the rain which came in the dry season was almost always
accompanied with such storms, so 1 filnd tlat rain was much more dan-
gerous than the rail which fbll in September and October.
I had I,(een now ill this Iunhappy island above ten illontlis : all possibility
of delliveraInce li'rom this condition seemiedl to be 'entirely taken fi-roln me; and
I firmly believed tliat no Inmlan shape had ever set loot lupon that place.
Havillng nlow secured my habitation, as 1 thought, fully to my mind, I had a
great desire to mllake a 111more perfect discovery of the island, and to see what
other prodlluctions I Ilight find, which I yet knew nothing of.
It was on the 15th of' July tllat 1 began to take a more particular survey
of the island itself I \ ent 11u tlhe creek first, where, as I hinted, 1 brought
mly raifs oni shore. I fiond, alter I caine about two miles lup, that the tide
did not flow any higher; and that it was no more than a little brook of run-
ninlg walker andi very liesh and good; but, this being the dry season, there
was hardly any water in some parts of it; at least, not enough to run in any
stream, so as it could be perceived. On the hanks of this brook, I fund many
pleaslant savanllas or meadows il, plain smooth, and covered with grass; and,
on tlhe rising parts of tliem, next to the higher grounds, where the water, as
it might le supposed, never overflowed, I fbund a great deal of tobacco,
green, and growing to a great and veiry strong stalk: there were divers other
plants which I had 11no notion of, or understanding about, and might, perhaps,
have virtues of' their own, which I could not find out. I searched for the
cassava root, which the Indians, in all that climate, make their bread of, but
I could find none. I saw large plants of aloes, hut did not understand them.
I saw several sugar-canes, but wild, andl, for want of cultivation, imperfect.
I contented myself with these discoveries fbr this time, and came back,
musing with myself what course 1 might take to know the virtue and good-
ness of any of the fruits or plants which I should discover; but could bring
it to no conclusion; ifr, in short, I lhad made so little observation while I
was in the Irasils, that I knew little of the pilants in the field; at least, very
little that might serve me to any purpose now in my distress.
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and, after going
something filrther than I had gone the day before, I found the brook and the
savannas began to cease, and the country became more woody than before.
In this part, I found different fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the
ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees; the vines had spread,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
indeed, over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now in their prime,
very ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I was exceeding
glad of them; but I was warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them,
remembering that when I was ashore in Iarbary, the eating of grapes killed
several of our Englishmen, ho were slaves there, by throwing them into
fluxes and fevers. But I tliund an excellent use bfr these grapes ; aid that
was, to cure or dry them inl the stun, anl keep then as dried grapes or raisins
are kept, which I thought would be, as indeed they were, as wholesome as
agreeable to eat, when no grapes miglit be to lie had.
I spent all that evening there, and wentt not back to my habitation ; which,
by tie way, was the first night, as I might say, I had lain from home. In
the night, I took my first contrivance, and got upl into a tree, where I slept
well ; and, the next morning, proceeded upon miy discovery, travelling nearly
ibir miles, as I might judge by the length of tlie valley, keeping still due
north, with a ridge of hills on the south and north sidle of ime. At the end of
this march, I came to all opening, where the country seented to descend to
the west; and a little spri ng of fresh water, which issued out of tle side of
the lill by me, ran tile other way, that is, due east; and the country appeared
so firesh, so green, so flourishing, (i. i. ilhi being in a constant verdure, or
flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted gIarden. I descended a little
on the side of that delicious vale, surveying it w ith a secret kind of pleasure,
though mixed with mIy other afflicting thoughts, to think that this was all my
own ; that 1 was king and lord of all this country indebfasibly, and lhad a right
Aof possession ; and, it' I could convey it, I might have it in inheritance as
completely as any lord of a manor inl England. I saw here abundance of
cocoa-trees, orange, and lemon, and citron-trees ; but all wild, and very few
bearing any fitit, at least, not then. IHowever, the green limes that I gathered
were not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome; and I mixed their juice
afterwards with water, which made it very wholesome, and very cool and re-
freshing. I folud, now, I had business enough, to gather all carry honme;
and 1 resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes as limes and lemons, to
filrnish myselflor the wet season, which I knew was approaching. In order
to this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in another
place, and a great parcel of limes and lemious in another place ; and, taking
a fliw of each with me, I travelled homeward ; and resolved to come again,
and bring a bag or sack, or what I could make, to carry the rest home. Ac-
cordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I came home, (so I must
now call my tent and my cave;) but before I got thither, the grapes were
spoiled; the richness of the fruit, and the weight of the juice, having broken
them and bruised them, they were good for little or nothing: as to the limes,
they were good, but I could bring but a few.
