• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Robinson Crusoe gives an account...
 The shipwreck
 Robinson Crusoe swims to the...
 Robinson Crusoe returns to the...
 Industry of Robinson Crusoe
 An earthquake - illness of Robinson...
 Recovery of Robinson Crusoe; he...
 Great labours bestowed by Robinson...
 Robinson Crusoe succeeds in launching...
 Robinson Crusoe returns to his...
 Robinson Crusoe attacks the cannibals...
 Robinson Crusoe gives the name...
 Arrival of an European ship, the...
 Robinson Crusoe assists the captain...
 Robinson Crusoe arrives in England...
 Advertising






Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
CITATION PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072756/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: viii, 170, 2 p., 12 leaves of plates : ill. ; 15 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Harris, John, 1756-1846 ( Publisher )
Cox and Baylis ( Printer )
Publisher: John Harris
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: ca. 1826
Edition: New and improved ed.
 Subjects
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
 Notes
Citation/Reference: Moon, M. John Harris's books
Citation/Reference: Gumuchian
General Note: Abridged.
General Note: Date from Moon, cited below.
General Note: Engraved plates dated Novr. 1, 1818, date of first Harris edition.
General Note: Publisher's ads 2 p. at end.
General Note: Printed by Cox and Baylis, London.
Statement of Responsibility: with engravings.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072756
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 13539148

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Frontispiece
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Preface
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Robinson Crusoe gives an account of his first errors
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 12a
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    The shipwreck
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 24a
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Robinson Crusoe swims to the ship
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 32a
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Robinson Crusoe returns to the ship: He constructs a fortified habitation on the island
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Industry of Robinson Crusoe
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    An earthquake - illness of Robinson Crusoe
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 58a
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Recovery of Robinson Crusoe; he visits different parts of the island
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Great labours bestowed by Robinson Crusoe making a boat - he provides himself with fresh clothes
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Robinson Crusoe succeeds in launching his boat, and determines to sail round his island
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Robinson Crusoe returns to his cave and resumes his work - his dog dies - he sees the print of a foot on the sand, and finds the remains of a cannibal feast
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 92a
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Robinson Crusoe attacks the cannibals and delivers one of their victims
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 108a
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Robinson Crusoe gives the name of Friday to the savage whom he rescued, and who learns to assist him in his labours - new companions in misfortune
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 114a
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 124a
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
    Arrival of an European ship, the crew of which had mutinied
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 136a
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
    Robinson Crusoe assists the captain in recovering his ship, and embarks for Europe
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 160a
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
    Robinson Crusoe arrives in England - meeting with his father
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
    Advertising
        Page 171
        Page 172
Full Text









THE


ADVENTURES

OF


ROBINSON CRUSOE.






































Robirns on Crnsoe's CalAKibr.H e k-erei
iyeit aniotcki i -post. Pt. 72.


ZTltbihd TSov"Lfji8A9.by .Xlbrrix, (*?77h'J, #rS!3w/ulr.-.







THE

ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.


A

NEW AND IMPROVED EDITION.


WITH ENGRAVINGS.


.~n~~~~~~


LONDON:
JOHN HARRIS, ST. PAUL'S CHURCH-YARD.




























































LONDON:
PRINTED EY COX AND BAYLIS, GREAT QUEEN STREET.










PREFACE.


FEw prefatory observations can be neces-
sary on presenting to the public a new edi-
tion of a work so generally known through-
out Europe as The Life and Adventures
of Robinson Crusoe." As it will be found,
however, that the present edition deviates
in some degree from the plan adopted by
several respectable editors in this and other
countries, it would appear to be incumbent
on the publisher to submit some brief re-
marks, concerning the character and inten-
tion of the undertaking.
It has been the constant endeavour of
the author of this abridgment to bring the
whole of the incidents and sentiments with-
in the comprehension of youthful readers, by
a clear and simple, rather than by a puerile





PREFACE.


and familiar, manner. In pursuit of such
a design, the most leading circumstances
likely to amuse the fancy have been re-
tained; but chiefly those which combine
Instruction with Entertainment, and which
most forcibly inculcate the great lesson for
which this work is eminently calculated;
namely, that however severe the trials in-
flicted by an extremity of adverse fortune,
they may be eventually surmounted by the
AID OF RELIGION, AND THE EXERCISE OF
PATIENCE AND INDUSTRY.
The importance of adapting so grand a
lesson to the minds of the youthful is not
likely to be denied; and the publisher
anxiously hopes that the execution is not
unworthy of the design, and will meet with
public approbation.













CONTENTS.



Page
Chap.I. Robinson Crusoe gives an account of his
first errors.................................. I
Chap. II. The Shipwreck .................... 18
Chap. III. Robinson Crusoe swims to the ship..... 27
Chap. IV. Robinson Crusoe returns to the ship. He
constructs a fortified habitation on the island.... 38
Chap. V. Industry of Robinson Crusoe........ 44
Chap. VI. An earthquake. Illness of Robinson
Crusoe........................ ........... 53
Chap. VII. Recovery of Robinson Crusoe. He visits
different parts of the island.................... 61
Chap. VIII. Great labours bestowed by Robinson
Crusoe making a boat. He provides himself with
fresh clothes............................... 76
Chap. IX. Robinson Crusoe succeeds in launching
his boat, and determines to sail round his island.. 83
Chap. X. Robinson Crusoe returns to his cave and
resumes his work. His dog dies. He sees the print
of a foot on the sand, and finds the remains of a
cannibal feast............................... 88





Viii CONTENTS,

Page
Chap. XI. Robinson Crusoe attacks the cannibals
and delivers one of their victims .......... ..... 98
Chap. XII. Robinson Crusoe gives the name of Fri-
day to the savage whom he rescued, and who
learns to assist him in his labours. New compa-
nions in misfortune ............... .......... 112
Chap. XIII. Arrival of an European ship, the crew
of which had mutinied...................... 130
Chap. XIV. Robinson Crusoe assists the captain in
recovering his ship, and embarks for Europe.... 144
Chap. XV. Robinson Crusoe arrives in England.
Meeting with his father ..................... 167








ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.



CHAP. I.
ROBINSON CRUSOE GIVES AN ACCOUNT OF HIS
FIRSTT ERRORS.
THE sun was descending towards the hori-
zon, and shed with magnificence its depart-
ing rays over the great waters which bathe
the coast of America. The heat had been
excessive throughout the middle of the day,
but it was now tempered by a gentle breeze,
which carried rapidly over the waves a ves-
sel on a voyage from San-Salvador, a sea-
port of Brazil, to the coast of Guinea in
Africa, for the purpose of carrying on the
slave trade. This vessel, which was laden
with iron-ware, mounted six cannon. The
crew consisted of fourteen men, including





ADVENTURES OF


the captain, his son, and the supercargo, or
person appointed to superintend the inte-
rests of those at whose expense the vessel
had been fitted out. This person was named
Robinson Crusoe. He was seated on the
deck, and appeared absorbed in profound
and melancholy reflection. The captain,
having a few moments' leisure, sat down
beside him. Well, Mr. Englishman,"
said he (for thus the Portuguese composing
the ship's crew always addressed Robinson
Crusoe, who was a native of England),
" well, what think you of our voyage ? Has
it not commenced in a way that may induce
us to hope for a favourable result ? We liave
been twelve days at sea, and have not yet
experienced a single accident."-" But,"
replied Robinson Crusoe, "one moment of
misfortune may bury in oblivion whole years
of prosperity."-" Oh, oh!" said the Por-
tuguese, your thoughts are gloomy to-
day."-" It is because this day revives sad re-
collections in my mind."-" How so ?"-" It
was this day seven years...yes, seven years
ago this very day...when, by the vilest in-
gratitude, I abandoned the best of fathers




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


and the fondest of mothers."-" So much
the worse, Mr. Robinson; such recollections
are not very pleasant at sea. But you are a
young man, you may again return to your
native country; your parents are perhaps
still living; you may obtain their forgive-
ness, and be happy yet...come, come, think
no more about it."-" I would willingly fol-
low your advice," replied Robinson Crusoe,
" but since I pass the whole year without
ever thinking on my faults, it is but just
that I should devote at least one day to re-
pentance...and I know not how it is, but
the affliction which weighs upon my mind,
is to-day more insupportable than ever: it
appears as though some terrible misfortune
was hanging over me."-" It is merely regret..
that disturbs you thus," said the captain;
" but take courage, and hope for the best:
your father will forgive you."-" Alas !" re-
plied Robinson Crusoe, I do not doubt
the goodness of his heart; I have experi-
enced a thousand proofs of it: I am well
convinced, that should I ever enjoy the hap-
piness of seeing him again, he will fondly
press me to his bosom; but, though he
B2





ADVENTURES OF


should utter the words, I forgive you !' can
I ever forgive myself for the injury I have
done him, for the sorrow with which I have
embittered his old age, and the tears which
my conduct has forced from him ? If I had
had any reason for quitting the home where
so much tenderness was bestowed on my
infancy but far from it: I was too kindly
treated, and at length became weary of per-
fect happiness: such is the dissatisfied na-
ture of man !...
I was born in the city of York, in Eng-
land. My father, after having made a
handsome fortune in trade, retired to a beau-
tiful country-house, to spend the latter part
of his life free from care and trouble. He
was then about the age of fifty, and might
reasonably hope to see many happy years.
I was his only child, and in me all his dearest
affections were centred. If he congratu-
lated himself on the thought of possessing
a handsome competency, it was more for
my sake than his own. Robinson,' he said,
' if you are wise, you may be the happiest
of men; you possess every thing that can
render you comfortable, and your situation





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


in life will not be so elevated as to excite
envy.
Alas he spoke to a person who was un-
worthy to enjoy the happiness he had pre-
pared for him. From the very moment when
my understanding first began to unfold it-
self, I was tormented by a restless spirit and
a thirst for novelty; the desire of going to
sea and visiting distant countries was my
ruling passion. I even ventured to disclose
my wishes; but the first words I uttered
spread consternation through my family. I
beheld the tears of my mother-that alone
might for ever have closed my mouth on the
subject; but I returned to it repeatedly, re,-
gardless of wounding the heart of the best
of parents. My father, who had at first
threatened me with his displeasure, now en-
deavoured by reasoning to overcome the
silly wishes that had entered my mind : he
drew a flattering picture of the situation in
which Providence had placed me, and as-
sured me that whatever country I might vi-
sit, or whatever degree of fortune I might
enjoy, I should never find the happiness I1
was about to forsake. 'And what would





