• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Robinson Crusoe
 List of plates
 Advertising






Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
CITATION PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072750/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: iv, 242 p. : ill. ; 16 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Youngman, P ( Printer )
Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy ( Publisher )
Publisher: Printed for Baldwin, Craddock, & Joy
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: P. Youngman
Publication Date: 1818
Edition: A new ed., corr. and improved.
 Subjects
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1818   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1818   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
England -- Maldon
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: originally written by Daniel De Foe ; revised for the use of young persons.
General Note: Includes publisher's advertisement, 3 p. following text.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072750
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05965182

Table of Contents
    Frontispiece
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
    Preface
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 10a
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 26a
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 42a
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 46a
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 116a
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 138a
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 148a
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 158a
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 170a
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 176a
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 196a
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 214a
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 220a
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 228a
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 232a
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
    List of plates
        Page 243
    Advertising
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
Full Text






"I :-*


~-~--


V


Zrabort SzA 0


J 29, IN 0 "Y' r, 7 AK P-7 /Cl z"'All,


N






THE LIFE

AND


ADVENTURES

OF


ROBINSON CRUSOE,

ORIGINALLY WRITTEN

BY DANIEL DE FOE.



REVISED FOR THE USE OF YOUNG PERSONS,
And illustrated with
Sixteen Coppersplatso.



A mw edition, corrected and improved.



LONDON:
PRINTED FOR BALDWIN, CRADOCK, AND JOY,
47, PATERNOSTER ROW.


1818.










ADVERTISEMENT.


NOTWITHSTANDING the acknowledged merit
of DE FOE's interesting narrative of the Adven-
tures of Robinson Crusoe, it will be admitted,
that, as he did not address it expressly to Young
Persons, it must contain many things which are
not well adapted to an early age, and which,
when read by them, it were better should be
omitted. At the same time, no book lays such
strong hold on the curiosity of Youth as this
narrative; and many eminent writers have strongly
recommended it, as deserving a preference over
every other human production, on account of the
lively picture it conveys of man residing in a
state of nature, and of the means necessary
to attain a state of enjoyment and easy sub-
sistence.
The design of the Editor, therefore, has been,





iv ADVERTISEMENT.

to render a book possessing such claims to po-
pularity as unexceptionable as possible. He has
at the same time preserved the spirit of the
narrative; and, he believes, the story will not
be found to have lost any of its interest from
the verbal alterations which he has judged it
necessary to make.


LONDON,
June 4, 1813.












ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.




I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of
York, of wealthy and respectable parents. My
father intended to educate me for the profession
of the law; but I, unfortunately, acquired so
earnest a desire for going to sea, that not even
the commands of my father, the entreaties of my
mother, nor the remonstrances of my other
friends, could induce me entirely to conquer
my childish propensity.
For some time, indeed, after I first made my
inclination known, the calm and steady advice
of my father, which was accompanied with tears
of affection, so wrought upon me, that I resolved





ADVENTURES OF


not to think any more of going to sea, and to
conform myself to the affectionate wishes of my
parents: but, about twehe months afterwards,
going by chance to Hull, I there met with a
former school-fellow, the son of a sea-captain,
who, unfortunately for me, was then going to
London in his father's ship. This lad, not more
wise or prudent than myself, persuaded me to go
to sea with him, which I, like an undutiful, un-
grateful son, consented to do; and, without more
consideration, abandoned my comfortable home,
and embarked on the first of September, leaving
my parents in utter ignorance what wag become
of me.
Scarcely had we put to sea when a violent
storm arose. I was also excessively sea-sick;
and in the midst of my pain and terror, I re-
pented bitterly of my folly, and made many good
resolutions for the government of my future con-
duct.
It was now that my want of duty, and my
ingratitude to the best of parents, wrung my
heart; yet, no sooner was the storm over, and
my sickness abated, than the raillery of my com-
panion, the captain's son, chased away all my
good resolutions: I became both satisfied with






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


my situation, and forgot the anguish which my
excellent parents were enduring for my sake.
On the sixth day of our being at sea, we came
into Yarmouth Roads, and the wind being con-
trary, we were obliged to cast anchor there. The
wind continued during four or five days to blow
very hard; but the sailors, thinking themselves as
secure as if they were at anchor in a harbour, spent
the time merrily. On the eighth day, however,
it blew a terrible storm indeed, and I beheld ter-
ror and amazement in every countenance. The
sea ran mountains high, and broke upon us every
three or four minutes. The seamen were conti-
nually exclaiming that the ship would founder.
I did not know what they meant by founder, and
no one had leisure or composure enough to give
me any information. In the middle of the night
one of the men cried out that we had sprung a
leak, and all hands were called to the pump. I
heard the master express this melancholy ejacu-
lation, Lord have mercy upon us, we shall be
all lost and undone!" At that dreadful sound
I fell backwards upon the bed where I was sit-
ting; but the men soon roused me, and drove
me to the pump, saying, that if I could not






ADVENTURES OF


do any thing else, I was as able to pump as
another.
The captain, meanwhile, ordered guns to be
fired, as signals of distress, and a ship at some
distance ventured to send out her boat to our
assistance. It was with the greatest danger
and difficulty that the boat could come near
us; but the sailors ventured their lives to save
ours; and we had not been more than a quarter
of an hour out of our ship, when we saw her sink
with her whole cargo on board.
The boat struggled many hours with the wind
and waves before she reached the shore. At
length, however, we got Safe to land, and tra-
velled on foot to Yarm'-ith, where the magis-
trates and inhabitants pitied our destitute condi-
tion; and having lodged and fed us for a few
days, they gave us money to carry us either to
London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense and goodness to have
gone home again, I should have been happy, and
my father would have been spared the misery of
supposing I had perished; for it was some time
before he had any assurance of my having es-
caped drowning in the ship that had foundered at





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


sea. But false shame withheld me from doing
my duty: for it occurred to me that I should be
laughed at among my neighbours and friends:
and thus, like many other foolish young people,
I was ashamed to repent, though I had not been
ashamed to sin.
The evil influence which first carried me away
from my father's house hurried me on with the
wild notion of making my fortune. I travelled
to London, and soon got acquainted with the
master of a vessel bound to the coast of Africa,
or, as sailors call it, to the coast of Guinea.
With this captain I engaged to go to Africa;
and having written to some of my friends, who,
I suppose, prevailed on my father or mother to
contribute something towards my purchasing
what was necessary for my voyage, I had 401.
remitted to me, and bought with it such toys and
articles as the captain told me I might barter
with the natives for gold dust.
My voyage was a very successful one: for I
brought home nearly 3001. in gold dust, and had
learned from the captain, who took great pleasure
in giving me instruction, the arts of navigation
and mathematics. He also treated me as his
son, and had he lived he would have prevailed
B3






ADVENTURES OF


on me to return to my parents; but scarcely had
the ship reached the port of London, when my
good friend, the captain, died, and his mate suc-
ceeded to the command of the vessel. Deter-
mined to pursue the course which had hitherto
proved so fortunate, I laid out 1001. in articles
for traffic, depositing the other 2001. in the hands
of my friend, the captain's widow, and set sail a
second time for the coast of Guinea.
Our ship steering towards the Canary Islands,
unfortunately fell in with a Turkish rover off
Sallee: an obstinate engagement ensued; but
the pirates being superior in number, we were
compelled at length to yield, and were carried
prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the
Moors. I was kept by the captain of the rover
as his own slave; but the rest of the company
were carried up the country to the emperor's
palace.
When my new master went to sea again he
left me on shore to do the usual drudgery of
slaves about his house and garden, and when
he came home from his cruise I was sent on
board the vessel to clean and look after the ship.
Many a sleepless night I spent in that cabin,
mourning over my hard fate in being condemned






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


to perpetual slavery, from which I saw no likeli-
hood of escaping.
As I was young and active my master foui d
me constant employment, and made me assist in
building a little cabin in the middle of the long
boat belonging to our English ship, which he was
now fitting up for a pleasure-boat. We fre-
quently went out to fish in this boat; and one
day my master ordered us to have every thing
clean, and fit for the accommodation of several
of his friends, who were going on a party of
pleasure with him.
Three fusees, with powder and ball, a case of
liquors, and a quantity of provisions, were sent
on board the boat on the appointed day, and I,
a Moorish slave, and a boy, were lying on our
oars, waiting the arrival of the company, when
our master came to the beach in great haste, and
ordered us to row out into the bay to catch some
fish as expeditiously as possible, as his guests
were not going to sail that day, but were to sup
at his house with other company.
At this moment the hope of making my escape
darted into my mind. Beside the liquor and
provision on board, I knew there was plenty of
twine in a locker, with a hatchet, a saw, and a






ADVENTURES OF


hammer. The wind blew contrary to my wishes;
but I was resolved, blow which way it would, to
be gone from slavery.
After we had fished some time, and caught
nothing, (for when I had fish on my hook I
would not pull them up), I said to the Moor, this
will not do; we must go farther out to sea. The
Moor made no objection; and having run out a
league, I gave the boy the helm, and stept for-
ward to where the Moor was busied with his fish-
ing tackle, and making as if I stooped to pick up
something behind him, I took him by surprise,
and tossed him overboard.
He rose immediately, (for lie swam like a
cork), and begged to be taken in again; but I
presented a gun, and said, Moloy, I intend you
no harm, if you will not come near the boat;
make the best of your way to the shore: I know
you can reach it with ease. But if you persist
in following me, I will shoot you through the
head; for I am resolved to have my liberty. So
he turned round, and swam as fast as possible to
regain the shore.
I was under the necessity of serving the Moorish
slave thus, for I knew he was not to be trusted;
Xury, the boy, was an innocent, faithful, well-






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


meaning lad; and I knew he would be both use-
ful and faithful to me.
After sailing five days I believed myself to be
safe from pursuit, and ventured near the coast,
and cast anchor near the mouth of a little river.
I could not tell what latitude or what country we
were in. My aim in coming to the shore was
to get fresh water, and as soon as it was dark I
intended swimming on shore for that purpose;
but no sooner was the day closed, than we heard
the most dreadful roaring and howling of wild
beasts. Xury was excessively frightened, and
indeed so was I; but our fears greatly increased
when we heard one of these hideous creatures
come swimming towards our boat. We could not
see him, yet by his blowing we knew him to be a
huge and furious beast. I fired at him, upon which
he turned about and swam to the shore again,
howling most horribly. We no longer thought
of going on shore: but in the morning we found
that the water at the mouth of the river was
fresh, as the sea tide was out; so, having filled
our jar, we again set sail.
After coasting several days longer, we came
again to an anchor under a little point of land,
where Xury presently discovered a monstrous





10 ADVENTURES OF

lion, lying on the side of ofa hillock, fast asleep.
I loaded two of my guns, and firing the first, ex-
pected to have shot him dead; but my aim was
not a good one, for I only wounded him, and
broke one of his legs. He attempted to rise,
but instantly dropped with the most dreadful
roar I ever heard. As he lay struggling for life,
and uttering deep groans, Xury leaped into the
water, with the small gun in his hand, and com-
ing close to the lion, put the muzzle of the gun
to his ear, and fired into his head, which put
him in a moment quite out of his misery. But,
alas! the flesh of a lion was no food for us; and
I was sorry to have wasted my powder and shot,
I resolved, however, to have his skin; and hav-
ing got off his hide, we dried it in the sun, and
it served me to lie upon.
After this we bore away to the southward, and
with all the care I had taken of our provisions,
they were nearly exhausted, and I began to fear
we should perish for want of food, when we came
once more in sight of land, and perceived, as we
came nearer the shore, that it was inhabited by
negroes, who were all perfectly naked. We were
afraid to land among these people, who came in
crowds to the beach to look at us; but we made








<7Y/rfcwC.