The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made me two small
bags to bring home my harvest; but I was surprised, when, coming to my
heap of grapes, which were so rich and fine when I gathered them, I found
them all spread about, trod to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some
there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this, I concluded there were
some wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this; but what they were, I
knew not. However, as I found there was no laying them up on heaps, and no
carrying them away in a sack, but that one way they would be destroyed, and
the other way they would be crushed with their own weight, I took another
course; for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them upon the
80 THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
out-brancnes of the trees, that they might cure and dry in tile sun; and as for
the limes and lemons, I carried as many back as I could well stand under.
When I caic home from this journey, 1 contemplated w ith great pleasure
the firuitllhhitss of that valley, and tie pleasantness of the situation ; the se-
c.urity fi-oml stormlls on that side the water, and tile wood; and concluded that
I had pitihed upon a place to fix my abode, which was by far the worst part
of the iolitry. UponI tle whole, I began to consider of relloving my habita-
tiol ; iand to look out f)r a place equally safe as where now 1 was situate, if
possible, in that pleasant, fi-uitfull part of the island.
This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond of it for some
time, tle pleasantness of the place tempting mie; but when I came to a nearer
view of it, I considered that I was niow by the sea-side, where it was at least
p)ossille tllat something might happen to nmy advantage; and, by the same
ill ilte that brought me hither, might bring some other unhappy wretches to
the same place ; and though it was scarce probable that any such thing
should ever liappen, yet to enclose myself along the hills and woods in the
centre ofi the island, was to anticipate my bondage, and to render such an
afihir not only impr le, but i mllle, l possible ; and that, therebire, I ouglit not,
by aiy 1me:ns, to remove. Ilowever, I was so enamored of this place, that 1
penilt iritli of myi tim terei f r e fit tie whole remaining part of the month of
July : anil though, upon second thoughts, I resolved as above, not to remove,
yet 1 huilt ine a little kind of a bower, and surrounded it, at a distance, with a
strong iinrc, being a double hedtlge, as hilh ais 1 could reach, well staked, and
filled bet'weeln xil brush-wood ; and here I lay very secure, sometimes two
or three nights together ; alwaIs going over it with a ladder, as before ; so that
I flicied now, 1 hadi my country house e and my sea-coast house ; and this
work took mhe iup o the beginning of Autgust.
I hadl but newly finished y liece, and began to enjoy my labor, when the
rains came on, and made me stick close to my first habitation ; bfor, though I
had Imade Ime a tirlt like the other, with a piece of a sail, and spread it very
well, yet I had not tlhe shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave
behind me to retreat into when thlie rains were extraordinary.
Altout the betginningti of Atigust, as I said, I lhad finished my bower, and
bean to enjoy mnself: Tlhe :id of August, I ibund the grapes I had hung
up were perlibclly dried, and, illIl'ed, were excellent good raisins of the sun;
,so I began to take them down fitoln the trees, and it was very happy that I
did so, for tlie' rains xw which followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost
the best part of my winter tlod ; fbr 1 had above two hundred large bluiches
of them. No sooner hlad I taken them all down, and carried most of them
home to myi' cave, but it began to rain ; and tioln hence, which was the 14th
ot'f Agust, it rained more or less, every day, till the middle of October, and
sometimes so violently, that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.
In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of my family; I had
been concerned bfr the loss of one of my cats, who ran away from me, or, as
I thought, had been dead; and I heard no more talc or tidings of her, till, to
my astonishment, she came home, about the end ofAugust, with three kittens.