ADVENTURES OF


you seek in distant countries?' pursued he;
' do you imagine you will find more tran-
quillity there than in this house, or meet
with more tenderness than in the society of
your mother ? Leave adventurers to seek
their fortunes, my son, and enjoy that which
Heaven has enabled me to bequeath to you.
Your imagination torments you, or rather
you are weary of a life of idleness. Well !
seek for occupation; enter into business.
Though you do not need the assistance of your
country, your countryneedsyours. Letothers
serve her for interest; you may serve her for
honour; it is your duty to do so. I say nothing
of your mother and myself; but, my son, do
you imagine that we can separate from you
without regret ? Have you reflected on the
sorrow we shall experience when you forsake
us? We shall be alone, abandoned; and
shall die when you are not near to close our
eyes. But whatever distress you may occa-
sion us, we can never cease to pray for you:
yet Heaven may not bless you as we could
wish; you may, perhaps, become a prey to
remorse for having despised our counsel;
and if you be doomed never to see us more,





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


the recollection of your imprudent conduct
will pursue you wheresoever you go, and
will prove the torment of your old age.'
Such were the words which my father
addressed to me. I was deeply moved; the
tears fell from my eyes; my parents hoped
that I had abandoned my error, and for a
short time I sincerely relinquished all inten-
tion of going abroad. But the chimeras
which I had so long cherished in my mind
by degrees revived, and ruled me as pow-
erfully as before. I rejected every proposal
that was made to me respecting the choice
of a profession: I listened with ill-humour
to the prudent advice which was given to
me, and threatened to quit home without
the consent of my father. My heart became
hardened, and I even regarded the affliction
of my mother with indifference.
However, it would probably have been
a long time ere I should have attempted to
put my design into execution, had not an
opportunity unexpectedly presented itself.
One day, when I chanced to 'be at Hull,
whither I had gone without any bad inten-
tion, I met one of my companions who was





ADVENTURES OF


on the point of departing for London by
sea, on board his father's vessel. He in-
vited me to accompany him, and the better
to persuade me, he employed the usual al-
lurement of seamen, observing that my pas-
sage would cost me nothing. I then re-
solved to consult neither father nor mother;
I did not even take the trouble of writing a
letter to inform them of my departure. In
a transport of oy I went on board the vessel,
and as we departed from the shore I fancied
I had attained the summit of my wishes.
That day, the most fatal of my life, was the
1st of September 1651. As I before ob-
served to you, it was this day seven years.
I was then just twenty.
But I had soon cause to repent of my
folly: a violent storm arose during the pas-
sage, and made us all despair of our lives;
to me it appeared a punishment of Heaven,
and filled me with a strong desire to return
home on the very first opportunity. Unfor-
tunately, those sentiments vanished with
the storm. On my arrival in London, I
wandered about the town without knowing
what to do with myself: very little would





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


have prevailed on me to return to my pa-
rents, as very little did actually induce me
to sail for the coast of Africa. This irreso-
lution arose not so much from the desire of
travelling, which had formerly harassed my
mind, as the shame I should have endured
on again seeing my friends and acquaint-
ances. I fancied I should be pointed at on
my return home, and that no one would ever
speak to me without a reproach.
Whilst I was deliberating with myself
as to what course I should adopt, I learnt
that a vessel was on the point of sailing for
the coast of Guinea. The persons to whom
I spoke concerning this voyage described
it in the most agreeable point of view, and
assured me that I might make a fortune in
that part of the world with the greatest ease
imaginable. Another circumstance contri-
buted still more to fix my determination: I
became acquainted with the captain of the
vessel, and quickly found that he was an
honest and generous-hearted man. I placed
myself without hesitation under his guid-
ance. He gave me excellent advice, which
I had the good sense to follow: I embarked,





ADVENTURES OF


on a venture, a sum of money, which
though trifling was soon augmented through
the probity and disinterestedness of the cap-
tain. He informed me what goods it would
be advisable to carry out, and how to dis-
pose of them to the best advantage. Every
thing succeeded to my wishes, and on my
return from Africa I found myself possessed
of the sum of three hundred pounds. This
success induced me to venture on plans
which I was totally unable to execute, and
at length brought about my ruin. Instead
of repairing home to solicit my father's for-
giveness, I once again embarked for Gui-
nea, in the hope of making a rapid fortune,
and afterwards returning to my native coun-
try with what I considered greater honour.
But Heaven punished my ambition, which
made me forget every sentiment of nature.
Our voyage this time was extremely unfa-
vourable, and as we were sailing between the
Canary Islands and the coast of Africa, we
were overtaken by a Turkish corsair of Sal-
lee much more powerful than ourselves, who,
after an obstinate engagement, captured our
vessel and reduced us to slavery.





ROBINSON CRUSOE. I

I fell to the share of the Turkish cap-
tain, who carried me to Sallee, a sea-port
belonging to the Moors. My condition in
captivity was not so distressing as I had
imagined it would be, for my master was a
most humane man. He took me to his
country-house, which was on the sea-shore,
and entrusted me with the cultivation of his
garden. I occasionally went out to fish
with him or some of his domestics. This
latter occupation very much pleased me,
particularly as it afforded me the hope of
regaining my freedom. For such an enter-
prize the greatest courage was of course re-
quisite, but in that respect I was by no means
deficient; and, besides, I thought it would
be quite as well to die as to live in a state
of slavery. For two whole years I anxiously
watched for the favourable opportunity
which might restore me to my natural free-
dom: it at length presented itself, and I did
not fail to embrace it.
My master, with three or four of his
friends, one day intended to go out on a fish,-
ing excursion; and he directed me to deposit
in the boat an abundant supply of-provi-




S ADVENTURES OF

sions, together with several guns, as they
wished to amuse themselves by shooting
birds as well as fishing. I obeyed his orders,
and placed every thing in readiness. At
the appointed hour, however, he sent to in-
form me that he could not go; but as his
friends had promised to dine with him, and
they should want fish -at table, he intended-
to send me, accompanied by a man and a
boy, to fish along the coast.
This circumstance made an extraordi-
nary impression upon me. I fancied my
chains were already broken. My determi-
nation was instantly fixed, and I began to
make arrangements for the grand enterprise
which I had so long meditated. I hastily
conveyed an additional quantity of bread
and biscuits into the little cabin of the boat,
not forgetting, at the same time, to augment
the supply of powder and shot.
I had no sooner done this than the man
and the boy arrived. We untied the boat
and rowed off from the shore. My heart beat
violently at the very thought of the project
I was about to attempt. But Heaven was
pleased to assist me: a thick fog arose,






CIRUS OBE.


Tlatet..


RobinscaCrasoe escaiping fruiuSale e



II fJJBu:r f Cane o1alh





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


which rendered it totally impossible for
those on shore to discern what was taking
place at a certain distance out at sea.
Having reached the spot where we in-
tended to fish, I seized the opportunity, when
I observed my companion standing on the
edge of the boat, to plunge him suddenly-
overboard. He immediately rose above wa-
ter, for he was an excellent swimmer; he
called upon me, and entreated that I would
take him into the boat, vowing to follow me
from one corner of the world to the other,
if I would only save his life. Without
heeding his supplications, I took up a gun,
pointed it at him, and addressed him in the
following way: Hark ye, my friend, I have
done you no harm, and intend to do you
none, if you only promise to be quiet. You
can swim ashore very well if you please;
the sea is calm, make the best of your way
to the coast, and let us part on good terms;
but if you venture to approach the boat, I
swear to discharge this musket at your head,
for I am resolved on obtaining my liberty.'
He was probably intimidated by the ret-
lute tone in which I spoke; for he immedi-





ADVENTURES Of


ately turned and swam towards the shore,
which lie reached in safety.
The little boy, who was greatly terri-
fied, threw himself at my feet and entreated
that I would spare his life: he doubtless
supposed I intended to kill him. I assured
him of the contrary, and promised to treat
him with kindness if he would second me.
He swore by Mahomet that he would do
whatever I might command.
As I was well aware that the Moors
would pursue me towards the coast of Spain,
I took a contrary course, by proceeding to
the south along the coast of Barbary. In
this direction I could only meet with regions
either entirely desert, or inhabited by sa-
vages; but I entertained far less horror of
wild and ferocious beasts than of falling
into the hands of the Moors, who shew no
mercy towards their slaves who have escaped
from captivity.
I shall not attempt to describe all I suf-
fered during upwards of twenty days which
I spent in sailing along the African coast:
I frequently went ashore to kill such ani-
mals as might serve for our support. At





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


length, as we were passing between Cape
Verd and the islands which bear its name,
we came within sight of a Portuguese ves-
sel, the crew of which immediately sent out
a boat to our assistance. The captain re-
ceived us with the utmost kindness, and was
greatly astonished on hearing the account
of my adventures. I offered him all I pos-
sessed, namely, my boat and its contents,
which was in truth no contemptible present.
He thanked me, and observed that he should
for ever reproach himself if he had saved
my life only to plunge me into a state of
misery worse than the situation from which
I had escaped. I will take charge of your
property,' said he, and will conduct you to
Brazil, whither we are now proceeding; but,
on our arrival there, every thing shall be re-
stored to you with the most scrupulous fide-
lity. I will treat you as I should myself
wish to be treated under similar circum-
stances. This is merely fulfilling the com-
mand of God, and it is a duty which I per-
form with pleasure.'
He kept his promise. At Brazil all my
property was restored to me, and the cap-
c2




ADVENTURES OF


tain advised me to sell my boat and return
to England. I adopted only one-half of this
good advice; I disposed of my boat, and
with the money, joined to some other ar-
ticles in my possession, I purchased a piece
of land to form a plantation, in the hope
that fortune would smile on me as she had
smiled on others. This would have been a
prudent speculation for a man who had no
other resource; but what need had I to la-
bour for a fortune in Brazil, when I might
tranquilly have enjoyed one in my native
country? But I was resolved not to return
without wealth, that I might have to endure
the less reproach for having followed my own
inclination. So far from entertaining a
thought of returning to England, I availed
myself of a favourable opportunity of trans-
ferring to Brazil the funds which I had left
in London when I sailed on my second
voyage to Africa.
This money, joined to the most inde-
fatigable industry, speedily rendered my
plantation profitable; during the four years
I have spent in Brazil my original stock is
quadrupled. But I am still unsatisfied; I





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


wish to incur fresh hazards which may per-
haps hasten the moment when I can return
with affluence to my family and friends. I
recollect that I was very successful on my
first voyage to Africa; why may I not be so
again ? I am tired of a planter's life, and
am more than ever anxious to return to my
country. I am perhaps to blame in this
new enterprise; some secret voice seems to
whisper that I am-but what can I do?
Though I have already reaped considerable
profits, yet it would require four years
more to realize the sum which I wish to lay
at the feet of my father; and four years ap-
pear like four centuries: I have not patience
to wait for their termination."-
Well, well, Mr. Crusoe," said the cap-
tain, take courage, and all may yet be well:
in one year at sea you may gain twice as
much as in the four years which it would be
necessary for you to spend on shore."
Heaven grant it may be so, captain; it
is not interest that induces me to offer up
this prayer, but the wish of enjoying tran-
quillity of mind in the society of my parents.
I am convinced that I can never be happy
c3





ADVENTURES OF


until I hear my father say: I forgive you
for all the sorrow you have occasioned us.' "




CHAP II.