Ln;n~, .*Aun~~~? /~c-i
I.onolorr P~h.JirLgP rBo5 bT~hrrlt 8 C'P





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


signs that we wanted something to eat, upon
which two of them ran away, and presently re-
turned with a piece of dried flesh and some
corn: these they brought to the edge of the
water, and then retired to a distance, (for they
were as much afraid of us as we were of them),
while Xury swam to the shore and brought it to
the boat.
We made signs of thanks, for we had nothing
to give in return, when presently two wild beasts
sprung from a neighboring thicket, pursuing
each other with the utmost fury. The negroes
fled with great precipitation; but the creatures,
intent only upon each other, plunged into the
sea. I seized upon my gun and fired upon the
first. He immediately made for the shore, but
died before he reached it.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of
the poor negroes at the noise and fire of my gun:
but when they saw the creature actually dead,
their astonishment gave place to joy. It was a
beautifully spotted leopard. I gave the flesh to
the negroes, who are very fond of it, but kept
the skin for myself. Having got some more corn
and some water from them, we again put to sea,
and beat about during eleven days without offer-





ADVENTURES OF


ing to go near the shore. I now grew very pen-
sive, and was one morning meditating on my
misfortunes, when Xury suddenly cried out,
" Master, master; a ship with a sail!" And the
foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, think-
ing it must needs be one of his master's ships
sent to pursue us; but I knew we were got
far enough out of the reach of the Moors. I
jumped up, and immediately saw that it was a
Portuguese ship; and, as I thought, bound to
the coast of Guinea for negroes. But when I
observed the course she steered, I was soon
convinced they were bound some other way,
and did not design to come any nearer to the
shore; upon which I stretched out to sea as much
as I could, resolving to speak with them if pos-
sible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I
should not be able to come in their way, but
that they would be gone by before I could make
any signal to them; but after I had crowded m,
utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems,
saw, by the help of their perspective-glasses,
that it was some European boat, which they
supposed must belong to some ship that was
lost; so they shortened sail and lay by for





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


me, and in about three hours' time I came up
with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and
in Spanish, and in French, but I understood
none of those languages; but at last, a Scots
sailor, who was on board, called to me, and I
answered him, and told him 1 was an English-
man, and that I had made my escape out of
slavery from the Moors of Sallee: they then bid
me come on board, and very kindly took me in,
and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, as any one
will believe, that I was delivered from such a mi-
serable and almost hopeless condition. I imme-
diately offered all I had to the captain of the ship,
as a return for my deliverance; but he generous-
ly told me, he would take nothing from me, but
that all I had should be delivered safe to me when
I came to the Brasils. For," says he, I have
saved your life on no other terms, than as I would
be glad to be saved myself; and it may one time
or other be my lot to be taken up in the same con-
dition: besides," observed he, when I carry you
to the Brasils, so far from your own country, if
I should take from you what little you have, you
will be starved there, and then I only take away
C





ADVENTURES OF


that life I have gien. No," said he, Senhor
Liglese (Mr. Englishman), I will carry you thi-
ther in charity; and those things you have will
help you to buy subsistence there, and your pas-
sage home again.
As lie was charitable in this proposal, so was
he just in the performance to a tittle; for he or-
dered that none of the seamen should offer to
touch any thing I had; he took every thing into
his owni possession, and gave me back an exact
inventors of them, that I might have them again
wlien we came to land, even so much as my three
earthen jars.
As to my boat, lie saw it was a very good one,
and told me he would buy it from me for the ship's
use, and asked me what I would have for it. I
told him he had been so generous to me in every
thing, that I could not offer to make any price of
the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which
lie told me he would give me a note of hand to
pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at the Bra-
sils; and when it came there, if any one offered
to give more, lie would make it up; he offered
me also sixty pieces of eight for my boy Xury,
which I was loath to take; not that I was unwil-
ling to let the captain have him, but I was very






ROBINSON CRUSOIE.


loath to sell the poor boy's liberty, wdho had as-
sisted me so faithful in procuring my own.
However, when I let him know my reason, he
owned it to be just, and offered me this medium,
that he would give the boy an obligation to set
him free in ten years, if lie turned christian.
Upon this, and Xury saying lie was willing to go
to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brasils, and
arrived in the bay de Todos los Santos, or All
Saints Bav, in twenty-two days after. And now
I was once more delivered from the most misera-
ble of all conditions of life; and what to do next
with myself I lhad still to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me,
I can never enough remember: he would take
nothing from me for my passage, gave me twenty
ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty for the
lion's skin, which I had in my boat, and caused
every thing I had to be punctually delivered to
me, and what I was willing to sell, he bought.
In short, I made about two hundred and twenty
pieces of money of all my cargo, and with this
stock I went on shore in the Brasils.
The captain recommended me to the house of
a good honest man like himself, who had an in-
C 2






ADVENTUREsI O


genio, as they call it, that is, a plantation and a
sugar-house. I lived with him some time, and
acquainted myself with the manner of their plant-
ing and making of sugar; and seeing how the
planters lived, and that they grew rich, I resolved,
if I could get a license to settle there, I would
turn planter among them; intending, in tie mean-
time, to find out some wav to get my money,
which I had left in London, remitted to me. For
this purpose I got a letter of naturalization,
purchasing as much land that was uncultivated
as my money would reach; and formed a plan of
my plantation and settlement, such a one as might
be suitable to the stock which I proposed to re-
ceive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon,
but born of English parents, whose name was
Wells, and in nuch such circumstances as I was:
I call him neighbour, because his plantation lay
next to mine; and we went on verve sociable to-
gether: imy stock was but low as well as his; and
wve rather planted for food than any thing else,
for about two years. However, we began to in-
crease, and our land to come into order: so that
the third year we planted some tobacco, and
made each of us a large piece of ground ready






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


for planting canes in the year to come; but we
both wanted help: and now I found, more than
before, I had done wrong in parting with mN
boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did
right, was no great wonder: I had no remedy
but to go on. I had got into an employment
quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary
to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook
my father's house, and broke through all his good
advice; nay, I was coming to the very middle
station, or upper degree of low life, which my
father advised me to before, and which, if I re-
solved to go on with, I might as well have stayed
at home, and never have fatigued myself in the
world as I had done. I used often to say to my-
Alf,-I could have done this as well in England
among my friends, as to have gone five thousand
miles off to do it among strangers and savages
in a wilderness, and at such a distance, as never
to hear from any part of the world that had the
least knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condi-
tion with the utmost regret. I had nobody to
converse with but now and then this neighbour;
no work to be done but by the labour of my own
c3






ADVENTURES OF


hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a
man cast away upon some desolate island, that
had nobody there but himself. But how just has
it been; and how should all men reflect, that
when they compare their present condition with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them
to make the exchange, and be comn inced of their
former felicity by their experience. I say, how
just has it been, that the truly solitary life I re-
flected on in an island, of mere desolation, should
be my lot, who had so often unju:stly compared
it with the life which I then led, in which, had I
continued, I had in all probability been exceed-
ingly prosperous and rich!
I was in some degree settled in my measures for
carrying on the plantation, before my kind friend
the captain ofthe ship, that took me up at sea, went
back; for the ship remained there in providing her
loading, and preparing for her voyage, near three
months: when telling him what little stock I had
left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly
and sincere advice: Senhor Inglese," said lie,
for so-lie always called me, if you will give me
letters and a procuration here in form, with or-
ders to the person who has your money in Lon-
don to send your effects to Lisbon, to such





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


persons as I shall direct and in such goods as
are proper for this country, I will bring vou the
produce of them (God willing) on my return;
but since human affairs are all subject to changes
and disasters, I would have you give orders but
for one hundred pounds sterling, which you say
is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for
the first; so that if that come safe, vou may
order the rest the same way; and if it miscarry,
you may have the other half to have recourse to
for your supply."
This was Awholesome ad ice, and looked so
friendly, that I could not but be convinced it was
the best course I could lake: so I accordingly
prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I
had left my money, and a procuration to the
Portuguese captain as lie desired.
I wrote tile English captain's widow a full ac-
count of all my adventures, my slavery, escape,
and how I had met with the Portuguese captain
at sea, tile humanity of his behaviour, and in
w hat condition I was now in, with all other ne-
cessary directions for my supply; and when this
honest captain came to Lisbon, he found means
by some of the English merchants there, to send
over not the order only, but a full account of my






ADVENTURES OF


story to a merchant in London, who represented
it effectually to her; whereupon, she not only
delivered the money, but out of her own pocket
sent the Portugal captain a handsome present for
his Iumanity and charity to ne.
The merchant in London Nesting this hundred
pounds in English goods, such as the captain had
written for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon,
and he brought them all safe to the Brasils;
among which, without my direction, (for I was
too young in my business to think of them), he
had taken care to haxe all sorts of tools, iron-
work, and utensils necessary for my plantation,
1and whicli were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrix ed, I thought my fortune
made; and imy good steward the captain had laid
out the money which my friend had sent him as
a present for himself, to purchase and bring me
over a servant under bond for six years ser ice;
and would not hear of any consideration, except
a little tobacco, which I would have him accept,
being of my own produce.
Neither was this all: but my goods being all
English manufactures, as cloth, stuffs, baize, and
things particularly valuable and desirable in the
country, I found means to sell them to a veiy





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


great advantage; so that I may say I had more
than four times the value of my first cargo, and
was now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour, I
mean in the advancement of my plantation: for
the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave,
aid an European servant also; I mean another
besides that which the captain brought me from
Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made
the very means of our greatest adversity, so was
it with me. I went on the next year with great
success in my plantation: I raised fifty great
rolls of tobacco on my own ground more than I
had disposed of for necessaries among my neigh-
bours; and these fifty rolls being each of above
one hundred pounds weight, were well cured and
laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon.
And now, increasing in business and wealth, my
head began to be fill of projects and underta-
kings beyond my reach; such as are indeed often
tie ruin of the best heads in business.
Having now lived almost four vears in the
Brasils, and beginning to thrive and prosper very
well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the language, but had contracted acquaintance
and friendship among my fellow planters, as well