This was the more strange to me, because, though I had killed a wildcat, as
I called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was a quite different kind from our
European eats; and the young cats were the same kind of house-breed like
the old one; and both my cats being females, I thought it very strange. But
from these three cats, I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats, that I
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 67
_______--_-- ___ Zi ;
was forced to kill then like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive them from
lmy house as much as possible.
From the 14th of August to the '3th, incessant rain, so that I could not stir,
and wa;s now very careful not to be u111lih lwet. In this collfinemlenlt, I began
to lie straitened tlr fiod ; but venturing out twice, I one lday killed a goat;
and the last day, which was the '2(thl, tiund a very large tortoise, which was
a treat to me, and iny food was regulated thus:--I cat a bunch of raisins for
liy breakfast ; a piece ot" goat's flesh, or ft'tle turtle, tlr liy dinner, broiled;
fir, to imy great imisfortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew any thing; and two
or three of the turtle's eggs lfr my sipper.
During this confinement in mly cover by the rain, I worked daily two or
three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it on towards one
side, till I came to tile outside of the hill, alld made a door or way oult, which
camile beyond my fence or wall; and so I ca:lne in and out this way. But I
was not perfectly easy at lying so open ; for, as I had managed myself before,
I was in a perfect enclosure ; whereas, now, I thought I lay exposed, and open
bfr any thing to come in upon lle ; and yet 1 could not perceive that there was
any living thing to fear, the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the
island being a goat.
Sept. 30. I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my landing. I
cast up the notches on my post, an on fund I had been on shore three hun-
dred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it apart to
religious exercise, prostrating myself on the ground with the most serious
humiliation, confessing my sins to God, acknowledging his righteous judg-
ments upon me, and praying to him to have mercy on me through Jesus
Christ; and not having tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours, even till
the going down of the sun, I then eat a biscuit-cake and a bunch of grapes,
and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all this time observed
no Sabbath-day; for, as at first I had no sense of religion upon my mind, I
had, after some time, omitted to distinguish the weeks, by making a longer
notch than ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did not really know what any
of the days were; but now, having cast up the days as above, I found I had
been there a year; so I divided it into weeks, and set apart every seventh day
for a Sabbath; though I found, at the end of my account, I had lost a day or
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
two in my reckoning. A little after this, ily ink began to fhil me, and so I
contntted myself to ise it more sparingly, and to write down only the most
remarkable cents of mly lifi, without continuing a daily imenorandumn of
ThIe rainy season and tlhe dry season began now to appear regular to me,
and I learned to divide thllem so as to provide for tl hem accordingly; but I
bought all mily experience belbre I had it, and this I am going to relate, was
one of the most discouraging experiments that I made at all.
I have mentioieild that I had saved the ftw cars of barley and rice, which
I had so surprisingly foiund Slprin'g up, as 1 thought, of themselves, and I be-
lieve there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley; and
now I tholghlt it a proper time to sow it, after the rains, the siln being in its
southern position, going fromi mie. Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground as
well as I could with miy Nooden spade, and, dividing it into two parts, I sowed
my grainl ; blit, as I was sow ing, it casually occurred to nmy thoughts tlat I would
not sow it all at first, heoatuse I did not know lwhien was the' proli'r time for
it; so I sowxed about two thirds of the seed, leaving about a hanldfill of each.
It was ta great comfiort to ume afterwards that I did so, for not onte grain of
what I showed this time came to any 1ting; liir, the dry months following, tilhe
earth having alid no rain atler the seed was sown, it had no moisture to assist
its growth, and never came up 1it all till thle wet season had tcome again, and
then it grew :as if it had been hut newly sown. Finding m y first seed did
not grow, which I easily inagitned was )y lthe drought, I sought bfor a moister
piece itof ground to make another trial in, and I dulg lilp a piece of ground near
Imy iw hbotwer, andI sIoxwd lIli rest of my seed inl Feb'ruary, a little belbre the
vernal iltuinox: and this, having the rainy months of Mlarch and April to
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a. very good crop ; but, having
part of the seed left only, an1d not daring to sow 1ll that I had, 1 had hut a
small quantity at last, my whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of
each kind. But by this experiment I was imiade master of my business, and
knew exactly when the proper season was to sow, and that I might expect
two seed-times anud two harvests every year.