THE SHIPWRECK.

WHILST Robinson Crusoe and the cap-
tain were thus conversing together, the sun
disappeared behind some thick clouds,
which it tinged with glowing red; night
began to overspread the ocean, and the
wind blew with greater violence than before.
The captain quitted the deck to proceed to
his occupation, and Robinson Crusoe retired
to his cabin, where he threw himself on his
hammock, overcome by the sad recollections
that crowded on his mind.
He at length fell asleep, and for a short
time forgot his sorrows; but he was suddenly
roused by the noise of the ship's crew; the
wind whistling among the sails, and the waves
dashing against the sides of the vessel.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


He hastened to ascend the deck. A hurri-
cane had arisen during the night, and raged
with such violence that there was every rea-
son to dread it would be attended by some
fatal result. The storm was far from abating
with the return of daylight; and the seamen,
who were accustomed to the climate, plainly
foresaw that the danger would not speedily
cease. For the space of twelve days the ship
was driven about in every direction, a prey
to the fury of the winds; and the crew, in a
continual state of apprehension, expected
that every day would be their last. Three
men perished during the storm: two fell
overboard, and the third died of an inflam-
matory fever. The vessel, from the effects
of the tempest, leaked in such a way as to
be completely unfit for the long voyage
which had at first been proposed. The dan-
ger augmented every moment.
At the conclusion of the twelfth day, how-
ever, the wind somewhat abated, and the
captain took advantage of that moment of
respite to ascertain the latitude and discover
the situation of the vessel. He held a con-
sultation with Robinson Crusoe, and they




ADVENTURES OF


both agreed as to the impossibility of pro-
ceeding farther; they accordingly resolved
to direct their course towards Barbadoes, or
some of the islands in the possession of the
English, in the hope of obtaining assistance.
But even this was impracticable: a second
tempest arose as violent as the former one,
and the ship was driven so far out of the way
of all human commerce, that even had the
crew escaped the fury of the waves, they
would have incurred a far greater risk of
being devoured by savages, than of finding
means to return to their country.
In this dreadful extremity the wind still
raged with violence; but day had no sooner
dawned than one of the seamen was heard
to exclaim land! land !" At these joyful
words every one hurried on deck to gain a
sight of the happy country for which they
had so devoutly prayed; but in one moment
the vessel struck against a sand-bank, and
her motion was completely stopped. The*
sea broke over her with such impetuosity that
immediate destruction was looked for. The
seamen, filled with despair, were driven into
their close quarters to shelter themselvesfrom





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


the fury of the sea. It was scarcely to be
hoped that the ship could remain in that situ-
ation, even for a few moments, without going
to pieces, if a calm did not arise by a sort of
miracle. All remained motionless, every in-
stant expecting death, and preparing for
another world.
Contrary to all expectations, the vessel
remained in this situation for some time with-
out breaking, and the captain, with a view
to encourage the seamen, declared that the
storm was subsiding. But even allowing it
had entirely abated, all hope seemed lost;
for the vessel stuck so fast in the sand that
it was impossible to get her out.
The first moment of terror having passed
Saway, the crew began to reflect on the means
of escaping, at least from death, and of seek-
ing refuge in the land which lay before them.
But this was a hazardous attempt, for the
long-boat which had been towed to the vessel,
was lost, and the cutter appeared too small
to encounter the fury of the waves: it was,
however, the last resource; and this re-
source was the more urgent, as the vessel
threatened every moment to go to pieces;





ADVENTURES OF


indeed, some declared that it had already
broken.
The pilot, with the assistance of some of
the seamen, speedily got out the cutter.
Eleven men, all that now remained of the
crew, joyfully leapt into it. They offered up
a prayer to Heaven, and then resigned them-
selves to the mercy of the ocean. Though
the storm had, in reality, considerably abated,
yet the sea rose to a dreadful height, and it
appeared certain that the frail cutter must
either be dashed to pieces on the rocks, or
sink beneath the furious waves. The wind
raged with such violence, that to guide the
boat was impossible. In spite of all the ef-
forts of the unfortunate men, they were driven
along at the mercy of the tempest, and they
pictured death in every wave that rose above
them. Pale, bewildered, unable to commu-
nicate with each other, they alternately in-
voked the mercy of Heaven, and uttered the
exclamations which terror forced from them.
Their danger was even increased by their
total ignorance of the situation of the boat
with respect to the coast, which they were
endeavouring to reach : they, besides, knew





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


not whether it was low or high, rock or sand;
whether the refuge they sought might not
prove as dangerous as the storms of the
ocean; or, finally, whether it was entirely
desert, or inhabited by savages or wild beasts.
Whatever might ensue, their destruction, in
some way or other, seemed inevitable.
Finally, after rowing, or rather being
driven along, for the space of a league and
Sa half, a wave like a mountain came rolling
along, and falling with a frightful noise, swal-
lowed up the boat and all within it: the
Unfortunate crew immediately disappeared
I beneath the enormous mass, scarcely having
sufficient time to recommend themselves to
Heaven.
It were useless to attempt a description of
this moment of horror: it was a picture which
Surpasses imagination. One man alone sur-
Svived the dreadful catastrophe: that man
was Robinson Crusoe. After being carried
along with a degree of violence which de-
prived him of sensibility, he found himself
cast on the shore, though almost in a lifeless
state; animated bythis prospect and the impe-
rious desire of self preservation, which so for-




ADVENTURES OF


cibly appeals to every heart, he made an effort,
rose, and endeavoured to advance further on
the land before the waves should again over-
whelm him. But this seemed next to impos-
sible; for, on looking behind him, he beheld
another wave as furious as the former on the
point of breaking over his head. All he
could do was to hold in his breath, to endea-
vour to rise to the surface of the water, and
to float towards the shore, for there was
every reason to fear that the wave would
once more wash him into the middle of the
sea. Whilst he was thus deliberating on the
means of escaping death, he was over-
whelmed by a mass of water between twenty
and thirty feet in height, which carried him
with violence towards the shore. He held in
his breath to avoid being drowned; but had
this constraint lasted for any length of time
he would probably have been suffocated.
Fortunately, he had power to raise his head
above the water, which afforded him time to
draw breath and to recover his strength. A
moment after he was again hurried beneath
the water; but finding that the wave had
broken, he made an effort to dart forward,






C TRatE. .p



-- i,


Rolinsan Cms oe c ast aw;y on the Trock.

paq4e ,26.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


and joyfully felt the ground beneath his
feet.
He remained for some moments motion-
less to recover his breath, and to wait until
the water should flow back again. He then
rushed forward, and ran towards the shore
with all the swiftness of which he was capa-
ble. But this was not sufficient to rescue
him from the fury of the sea which was once
more on the point of overwhelming him; it
rose and carried himrforward with the same
violence as before, the shore being very flat.
This last misfortune had well nigh proved
fatal to poor Robinson Crusoe, for he was
dashed against a rock with so much violence
that he became insensible, and was unable to
make any motion to save himself: he re-
ceived a severe blow on his breast, which for
some time deprived him of respiration. On
recovering, he heard the waves recede with
their accustomed roaring noise; the first
thing he did was to grapple with all his
strength to catch a firm hold of the rock
against which he had been thrown. The
waves were not so high as at first, for he was
now near land, and he never quitted his





ADVENTURES OF


hold until they had passed and repassed over
him. He made another spring, which brought
him so close to the shore, that though the
waves still covered him they had not suf-
ficient power to carry him off his feet. Fi-
nally, only one more effort was necessary to
release him from his dreadful situation: his
feet touched the shore, and he ascended a
little rising ground, where he fell prostrate,
overcome by fatigue and exhaustion, for he
had no longer reason to dread the fury of the
waves. He was saved, and preserved from
a death which appeared inevitable. His-ex-
traordinay deliverance filled his heart with
transports, which in some measure contri-
buted to restore his strength. He fell on his
knees, and with uplifted hands returned
thanks to Heaven for the happiness of being
still permitted to enjoy life.




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


CHAP. III.

ROBINSON CRUSOE SWIMS TO THE SHIP.

HAVING relieved his heart by this effu-
sion of gratitude, Robinson Crusoe rose to
look around him. He wandered along the
sea-shore reflecting on the fate of his unfor-
tunate comrades, who had all perished be-
neath the waves. He cast his eyes towards
the spot where the vessel had been wrecked;
but the sea was so furious, and the sand-
bank at so great a distance from the shore,
that it was impossible to distinguish any
thing.
However, as he entertained no hope of
deriving assistance from the ship, he began
to take a view of the coast, and found to
his sorrow that it was a wild and barren
country, which had apparently never before
been trodden by any human foot: all seem-
ed to announce a desert land. The joy he
had at first experienced was now entirely at
an end; and he beheld all the horrors of
his situation. He had no dry clothes to
D2





ADVENTURES OF


substitute for his wet ones, no food to sa-
tisfy his hunger, nor a drop of water to allay
the thirst with which he was overcome: he
was even without arms to defend himself or
to procure food; and he could therefore ex-
pect only to die of starvation, or to become
the prey of some ferocious beast. A knife,
a pipe, and a little tobacco in a box, were
his only riches.
Meanwhile daylight began gradually to
disappear. This augmented the despair of
poor Robinson Crusoe, when he reflected
that it was chiefly in the darkness of night
that wild beasts roam in quest of prey.
He looked around him in vain for some
place of concealment; he beheld none ex-
cept an old fir--tree, the thick branches of
which seemed to promise him a refuge.
But as he was dying of thirst, he resolved
first of all to look out for some water, and
he soon had the good fortune to meet with
an excellent spring. Having drank heart-
tily of the water, he put a little tobacco
into his mouth; this was his only repast,
and it made him fully sensible of the
destitute situation of the man who is cut





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


off from the society of his fellow-crea-
tures. He then ascended the tree, and
having fixed on a place where the branches
were strong and closely interwoven, he
stretched himself out as well as he was able;
and lest he might fall in his sleep, he tied
himself to the trunk of the tree by means
of his belt, which was tolerably long. His
extreme fatigue soon made him forget the
inconvenience of his resting-place, and he
slept soundly until he was awakened by the
chirping of a vast number of birds. The
sun had already risen above the horizon, the
sky was clear and the storm had dispersed.
He was very much astonished on observing
that, in consequence of the rising of the tide,
the ship had been disengaged from the sand-
bank, and driven close to the rock before-
mentioned, against which he himself had.
been dashed with so much violence. At this
he was overjoyed; he descended from the
tree, and hastened towards the shore, as
though he had expected to meet his unfor-
tunate companions. When he found him-
self so near the vessel, and reflected that
the crew might all have been preserved had
D3