ADmENTURES OF


Ss among the merchants of St. Salvadore, which
was our port; and that in my discourse among
Sllem, I bad fiequenlly given them an account of
im two ovages to the coast of Guinea, the man-
nor of trading with the negroes there, and how
'easy it was to purchase upon the coast for trifles,
(sluch as leads, to s, knives, scissors, latclhets,
iits of -!isy, and the like), not only gold dust,
(Cinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c. hbut negrroes,
for the ser ice of the Brasils, in great numbers.
The planters always listened cry attentively
to my comversalion on this subject; but espe-
cially to that part which related to the buying of
negroes, which was a trade at that time not far
entered into; but as far as it was, had been car-
ried on by the permission of the kings of Spain
and Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock:
so that few negroes were bought, and those were
excessively dear.
Being in company with some merchants and
pilnters of my acquaintance, and talking of those
things very earnestly, three of them came to me
the next morning, and told me they had been
musing very much upon lilhat I hIad conversed
i ith them about the last night; and they came
to make a proposal to me: and after enjoining





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


me to secrecy, they told me that they had a
mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they
had all plantations as well as I, and were strait-
ened for nothing so much as servants; that as
they could not publicly sell the negroes when
they came home, so they desired to make but
one voyage, to bring the negroes on shore pri-
vately, and divide them among their own plan-
tations; wishing that I would go their super-
cargo in the ship, to manage the trading part
upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered me
that I should have my equal share of the ne-
groes, without providing any part of tile stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed,
had it been made to any one who had not had a
settlement and plantation of his own to look
after, which was in a fair way of coming to be
very considerable, and with a good stock upon
it: but for me, that was thus established, and
had nothing to do but go on as I had begun for
three or four years more, and to have sent for
the other 1001. from England, and who in that
time, and with that little addition, could scarce
have failed of being worth 30001. or 40001. and
that increasing too-for me to think of such a





24 ADVENTURES OF

voyage, was the most preposterous thing that
ever man in such a situation could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer,
could no more resist the offer than I could re-
atrain my first rambling designs, when my either's
good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, 1
told them I would go with all my heart, if they
would undertake to look after nv plantation in
my absence, and would dispose of it to suiic
as I should direct, if I miscarried. This tlih
all engaged to do, and entered into writings or
covenants to do so; and I made a formal will,
disposing of my plantation and effects in case of
my death, making the captain of the ship that
had saved my life, as before, my universal heir;
but obliging him to dispose of 1m effects as I
had directed in umyv ill: one half of the pro-
duce being to himself, and the other to be ship-
ped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve
my effects, and keep up my plantation. Had I
used half as much prudence to look into my
own interest, and form a correct judgment of
what I ought to have done and ought not to have
done, I had certainly never gone away from so





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


prosperous an undertaking; leaving all the pro-
bable views of thriving circumstances, and ven-
turing upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its
common hazards, to say nothing of the reasons,
which I had to expect particular misfortunes to
befal myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the
dictates of my fancy rather than my reason; and
accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the
cargo finished, and all things done as by agree-
ment with my partners in the voyage, I went on
board in an evil hour again, September 1, 1659,
being the same day eight years that I went from
my father and mother at Hull, in order to act
the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my
own interest.
We had been at sea about a fortnight when a
violent hurricane, or tornado, arose, and drove
us quite out of our knowledge. For twelve days
we beat about, at the mercy of the winds and
.waves, expecting to be swallowed up at every
instant. In this distress, the wind still blowing
very hard, one of our men early in the morning
cried out, Land!" And scarcely had we time
to run up on deck to look out, in hopes of see-
ing whereabouts in the world we were, before
D





ADVENTURES OF


the ship struck upon a bank of sand; and in a
moment the sea broke over us with such vio-
lence, that we seemed to have but little chance
of escaping with our lives.
Only those persons who have been in the same
dreadful circumstances can imagine the grief and
terror with which we looked on one another, ig-
norant whether we were driven upon an unin-
habited island, or on a coast peopled by sa-
vages; expecting also that the ship would fall
to pieces every moment, by the violence with
which she beat upon the sand.
Our mate was the only person on board who
had presence of mind enough to think of throw-
ing the boat over the ship's side, and with great
difficulty we all (eleven of us) got into it, and
stroke with our utmost might to row to land;
but after we had rowed about a league and a
half from the ship, a raging wave came rolling
mountain-like towards us: we foresaw the event
-the wave overset the boat, and we were all
swallowed up in a moment.
I saw no more of my unfortunate companions:
for the wave that threw us all into the sea, car-
ried me a vast way towards the shore, and, hav-
ing spent itself, went back, and left me upon the
















r ,Fn s i.


-- s-st -
, u'





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


beach almost dry. I got upon my feet, and en-
deavoured to reach the main land; but another
enormous wave presently overtook me, and bu-
ried me at once twenty or thirty feet deep in its
own body, carrying me with a mighty force and
swiftness towards the shore; while I held my
breath, and assisted myself to swim forward with
all my might. I was ready to burst with hold-
ing my breath, when I felt my head and hands
shoot out above the surface of the water; and
though it was not two seconds of time that I
could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly,
gave me breath and new courage.
I stood still a few moments to recover breath,
when another wave, having hurried me along as
before, landed me, or rather dashed me against
a piece of a rock; and that with such force as
left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my
own deliverance: for had the wave returned
again immediately, I must have been suffocated
in the water; but I recovered a little before the
return of the wave, and held fast by a part of
the rock till the waves abated, and then took
another run, which brought me so near the shore
that the next wave, though it went over me, yet
did not so swallow me up as to carry me away;
D2





ADVENTURES OP


and the next run I took, I got to the main land,
where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the
cliffs of the shore, and sat down upon the grass,
free from danger, and quite out of the reach of
the water.
I was now landed and safe on shore, and be-
gin to look up and thank God that my life was
saved in a case which some minutes before af-
forded scarce any room to hope. I believe it is
impossible to express what the extacies and tran-
sports of the soul are when it is thus saved, as I
may say, out of the very gra e:-

"For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first."

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my
hands; and my whole being, wrapped up in the
contemplation of my deliverance, making a thou-
sand gestures and motions which I cannot de-
scribe, reflecting upon all my companions that
were drowned, and that there should not be one
soul saved but myself: for, as to them, I never
saw them afterwards, or any sign of them, ex-
cept three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes
that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes toward the stranded vessel, and
could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and again






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


I exclaimed, how was it possible I could get
on shore!
After I had solaced my mind with the com-
fortable part of my condition, I began to lock
round me, to see what sort of a place I was in,
and what was next to be done; when I soon
found my comforts abate, and that I had had but
a dreadful deliverance. I was wet; had no
clothes to shift me, nor any thing either to eat
or drink, to comfort me; neither did I see any
prospect before me, but that of perishing with
hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts: and
that which was particularly afflicting to me was,
that I had no weapon either to hunt and kill any
creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself
against any other creatures that might desire to
kill me for theirs. I had nothing about me but
a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a
box; this was all my provision: and this threw
me into terrible agonies of mind, so that for a
while I ran about like a madman. Night com-
ing upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to
consider what would be my lot if there were any
ravenous beasts in the island, knowing that at
night they always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at






ADVENTURES OF


that time was, to get up into a thick bushy tree,
like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and
where I resolved to sit all night, and consider
the next day what death I should die: for as
yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about
a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find
some fresh water to drink, which I did to my
greatjoy; and having drank, and put a little
tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went
to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured
to place myself so as that, if I should sleep,
I might not fall. I cut a short stick, like a
truncheon, for my defence; and having been
excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept
as comfortably as I believe few could have
done in my condition, and found myself the
most refreshed with it, that I think I ever was
upon such an occasion.
I did not wake till it was broad day, the
weather clear, and the storm abated, so that the
sea did not rage as before; but that which sur-
prised me most was, that the ship was lifted off
in the night from the sand where she lay, by the
swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as
far as the rock which 1 first mentioned, where
I had been so bruised by being dashed against






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


it: this was within about a mile from the shore
where I was, and the ship seeming to stand up-
right, I wished myself on board, that, at least,
I might save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the
tree, I looked about me again, and the first thing
I found was the boat, which lay as the wind and
sea had tossed her upon the land, about two
miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I
could upon the shore to get to her, but found
a neck, or inlet, of water between me and the
boat, which was about half a mile broad: so I
came back for the present, being more intent
upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find
something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea very calm,
and the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come
within a quarter of a mile of the ship: so I pull-
ed off my clothes, for the weather was extremely
hot, and took the water; but when I came to the
ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how
to get on board, for as she lay aground and high
out of the water, there was nothing within my
reach to lay hold of: I swam round her twice,
and the second time I spied a small piece of
rope, which I wondered I did not see at first,






ADVENTURES OZ


hanging down by the fore-chains, so low, that with
little difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help
of that rope got up into the fore-castle of the ship.
Here I found that the ship was bilged, and
had a great deal of water in her hold, but that
she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand,
or rather earth, that her stern was lifted upon
the bank, and her head low almost to the wa-
ter; by this means all her quarter was free,
and all that part was dry; for you may be
sure my first work was to search and to see
what was spoiled and what was free; and
first I found that all the ship's provisions were
dry, and untouched by the water; and being
very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-
room and filled my pockets wth biscuit, and eat
it as I went about other things, for I had no
time to lose. I also found some rum in the
great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and
which I had indeed need enough of to give me
spirits for what was before me. And now I
wanted nothing but a boat to furnish myself with
many things which I foresaw would be very ne-
cessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was
not to be had; and this extremity roused my






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


application. We had several spare yards, and
two or three large spars of wood, and a spare
top-mast or two in the ship: I flung as many of
them overboard as I could manage of their
weight, tying every one with a rope, that they
might not drift away; when this was done I went
down the ship's side, and pulling them to me, I
tied four of them fast together at both ends as
well as I could, in the form of a raft; and laying
two or three pieces of plank upon them cross-
ways, I found I could walk upon them very well,
but that it was not able to bear any great weight,
the pieces being too light: so I went to work,
and with the carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-
mast into three lengths, and added them to my
raft, with a great deal of labour and pains; but
the hope to furnish myself with necessaries en-
couraged me to go beyond what I should have
been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any
reasonable weight; my next care was what to
load it with, and how to preserve what I laid
upon it from the surf of the sea. I first laid all
the planks or boards upon it that I could get;
and having considered well what I most wanted,
I got three of the seamen's chests, which I had