While this corn was growing, I Ilmade a little discovery, which was of uso
to im afterwards. As soon as the rain s were over, anli the weather began to
settle, which was about the month o4l November, I Imade a visit iup the coun-
trly to my bower, where, though ll I had lot Ie 111Sn1 IollltiS, .Pct I fbund
all things just as I lett theil. The ir'ciole l, double hedgie that I had made
was not only thirm and entire, blt the stakes which 1 liad cut out ot'sorne trees
that grew thereabouts, were all shot out, and grown with Iton branches, as
muIch as a willow-tree usIuallty shoots the first year alter lopping its head. I
could not tell what tree to call it that these stakes were rcut li oi. I was suTr-
prised, and yet very well pleased, to see the yonhg trees grow ; andt( I pruned
lihein, and led them up to grow as nmlch alike as I could; and it is scarce
credible how beautili aI figure they grew into in three years ; so that, though
the edge made a circle oflabout t\wenty-tive, yards in diameter, yet the trees-
tfr such I iighlit lnow eall tlhell -soonl covered it, and it was a complete shade,
suflicient to lodge under all the dry season. This made ime resolve to cut
some more stakes, and make me ia Iedge like this, in a semicircle round my
wall, (I mean that of my first dwelling,) which I did ; uand, placing the trees
or stakes in a double row, at about a eight yards' distance from my first fence,
they grew presently, alnd were at first a file cover to my habitation, ad after-
wards served for a ldefnce also, as I shall observe in its order.
I tbuud, now, that the seasons of the yearr might generally be divided, not
ilto summner and winter, as in Europe, but into the rally seasons and the
dry seasons ; which were generally tlis: -
The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of April;- rainy,
tile sun being then on or near the eqililnox.
Thle half of April, the whole of May, June, and July, and the half of Au-
gust :- dry, the suni being then to the north of the Line.
Tile half of August, the whole of September, and the half of October; -
rainy, tile sun being then come back.
The half of October, the whole of November, December, and January, and
the half of February;- dry, the suni being then to the south of tlhe Line.
The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter, as tlhe winds happened
to blow; but this was tile general observation I made. After I had found by
experience the ill consequences of being abroad in the rain, I took care to
fitrnish myself with provisions beforehand, that I iight not be obliged to go
out; and I sat within doors as much as possible during the wet months. This
time I found much employment, and very suitable also to the time, for I found
great occasion for many things which I hadl no way to furnish myself with
but by hard labor and constant application; particularly, I tried many ways
to make myself a basket, but all the twigs I could get for the purpose proved
so brittle, that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent advantage to
me, now, that, when I was a boy, I used to take great delight in standing at a
basket-maker's in the town where my father lived, to see them make their
wicker-ware; and being, as boys usually are, very officious to help, and a
great observer of the manner how they worked those things, and sometimes
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
lending a hand, I had, by these means, full knowledge of the methods of it,
that I wanted nothing but the materials; when it came into my mind that the
twigs of that tree from whence 1 cut my stakes that grew, might possibly be as
tough as the sallows, willows, and osiers in England, and I resolved to try.
Accordingly, the next day, I went to my country house, as I called it, and,
cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose as much as I
could desire; whereupon I came the next time prepared with hatchet to cut
down a quantity, which I soon found, for there was great plenty of them.