ADVENTURES OF


they remained on board, he found it impos-
sible to restrain his tears. But, in his situa-
tion, tears were of no avail, and he accord-
ingly began to deliberate on the means of
reaching the vessel. He waited until the
ebb of the tide, when he stript off his clothes,
plunged into the water, and in a few moments
swam to the ship. A rope which hung from
the helm assisted him in mounting the
deck. The first thing he did was to
search for food to satisfy his hunger; he
found the remains of the last meal which
he had shared with his unfortunate com-
panions, and he eat with the utmost avidity,
whilst at the same time he arranged his fu-
ture plans, for every moment was then valu-
able. He drank a little rum which he found
in the captain's cabin, which revived his
spirits and inspired him with fresh courage
to sustain his severe trials.
Having thus satisfied the demands of
hunger, he began to inspect the ship; but
every object revived the recollection of his
ill-fated companions who were now no more.
He called on them aloud, as though he
imagined they could hear him, whilst he




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


shed a torrent of tears. Oh my friends,"
he exclaimed, shall I never see you more ?
I am for ever separated from the rest of my
fellow-creatures Ah I should be happy
were I doomed to pass my days in the so-
ciety of the man I least loved !.. .But I am
myself the sole cause of my misfortune; I
despised the wise counsels of my parents, I
brought affliction on their old age, and
Heaven now punishes me."
Only one living creature answered his com-
plaints; Faithful, the captain's dog, which
had been shut up at the beginning of the
storm, lest he should interrupt the seamen
in working of the ship. Faithful now an-
swered Robinson Crusoe, by howling and
scratching at the door of the closet in which
he was confined. He ran to liberate the pri-
soner, and the poor animal rushed out and
loaded him with caresses. Crusoe could not
forbear shedding tears: Faithful was a friend
whom Heaven had preserved for him; at
least he was not doomed to live in total soli-
tude.
Whilst Faithful ran to devour the frag-
ments which remained on the table, Robin-





ADVENTURES OF


son Crusoe continued his search about the
vessel. He found that she was bulged and a
great deal of water in the hold; but as she
had been driven against a bank of hard sand,
her stern laid lifted up, and her head low to
the water. Her quarter was therefore per-
fectly free, and all the contents of that part
of the ship were dry.
Crusoe immediately set to work. On board
the vessel were several spare yards, one or
two top-masts, and two or three large spars
of wood; of these he determined to form a
raft. For this purpose he threw overboard
all that were not too heavy and could be tied
together with ropes. He then- went down
the ship's side, tied together the largest
pieces of wood, and placed planks across
them, so that his raft, though rudely con-
structed, was capable of bearing a consider-
able weight. Necessity urged him to exert
his industry and courage; and in the space
of an hour he finished more work than he
would have done in half a day on any ordi-
nary occasion.
With respect to the articles which hewish-
ed to convey to his island, he selected the








CRUIS OE.


Rolliisou Ci asoe oa the 1 af t.

Alh/~rhir'~~~a14L. hvi~lrrri c;I~r rl`.i'Pn75.r


Plate 3.


APM-W,





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


most useful and not the most valuable. He
first took three sailors' trunks, which he
opened by forcing the locks, and having
emptied them, he lowered them down on the
raft by a rope. The first he filled with pro-
visions, such as bread, rice, three Dutch
cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh, and
a small portion of corn that had been laid
aside for some fowls: the latter had, how-
ever, long since been killed. There was be-
sides a small quantity of barley and wheat
mixed together. He likewise found several
cases of bottles which had belonged to the
captain; some were filled with cordial-
water, and there were about twenty-four
bottles of arrack. He arranged them sepa-
rately, for it was not necessary, nor even
practicable, to place them all in the trunk.
Whilst he was thus employed, he observ-
ed that the tide was beginning to flow, though
very gradually, and he soon had the mor-
tification of seeing his coat, waistcoat, and
shirt, which he left on the shore, floating
along the surface of the water. This acci-
dent led him to think of augmenting his
wardrobe, and he soon repaired his loss with




ADVENTURES OF


interest. He likewise wished to take some
tools for working when he should go ashore;
and, after searching for some time, he dis-
covered the carpenter's chest. This was,
indeed, a treasure; and a treasure far more
valuable to him than a ship laden with gold.
He hastily let it down along with the rest of
the trunks, and placed it on his raft without
taking time to examine it; for he was well
aware that every thing it contained would be
of the utmost value to him.
In addition to what he already possessed,
he was anxious to obtain gunpowder and
arms. In the captain's cabin there were
two very good fowling-pieces, and a pair
of pistols; he carried them away, together
with a few horns filled with powder, a little
bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. He
searched a long time for three barrels of
gunpowder which he knew were on board
the ship; he at length discovered them, after
having ransacked every corner. The water
had penetrated into one of the barrels: but
the other two were dry, and in good con-
dition : he immediately conveyed them to
the raft, with the gun and pistols. He did





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


not forget his new and only friend, poor
Faithful, and he gave him, as companions,
the two cats of the ship, whom he confined
in a cage, and who appeared to undertake
their new voyage with considerable reluc-
tance.
All being thus arranged, he began to
think on how he should regain the shore.
Without either sail or rudder, this was a
difficult undertaking, and a slight breeze
would have been sufficient to overset the
whole cargo. But the sea was calm; he
knew that the tide, which was rising, would
carry him toward the shore, and the wind,
though gentle, was in his favour. He had
the good fortune to see his raft float along
smoothly for the space of a mile. He however
remarked, that it deviated a little from the
point at which he had previously landed, from
which he concluded that there must be an
indraught of the water, and that he might
possibly find some creek which would answer
the purpose of a port to land his treasures.
He was not mistaken in this conjecture: he
was carried along by the tide into a little
river, where he had well nigh been wrecked





ADVENTURES OF


a second time: one end of his raft run
aground in the sand, whilst the other con-
tinued to float, and thus his whole cargo
had nearly fallen into the water. Poor Ro-
binson Crusoe, almost reduced to despair,
leant with all his force against the chests to
prevent them from sliding into the water;
but his strength was insufficient to extricate
the raft. He dared not even alter his position,
and he remained in the same attitude nearly
half an hour, in the hope that the rising of
the tide would bring him a little more upon
the level. At length the raft floated once
more, and Crusoe, with the assistance of an
old oar which he found in the cutter, arriv-
ed, though with considerable difficulty, at
a little creek, where he resolved to wait until
the ebbing of the tide should leave the raft
dry. He now, for the first time, found him-
self in secure possession of the treasures he
had conveyed from the vessel. In a trans-
port of joy he jumped ashore, and proceeded
to take a view of the country in search of an
habitation and some place of security to de-
posit his goods.
As he yet knew not whether he was on a





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


continent or an island, an inhabited country
or a desert, or whether he might not justly
dread becoming the prey of wild beasts.
About a mile from the spot where he stood
he observed a lofty and very steep mountain,
which appeared to rear its summit above
another chain of hills extending on the north.
He took up one of his guns and a pistol, and,
followed by his dog, proceeded to ascend
the mountain. After considerable trouble
and fatigue, he at length reached the sum-
mit. He then became fully sensible of all
the horrors of his situation; for he found that
he was on an island, surrounded on every
side by the sea, without the possibility of
discovering any other object than a few dis-
tant rocks, and two islands, smaller than the
one on which he was, situated at a distance
of about three leagues to the west.
After this discovery he mournfully re-
turned to his raft, and began to carry ashore
the articles which he had brought from the
ship. This occupied him during the remain-
der of the day, and when night set in he
contrived to erect a sort of bed-chamber, by
placing, one above another, the boxes and





ADVENTURES OF


planks which he had brought ashore. On
the following day he made a tent with the
sail which he had found on board the ship.




CHAP. IV.

ROBINSON CRUSOE RETURNS TO THE SHIP : HE
CONSTRUCTS A FORTIFIED HABITATION ON
THE ISLAND.

ROBINSON CRUSOE had been so success-
ful on his first voyage to the ship that he re-
solved to repeat his visit; he brought away
various articles, such as sugar, spices, flour,
biscuits, powder, cables, nails, a few ma-
thematical instruments, two telescopes, se-
veral books, pens, paper, ink-and, last of
all, money in gold and silver coin. Con-
sidering only his present situation, he was
once on the point of throwing it into the sea.
"Vile trash !" he exclaimed, "how con-
temptible it now appears to me it is scarcely
worth my while to stoop to pick it up My
raft, once loaded, is to me a thousand times





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


more valuable than all the riches in the uni-
verse !" But he soon reflected that what he
had then despised might subsequently prove
useful, and he was right. They who sacri-
fice every thing to the present moment, with-
out ever bestowing a consideration on the
future, cannot hope to be happy at any pe-
riod of life.
He was preparing for another visit to the
ship, when the sky became overcast, and the
wind began to blow as at the approach of a
storm. This deterred him from venturing on
the sea; besides, the ship now contained no-
thing to excite his regret. He took shelter
beneath the tent which he had spread out at
a short distance from the shore. The storm
continued to rage with violence during the
whole of the night. On the following morn-
ing, when Robinson Crusoe cast his eyes to-
wards the sea, he no longer saw any traces
of the ship: it had sunk to the bottom. This
was another moment of despair. Though
the ship could not serve to convey him to
England, yet the very sight of it afforded
consolation to our unfortunate exile. When
misfortune separates us from the land that
E2





ADVENTURES Of'


gave us birth, we become endeared to every
object that serves to remind us of it; there
is, as it were, a point of communication
which approximates distances, and unites us
in imagination with those who are happily
passing their days in the bosom of their na-
tive land.
But Robinson Crusoe was resigned to his
fate: it was possible to be far more unfortu-
nate than he really was, for he possessed
enough of all the necessaries of life to last
him for a considerable time. He thanked
Heaven for not having punished his faults
with more severity, and he sought to amelio-
rate his condition by the means which Pro-
vidence had left within his reach.
He immediately formed the design of erect-
ing a habitation to protect him against
the attacks of savages and wild beasts. One
can never be too prudent, and a wise man
provides against danger as well as want.
For these reasons Crusoe resolved not to fix
his abode beneath the little tent on the shore,
where the ground was low, marshy, and con-
sequently unwholesome, and there was, be-
sides, a deficiency of fresh water. Yet he




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


did not wish to go any great distance from
the coast, but to keep within sight of the
sea, so that, in case of any vessel appearing,
he might implore assistance by signals of
distress.
At length, having carefully searched for a
considerable time, he met with a spot which
seemed likely to answer his purpose: it was
a little plain, situated at the foot of a high
hill, the front of which was as steep as the
side of a house. This plain was at one end
about a hundred yards wide, but it extended
to nearly double that width, with a gentle
declivity in the direction of the sea, forming
a vast carpet of verdure, watered by a lim-
pid serpentine stream: the hill sheltered it
from the rays of the sun. On this con-
venient and delightful spot, Robinson Cru-
soe determined to fix his abode. This was
very natural, for the hill being extremely
steep on the side of the plain, protected him
from all risk of an attack from the back of
his habitation. He had yet to secure him-
self against the approach of enemies from
the front and sides. Facing a cavity in the
side of the hill, close to which he had spread
E3





ADVENTURES Of


out his tent, he fixed, in a semicircle, a
double row of strong-pointed stakes, about
six feet high, interwoven with branches:
they were supported on the inside by another
row of firm stakes, about two feet and a half
thick, so that neither man nor beast could
force a passage through them. It cost poor
Robinson Crusoe a vast deal of labour
and patience to shape the stakes and fix
them into the ground. He left no door or
aperture of any kind; but he entered his
fortifications by means of a small ladder,
which, when he was in, he lifted over after
him.
In this little fortress, he enclosed his pro-
visions, gunpowder, arms-in a word, all he
possessed. He deposited beneath his tent
such articles as were liable to be destroyed
by damp. His tent was double, and covered
over with tarred canvas, so that the rain could
not easily penetrate it. But he had, besides,
another place of refuge. The reader has al-
ready been informed that he had spread out
his tent in front of a cavity which appeared
in the centre of the hill. This cavity, though
not very deep, somewhat resembled the en-





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


trance to a cave. Crusoe undertook, with
the assistance of the tools he had brought
from the ship, to enlarge this hollow, so as to
convert it into a storehouse for such articles
as could not be deposited beneath his tent.
Time andpatience enabled him to accomplish
his object. But a particular circumstance
contributed to accelerate his labour:-one
day, during a severe storm, the lightning
seemed almost to have communicated with
his tent. Robinson Crusoe was less terrified
by the lightning than by a thought which
darted into his mind as swift as lightning it-
self. "Good Heaven !" said he, "all the
powder I brought from the ship is beneath
that tent. If the lightning should chance
to set it on fire in my absence, what would
become of me? Without my powder, how
can I defend myself? how can I provide for
my support when all my stock of provisions
is consumed ?" He then applied himself
with double industry to the completion of
his cave. The stone was soft, and was there-
fore easily hewn out, and in a very short
time he formed several small apartments,
taking care to leave, in addition to the sup-





ADVENTURES OF


ports which served as partitions, large masses
in the middle of every room to support the
weight of the vaults and roofs. He was
thus enabled to prevent the misfortune he
so much dreaded; for he distributed his
powder in a number of separate bags, so
that if, by any unforeseen accident, one por-
tion had exploded, the rest would have re-
mained uninjured.




CHAP. V.
INDUSTRY OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

ROBINSON CRUSOE set the higher value
on his gunpowder, for he had on several oc-
casions experienced its utility. It would
certainly not have been prudent to have con-
sumed all the provisions which he brought
from the vessel, before he thought of pro-
curing a fresh supply; consequently, he had
frequently suspended the occupation in
which he was so busily engaged, to wage
war against the animals of his island. The





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


first he killed was a species of sparrow-hawk,
the flesh of which was by no means agree-
able; but he was soon compensated by
meeting with a she-goat and her kid: their
flesh served to support him for a consider-
able time, and was a delicacy which in some
degree reconciled him to his solitude.
His situation was indeed a most hopeless
one; for, previous to the wreck, the ship
had been driven, by the violence of the storm,
far from the ordinary course of European
vessels, so that there appeared no proba-
bility of a termination of his exile. But even
in this forlorn state, he was not entirely be-
reft of consolation; others had been far
more unfortunate than he. "Well," he some-
times said, "my condition is indeed wretch-
ed; but where are my shipmates ? eleven
of us got into the cutter in the hope of row-
ing ashore: I alone was saved. It is doubtless
better to be here than at the bottom of the
sea; it is right to view things on the good
as well as the bad side; and the blessings I
enjoy should console me under the misfor-
tunes that afflict me." These reflections
were not a vague display of philosophy by





ADVENTURES OF


which Robinson Crusoe sought to impose
on himself; he was really beginning to en-
joy content of mind. This was evident from
the regularity which then began to prevail
in his daily avocations; for it is a most just
observation, that order in a house is the
surest sign of the contentment and tranquil-
lity of its occupants. He spent two or three
hours every morning in shooting, and then
worked until eleven. At noon, after having
dined, he lay down to rest for a couple of
hours in consequence of the heat of the cli-
mate, and he then resumed his work until
evening.
Having entirely finished his habitation, he
set about making different articles of furni-
ture. He began with such things he stood
most in need of. Those which he completed
first were a table and chair. He next employ-
ed himself in mounting a grinding-stone
which he had brought from the ship, and
which was indispensable for keeping his tools
in proper order. Scarcely a day elapsed on
which he did not form and execute some new
plan. He was not discouragedby difficulties;
he tried the same thing twenty times before





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


he gave it up, and would begin it forty times
rather than do it badly-unlike thoughtless
young persons, who, while studying the
sciences, or acquiring a profession amidst
all the comforts of life, are disheartened
by the slightest obstacle, and do things badly
for the sake of expedition.
The spirit of order essentially contributes
to our happiness, and Robinson Crusoe was
happy. He cheerfully went out in the morn-
ing to shoot, and returned with no less
satisfaction to his domestic labours; and
he was not without agreeable amusements.
His dog lay at his feet, and his parrot perched
on his shoulder; for he had lately surprised
a parrot in its nest, and it was now his con-
stant companion. Whilst he was at work,
he alternately conversed with his new friend,
and received the caresses of Faithful, who
was gay or sad, according as he saw his
master.
When evening approached, if he did not
feel inclined to lie down to rest, or if he had
any work to finish, he usually lighted his
lamp. This lamp was likewise the produc-
tion of his own hands. It was a little earthen





ADVENTURES OF


vase, which he had shaped as well as he
could, and afterwards dried in the sun. The
oil which burnt in it was merely the fat of
the animals he had killed, and pieces of
ravelled rope served for the wick.
The ease with which he had made this
lamp, together with some other vessels
which he had never yet placed on the fire,
induced him to undertake a task of the same
kind, but much more important, which cost
him a great deal more trouble. He was fond
of soup, and had tasted none since the ship-
wreck for want of a pan to make it in; en-
couraged by his first success in pottery, he
resolved to attempt making a pan. The ves-
sel was speedily shaped, and to dry it in
the sun took but little time. Enjoying in
anticipation the excellent meals with which
he might thus regale himself, Robinson
Crusoe eagerly placed his pan on the fire,
having previously filled it with water, and
some portion of the flesh of a goat which
he had newly killed. But, alas the unfor-
tunate pan did not long retain its situation:
it was no sooner heated by the action of the
fire, than it cracked and fell in two, and





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


the meat and soup were mingled with the
ashes. Robinson Crusoe reflected long on
this accident before he devised the means
of preventing its recurrence. One day,
having kindled a large fire for cooking his
meat, he found, whilst he was stirring up
his wood in the fire, a piece of the same
pan, which had been baked as hard as a
stone and perfectly red. At sight of this,
a light seemed suddenly to break upon him:
" Certainly," said he, my vessels may be
baked whole when they can be so well
baked in separate pieces; but how shall I
proceed?"-He had no idea of the kind of
oven used by potters, nor of the way in
which they varnish the earthen-ware; he
however knew that the lead which he had
brought from the ship would be useful for
the purpose. He accordingly ventured to
place one of his newly-made pans on a large
fire: the flames soon rose round it on every
side, and became entirely red. He trembled
lest it should go to pieces, and on reflecting,
he thought this very likely to happen if he
suffered the fire to abate too suddenly: after
having kept it up for about five or six hours
F





ADVENTURES OF


at the same degree of violence, he re-
duced it by degrees, until the pan became
so cool that he could take it up in his hand;
he then put it to the trial. It succeeded
beyond his expectations, and in a few
hours furnished him with some excellent
soup. He was overjoyed, and as heartily
congratulated himself as though he had
completed the most exquisite piece of
workmanship in the world.
By degrees his situation became more
and more supportable. Scarcely a day
elapsed in which he did not observe some
signal mark of the protection of Providence,
by leading him to discover some new source
of subsistence. He one day wanted some
bags for his gunpowder, and he shook at the
foot of the rock those which he had brought
from the ship; they had been used for hold-
ing corn to feed the fowls. He was not a
little surprised, some time afterwards, to
find ears of barley, corn and rice, springing
up on the spot where he had shook the bags.
He forgot the pains he had taken to clean
them before he applied them to a new pur-
pose. Struck with this unforeseen event,





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


he regarded it as a miracle which Heaven
had wrought in his favour, and, throwing
himself on his knees, he uttered transports
of gratitude towards the Deity. But when
he began to reflect on the circumstance, he
recollected the history of the bags, and
his pious gratitude to Heaven was soon at
an end; for superstition borders closely on
impiety. He did not reflect that it was only
through the guidance of Providence, that
he had scattered the corn on a part of the
ground that was shaded, instead of a spot
dried up by the sun; and instead of return-
ing thanks to Heaven for the blessing be-
stowed on him, he thought only of turning
it to the best advantage.
He had, on the preceding evening, been
lamenting his scanty store of biscuits, and
the necessity to which he was reduced of
consuming only a very small portion daily
until the moment when his stock should be
completely exhausted; but now his pre-
sumption and his hopes were boundless.
Without considering that his expectations
might be frustrated by the ordinary occur-
rences of nature, instead of praying that
r 2





ADVENTURES OF


Heaven would be pleased to bring to matu-
rity the seed he intended to sow, he was
already calculating the vast fields of corn
of which he would become the possessor,
and the granaries it would be necessary to
erect for storing the new riches, which would
every year increase a hundred-fold. It has
already been observed that Robinson Crusoe
was beginning to enjoy content of mind;
but the benign influence of religion had not
yet pervaded his heart. It is true he occa-
sionally repeated the name of the Almighty
through mere habit, but he constantly at-
tributed every thing to himself; and his ex-
traordinary success at length induced him to
believe that nothing was beyond his strength
and understanding. But the Sovereign of the
world severely punished this presumption,
which could only have arisen out of con-
tempt and neglect of his power; he prepared
for the ungrateful Robinson Crusoe a dread-
ful lesson, which for ever fixed him in the
path of duty.





ROBINSON C-RTJSOE.


CHAP. VI.

AN EARTHQUAKE.-ILLNESS OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

THE construction of his dwelling, together
with the skill and perseverance which had
been requisite to render it so extensive and
convenient, had excited the guilty vanity of
Robinson Crusoe; but Heaven thought fit
to make him sensible of his insignificance.
One day, whilst he was at work at the
back of his tent, the earth suddenly came
tumbling down from the edge of the hill
over his head, and two of the pillars he had
formed within the cavern, to support the
vault, fell with a tremendous crash. Not
knowing the real cause of this dreadful com-
motion, he supposed that part of the roof of
the cave had fallen in, which had happened
on a former occasion. He was afraid of being
buried beneath the pieces of rock, and there-
fore made all possible haste to reach his
ladder. But he had no sooner crossed to
the other side of his fence, than he clearly
perceived that all the disorder was occasioned





ADVENTURES OF


by an earthquake. The earth three times
trembled beneath his feet, and the shocks
were so violent that the strongest buildings
must have been thrown down. A great
piece of the top of the rock fell with a noise
like thunder. Robinson Crusoe had never
before seen or heard of any thing to equal
it: he stood motionless with terror; but
his horror was increased when he beheld that
part of the hill fall in which all his riches
were deposited. At that moment he knew
not whether a fresh shock might not have
taken place in the interior of his cavern,
and he dared not venture to approach it.
He was seated on the ground, dreading to
make the slightest motion, but ready to fly
in case of danger, and looking anxiously
round him on every side. The sky was
quickly overspread with thick clouds; the
wind gradually rose, and in the space of
half an hour increased to a furious hurricane.
The sea was at the same time covered with
white foam, the waves inundated the shore,
trees were torn up by the roots; in a word,
Robinson Crusoe witnessed all the horrors
of a dreadful tempest. A calm at length





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


succeeded, but it was accompanied by a
tremendous fall of rain; it poured in torrents.
He took refuge in his tent, for it was no
longer possible to brave the fury of the storm,
and there appeared no signs of a return of
the earthquake. But the rain soon pene-
trated the tent, and he was compelled to seek
shelter in his cavern, though he every mo-
ment expected it to fall in upon him. There
he spent the remainder of the day and the
following night, a prey to anxiety and terror.
When the return of fair weather enabled
him to quit the cavern, he began to inspect
his habitation and enclosure. One part of
his cavern was nearly filled with the masses
of stone which had been loosened by the
earthquake, and his tent had narrowly es-
caped being thrown down by a tree which
the torrent of rain had swept down from
the hill. All his hopes of reaping an abun-
dant harvest now vanished: for the corn,
rice, and barley he had sown were completely
washed into the sea.
He was deeply afflicted by the losses he
had sustained; but he did not recognize the
hand that struck him, nor pray that the





ADVENTURES OF


wrath of Heaven might be averted. He no
sooner recovered from the stupor occasioned
by the fatal event, than he resumed his con-
fidence and presumption. I have," said
he, lost all the seed I had planted round
my fence; but at the distance of a gunshot,
I possess an abundant crop, uninjured by
the storm. It has even been benefited by
the vast torrent of rain. My tent has been
nearly destroyed, and my cavern filled with
rubbish: but these hands which created all,
can likewise repair the damage and restore
every thing to order. If earthquakes render
this part of the island dangerous, I can fix
my abode in some other quarter, where I
shall possess as much skill and strength as
I do here."
This arrogant language did not pass un-
punished. Robinson Crusoe had not long
reason to congratulate himself on the abun-
dant crop which he possessed at a gunshot
from his habitation: the animals of the
island in their search for food had devoured
every ear of corn.
As to his hands, on which he so confident-
ly relied for repairing the ravages of the





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


storm, and transporting his abode to some
more favourable situation, sickness soon de-
prived them of strength.
He had felt unwell for several days, but
he sought to persuade himself that his illness
was merely temporary, and would be at-
tended by no serious consequences. One
morning, however, he was seized with a vio-
lent fever, and was unable to rise the whole
of the day. He remained for several days
in a state of extreme debility, just having
sufficient power to call on Heaven for suc-
cour. The Almighty answered his prayers
by the following dream. He was just re-
covering from the first fit of fever, when he
fancied he was seated on the ground, on the
outside of his fence, on the very spot where
he had sat during the storm which succeed-
ed the earthquake. He thought he beheld
a man armed with a lance, descending in a
thick black cloud, surrounded by flame.
His figure was dazzling as the sun; his
majestic and imposing countenance too awful
to be described. Robinson Crusoe made an
effort to rise; but he seemed rivetted to the
spot by some supernatural power. He be,





ADVENTURES OF


held the terrible phantom advance towards
him with the lance upraised, and in a voice
of thunder pronounced the following words:
" Since thou hast not been brought to re-
pentance by witnessing so many signs, thou
shalt die !" God is terrible and implacable
to those who forget his power; at least it
is in this point of view that they ever regard
him.
He started up overcome with terror. When
he had in some measure recovered, he began
to reflect on his dream in the hope of de-
stroying its fatal illusion: but his conscience
tormented him; he recollected all the bad
actions and evil sentiments which had drawn
down upon him the wrath of the Sovereign
Creator of the universe; the contempt he
had manifested for his father's counsels;
the affliction in which he had plunged his
family for the sake of following his own
foolish fancies; the criminal enterprise in
which he had been engaged when he was
cast on the desert island; finally, his ingra-
titude for the multiplied blessings which
Providence had bestowed on him since his
shipwreck; and, overcome with remorse, he








C~~tITS 01E. ~Lf4.


Roi scbson Crusoe readinym the Bible.

page 6o.

A ,I. m/ ].a. ": rzu'- .i8' v.f/7 Tr7-i, ('rnr e6' f tjs. "


; do.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


exclaimed, Oh! I have richly merited all
I suffer !"
In vain did he endeavour to set his mind
at ease and compose himself to rest; where-
ever he turned, the dreadful phantom was
before him; on whatever object he endea-
voured to fix his thoughts, they constantly
returned to the errors of his life and his
terrible dream. Not knowing what to do,
in a transport of violent agitation, he seized
a book which he had placed on a chair near
his bed, for the purpose of raising his lamp;
it proved to be a Bible: he opened, it and
with eager eyes glanced over several pages;
but his attention was soon arrested by the
following words, which seemed to have been
placed there expressly for his consolation:
-" Call upon me in the day of trouble, and
I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify
me." These words reminded Robinson
Crusoe that the God whom he had offended
was a merciful God; they relieved his af-
fliction, and diffused around his heart an
indescribable sentiment, which induced him
eagerly to continue reading the sacred vo-
lume. Every line furnished him with sbme





ADVENTURES OF


consolatory assurance; his countenance be-
came serene, and his eyes lost their wildness.
The sweet smile of hope soon played upon
his lips; he heaved a sigh, and raised his
hands to Heaven. At that moment the
enormity of his errors was once more present
to his recollection; his blood boiled in his
veins, and his heart swelled with despair.
But the Holy Scripture had enabled him to
seek resources against himself. Good
Lord !" he said, have mercy on me; Thou
wilt not forsake me Thou, who hast par-
doned so many faults for the sake of the
divine Redeemer of mankind !" He was so
weak that he could not continue kneeling;
he threw himself on his bed, addressing
fervent prayers to Heaven. Thus armed
with the shield of mercy, he gradually fell
asleep. His repose was tranquil, a smile oc-
casionally brightened up his countenance,
and he gently whispered the words : "Oh
Lord have mercy*on me; do not forsake
me!"





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


CHAP. VII.

RECOVERY OF ROBINSON CRUSOE; HE VISITS
DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE ISLAND.

ON the following day Robinson Crusoe
found himself considerably better; his fever
had greatly abated. The first thing he did
was to return thanks to God and to implore
his assistance : this contributed to relieve
his sufferings. Prayer is not merely the
most sacred of all duties, but it is the
sweetest pleasure and highest recreation to
those in whom it is the effect of enlightened
piety and not servile fear; it leaves their
minds in a state of confidence and resigna-
tion, and makes the cares of life weigh lightly
on them.
He was perfectly free of fever the whole
of the day; but, being apprehensive of a re-
lapse, he began to reflect on the means of
effectually removing it. He knew nothing
of pharmacy, and was not provided with any
kind of medicine; but he recollected that
the people of Brazil in disorders of every
G





ADVENTURES OF


description scarcely ever employ any other
medicine than tobacco. Robinson Crusoe
had in his possession a roll of the Brazilian
tobacco; but how was it to be applied? He
immediately began to make experiments in
several different ways. He first put one of
the leaves into his mouth; he then steeped
a leaf in some rum and took a dose of it be-
fore he lay down to rest; and, lastly, he burnt
a quantity of tobacco leaves on the fire, and
held his nose and mouth over the smoke as
long as he could, without incurring the risk
of suffocation.
Having continued using the tobacco in
this manner for several days, he became en-
tirely free of fever; but many weeks elapsed
before he recovered his strength. He was
well convinced of the benefit he would de-
rive from exercise in the open air, and he
took advantage of the first moments of his
convalescence to go out and walk.
His strength was quickly restored, and he
determined to satisfy the wish he had enter-
tained of taking a careful survey of his
island. He directed his course towards the
little bay where he had first landed with his





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


raft. He walked along the sea-shore, and
having proceeded about two miles ascend-
ing, he found that the tide ceased to flow,
and that there was merely a little rivulet,
the water of which was extremely clear and
fresh.
This rivulet watered several beautiful
meadows, which were level and covered with
grass. At some distance from the sea, the
ground rose in the form of an amphitheatre.
Tobacco was growing in abundance on the
hills, and Robinson Crusoe likewise observed
many other plants with which he was un-
acquainted. Alas," said he, these plants
perhaps possess properties as salutary as the
tobacco from which I have derived so much
benefit; but they are lost to me-my igno-
rance renders me incapable of applying them
to any useful purpose. If, during my youth,
I had devoted myself to the study of botany,
instead of wasting my time in idle amuse-
ments, I should now have been acquainted
with the virtues of these plants; for I recol-
lect having seen some of the same kind at
Brazil; but I trod them under foot without
even taking the trouble to inquire their
G 2





ADVENTURES OF


names." These reflections somewhat dis-
heartened our friend, and as night was ap-
proaching he returned to his habitation.
He walked out again on the following day;
he proceeded to a greater distance than be-
fore, and the discoveries he made inspired
him with fresh courage. On every side he
beheld trees loaded with various kinds of
fruit; the ground was covered with melons
and even luxuriant clusters of grapes were
hanging from the trees. With these exqui-
site productions of nature within his reach,
he would in all probability have plucked and
eat as many as he was able; but he recol-
lected that, when he was in Barbary, many
of the English slaves had died in conse-
quence of eating too freely of the fruits of
the country: he therefore checked his ap-
petite, justly reflecting that there is no salu-
tary food which may not become injurious if
taken in excess.
Robinson Crusoe, overjoyed at sight of
the abundance with which he was surround-
ed, still proceeded onward. Night, however,
soon overtook him, and as he was too far from
his habitation to think of returning, he





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


chose a resting-place similar to that which
had afforded him shelter when he first land-
ed on the island. He climbed up a thick
bushy tree, among the branches of which he
reposed until morning, and then resumed his
journey.
After walking for some time he reached
an extensive open country which appeared
*to descend in the direction of the west; a
little rivulet of fresh water, gushing from a
hill, flowed in a contrary direction, namely,
to the east: all this part of the island was
so verdant and blooming that it might have
been taken for a garden planted by human
hands, and it was easy to perceive that per-
petual spring prevailed there.
He descended a short way on the side of
this delicious valley, and chose a favour-
able point for surveying it at leisure. He
stood for some moments motionless with ad-
miration; and his sorrows were banished
by the gratifying reflection that all he saw
belonged to him alone; that he was lord
and absolute sovereign of this fertile region;
that he enjoyed a sacred right of possession,
and of transmitting it to his heirs as indis-
03





ADVENTURES OF


putably as though it were an English estate.
The cocoa-nuts, oranges, and citrons, were
not yet perfectly ripe; but he was amply
compensated by the abundance of fruit on
the lime-trees. The limes were not only
agreeable to eat, but their juice, when mixed
with water, formed a most refreshing beve-
rage.
Robinson Crusoe, like the ant, though in
the midst of abundance, thought of pro-
viding against want. He accordingly heaped
together a quantity of grapes, limes, and
lemons, and carried away some portion of
the fruit, intending to return as soon as
possible provided with a large bag, in which
he could convey the remainder. He then
proceeded to his habitation, overjoyed at
being thus enabled to lay in a store of pro-
visions against the rainy season.
But he did not foresee and provide against
every disaster. On his return he had the
mortification of seeing his grapes all spoiled,
divided, and scattered about, and a great
portion half eaten. He immediately con-
cluded that this mischief had been the work
of some of the wild animals in the neigh-





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


bourhood; and to prevent a recurrence of
such a misfortune, he hung on the branches
of the trees all the grapes he had gathered
and was unable to carry away. They were
then dried and baked in the sun, and became
very agreeable food.
As he walked along he contemplated
with admiration the fertility of the valley,
the charms of its situation, and the refuge
it would afford him in case of violent storms;
and he concluded that the spot on which he
had fixed his habitation was beyond all
doubt the very worst on the whole island.
These reflections naturally led him to form
the idea of removing to this fertile. and
agreeable valley, as soon as he could con-
struct a habitation as strong as the one he
possessed on the coast.
He had for a considerable time entertain-
ed this intention, so completely was he cap-
tivated by the beauty of the situation; but,
on more mature reflection, he began to con-
sider the advantages of his old abode, for
as long as he continued to live near the sea-
shore, there was at least a probability of
bome favourable circumstance transpiring;





ADVENTURES OF


whilst, on the other hand, if he retired to
the centre of the island, he abandoned all
chance of ever returning to Europe: he
therefore determined ultimately not to quit
his old habitation.
Nevertheless, he had become so attached
to the beautiful spot, that he set about
erecting a little bower, surrounding it by a
spacious enclosure, consisting of a double
hedge strongly staked. Here he occasion-
ally slept several nights together, crossing
and recrossing the hedge by means of a
ladder, the same way as at his old abode.
Thus he enjoyed the convenience of pos-
sessing two houses, one on the coast for
watching the arrival of vessels, and the
other in the country for gathering in his
harvest.
He had no sooner completed his fence
round this pleasant bower, than the heavy
rains drove him back to his fortress. For
the sake of amusement, as well as to employ
his time usefully whilst the bad weather
should keep him imprisoned, he began to
enlarge his cavern. He even succeeded in
digging completely through the rock, so as to





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


make an opening at the back of the fortifi-
cations. This was indeed rendering useless
all the precautions he had taken to prevent
his enclosure being entered, except with
the assistance of a ladder. But his fears "
gradually vanished; for he was now fully con-
vinced that the island was uninhabited.
The largest animal he had hitherto seen was
a goat, and he was not yet aware that tribes
of cannibals who inhabited the neighboring
islands, occasionally landed there to devour
their prisoners.
The 30th of September was the anniver-
sary of the fatal day on which he had been
cast on the island. He had formed for him-
self a singular kind of calendar. Ten or
twelve days after his shipwreck he fixed up
a large square post on the sea-shore, on
which he cut with his knife the following
words :-" I landed on this island on the 30th
" of September 1659.' He every day cut
a notch on this post; at the conclusion of
a week he made the notch double the usual
size, and he marked the months by a still
larger one. Having consulted his almanack
at the period above-mentioned, he found he





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had lived exactly three years on the island.
He had now become a strict observer of his
Christian duties; he therefore celebrated
the day by a solemn fast, devoting it to re-
ligious exercises, humbly prostrating him-
self before God, and acknowledging his
righteous judgment upon him.
He had the more reason to congratulate
himself on having invented this mode of cal-
culating time, for the ink which he had
brought from the ship was now completely
exhausted; so thathewouldhave been thrown
into a state of great embarrassment had he
trusted to keeping his calculationsby writing.
He had moreover gradually become inured
to the climate of his island. He was no
longer taken unawares either by the rainy
or the dry season; and the experience he
had acquired in this particular enabled him
easily to repair the losses he had sustained
through his imprudence at the period when
the earthquake took place. He had now
only a very small quantity of barley, rice,
and corn, and that little he could not sow
for want of instruments to dig and prepare
the ground. Had he ventured to sow his




$I0BINSON CRUSOE.


seed at the commencement of the dry season,
it would infallibly have been lost; he there-
fore sowed it in February, a short time be-
fore the vernal equinox, that is to say, before
the commencement of the heavy rains in
his island. His seed being well watered
during the months of March and April,
sprung up abundantly and yielded a plenti-
ful crop. By thus calculating the period
most favourable for sowing, he in course of
time regularly gathered two harvests every
year.
He succeeded, after considerable trouble
and perseverance, in making a wooden spade;
and with this instrument, though not the
most convenient, he dug up the ground and
prepared it for sowing his seed.
When his corn was perfectly ripe, he cut
it with a sabre which he had converted into
a scythe. The birds would willingly have
spared him this trouble, and they at first
committed terrible ravages among his corn.
Robinson Crusoe knew not how to get rid
of them: at length he determined to try the
experiment of tying to a stake three or four
of the birds which he had shot. This an-





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swered the purpose of a scarecrow, and pro-
duced the best effect imaginable; he had
no longer occasion to dread the ravages of
the feathered tribe: but vast numbers of
quadrupeds, such as goats, which were very
common on the island, shewed a great incli-
nation to devour the corn as soon as it
sprouted from the ground. But after the
first attack, he enclosed his corn within a
hedge and stationed his dog to guard it;
Faithful took especial care to suffer no living
creature, except his master, to encroach
within the boundary.
But our friend had many difficulties to
surmount before he could enjoy the comfort
of eating bread. He wanted a mill to grind
his corn, a sieve to prepare his flour, and
to separate it from the husks and bran, and
finally an oven to bake his bread in after it
should be made. Though he was unable to
procure all these conveniences, he deter-
mined, if possible, to contrive substitutes for
them; and in this he succeeded.
A stone mortar, to pound or bruise his
corn, was the object to which he first turn-
ed his attention; for a mill, with all its com-




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


plicated machinery, was a thing which he
could never hope to complete. He searched
about for a long time before he found a stone
sufficiently large to convert into a mortar;
and he was at last obliged to have recourse
to a block of strong wood, which he first
shaped with his hatchet, and then made the
hollow by burning. The pestle was easily
provided: for that purpose he procured a
piece of the hard and heavy kind of wood,
called iron-wood.
He made a sieve by stretching out two
cotton handkerchiefs in a frame.
With regard to an oven, Robinson Crusoe
spent a long time in contriving one. At
length he adopted the following ingenious
expedient: He made several earthen vessels,
.tolerably wide and rather shallow: that is to
say, they might be about two feet in dia-
meter, and about.nine inches deep; and he
hardened them by his fire. Whenever he
wished to bake bread, he began by heating
his oven, which was paved with square tiles.
When the firewood was nearly reduced to
.embers or live coals, he carefully spread it
out, so as to make it cover every part of his
H





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oven. After allowing it to remain for a few
minutes he swept it entirely away, and
placed his dough in the oven, which he im-
mediately covered over with one of the
earthen pots before described; he then con-
centrated the heat by heaping burning wood
and ashes round the oven. In this manner
he baked his bread as well as in the best
oven in the world. Not content with this,
he occasionally exerted his skill in making
pastry, and baked several cakes of rice.
In the meanwhile he had collected at his
farm a flock of goats and kids, which sup-
plied him with as much milk and meat as
he could possibly consume: he thus pos-
sessed an abundance of every thing neces-
sary for his existence.
He at first experienced considerable diffi-
culty in catching the goats and kids. He
spread out nets, but this method proved in-
effectual; for the animals, after eating the
food which had been placed to decoy them,
broke the nets and made their escape.
He next tried cages; but they likewise
proved unsuccessful. At length he had re-
course to traps; but even then he almost





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


despaired of success: however, by degrees,
he brought them to perfection, and they
completely answered his purpose. One
morning he found in one of the traps an old
goatofanextraordinarysize; and, in another,
three kids, one male and two females.
The old goat was so fierce, that Robinson
Crusoe knew not what to do with him. He
dared not venture to take him from the cage
dive. He might easily have killed him;
but why should he have done so? God per-
mits mankind to convert the flesh of other
animals into food; but only barbarians take
delight in inflicting useless torments. He
accordingly unfastened the trap and set the
goat at liberty.
For the kids, he tied them all three to-
gether with a piece of rope, and led them
to his house.
Some time elapsed before he could induce
them to eat; but, tempted by the corn which
he placed before them, they soon began to
eat and grow tame.
He next formed a kind of park to inclose
them in. This was a piece of ground, about
one hundred and twenty yards long, and two
n 2





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hundred broad, which he surrounded with a
hedge. There his prisoners throve and
multiplied so rapidly, that in about a year
and a half he had a flock of twelve kids,
male and female.





CHAP. VIII.

GREAT LABOURS 1I:STOWED BY ROBINSON CRUSOE
MAKING A BOAT.--HE PROVIDES HIMSELF WITH
IRESII CLOTHES.