ADVENTURES OF


broken open and emptied, and lowered them
down upon my raft; the first of these I filled
with provisions, uiz. bread, rice, three Dutch
cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh, which
we liNed much upon, and a little remainder of
European corn, which had been laid by for sonce
fowls which we brought to sea with us, but the
fowls were killed; there had been some barley
ard wheat together, but, to my great disappoint-
ment, I found that the rats had eaten and spoiled
it all. As for liquors, I found several cases of
bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were
some cordial waters, and in all about five or six
gallons of arrack: these I stowed by themselves,
there being no need to put them in the chest, nor
any room for them. While I was doing this, I
found the tide began to flow, and I had the mor-
tification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat,
which I had left on shore upon the sand, swim-
ming away. This put me upon ruPunaging for
clothes, of which I found enough, but took no
more than I wanted for present use, for I was
more intent upon other things, such as tools to
work with on shore: and after long searching
I found the carpenter's chest, which was indeed
a very useful prize to me, and much more val-





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


uable than a ship-load of gold would have been
at that time; I got it down to my raft without
losing time to look into it, for I knew in general
what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and
arms. There were two fowling pieces in the
great cabin, and two pistols, these I secured
first with some powder horns, and a small bag
of shot, and two rusty swords: with much search
I found two barrels of gun-powder dry and good,
and a third which had taken water; those two I
got to my raft with the arms. And now I thought
myself pretty well freighted, and began to con-
sider how I should get to shore with them, having
neither sail, oar, nor rudder, and the least gust
ol' wind would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: a smooth calm
sea; the tide rising and setting into the shore;
and what little wind there was blew me towards
the land. Having found two or three broken
oars belonging to the boat, and, besides the tools
which were in the chest, two saws, an axe, and a
hammer; and with this cargo I put to sea. For
a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very. well,
only that I found it drive a little distant from
the place where I had landed before: by which






ADVENTURES OF


I perceived that there was some indraft of the
water, and consequently I hoped to find some
creek or river there, which I might make use of
as a port to get to land with my cargo.
It proved to be a creek: and in endeavouring
to keep in the middle of the stream, I had like
to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, had
it been so, would, I think verily, have broken my
heart; for, knowing nothing of tlhe coast, my
raft ran aground at one end upon a shoal, and
my Cargo was sliding off towards that end that
was still afloat, I set-uy back against the chests,
to keep them in their places, but I could not
thrust off the raft with all my strength, neither
durst I stir from the posture I was in; but hold-
ing up the chests with all my might, stood in that
manner near half an hour, in which time the tide
flowing, my raft floated again; and driving up
higher, I found myself in the mouth of a little
river, with land on both sides.
I observed a little cove on the right shore of
the creek, to which with great pain and difficulty
I guided my raft, for I was not willing to be
driven too high up the river, hoping in time to
see some slip at sea, and therefore resolved to
place myself as near the coast as I could. Hay-





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


ing got safe into the cove at high tide, though
my raft drew about a foot of water, I thrust her
upon a flat piece of ground, and there moored
her, by sticking my two broken oars into the
ground; one on one side near the end, and one
on the other side near the other end; and thus
I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft
and all my cargo safe on shore.
M\ next work was to view the country, and
seek a proper place for my habitation, and where
to stow my goods, to secure them from whatever
might happen. Where I was, I yet knew not,
whether on a continent or on an island; whe-
ther inhabited or not inhabited; whether in
danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill
not above a mile from me, which rose up very
steep and high, and seemed to over-top some
other hills which lay as in a ridge from it north-
ward. 1 took one of the fowling pieces, and
one of the pistols, and a horn of powder; and
thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the
top of that hill, where, after I had with great la-
bour and difficulty reached the top, I saw, to my
great affliction, that I was in an island environed
every way with the sea, no and to be seen, ex-
cept some rocks which lay a great way off, and
IF






ADVENTURES OF


two small islands less than this I was cast ort,
which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island which I was in was
barren, and, as I saw good reason to believe, un-
inhabited, except by wild beasts, of which, how-
ever, I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls,
but knew not their kinds ; neither when I killed
them, could I tell what was fit for food, and
what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great
bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side
of a great wood: I believe it was the first gun
that had been fired there since the creation of
the world. I had no sooner fired, but from all
parts of the wood there arose an innumerable
number of fowls of many sorts, making a con-
fused screaming and crying, every one accord-
ing to his usual note; but not one of any kind
that I knew: as for the creature that I killed, I
took it to be a kind of hawk, its colour and
beak resembling it, but it had no talons or claws
more than common ; and its flesh was carrion
and good for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to
ily raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on
shore, which took me up the rest of that day.
What to do with myself at night I knew not, nor





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


deedd where to rest; for I was afraid to lie
down on the ground, not knowing but some
wild beast might devour me, though I afterwards
found there was really no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricadoed
myself around with chests and boards that I had
brought on shore, and made a kind of a hut for
my shelter, yet I dreaded to lie down, fearing
tie attack of wild beasts; none however came
near me, and I passed the night in silence and in
safety.
On the following day I again swam to the ship,
bor I knew that the first storm that came would
dash her to pieces, and 1 resolved to get every
thing on shore that would be useful to me before
I attempted to fix my habitation.
I made a second raft, which I loaded with a
good hammock and plenty of bedding, all the
men's clothes I could find, with sails and canvas,
and as much of the rigging, ropes, and twine, as
I could get; bags of nails, a screw-jack, two
dozen of hatchets, and that most useful thing a
grind-stone.
I was under some apprehensions during my
absence from the land, that my provisions might
E2





ADVENTURES OF


be devoured on shore; but when I came, I found
i,, sign of any visitor, only there sat a cieature
like a wild-cat upon one of the chests, which
When I caine towards it, ran away to a little dis-
tance, and then stood till: she sat very com-
posedly, and lo cL.d fill in my flce, as if she had
a iind to be acq'qaiinted with me. I presented
nmy gun at her, !bt as s.Xe did not understand it,
she was pier:ctly ulnc-rcerlned, nor *ii'i si'e offer
to slir; upon \,lIici I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though I was not very free of it, for my store was
not great. Howc er, I spared her a smallpiece,
and she went to it, smelled at it, and eat it, and
looked (as if pleased) for more; but I thanked
her, and could spare no more: so she marched
off.
lHaving got my second cargo on shore, I went
to work to m:.ke a tent, with a sail and si poles which I cut fir that purpose; i.,to this
tent I brokgit every thing that I knew %woull
spoil, either with rain or the sun. And I piled all
tlihe empty casks and chests in a circle round the
tent, to fortii' it against any attacks of man or
beast. I then blocked up the coor of my tent
v, ith some boards, and spreading one of the beds





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


which I had brought on shore, I lay down with
my gun and pistols close beside me, and slept
very soundly all night.
After several other voyages to the ship, I had
the good fortune to find a large hogshead of bis-
cuit, another of rum, a box of sugar, and a bar-
rel of fine flour. There were more provisions
on board, but they were all spoiled by the salt
water. I also on the same day discovered a
locker, with three razors, a large pair of scissars,
and a dozen knives and forks in it, and thirty-
six pounds in money. The money was now a
mere useless drug, but hoping it might hereafter
serve me, I wrapped it in canvas and took it
with me.
I had now been thirteen days on shore, and
had been eleven times on board the ship. In
the last visit I loaded my raft too heavily, and it
overset. By this accident I lost a quantity of
iron that would have been very useful to me,
but the planks and cables drifted on shore with
the tide.
Had the fine weather continued, I believe I
should have brought away the whole ship piece-
meal, but on the night of my last visit the wind
blew very hard all night, and when I left my hut
E 3





ADVENTURES OF


in the morning the ship was no more to be seen.
I was greatly affected by this event: it seemed
to me that I had lost my last friend, and was now
more deserted and alone than I had been before.
I sat down on the ground to gaze on the rock
where the ship had been, and tears ran down my
cheeks, till my kind dog came and fawned upon
me. His caresses banished my melancholy
thoughts, and I rose up resolved to make the
best of my condition; and to this end, I began
to consider what sort of a dwelling I should
construct, that would best secure me from the
-attacks of savages, or wild beasts, if any such
should visit the island.
In determining on a situation I consulted
several things which I found would be:proper
for me; first, health and fresh-water; secondly,
shelter from the heat of the sun; thirdly, secu-
rity from ravenous creatures, whether men or
beasts; fourthly, a view of the sea, that, if a
ship came in sight, I might not lose the chance
of deliverance:-my only hope and anxious ex-
pectation.
I fixed at length upon a small plain that sloped
towards the sea shore, and lay at the foot of a
high perpendicular rock, which was so steep that


































Lozndan rz~. Jlzwe~ b. rI:r:jra~,a~t e~






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


nothing could come down to assault me from
above. I made a half circle on the plain, round a
hollow part of the rock, into which I drove ros s
of stakes, about five feet high, and standing about
six inches from each other. I then piled rows
of pieces of cable close to the stakes, and within
them I drove other stakes leaning against them
about two feet and a half high; and this fence,
wl which cost me much time, and excessive labour,
was so strong that nothing could break through
it. 1 made no door-way, but used, for enter-
ing my habitation, a short ladder, which, when
I was on the top of my wall, I lifted over after
me, so that I thought myset'lcompletely fenced
in from all the world.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite per-
severance and difficulty, I carried all my riches,
provisions, ammunition and stores. I next made
a large tent within my wall, and a smaller one
w within that, and covered the whole with a tar-
paulin to secure them from the heavy rains;
and in the small tent I swung my hammock,
which had belonged to the mate of the ship,
and there lay very comfortably.
My next operation was to work my way into
the rock; and I soon made a cave behind my





ADVENTURES OF


tent, which served as a kitchen and cellar to
iny house.
It cost me much labour before all these things
were brought to perfection. A storm of rain
falling at this time from a thick dark cloud,
accoi,.panied with a sudden flash of lightning,
and after that a great clap of thunder, a thought
darted into my mind as swift as the lightning
itself---' Oh, my powder!' My very heart sunk
within me, xwhen I reflected that at one blast all
my powder might be destroyed; on which not
only my defence but the providing of my food, as
I thought, entirely depended, I was not anxious
about my own danger; though, had the powder
took fire, I had never known who had hurt me.
Such an impression did this make upon me,
that, after the storm was over, I laid aside all
my works, my building and fortifying, and ap-
plied myself to make bags and boxes to separate
my powder, in hopes that, whatever might hap-
pen, it might not all take fire at once; and to
keep it so apart, that it should not be possible
to make one part fire another. I finished this
work in about a fortnight: and I think my
powder, which was in all about a hundred and
forty pounds weight, was divided in not less than





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had
been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from
that, so I placed it in my new cave, which I
called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and
down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet
might come to it, marking very carefully where
I laid it.
In the interval of time, while all this was do-
ing, I went out once every day with my gun in
search of food. I soon found that there were
plenty of goats in the island; but they were so
subtle and swift of foot, that I could not come
near them. After many fruitless attempts, I
observed, that if they were on the rocks and
I in the valley, they fled with far more preci-
pitation than when I descended from the rocks
when they were feeding in the valley. I there-
fore concluded that the position of their eyes
was such, that they could not readily see objects
above them. I found this opinion to be verified
when, having climbed the rocks immediately
above where they were feeding, I had a fair
mark, and shot a she-goat which was giving
suck to a little kid beside her.
I was very much grieved to have shot the old.