These I set up to dry within my circle or hedge, and, when they were fit for
use, I carried them to my cave; and liere, during the next season, I employed
myself in making, as well as I could, a great many baskets, both to carry
earth, or to carry or lay up any thing, as I had occasion ; and though I did not
finish them very handsomely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceable for my
purpose ; and thus, afterwards, I took care never to be without them; and as
my wicker-ware decayed, I made more, especially strong, deep baskets, to
place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come to have any quantity
lHaving mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time about it, I
heItired myself to see, if possible, how to supply two wants. I had no vessel
to Iold any tiling that was liquid, except two runlets, which were almost full
ofrnll, and some glass bottles,- some of the common size, and others which
were case-bottles-square, for the holding of waters, spirits, &c. I had not so
much as a pot to boil any thing, except a great kettle, which I saved out of the
ship, and which was too big for such use as I desired it, viz., to make broth, and
stew a bit of meat by itself The second thing I fain would have had, was a
tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible to me to make one; however, I found a
contrivance ftr that too, at last. I employed myself in planting my second
rows of stakes or piles, and in this wicker-working all the summer or dry
season, when another business took me up more time than it could be im-
agined 1 could spare.
I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island; and
that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I built my bower, and
where I had an opening quite to the sea, on the other side of the island. I
now resolved to travel quite across to the sea-shore on that side; so, taking
my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot than
usual, with two biscuit-cakes, and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch for
my store, I began my journey. When I had passed the vale where my bower
stood, as above, I came within view of the sea to the west; and it being avery
clear day, I tfirly described land, whether an island or a continent, could not
tell; but it lay very high, extending from the V. to the W. S. W., at a very
great distance; by my guess, it could not be less than fifteen or twenty
I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise than that I
knew it must be part of America; and, as I concluded, by all my observa-
tions, must be near the Spanish dominions, and, perhaps, was all inhabited by
savages, where, if I should have landed, I had been in a worse condition than
I was now; and, therefore, I acquiesced in the dispositions of Providence,
which I began now to own and to believe ordered every thing for the best;
I say, I quieted my mind with this, and left afflicting myself with fruitless
wishes of being there.
Besides, after some pause upon this affair, I considered that if this land was
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or other, see some vessel pass
or repass one way or other; but if not, then it was the savage coast between
the Spanish country and Brasils, which are indeed the worst of savages; for
they are cannibals, or men-eaters, and fail not to murder and devour all the
human bodies that fall into their hands.
With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward; I found that
side of the island, where I now was, much pleasanter than mine; the open
or savanna fields sweet, adorned with flowers and grass, and full of very line
woods. I saw abundance of parrots, and fain I would have caught one, if
possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to me. I did, after
some pains-taking, catch a young .parrot, for I knocked it down with a stick,
and, having recovered it, I brought it home; but it was some years before I
could make him speak; however, at last I taught him to call me by my name
very familiarly. But the accident that followed, though it be a trifle, will be
very diverting in its place.
I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. 1 found, in the low grounds,
hares (as I thought them to be) and foxes; but they ditffred greatly from all
the other kinds 1 had met with, nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though
1 killed several. But I had no need to be venturous, for 1 had no want of
food, and of that which was very good too; especially these three sorts, viz.,
goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise; which, added to my grapes, Leadenhall
Market could not have furnished a table better than I, in proportion to the
company; and though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had great cause
for thankfulness, that I was not driven to any extremities for food, but had
rather plenty, even to dainties.
I never travelled in thisjourney above two miles outright in a day,or there-
abouts; but I took so many turns and returns, to see what discoveries I could
make, that I came weary enough to the place where I resolved to sit down
for all night; and then I either reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded my-
self with a row of stakes, set upright in the ground, either from one tree to
another, or so as no wild creature could come at me without waking me.
As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that I had taken
up my lot on the worst side of the island; for here, indeed, the shore was
covered with innumerable turtles; whereas, on the other side, I had found
but three in a year and a half. Here was also an infinite number of fowls of
many kinds, some which I had seen, and some which 1 had not seen,
before, and many of them very good meat, but such as I knew not the names
of, except those called Penguins.
I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing of my powder
and shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I could, which I
could better feed on; and though there were many goats here more than on
my side the island, yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come
near them, the country being flat and even, and they saw me much sooner
than when I was on the hill.
I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine; but yet
I had not the least inclination to remove; for, as I was fixed in my habitation,
it became natural to me, and I seemed all the while I was here to be, as
it were, upon a journey, and from home. However, I travelled along the
shore of the sea towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles; and then,
setting up a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I would go
home again, and that the next journey I took should be on the other side of
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES
the island, cast from mny dwelling, and so round till I came to my post again;
of which in its place.
1 took another way to come back than that 1 went, thinking I could easily
keep all the island so much in my view, that I could not miss finding my first
dwelling by viewing the country; but I fblud myself mistaken ; for, being
come about two or tlrec miles, I fotbd myself descended into a very large
valley, lut so surrolulded w itlh hills, and those hills covered with wood, that
I could not see which was my wa y by any direction but that of the sun, nor
even then, unless I knew very well the position of the sun at that time of the
day. It happened to miy father misbfrtune, that the weather proved hazy
for three or timr days ; while I was in tlie valley, and not being able to see the
sun, 1 wIantdered about very unllcolfortablh, and at last was obliged to find out
the sea-side, look tbr mny post, and come back the same way I went ; and then
by easy journeys, J turned homeward, the weather being exceeding hot, and
miy gun, namiunition, hatchet, and other things, very heavy.
hi this journey y my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon it, and 1,
running in to take bold of it, caught it, and saved it alive from the dog. I
had a great mind to bring it home if I could, for I had often been musing
whether it might not be possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of
tame goats, which might supply me when mly powder alnd shot should be all
spent. I made a collar to this little creature, and witl a string which I made
of some ropcyarn, which I always carried about mne, I led him along, though
with some difficulty, till 1 came to my bower; and there I enclosed him, and
left hiii, fbr I was very impatient to be at home, from whence I had been
absent above a month.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into my old
hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed. This little wandering journey
without settled place of abode, had been so unpleasant to me, that my own
house, as I called it to myself; was a perfect settlement to me, compared to
that; and it rendered every thing about me so comfortable, that I resolved I
would never go a great way from it again, while it should be my lot to stay
on the island.
I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after my long
journey; during which, most of the time was taken up in the weighty aftiir
of making a cage for my Poll, who began now to be a mere domestic, and to
be mighty well acquainted with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid
which I had penned in within my little circle, and resolved to go and fetch
it liomne, or give it some food; accordingly I went, and found it where I left
it, for, indeed, it could not get out, but was almost starved for want of food.
I went and cut boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find,
and threw it over; and, having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it away;
but it was so tame with being hungry, that I had no need to have tied it, for
it followed me like a dog; and, as I continually fed it, the creature became so
loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it became from that time one of my do-
inestics also, and would never leave me afterwards.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and I kept tle
30th of September in the same solemn manner as before, being the anniver-
sary of my landing on the island, having now been there two years, and no
more prospect of being delivered than the first day I came there. I spent
the whole day in humble and thankful acknowledgments of the many wonder-
fil mercies which my solitary condition was attended with, and without
which it might have been infinitely more miserable. I gave humble and
hearty thanks that God had been pleased to discover to me, even that it was
possible I might be more happy in this solitary condition, than I should have
been in a liberty of society, and in all the pleasures of the world; that he
could fully make up to me the deficiencies of my solitary state, and the want
of human society, by his presence, and the communications of his grace to
my soul; supporting, comforting, and encouraging me to depend upon his
providence here, and hope for his eternal presence hereafter.
It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy this life I
now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked, cursed,
abominable life I led all the past part of my days; and now I changed both
my sorrows and my joys; my very desires altered, my affections changed
their gusts, and my delights were perfectly new from what they were at my
first coming, or, indeed, for the two years past.
Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewing the coun-
try, the anguish of my soul at my condition would break out upon me on a
sudden, and my very heart would die within me, to think of the woods, the
mountains, the deserts I was in, and how I was a prisoner, locked up with
the eternal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without
redemption. In the midst of the greatest composures of my mind, this
would break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring my hands, and
weep like a child; sometimes it would take me in the middle of my work,
and I would immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the ground for
an hour or two together; and this was still worse to me, for if I could burst
out into tears, or vent myself by words, it would go off, and the grief, having
exhausted itself, would abate.