ALL these advantages could not make
the unfortunate Robinson Crusoe forget the
beloved country which had given him birth,
and those who, more fortunate than he, still
resided in it. To be deprived of all com-
munication with mankind, and perhaps for
ever, was a dreadful reflection; and, though
he endeavoured to banish it from his mnid,
yet he continually sighed for an opportunity
of again associating with his fellow-creatures.
Religion, to which he was now sincerely de-




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


voted, taught him the duty of suffering his
misfortunes with patience and resignation;
yet to cherish such a wish was by no means
contrary to religion. That mother of the
civilized world delights in seeing mortals
united by social bonds: her first care is to
teach them to live together, to afford each
other mutual assistance; and false devotion
can alone reconcile itself to retirement. But
Robinson Crusoe's wishes were not always
purified by the divine light of wisdom, and
he occasionally formed ridiculous plans and
impracticable enterprises.
From this bower, which was situated on a
point of land bordering on the sea, he
thought he one day perceived land, at a dis-
tance of about fifteen leagues: this was, to
all appearance, a part of America; and, after
some time spent in reflecting on the subject,
he concluded that it must border on the
Spanish Colonies, and was perhaps inhabit-
ed by savages, who, had he landed there,
would doubtless have subjected him to a
more deplorable fate than he now had to
complain of. He soon, however, began to
think on the means of reaching this land.
H3




ADVENTURES OF


He began by examining the cutter of the
vessel, which, after the shipwreck, had been
carried far in upon the shore, and tossed up-
side down. It might have answered for the
execution of his project, if he had had some
one to assist him in launching it: but for
Robinson Crusoe to repair it and get afloat
merely by his own strength, was as great an
impossibility as to move the island. He
nevertheless attempted it, and went into the
woods, where he cut down some wood for le-
vers and rollers, which he dragged to the
boat, convinced that if he could once extri-
cate her from the sand, it would not be dif-
ficult to repair the damage she had sustained,
and to render her a good boat, in which he
might put to sea without the least fear.
He spent not less than three or four weeks
in this fruitless labour. At length, finding
his strength insufficient to heave up the boat,
he began to dig away the sand, with a view
to undermine it, and so to make the boat
fall, placing, at the same time, several pieces
of wood to guide it, and make it fall straight.
But this plan was no more successful than
the other.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


It afforded him a useful lesson: but this
proved insufficient; and it was followed by
a second. It is madness to struggle with in-
surmountable obstacles; and if we were only
aware how much labour and vexation incon-
siderate actions bring upon us, we should
certainly never attempt any thing without
deliberately reflecting on it. "Well," said
Crusoe, I must at last abandon this boat;
but if I could only make a canoe of the trunk
of a tree, like those used by the original in-
habitants of this part of the world !" And,
losing sight of every difficulty, except that
of shaping the trunk of a tree into a boat-
forgetting that, unless he made this canoe
on the sea-shore, he could no more launch
it than the boat belonging to the ship-he
began to cut down a cedar in the neighbour-
ing forest, leaving a piece of rising ground
between the sea-shore and the place where
he worked at his boat.
He had made choice- of an exceedingly
fine cedar: the trunk was about five feet ten
inches in diameter. Before he succeeded in
bringing it to the ground, he was employed
nearly twenty hours, cutting and hacking at





ADVENTURES OF


the roots. It cost him fifteen hours' labour
to lop off the branches, and to saw away its
vast spreading head. To shape and plane it
proportionally, so that it might float well,
was the work of another month.
Three months were scarcely sufficient for
completing the inside, and working the hol-
low in such way as to render it a perfect
boat. But at length he found himself in
possession of a very fine boat, large enough
to carry twenty-six men, and consequently
sufficient for him and all his cargo.
Delighted at the thought of having made
this little vessel, Crusoe fancied himself row-
ing across the sea. Nothing was now want-
ing but to launch it.
The first obstacle that presented itself
was the little hill which rose between the
shore and the spot he had chosen to work on.
But he was not dismayed by this obstacle:
he resolved to level the hill by means of
his spade. But when, after infinite labour,
he overcame this difficulty, he found it quite
as impracticable to move the boat as the
cutter belonging to the ship.
He then measured the ground, and deter-




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


mined on digging a canal, so that the water
might come up to his canoe, since he could
find no other means of launching it. But
having calctIalyed the depth and breadth of
this canal, and finding that it would take full
ten years' labour and perseverance before he
could finish it, he deserted the unlucky ca-
noe, shedding tears of vexation for his own
want of foresight.
But he did not long deplore his misfor-
tune. Though, on this last occasion, he had
not succeeded very well as a carpenter, he
resolved to try his skill at tailors' work. His
clothes were beginning to rot; and, however
warm it might be in his island, he could not
entirely dispense with clothes; for in that
case he would have suffered severely from
the heat of the sun. Joining all his rags to-
gether, he contrived, after a great deal of
pains, to make himself a kind of loose jacket,
and two or three new waistcoats.
It now struck him that the skins of the
animals he had killed might become useful
materials for making clothes: he had a con-
siderable quantity carefully laid by, and he
first made himself a cap, turning the fur




M ADVENTURES OF

outside, and afterwards a waistcoat and a
pair of pantaloons.
He had long wished to make an umbrella
of such a size as would effectually protect
him against the sun and the rain; for in those
countries it is highly dangerous to be ex-
posed to either.
But this was an undertaking that cost him
more labour than all the rest. He made
several unsuccessful trials, for he wanted an
umbrella to open and shut as he might find
it convenient. At length he succeeded in
making one, and covered it with skins.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


CHAP. IX.

ROBINSON CRUSOE SUCCEEDS IN LAUNCHING HIS BOAT,
AND DETERMINES TO SAIL ROUND HIS ISLAND.

RoBINsoN CRUSOE had not entirely re-
nounced the intention of making a boat
which might, one day or other, enable him
to sail from his island: but, profiting by
experience, he now set to work more pru-
dently. He made choice of a smaller tree,
and took care that the ground should be
perfectly level between the spot where he
felled it and the shore.
The boat being finished, he dug a canal,
about six feet deep and four wide, in order
to get it out to sea. This last undertaking
cost him two years' labour.
But another difficulty now arose. The
boat was at best only a frail skiff, and on
seeing it launched, he was well convinced it
would never enable him to perform the voy-
age he had so long meditated. But it was too
disheartening to think that all the labour
he had bestowed on it should be thrown





ADVENTURES OF


away, and he therefore resolved to sail round
his island.
This was another imprudent undertaking;
for, as he was entirely unacquainted with the
coast, he exposed himself to the greatest dan-
ger by venturing in the boat. But that did
not deter him from making the attempt.
At the eastern extremity of the island
there was a great ledge of rocks, which pro-
jected about two miles into the sea; some
above water, and some below it. At the ex-
tremity of these rocks there was, besides, a
great dry sand-bank about half a mile long;
so that, in order to double this point, it was
necessary to sail to a considerable distance
out at sea.
He had not proceeded very far on his ex-
pedition, when he found himself in a furious
current. This current, which flowed out to
sea, carried him along with such force that
he found it impossible to keep his boat near
the shore. There was no wind stirring, and
all his efforts to guide the boat proved use-
less. He gave himself up for lost. All the
provisions he carried along with him con-
sisted in an earthen vessel filled with water,





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


and a large tortoise. How easily," said
..he, can Providence augment our misfor-
tunes, even when our situation seems most
deplorable !"
He now looked back upon his island as
.though it had been the most delightful spot
in the world. All the happiness he could
wish for was tobe there again. "Ohhappy
desert !" he exclaimed, shall I never see
.thee more? Wretch that I am! it was the
fatal restlessness of my disposition that in-
duced me to abandon the charming retreat;
but now, what would I give to be ashore
again !"
It is impossible to describe the horrors of
.his situation. He exerted all his strength
to manage the boat, and to endeavour to re-
sist the current which bore him along; but
he relinquished all hope of preservation, for
he was already so far from the island that it
was no longer visible, and, to complete his
misfortune, he had left his compass ashore.
But a smart breeze of wind unexpectedly
.arose from the south-south-east, and once
more inspired him with hope and courage.
.It became by degrees more and more favour-
I





ADVENTURES OF


able, and soon enabled him to land on the
northern extremity of the island, exactly op-
posite to the point at which he had set out.
When he got ashore, he fell on his knees,
kissed the ground, and returned thanks to
Heaven for the unexpected aid he had re-
ceived.
His feelings, at this moment, were like
those of a man receiving a pardon at the
very instant when he was about to be led to
execution; or one unexpectedly rescued,
when on the point of falling a victim to the
fury of assassins.
He was overcome with fatigue; and having
guided his boat up a little creek shaded by
thick trees, where it could remain con-
cealed and in perfect safety, he hastened to
his bower, from which he knew he was at
no great distance. He soon reached it, and
without taking the trouble to prepare a bed
for himself, he lay down to rest beneath the
shade of his hedge.
It was not long before he fell into a sound
sleep; but what was his astonishment on be-
ing awakened by a voice calling him by his
name, Robinson Crusoe !-Poor Robin-





ROBINSON CRUSOE. 87

son Crusoe !-where are you ?-where have
you been?"-He heard these words pro-
nounced several times over; at first not very
distinctly, for he was so fatigued that he
did not immediately awake.
At length he rose, filled with terror and as-
tonishment; but the sight of his parrot soon
banished his alarm. The bird had escaped
from its cage during his absence, and at
sight of his master it perched on the hedge
and addressed to him the questions above
mentioned. When observed by Robinson
Crusoe, the parrot flew upon his finger, and,
as if delighted at seeing him again, repeated
the words that awoke him.





ADVgNTURiES OF


CHAP. X.

ROBINSON CRUSOE RETURNS TO HIS CAVE AND RE-
SUMES HIS WORK.-HIS DOG DIES.-HE SEES THE
PRINT OF A FOOT ON THE SAND, AND FINDS THE
REMAINS OF A CANNIBAL FEAST.

RoBINSON CRUSOE returned to his dwell-
ing on the sea-shore not very much satisfied
with the voyage he had attempted, and re-
sumed his domestic labours, at which he
daily became more -and more expert. He
made a hoop, which enabled him to give a
more perfect form to his earthen vessels,
which were before extremely clumsy; he
moreover succeeded in making a pipe, which
pleased him exceedingly, as he was particu-
larly found of smoking.
At length he met with a tree, the branches
of which were as flexible as the willow: he
made them into baskets, which, though ill-
formed, were nevertheless extremely useful.
Every thing was now prospering both in
his fortress and his bower, and, in proportion
as he abandoned all expectation of ever de-
parting from his island, he became more
and more reconciled to his fate. But ere




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