ADVENTURE' OF


one; and when I took her up to carry her home,
the poor little kid followed me, bleating for its
dam. I carried the kid over my enclosure, and
offered it food, intending to have bred it up
tame; but the poor thing would not eat, and
after two days it died.
The goat served me as meat a long time; for I
eat very sparingly, and saved my provisions, es-
pecially my bread, as much as I possibly could.
I must now give some little account of myself,
and.of my thoughts about living, which, it may
well be supposed, were not few. I had a dismal
prospect of my condition; for, as I was not cast
away upon that island without being driven by a
violent storm quite out of the course of our in-
tended voyage, some hundreds of leagues out of
the ordinary course of the trade of mankind,
I had great reason to consider it as a deter-
mnination of Heaven, that in this desolate place,
and in this desolate mainer, I should end my
life~. The tears would run plentifully down
my face when I made these reflections; and
sometimes I would expostulate with myself,
why Providence should thus completely ruin hi;
creatures, and render them absolutely mniser-





































































































'I /_-c~ve


' ,i-.


;-il





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


able, so n without help abandoned, so entirely de-
pressed, that it would hardly be rational to be
thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me
to check these thoughts, and to reprove me; and
particularly one day walking with my gun in my
hand by the sea-side, I was ver, pensive upon
the subject of my present condition, when rea-
son, as it were, expostulated with me in this
vway: Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is
true; but, prav, r;-member, where are the rest of
you? Did not you come eleven of you into the
boat? Where are the ten? Whi were not thev
sa ed, and you lost? Why were you singled
out? Is it better to be here or there?' And
then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be
considered with the good that is in them, and
with what attended aggravations they might
have.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I
was furnished for my subsistence, and what
would have been my case if it had not happened,
that the ship floated from the place where she
first struck, and was driven so near to the shore,
that I had time to get all these things out of her.
What would have been my case, if I had been






ADVENTURES OF


obliged to live in the condition in which I at first'
came on shore, without the necessaries of hife,
or any means to procure them! Particularly,
said I, aloud, what could I have done without
a gun; without ammunition; without any tools
to work with; without clothes, bedding, a tent,
or any manner of covering? And that now I
had all there in a sufficient quantity, and was in
a fair way to provide myself in such a manner
as to live without my gun, when my ammunition
was spent.
And now, being to enter into a melancholy
relation of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps,
as was never heard of in the world before, I
shall take it from its beginning, and continue it
in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th
of September when I first set foot upon this hor-
rid island; when the sun, being to us, in its au-
tumnal equinox, was almost just over my head;
for I reckoned myNself, by observation, to be in
the latitude of 9 degrees 22 minutes north of the
line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve
days, it came into my thoughts that I should
lose my reckoning of time for want of books and
pen and ink, and should even forget the sabbath






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


days from the working days; but to prevent this,
I cut it with my knife upon a large post, in capi-
tal letters; and making it into a great cross, I
set it up on the shore where I first landed, viz.
I came on shore here on the 30th of September,
1G59. Upon the sides of this square post, I cut
every day a notch with my knife, and every se-
venth notch was as long again as the rest, and
every first day of the month as long again as
that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or
weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next placewe are to observe, that among
the many things which I brought out of the ship
in the several voyages which I made to it, I got
several things of less value, but not at all less use-
ful to me, which I omitted setting down before;
as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper; several
parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and
carpenter's keeping; three or four compasses,
some mathematical instruments, dials, perspec-
tives, charts, and books of navigation; all which
I huddled together, whether I might want them
or not: also I found three very good bibles,
which came to me in my cargo from England,
and which I had packed up among my things;
some Portuguese books also, and among them
F





ADVENTURES OF


two or three popish prayer books, and several
other books, all which I carefully secured. And
I must not forget that we had in the ship a dog
and two cats, of whose eminent history I may
have occasion to say something in its place; for
I carried both the cats with me; and as for the
(log, lie jumped out of the ship himself, and
swam on shore to me the day after I went on
shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty ser-
vant to me for many years. I wanted nothing
that lie could do for me, nor any company that
he could make up to me: I only wished to have
him talk to me, but that was impossible.
I now found I wanted many things, notwith-
standing all that I had amassed together; and of
these, that of ink was one; as also, a spade,
pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth;
needles, pens, and thread. As for linen, I soon
learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I undertook
go on heavily, and it was near a whole year before
I had entirely finished my pale, or surrounded my
habitation. The piles, or stakes, which were as
heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in
cutting and preparing in the woods, and more
by far in bringing home; so that I spent some,






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


times two days in cutting and bringing home
one of those posts, and a third day in driving it
into the ground: driving these posts, or piles,
was a very laborious and tedious work indeed.
But what need had I to be concerned with the
tediousness of any thing I had to do, seeing I
had time enough to do it in; nor had I any other
employment if that had been over, at least, that
I could foresee; except the ranging the island to
seek for food, which I did more or less every
day.
I now began to consider seriously my conditi-
on, and the circumstances which I was reduced
to: and I drew up the state of my affairs in writ-
ing, not so much to leave them to any that were
to come after me, (for I was likely to have but few
heirs,) but to relieve my thoughts from daily po-
ring upon them and afflicting my mind; and as
my reason began now to master my despondency,
and to set the good against the evil, that I might
have something to distinguish my case from
worse; I stated very impartially, like debtor and
creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the mi.
series I suffered; thus:---






ADVENTURES OF


EVIL.
I am cast upon a horri-
ble desolate island, void
ofalljhope of recovery.
I am singled out and se-
parated, as it were, from
all the world, to be mi-
serable.



Iam divided from man-
kind; a solitary one, ba-
nished from all human so-
ciety.
I have no clothes to
cover me.


I am without any de-
fence, or means to resist
any violence of man or
beast.



I-have no soul to speak
to or to relieve me.


GOOD.

But I am alive, and not
drowned, as all my ship's
company were.
But Iam singled out too
from all the ship's crew to
be sparedfrom death; and
IHE that miraculously sav-
ed me from death, can deli-
verme from this condition.
But I am not starved
and perishing on a barren
place, affording no sus-
tenance.
But aminahotclimate,
where, if I had clothes, I
could hardly wear them.
But I am cast on an is-
land where I see no wild
beasts to hurt me, as I saw
on the coast of Africa:
and what if I had been
shipwrecked there!
But God wonderfully
sent the ship in near
enough to the shore, Ihave
gotten out so many neces-
sary things as will enable
me to supply myself even
as long as I live.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Upon the whole, here was an undoubted tes-
timony that there was scarcely any condition in
the world so miserable, but there was something
negative, or something positive, to be thankful
for in it; and let this stand as a direction, from
the experience of the most miserable of all con-
ditions in this world, that we may always find in
it something to comfort ourselves from, and to
set in the description of good and evil on the
credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish
my condition, I came by imperceptible degrees
into that state of contentment and resignation,
that my labour was no longer a cheerless toil; but
I looked with pleasure on the many comforts and
conveniences which my labour produced for mI.
Having finished my-dwelling, I applied myself
to make a table and chair, the want of which was
a daily inconvenience to me. I was particularly
awkward when I first began this work, and a skil-
ful carpenter would have laughed to see the
clumsy manner in which I handled my saw, adze,
and hatchet; yet, by application and contrivance,
I found at last that I overcame all my difficulties;
and made not only my chair and table, but
shelves, and many other conveniences, which
F3






ADVENTURES OF


made my tent not only more commodious, but
gave it that look of order, neatness, and arrange-
ment, which is at all times so pleasing to the eye,
whether in a cave on a desert island, or in a
splendid palace.
My cave seemed now like a general magazine
of all useful things ready to the hand; and I
rejoiced heartily to find my stock of necessary
stores even larger t:an I had at first supposed
them to be.
My table and chair were a great solace to me;
and every day, as long as my ink ilast', I kept
journal of my occupations, my observations,
and of every thing that befel me; of which jour-
nal I shall give a copy, though in it will be told
all these particulars over again.


THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659. I, poor miserable Ro-
binson Crusoe, being shipwrecked during a
dreadful storm in the offing, cai e on shore on
this dismal, unfortunate island, which I call
Tle Island of Despair; all the rest of the ship's
company being drowned, and myself almost
dead.






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting
myself at the dismal circumstances I was brought
to, viz. I had neither food, house, clothes, wea-
pon, nor place to fly to; and, in despair of any
relief, saw nothing but death before me: either
that I should be devoured by wild beasts, mur-
dered by savages, or starved to death for want
of food. At the approach of night I slept in a
tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly,
though it rained all night.
October 1. In the morning I saw, to my great
surprise, the ship had floated with the high tide,
and was driven on shore again much nearer the
island, this was some comfort, as I hoped if
the wind abated I might get on board, and get
some food and necessaries out of her for my re-
lief, which I did. I went upon the sand as near
to the ship as I could, and then swam on board.
This day also it continued raining, though with
no wind at all.
From the 1st to the 14th was entirely spent in
making several voyages to get all I could out of
the ship, which I brought on shore every tide,
upon rafts. Much rain also in these days,
though with some intervals of fair weather: but
it seems this was the rainy season.






ADVENTURES OF


Oct. 20. I overset my raft and all tle goods
I had got upon it; but, being in shoal water, and
the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many
of them when the tide was out.
Oct. 25. It rained all night and all day, with
some gusts of wind; during which time the ship
broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder
than before, and was no more to be seen, except
the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I
spent this day in covering and securing the goods
which I had saved, that the rain might not spoil
them.
Oct. 26. I walked about the shore almost all
day, to find out a place to fix my habitation;
greatly concerned to secure myself against any at-
tack in the night, either from wild beasts or men.
Towards night I fixed upon a proper place under
a rock, and marked out a semicircle for my en-
campment, which I resolved to strengthen with a
work, wall, or fortification, made of double piles,
lined within with cable, and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th I worked very hard
in carrying all my goods to my new habitation,
though some part of the time it rained exceed-
ingly hard.
The 31st in the morning, I went out into the





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


island with my gun to see for some food, and
discover the country, when I killed a she-goat,
and her kid followed me home, which afterwards
died, because it would not feed.
November 1. I set up my tent under a rock,
and lay there for the first night, making it as
large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing
my hammock upon. The next day I set up all
my chests and boards, and the pieces of timber
which made my raft, and with them formed a
fence round me, a little within tie place I had
marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 3. I went out with my gun, and killed
two fowls, like ducks, which were very good.
In the afternoon, went to work to make my
table. The next morning I began to order my
times of work, of going out with my gun, time
of sleep, and time of diversion; viz. every
morning I walked out with my gun for two or
three hours, if it did not rain; then employed
myself to work till about ten; then eat what
I had to live on; and from twelve to two I lay
down to sleep, the weather being excessively
hot; and then in the evening to work again.
The working part of this day and the next were
wholly employed in making my table, for I wS





ADVENTURES OF


yet but a very sorry workman, though time and ne-
cessity made me a complete natural mechanic soon
after, as I believe they would do any one else.
Nov. 5. This day went abroad with my gun
and my dog, arid killed a wild cat, her skin
pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing:
every creature I killed I took off their skins .
and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-
shore, I saw many sorts of fowls, whose species
I did not know; but was surprised and almost
frighted with two or three seals, which, while I
was gazing at, not well knowing what they were,
got into the sea, and escaped from me for that
time.
Nov. 6. After my morning walk, I went to
work with my table again and finished it, though
not to my liking; nor was it long before I learn-
ed to mend it.
Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair wea-
ther. The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and a part of
the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday) I took wholly
up to make me a chair, and with much ado
brought, it to a tolerable shape, but never to
please me: and even in the making, I pulled it
to pieces several times.
Nov. 13. This day it rained; which refreshed





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


and exceedingly cooled the earth; but it was
accompanied with terrible thunder and lightning,
which frighted me dreadfully for fear of my
powder.
As soon as it was over, I resolved to separate
my stock of powder into as many little parcels
as possible, that it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent
in making little square chests or boxes, which
might hold about a pound, or two pounds, at
most, of powder; and so putting the powder in,
I stowed it in places as secure and remote from
one another as possible. On one of these three
days I killed a large bird that was good to eat,
but I knew not what to call it.
Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind
my tent into the rock, to make room for my
further conveniences. Three things I wanted
exceedingly for this work, viz. a pick-axe, a
shovel, and a wheel-barrow, or basket; so I
desisted from my work and began to consider
how to supply these wants, and make me some
tools. As for a pick-axe, I made use of the iron
crows, which were proper enough, though heavy:
but the next thing was a shovel or spade; this
was so absolutely necessary, that indeedI could





ADVENTURES OF


do nothing effectually without it; but what kind
of one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the
woods, I found a tree of that wood, or one like
it, which in the Brasils they call the iron-tree,
for its exceeding hardness; of this, with great
labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a
piece, and brought it home too, with difficulty
enough, for it was very heavy.
The excessive hardness of the wood, made me
a long while employed upon this machine; for
I worked it effectually by little and little into
the form of a shovel or spade, the handle exactly
shaped like ours in England, only that the broad
part having no iron shod upon it at the bottom,
it would not last me so long; however, it served
well enough for the use which I had occasion to
put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made
after that fashion, or so long in making.
I was still deficient of a basket, or wheel-bar-
row; a basket I could not make by any means,
having no such things as twigs that would bend,
to make wicker ware, at least none yet found
out; and as to the wheel-barrow, I fancied I
could make all but the wheel, but that I had no
notion of, neither did I know how to go about





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


it; besides, I had no possible way to make the
iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel
to run in, so I gave it over; and for carrying
away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I
made me a thing like a hod which the labourers
carry mortar in, when they serve the bricklayers.
This was not so difficult to me as the making
of the shovel; and yet this, and the shovel, and
the attempt which I made in vain to make a
wheel-barrow took me up no less than four days,
excepting my morning walk with my gun, which
I seldom neglected; and very seldom failed to
bring home something to eat.
Nov. 23. My other work having now stood
still, because of my making these tools; when
they were finished I went on, and working every
day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent
eighteen days entirely in widening and deepen-
ing my cave, that it might hold my goods com-
modiously.
During all this time I worked to make this
room or cave spacious enough to accommodate
me as a warehouse or magazine, a kitchen, a
dining-room, and a cellar: as for my lodging,
I kept the tent, except that sometimes in the
wet season of the year, it rained so hard that I
G





ADVENTURES OF


could not keep myself dry, which caused me
afterwards to cover all my place within my pale
with long poles in the form of rafters, leaning
against the rock, and load them with flags and
large leaves of trees like a thatch.
December 10. I began now to think my
cave or vault finished, when on a sudden (it
seems I had made it too large) a great quantity
of earth fell down from the top and one side,
so much that in short it frighted me, and not
without reason too; for if I had been under it
I had never wanted a grave-digger. Upon this
disaster I had a great deal of work to do over
again; for I had the loose earth to carry out,
and which was of more importance, I had the
ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no
more would come down.
Dec. 11. This day I went to work with it
accordingly, and got two shores or posts pitched
upright to the top, with two pieces of boards,
across over each post; this I finished the next
day; and setting more posts up with boards,
in about a week more I had the roof secured;
and the posts standing in rows, served me for
partitions to part off my house.
Dec. 17. From this day to the twentieth I





ROBIN9ON CRIJSOE.


placed shelves and knocked up nails in the
posts to hang every thing up that could be hung
up; and now I began to be in some order within
doors.
Dec. 20. Now I carried every thing into the
cave, and began to furnish my house and fixed
up some pieces of boards like a dresser, to or-
der my victuals upon, but boards began to be
very scarce with me; also I made me another
table.
Dec. 24 and 25. Much rain; no stirring
out.
Dec. 26. No rain, and the earth much cooler
than before, and pleasanter.
Dec. 27. Killed a young goat, and lamed
another so that I caught it, and led it home in
a string; when I had it home, I bound and
splintered up its leg, which was broken. N..B. I
took such care of it that it lived, and the leg
grew well, and as strong as ever; by nursing
it so long it grew tame, and fed upon the little
green before my door, and would not go away.
This was the first time that I entertained a
thought of breeding up some tame creatures,
that I might have food when my powder and
shot was all spent.





ADVENTURES OF


Dec. 28, 29, 30. Great heats, and no
breezes; so that there was no stirring abroad,
except in the evening for food. This time I
spent in putting all my things in order within
doors.
January 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad
early and late with my gun, and lay still in the
middle of the day. This evening going further
into the vallies, which lay towards the centre of
the island, I found there was plenty of goats,
though exceedingly shy, and hard to come at;
however, I resolved to try if I could not bring
my dog to hunt them down.
Jan. 2. Accordingly, the next day I went
out with my dog, and set him upon the goats;
but I was mistaken, for they all faced about
upon him; and he knew his danger too well,
for he would not come near them.
Jan. 3. I began my fence, or wall, which,
being still jealous of my being attacked by some-
body, I resolved to make very thick and strong.
N. B. This wall being described before, I pur-
posely omit what was said in the journal. It
is sufficient to observe, that I was no less time
than from the third of January to the four-
teenth of April, working, finishing, and per,





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


fecting this wall, though it was no more than
twenty-four yards in length; being a half-
circle from one place in the rock to another
place about eight yards from it; the door of
the cave being in the centre behind it.
All this time I worked very hard, the rains
hindering me many days, nay, sometimes weeks
together; but I believed I should never be per-
fectly secure till this wall was finished. It is
scarcely credible what inexpressible labour
every thing was done with; especially the bring-
ing piles out of the woods and diving them into
the ground, for I made them much bigger than
I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside
double fenced with a turf-wall raised up close
to it, I persuaded myself that if any people
were to come on shore there, they would not
perceive any thing like a habitation; and it was
very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter
upon a remarkable occasion.
During this time I made my rounds in the
woods for game every day when the rain per-
mitted me, and made frequent discoveries in
these walks of something or other to my ad-
vantage; particularly I found a kind of wild
a 3





ADVENTURES OF


pigeons, that built not, as wood-pigeons, in a
tree, but rather, as house-pigeons, in the holes
of the rocks; and taking some young ones, I
endeavoured to breed them up tame, and did
so; but when they grew older they all flew
away, which perhaps was for want of feeding
them, for I had nothing to give them. How-
ever, I frequently found their nests, and got
their young ones, which were very good meat.
And now, in the managing of my household
affairs, I found myself in want of many things,
which I thought at first it was impossible for
me to make. For instance, I could never make
a cask to be hooped; I had a small runlet or
two, but I could never arrive to the capacity of
making one by them, though I spent many
weeks about it: I could neither put in the heads
or join the staves so true to one another as to
make them hold water, therefore I gave that
attempt over.
There was yet another material want unsup-
plied, namely, candles: I did at length find a
substitute for them. When I killed a goat I
saved th, tallow, and put it into a little dish
made of clay and baked in the sun. I put a
wick of oakum into the tallow; and had a lamp





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


which gave me light enough to read, write, or
work by, though it did not yield so clear and
steady a flame as that of a candle.
It happened, when I was arranging my stores
on the shelves, that I found a bag which had
once been filled with corn for the fowls we had
on board the ship. There appeared to be only
a few dry husks remaining, which 1 shook out,
intending to fill the bag with gun-powder. It
was a little before some great rains which fell,
that I emptied these husks by the side of the
rock; and about a month afterwards, when I did
not so much as recollect what I had thrown
away there, I saw some green stalks shooting
out of the earth; and perfectly astonished was
I, in a little time, to see these shoots ripen into
ten or twelve ears of English barley.
I can scarcely express the agitation of my
mind at this sight. Hitherto I had looked upon
the actions of this life, no otherways than only
as the events of blind chance and fortune; but
now the appearance of this barley, flourishing
in a barren soil,- and my ignorance in not con-
ceiving how it could come there, made me con-
clude that miracles were not yet ceased: nay,
I even thought that God had appointed it to





ADVENTURES OF


grow there without any seed, purely for my sus-
tenance in this miserable and desolate island.
And, indeed, such great effect had this upon me,
that it often made me melt into tears, through
a grateful sense of God's mercies; and the greater
still was my thankfulness, when I perceived about
this little field of barley some rice stalks also
wonderfully flourishing.
Thus pleased in mind, I concluded there must
be more corn in the island, and therefore made
a diligent search narrowly among the rocks; but
not being able to find any, on a sudden it came
into my mind how I had shaken the husks of
corn out of the bag, and then my admiration
ceased, with my gratitude to the Divine Being,
as thinking it was but natural, and not to be
conceived a miracle; though, even the man-
ner of its preservation, might have made me
own it as a wonderful event of God's kind pro-
vidence.
It was about the latter end of June when the
ears of this corn ripened, which I laid up very
carefully, together with twenty or thirty stalks
of rice, expecting I one day should reap the
fruits of my labour; yet four years were ex-
pired before I would allow myself to eat any





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook
it up without baking.
But to return to my journal.
I worked excessively hard three or four
months to get my wall done; and the 14th of
April I closed it up, contriving to go into it,
not by a door, but over the wall by a ladder,
that there might be no sign on the outside of
my habitation.
April 16. I finished the ladder; so I went
up by it to the top, and then pulled it up after
me, and let it down on the inside. This was
a complete enclosure to me; for within I had
room enough, and nothing could come at me
from without, unless it could first mount my
wall.
But what do all human pains and industry
avail, if the blessing of God do not crown our
labours? Or who can stand before the Al-
mighty, when he stretcheth forth his arm?"
The very next day after this wall was finished
I had almost had all my labour overthrown at
once, and myself killed. The case was thus:
as I was busy in the inside it, behind my tent,
just in the entrance into my cave, on a sudden I
found the earth come tumbling down from the





ADVENTURES OF


roof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill
over my head, and two of the posts I had set up
in the cave cracked in a most frightful manner.
I was heartily scared; but thought nothing of
what was really the cause, only thinking that
the top of my cave was falling in, as some of
it had done before; and, for fear I should be
buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder; and,
not thinking myself safe there neither I got over
my wall, for fear of the pieces of the hill, which
I expected might roll down upon me. I was
no sooner stept down upon the firm ground than
I plainly felt it was a terrible earthquake, for
the ground I stood upon shook three times in
about eight minutes, with three such shocks as
would have overturned the strongest building
that could be supposed to have stood on the
earth; and a great piece of the top of a rock,
which stood about half a mile from me next the
sea, fell down with such a terrible noise as I
never heard in all my life. I perceived also
that the very sea was put into a violent motion
by it; and believe the shocks were stronger
under the water than on the island.
I was so amazed with the thing itself, having
tiever felt the like, or conversed with any one





ROBINSON CRUSOE. 71

who had, that I was like one dead or stupified;
and the motion of the earth made my stomach
sick, like one that was tossed at sea; but the
noise of the falling of the rock, roused me from
the stupified condition I was in, and I thought
of nothing then but the hill falling upon my
tent, and all my household goods, and burying
all at once; and this sunk my very soul within
me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no
more for some time, I began to take courage;
and yet I had not heart enough to get over my
wall again, for fear of being buried alive; but
sat still upon the ground, greatly cast down and
disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All this
while I had not the least serious religious
thought, nothing but the common '9 Lord have
mercy upon me!" and when it was over, that
went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast
and grown cloudy, as if it would rain; and in
less than half an hour it blew a most dreadful
hurricane; the sea was all on a sudden covered
over with foam and froth, the shore was covered
with the breach of the water, the trees were





ADVENTURES OF


torn up by the roots, and a terrible storm it
was. This held about three hours, and then
began to abate; and in two hours more it was
calm, and began to rain very hard.
All this while I sat upon the ground very much
terrified and dejected, when on sudden it came
into mly mind that these winds and rain being
the consequence of the earthquake, the earth-
quake itself was spent and over, and I might
venture into my cave again. With this thought
my spirits began to revive, and the rain also
helping to persuade me, I went in, and sat down
in my tent; but the rain was so violent that my
tce:t wIas ready to be beaten down with it, and I
was forced to go into my cave, though very much
afraid and uneasy for fear it should fallon my head.
Tiis violent rain forced me to a new work,
viz. to cut a hole through my new fortification
like a sink to let water go out, which would
else have drowned my cave. After I had been
in ny cave some time, and found no more shocks
of tie earthq'.ake follow, I began to be more
composed; and now to support my spirits, which
indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little
store, and took a small sup of rum, which how-






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


ever I did then, and always very sparingly,
knowing I could have no more when that was
gone.
It continued raining all that night, and great
part of the next day, so that I could not stir
abroad; but my mind being more composed,
I began to think of what 1 had best do; con-
ceiving that if the island was subject to these
earthquakes, there would be no living for me in
a cave, but I must consider of building me some
little lut in an open place, which I might sur-
round with a wall as I had done here, and so
make myself secure from wild beasts or men;
but concluded, if I staid where I was, I should
certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts I resolved to remove my
tent fiom the place where it stood, which was
just under the hanging precipice ofthe hill, and
which,if it should be shaken again,would certainly
fall upon my tent. And I spent the two next
days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in con-
triving where and how to remove my habitation.
The fear of being swallowed up alive, made
me that I never slept in quiet; and yet the
apprehension of lying abroad without any fence
was almost equal to it: but still when I looked
9





ADVENTURES OE


bout, and saw how every thing was put in order,
how pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe
from danger, it made me very loath to remove.
In the mean time it occurred to me, that it
would require a vast deal of time to do this,
and that I must be contented to run the venture
where I was, till I had formed a camp for my-
self, and had secured it so as to remove it. So
with this resolution I composed myself for a
time, and resolved that I would go to work with
all speed to build me a wall with piles and
cables, &c. in a circle as before, and set my
tent up in it when it was finished; but that I
would venture to stay where I was till it was
finished and fit to remove into. This was the 21st.
April 22. The next morning I began to con-
sider of means to put this resolve into execution,
but I was at a great loss about my tools; I had
three large axes, and abundance of hatchets,
(for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the
Indians,) but with much chopping and cutting
knotty hard wood, they were full of notches;
and though I had a grind-stone, I could not turn
it and grind my tools too. At length I contrived
a kind of wheel with a string, to turn it with my
foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


I had never seen such a thing in England, or at
least not to take notice how it was done, though
since I have observed it is very common there;
besides that, my grindstone was very large and
heavy. This machine cost me a full week's
work to bring it to perfection.
April 28, 29. These two whole days I took
up in grinding my tools, my machine for turning
my grindstone performing very well.
April 30. Having perceived my bread had
been low a great while, now I took a survey of
it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day,
which made my heart very heavy.
May 1. In the morning looking towards the
sea-side, the tide being low, I saw something lie
on the shore bigger than ordinary; and when
I came to it, it proved to be a small barrel, and
two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship,
which were driven on shore by the late hurri-
cane; and looking towards the wreck itself, I
thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water
than it used to do. On examining the barrel, I
found it was a barrel of gun-powder, but it had
taken water, and the powder was caked as hard
as a stone; however, I rolled it further on shore
for the present.





ADVENTURES OF


When I came down to the ship, I found if
strangely removed; the forecastle, which lay
before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six
feet; and the stern, which was broke to pieces,
and parted from therest by the force of the sea,
soon after I had left rummaging her, was tossed
up, as it were, and cast on one side, and the sand
was thrown so high on that side next her stern,
that where there was a great place of water be-
fore, so that I could not come within a quarter
of a mile of the wreck without swimming, I could
now walk quite up to her when the tide was out;
I was surprised with this at first, but soon con-
cluded it must have been done by the earth-
quake.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the
design of removing my habitation; and I busied
myself that day in searching whether I could
make any way into the ship; but I found no-
thing was to be expected of that kind, for that
all the inside of the ship was choaked up with
sand.
May 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece
of a beam through, which I thought held the up-
per part or quarter-deck together, and when I
cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well as





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


I could from the side which lay highest; but the
tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for
that time.
May 4. I went a fishing, but caught not one
fish that I durst eat of, till I was weary of my
sport; when just going to leave off, I caught a
young dolphin. I made a long line of rope-
yarn, but I had no hooks, yet I frequently caught
fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which
I dried in the sun, and eat them dry.
May 5 to 14. I went every day to the wreck,
and got a great deal of pieces of timber and
board, or plank, and two or three hundred weight
of iron.
May 15. I carried two hatchets to try if I
could cut a piece off the roll of lead by placing
the edge of one hatchet, and driving it in with
the other; but as it lay about a foot and a half
in the water, I could not make any blow to drive
the hatchet.
May 16. It had blowed hard in the night,
and the wreck appeared more broken by the
force of the water; but I staid so long in the
woods to get pigeons for food, that the tide pre-
vented me going to the wreck that day.
May 24. Every day to this I worked on





ADVENTURES Of


wreck, and with hard labour I loosened some
things so much with the crow, that the first blow-
ing tide several casks floated out, and two of the
seamen's chests; but the wind blowing from the
shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces
of timber, and a hogshead which had some Bra-
sil pork in it, but the salt water and sand had.
spoiled it.
I continued this work every day to the 15th
of June, except the time necessary to get food,
which I always appointed, during this part of
my employment, to be when the tide was up,
that I might be ready when it was ebbed out:
and by this time I had gotten timber and plank,
and iron-work, enough to have built a good
boat, if I had known how; and also I got at
several times, and in several pieces, near a hun-
dred weight of sheet lead.
June 16. Going down to the sea-side, I found
a large tortoise, or turtle. This was the first I
had seen, which, it seems was only my misfor-
tune, not any defect of the place, or scarcity;
for had I happened to be on the other side of
the island, I might have had hundreds of them
every day, as I found afterwards.
Jane17. I spentincookingtheturtle; I found





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


in her threescore eggs; and her flesh was to me
at that time the most savoury and pleasant that
I ever tasted in my life, having had no flesh, but
of goatsand fowls, since I landed in this horrid,
place.
June 18. Rained all day, and I stayed within.
I thought at this time the rain felt cold, and I
was something chilly, which I knew was not
usual in that latitude.
June 19. Very ill and shivering, as if the
weather had been cold.
June 20. No rest all night; violent pains in
my head, and feverish.
June 21. Very ill: frighted almost to death
with the apprehensions of my sad condition-to
be sick and no help! Prayed to God for the
first time since the storm off Hull; but scarcely
knew what I said or why, my thoughts being all
confused.
June 22. A little better, but under dreadful
apprehensions of sickness.
June 23. Very bad again; cold and shiver-
ing, and then a violent head-ache; bu on the
24th I was much better.
June 25. An ague very violent; the fit held





ADVENTURES OF


me seven hours; cold fit and hot, with faint-
sweats after it.
June 26. Better; and having no victuals to
eat, took my gun, but found myself very weak;
however, I killed a she-goat, and with much
difficulty got it home, and boiled some of it,
and eat; I would fain have stewed it, and made
some broth, but had no pot.
June 27. The ague again so violent, that I
lay in bed all day, and neither eat nor drank.
I was ready to perish for thirst, but so weak
I had no strength to stand up, or to get myself
any water to drink.
And now when I began to be sick, and a dis-
tinct view of the miseries of death came to place
itself before me; when my spirits began to sink
under the burden of a strong distemper, and
nature was exhausted with the violence of the
fever; conscience, that had slept so long, awak-
ened, and I began to reproach myself with my
past life, in which I had so evidently, by uncom-
mon wickedness, provoked the justice of God to
deal with me in so vindictive a manner.
These reflections oppressed me for the second
or third day of my distemper; and in the vio-





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


lence as well of the fever as of the dreadful re-
proaches of my conscience, extorted some words
from me like praying to God, though I cannot
say they were either a prayer attended with de-
sires or with hopes: it was rather the voice of
mere fright and distress. My thoughts were con-
fused; the convictions great upon my mind; and
the horror of dying in such a miserable condition,
raised vapours into my head with the mere ap-
prehensions: and in these hurries of my soul I
knew not what my tongue might express; but
it was rather exclamation; such as, Lord, what
a miserable creature am I! If I should be
sick, I shall certainly die for want of help-and
what will become of me! Then the tears burst
out of my eyes, and I could say no more for a
good while.
In this interval the good advice of my father
came into my mind, which I had so wickedly re-
jected, viz. That if I did take this foolish step,
God would not bless me; and I would have
leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected
his counsel, when there might be none to assist
in my recovery. Now, said I, 'aloud, my dear
father's words are come to pass-God's justice
has overtaken me, and I have none to help o0





ADVENTURES OT


hear me! I rejected the voice of Providence,
which had mercifully put me in a posture, or
station of life, wherein I might have been happy
and easy; but I would neither see it myself, nor
learn to know the blessing of it from my parents.
I left my parents to mourn over my folly, and
now I am left to mourn under the consequences
of it. I refused their help and assistance, wlho
would have lifted me into the world, and would
have made every thing easy to me; and now
I have difficulties to struggle with too great for
even nature itself to support, and no assistance,
no help, no comfort, no advice. Then I cried
out, Lord, be my help, for I am in great
distress!
This was the first prayer, if I may call it so,
that I had made for many years. But I return
to my journal.
June 28. Having been somewhat refreshed
with sleep, I rose to get something to refresh
and support myself; and the first thing I did,
I filled a large square case bottle with water,
and set it upon my table, in reach of my bed;
and to take off the chill of the water, I put
about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and
nixed them together: then I got me a piece of





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


the goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but
could eat only very little; I walked about, but
was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy.
hearted with the thoughts of my miserable con-
dition, dreading the return of my distemper the
next day.
At night I made my supper of three of the
turtle's eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and
eat, as we call it, in the shell; and this was the
first bit of meat I had ever asked God's blessing
to, that I could remember, in my whole life.
After I had eaten I tried to walk, but found
myself so weak that I could hardly carry the
gun; (for I never went out without that) so I
went but a httle way, and sat down upon the
ground, looking out upon the sea, which was
just before me, and very calm and smooth. As
I sat here, some such thoughts as these occurred
to me:-
What is this earth and sea of which I have
seen so much? Whence is it produced? And
what am I and all other creatures, wild and
tame, human and brutal-whence are we? Sure-
ly we are all made by some secret power, who
formed the earth and sea, the air and sky; and
who is that?





ADVENTURES OF


Then it followed most naturally-It is God
that has made it all! Well, but (their it came
on strangely) if God have made all these things,
he guides and governs them all, and all things
that concern them; for the power that could
make all things, must certainly have power to
guide and direct them.
If so, nothing can happen in the great circuit
of his works, either without his knowledge or
appointment: and if nothing happens without his
knowledge, he knows that I am here, and am in
this dreadful condition; and if nothing happens
without his appointment, he has appointed all
this to befal me.
Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict
any of these conclusions; and therefore it rested
upon me with the greater force, that it must
needs be that God has appointed all this to be-
fal me; that I was brought to this miserable cir-
cumstance by his direction, he having the sole
power not of me only, but of every thing that
happened in the world. Immediately it followed,
Why has God done this to me? What have
I done to be thus used? My conscience pre-
sently checked me in that enquiry, as if I had
blasphemed; and methought it spoke to me like






ROBINSON CRUSOE.


a voice, Wretch! Dost thou ask what thou
hast done ? Look back upon a dreadfully mis-
spent life, and ask thyself what thou hast not
done! Ask, why it is thou wast not long
ago destroyed! Why wast thou not drowned
in Yarmouth roads; killed in the tight, when
when the ship was taken by the Sallee man of war;
devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of
Africa; or droiiied here, when all the crew
perished but thyself? Dost thou ask, what have
I done!'
I was struck dumb with these reflections, as
one astonished; and had not a word to say, no
not to answer myself; but rose up pensive
and sad, walked back to my retreat, and went
up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed;
but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had
no inclination to sleep; so I sat down in my
chair and lighted my lamp, for it began to be
dark. Now as the apprehension of the return of
my'distemper terrified me very much, it occurred
to my thoughts, that the Brasilians took no phy-
sic but their tobacco for almost all distempers,
and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of
tile chests which was quite cured, and some also
ihat was green and not quite cured.
I





ADVENTURES OF


I went, directed by heaven no doubt; for in
this chest I found a cure both for soul and
body; I opened the chest, and found what I
looked for, viz. the tobacco; and as the few
books I had saved lay there too, I took out one
of the Bibles which I mentioned before, and
which to this time I had not found leisure or
so much as inclination to look into; I say I
took it out and brought both that and the to-
bacco with me to the table.
What use to make of the tobacco, I knew not
exactly, but I tried several experiments with it:
I first took a piece of a leaf and chewed it in
my mouth, which at first almost stupified me;
the tobacco being green and strong; then I
took some and steeped it an hour or two in
some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it
when I lay down; and lastly, I burnt some upon
a pan of coals, and held my nose close over the
smoak as long as I could bear it, as well for the
heat as almost for suffocation.
In the interval of this operation, I took up the
Bible and began to read, but my head was too
much disturbed with the tobacco to bear read-
ing, at least that time; only having opened the
book casually, the first words that occurred to





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


me were these-" Call on me in the day of
trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt
glorify me."
The words were very apt to my case, and
made some impressions upon my thoughts at the
time of reading them, though not so much as
they did afterwards; for, as to being delivered,
the word had no meaning, as I may say, to me;
the thing was so remote, so impossible in my
apprehension of things, that I began to say as
the children of Israel did, when they were pro-
mised flesh to eat, Can God spread a table in
the wilderness?" So I began to say, Can God
himself deliver me from this place ?" And as it
was not for many years that any hope appeared,
this prevailed very much upon my thoughts. It
grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said,
dozed my head so much, that I inclined to sleep;
so I left my lamp burning in my cave, lest I
should want any thing in the night, and went to
bed; but before I lay down, I did what I had
never done in my life, I kneeled down and pray-
ed to God to fulfil the promise to me, that if
called upon him he would deliver me. After
my broken and imperfect prayer was over, I
drank the rum in which I had steeped the to-
S2





ADVENTURES OF


bacco, which was so strong and rank with it,
that I could scarcely get it down, immediately
upon this I went to bed, and I presently found
it flew up into my head violently; but 1 fell
into a sound sleep, and waked no more, till by
the sun it appeared to be three o'clock in the
afternoon of the next day; nay, to this hour I
am partly of opinion, that I slept all the next
day and night, and till three that day after; for
otherwise I knew not how I should lose a day
out of my reckoning in the days of the week,
as it appeared some years after I had done: for
if I had lost it by crossing and recrossing the
line I should have lost more than one day. But,
in my account, it was lost, and I never knew
which way.
When I awaked, I found myself exceedingly
retieshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful;
when I got up I was stronger than I was the
day before, and my stomach better, for I was
hungry; and in short, I had no fit the next
dav, but continued much altered for the better.
This was the 29th.
The 30th was my well day of course, and I
went abroad with my gun, but did not care to
travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl or two, some-





ROBINSON CRUSOE. 89

thinglike a brand-goose, and brought them home,
but was not in humour to eat them; so I eat
some more of the turtle's eggs, which were very
good. This evening I renewed the medicine
which I had supposed did me good the day be-
fore, viz. the tobacco steeped in rum, only I did
not take so much as before, nor did I chew any
of the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke;
however, I was not so well the next day, which
was the first of July, as I hoped I should have
been; for I had a little of the cold fit, but it
was not much.
July 2. I renewed the medicine all the three
ways, and dosed myself with it as at first; and
doubled the quantity which I drank.
July 3. I missed the fit for good and all,
though I did not recover my full strength for
some weeks after. While I was thus gathering
strength, my thoughts run exceedingly upon this
scripture, V' I will deliver thee;" and the impos-
sibility of my deliverance lay much upon my
mind in bar of my ever expecting it. But as I
was discouraging myself with such thoughts, it
occurred to my mind, that I pored so much upon
my deliverance from the main aflliction, that I
disregarded the deliverance I had received; and





ADVENTURES OF


I was, as it were, made to ask myself such ques-
tions as these, \iz. Have I notbeen delivered,
and wonderfully too, from sickness; from the
most distressed condition that could be, and that
was so frightful to me? And what notice had I
taken of it? Had I done my part, God had de-
livered me; but I had not glorified him, that is
to say, I had not owned and been thankful for
that as deliverance, and how could I expect
greater deliverance!" This touched my heart
very much, and immediately I kneeled down,
and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery from
sickness.
July 4. In the morning I took the bible, and
beginning at the New Testament, I began seri-
ously to read it, and imposed upon myself to read
awhile every morning and night, not tying myself
to the number of chapters, but as long as my
thoughts would engage me. It was not long after
I set seriously to this work, but I found my heart
more deeply and sincerely affected with the wick-
edness of my past life; the impression of my
dream revived, and the words, All these things
have not brought thee to repentance," ran seri-
ously in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging
of God to give me repentance, when it happened





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


providentially that very day on reading the
scripture, I came to these words-" He is exalted
a prince and a saviour, to give repentance, and
to give remission!" I threw down the book, and
with my heart, as well as my hands lifted up to
heaven, in a kind of extasy of joy, I cried out
aloud, Jesus, thou Son of David-Jesus, thou
exalted Prince and Saviour, give me repen-
tance!"
This was the first time that I could say in the
true sense of the words, that I prayed in all my
life; for now I prayed with a sense of my condi-
tion, and with a true scripture view of hope,
founded on the encouragement of the word of
God, and from this time, I may say, I began to
have hopes that God would hear me.
Now I began to construe the words before
mentioned, Call on me, and I will deliver you,"
in a different sense from what I had ever done be-
fore; as then I had no notion of any thing being
called a deliverance, but my being delivered
from the captivity I was in, for though I was in-
deed at large in the place, yet the island was
certainly a prison to me, and that in the worst
sense in the world; but now I learned to take it
in another sense. Now I looked back upon my





ADVENTURES OF


past life with horror, and my sins appeared so
dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of God,
but deliverance from the load of guilt that bore
down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it
was nothing; I did not so much as pray to be
delivered from it, or think of it; it was all of no
consideration in comparison to this: bat again I
proceed with my journal.
My condition began now to be, though not
less miserable as to my way of living, yet much
easier to my mind: and my thoughts being di-
rected, by a constant reading the scripture, and
praying to God, to things of a higher nature; I
had a great deal of comfort within, which till now
I knew nothing of; my health and strength also
returned, I bestirred myself to furnish me with
every thing that I wanted, and make my way of
living as regular as I could.
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly
employed in walking about with my gun in my
hand, a little and little at a time, as a man that
was gathering up his strength after a fit of sick-
ness: for it is hardly to be imagined how low I
was, and to what weakness I was reduced. The
application which I made use of was perfectly
aew, and perhaps what had never cured an ague




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs