• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of abbreviations and...
 Introduction
 Phonology
 Gender concordance
 Morphonemics
 Substantial constructions
 Verbal constructions
 Ideophone constructions
 Particles
 Verb phrase inflections with object...






Group Title: Some aspects of Shona structure : (Zezuru dialect)
Title: Some aspects of Shona structure
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072667/00001
 Material Information
Title: Some aspects of Shona structure (Zezuru dialect)
Alternate Title: Zezuru dialect
Physical Description: ix, 127 leaves : ; 33 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Fivaz, Derek
Publisher: Department of African Languages, University College of Rhodesia
Place of Publication: Salisbury Southern Rhodesia
Publication Date: 1966
 Subjects
Subject: Shona language -- Grammar   ( lcsh )
Shona language -- English -- Textbooks for foreign speakers   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: Derek Fivaz.
General Note: "June 1966."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072667
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: African Studies Collections in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 29187225

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    List of abbreviations and symbols
        Page v
        Page vi
    Introduction
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
    Phonology
        Page 1
        Segmental phonemes
            Page 1
            Vowels
                Page 1
        Consonants
            Page 1
            Consonant clusters
                Page 2
            Alternative consonant analyses
                Page 3
        Suprasegmental phonemes
            Page 4
            Tones
                Page 4
                Page 5
                Page 6
            Length-stress
                Page 7
    Gender concordance
        Page 8
        Gender concord morphemes
            Page 8
        Class 9
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
        Gender concord morpheme table
            Page 12
    Morphonemics
        Page 13
        Gender concord morphophonemics
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Gender concord morphophonemics involving allomorphs
                Page 15
                Page 16
                Page 17
                Page 18
                Page 19
                Page 20
            Gender concord morphophonemics involving "Fusion" of morphemes
                Page 21
                Page 22
                Page 23
    Substantial constructions
        Page 24
        Word
            Page 24
            Noun
                Page 25
                Page 26
                Page 27
                Page 28
                Page 29
                Page 30
                Page 31
                Page 32
                Page 33
                Page 34
                Page 35
                Page 36
            Adjective
                Page 37
                Page 38
                Page 39
                Page 40
            Enumerative
                Page 41
                Page 42
            Demonstrative
                Page 43
                Page 44
                Page 45
            Selector
                Page 46
                Page 47
            Pronoun
                Page 48
                Page 49
            Quantitative
                Page 50
                Page 51
        Phrases
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Substantive phrase
                Page 54
                Page 55
                Page 56
            Adverbial phrase
                Page 57
                Page 58
                Page 59
                Page 60
                Page 61
                Page 62
                Page 63
            Copulative phrase
                Page 64
                Page 65
                Page 66
                Page 67
                Page 68
                Page 69
                Page 70
            Possessive phrases
                Page 71
                Page 72
                Page 73
                Page 74
                Page 75
                Page 76
                Page 77
                Page 78
            Locative phrase
                Page 79
            Ownership phrase
                Page 80
                Page 81
            Presentative phrase
                Page 82
            Associative phrase
                Page 83
                Page 84
                Page 85
                Page 86
        Sentences
            Page 87
    Verbal constructions
        Page 88
        Verb phrase
            Page 88
        Clause
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Infinitive
                Page 92
            Imperative
                Page 93
            Present habitual
                Page 94
                Page 95
                Page 96
            Past habitual
                Page 97
                Page 98
                Page 99
                Page 100
                Page 101
            Future
                Page 102
                Page 103
                Page 104
                Page 105
            Remote past
                Page 106
                Page 107
                Page 108
                Page 109
            Potential
                Page 110
                Page 111
                Page 112
                Page 113
            Recent past
                Page 114
                Page 115
            Present participial
                Page 116
            Consecutive
                Page 117
            Subjunctive
                Page 118
            Exclusive
                Page 119
            Present continuous
                Page 120
                Page 121
                Page 122
        inflected clause
            Page 123
        Sentence
            Page 123
    Ideophone constructions
        Page 124
        Ideophone
            Page 124
        Ideophone phrase
            Page 124
        Ideophone sentence
            Page 125
    Particles
        Page 126
        Adverb
            Page 126
        Conjunction
            Page 126
        Interjection
            Page 126
    Verb phrase inflections with object gender concord
        Page 127
Full Text



















ASPECTS


OF


SHONA


STRUCTURE


D. Fivaz


PL
8681.1
.F5821
1966


SOME

















ASPECTS


O F


SH 0 NA


STRUCTURE


(Zezuru Dialect)






Derek Fivaz



























Department of African Languages,
University College of Rhodesia,
Salisbury.
June 1966


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES


GEORGE FRT!,!E COLLECTION


S 0' M E
















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS




Mr A.C. Hodza, Language Assistant in the Department of
African Languages at the University College of Rhodesia,
supplied nearly all the utterances on which this analysis
is based, and I wish to express my appreciation to him. I
am grateful to Mr G.P. Kahari, also of the Department of
African Languages at the University College, for verifying
some of the examples.

Professor G. Fortune had done considerable research on
tone, and I have been greatly helped by this. The tone
conjugations in particular are his work. He also suggested
the presentation of this material in three hierarchies;
substantial, verbal, and ideophone. Dr H.A. Gleason first
suggested "cutting" the traditional "verbs" in Zulu between
the conjugational affixes and the root, and I have followed
this in the present study.

I have profited from conversations with Professor
G. Fortune, Professor L.W. Lanham, the staff of the Department
of African Languages at the University of the Witwatersrand
-- and in particular Professor D.T. Cole -- and Mr F. Heny.
The shortcomings of this work are, of course, my own.











TABLE OF CONTENTS


Acknowledgements
List of Abbreviations and Symbols
Introduction


PHONOLOGY
Segmental Phonemes
Vowels
Consonants
Consonant Clusters
Alternative Consonant Analyses
Suprasegmental Phonemes
Tones
Length-Stress

GENDER CONCORDANCE
Gender Concord Morphemes
Class 9
Gender Concord Morpheme Table

MORPHOPHONEMICS
Gender Concord Morphophonemics
Gender Concord Morphophonemics
Involving Allomorphs
Gender Concord Morphophonemics
Involving "Fusion" of Morphemes


SUBSTANTIAL CONSTRUCTIONS

Words
Noun
Adjective
Enumerative
Demonstrative
Selector
Pronoun
Quantitative
Phrases
Substantive Phrase
Adverbial Phrase
Copulative Phrase
Possessive Phrase
Locative Phrase
Ownership Phrase
Presentative Phrase
Associative Phrase

Sentences


iii


Page
ii


v
vii


0.1.


0.1.1.1.
0.1.1.3.

0.1.1.4.
0.1.2.
0.1.2.1.
0.1.2.2.

0.2.
0.2.1.
0.2.2.
0.2.5.

0.3.
0.3.1.
0.5.1.1.

0.5.1.2.


1.1.
1.1.1.
1.1.2.
1.1.3.
1.1.4.
1.1.5.
1.1.6.
1.1.7.
1.2.
1.2.1.
1.2.2.
1.2.3.
1.2.4.
1.2.5.
1.2.6.
1.2.7.
1.2.8.


1.5.














Page


2. VERBAL CONSTRUCTIONS 88

2.1. Verb Phrase 88
2.2. Clause 89
2.2.1. Infinitive 92
2.2.2. Imperative 93
2.2.3, Present Habitual 94
2.2.4. Past Habitual 97
2.2.5. Future 102
2.2.6. Remote Past 106
2.2.7. Potential 110
2.2.8. Recent Past 114
2.2.9. Present Participial 116
2.2.10. Consecutive 117
2.2.11. Subjunctive 118
2.2.12. Exclusive 119
2.2.15. Present Continuous 120

2.5. Inflected Clause 123

2.4. Sentence 123


3. IDEOPHONE CONSTRUCTIONS 124
3.1. Ideophone 124
3.2. Ideophone Phrase 124
3.3. Ideophone Sentence 125


4. PARTICLES 126
4.1. Adverb 126
4.2. Conjunction 126
4.3. Interjection 126




APPENDIX
Verb Phrase Inflections with
Object Gender Concord 127











LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS



a adjective
Adj. adjective
adv
adv adverbial
Adv.
AP adverbial phrase
as adjective stem
C consonant
cop copulative
CP copulative phrase
d demonstrative
Dem. demonstrative
e enumerative
Enum. enumerative
es enumerative stem
gc gender concord
H high tone
HP associative phrase
IC infinitive clause
IP ideophone phrase
L low tone
loc locative
LP locative phrase
MR morphophonemic rule
n noun
neg negative
ns noun stem
nuc nucleus
obj object
OP ownership phrase
p pronoun

po5 possessive
Poss.
PP possessive phrase
pres presentative
q quantitative
qs quantitative stem
-R- verb root or radical
RC relative clause
s selector

















Sel. selector
SP substantive phrase
ss selector stem
TC tone conjugation
tm tonal morpheme
TP presentative phrase
V vowel






high tone
low tone
/ or
Szero
> becomes
< comes from
varies with; allomorph
+ plus; obligatory occurrence
+ plus or minus; optional occurrence
+ T optional occurrence of one or the other
but not both
[ ] encloses phonetic notation
/ / encloses phonemic notation
Smorpheme represented in base form, i.e. a
form which represents all allomorphs

I with I : 1st person singular and plural
reference
II to II : 2nd person singular and plural
III gender. III: classes 1 to 21
concords








INTRODUCTION


This study as an attempt to apply the notion of "constituent
structure" in the description of Shona grammar. The result is
very different from the familiar "Doke model," as exemplified for
example in Professor G. Fortune's An Analytical Grammar of Shona.

My departure from Doke began several years ago while I was
working on the ideophone in Zulu. In attempting the description
of ideophone syntax it became apparent that the Doke model could
not serve as the basis of a rigorous syntactic description. The
reason for this is quite simple.

The stream of speech in south-eastern Bantu is "punctuated"
by the phoneme of (penultimate) length. The segments thus
demarcated in slow speech are phonological words. For example,
in the utterance:-
nem6mbe dzemurume uyu(andthe cattle of this man)
/nem6mbe/, /dzemurudm/, and /uyu/ are phonological words (their
penultimate syllables are long). It is these phonologically
demarcated segments that are the subject of the Doke model.

Having discovered all the words marked off by penultimate
length, the followers of Professor Doke proceed to classify them
in accordance with the model developed by him. It must be noted
that the subject of their grammatical study is (in the first
instance) phonologically demarcated segments. This is the
fundamental weakness of the Doke model. Because it deals with
such segments as /nem6mbe/, /dz6mur6im/, and /uyu/ the model
cannot adequately say what /dzemurdum/ and /uyu/ in the above
utterance qualify. (/dzemurdme/ qualifies /mombe/, and /uyu/
qualifies /murdme/.)

The aim of the Doke model is to provide a classification of
phonological words as "parts of speech." Proceeding from the
Doke model to a rigorous syntactic study is inhibited by the fact
that the model deals with phonological rather than grammatical
entities. It must, however, be noted that the model does have
something to say about syntax. The six major parts of speech
(substantive, qualificative, predicative, descriptive, conjunctive,
and interjective) give some idea of the "function", or syntactic
distribution, of words. The model first gives a rough indication
of the syntactic distribution of phonological words, and then
proceeds to a detailed classification and description of the
internal structure of each type. The focus throughout is on
phonological words, and the model does not attempt to describe or
even indicate constructions larger than the phonological word.
The fact that some syntax is "built in" to the model is possibly
/a further...

Reference should be made to some general text on linguistics,
such as H.A. Gleason's An Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics,
for a fuller explanation of constituent structure than is given
here.
2
Hartford Studies in Linguistics No. 4, Some Aspects of the
Ideophone in Zulu, 1963.
Doke insisted on a conjunctive word division around the
phonological word marker of length. This is essential to his
model. If the stream of speech is segmented in some other way
his model falls apart.
The same form can sometimes have several different syntactic
distributions and is therefore classified under several main
"parts of speech." For example, /mukiru/ (big) can be both
substantive and qualificative, and the related form /mikuru/
(he is big) is predicative.
vii










a further inhibiting element against a thorough syntactic study.
It is at any rate significant that not serious syntactic study has
yet been produced by those using the Doke model.

The meaningful elements of language are morphemes. Morphemes
have certain close relations with other morphemes, and groups of
morphemes with other groups of morphemes. Sentences are these
intricate arrangements of morphemes, and the object of grammatical
description is the description of this very intricate patterning
or structure. It is therefore necessary to discover exactly what
the morphemes of a language are. I have tried to do this rigorously
throughout this study. There are, however, certain tonal segments
(such as the tone conjugations) whose morphemic status is still
uncertain.

This description of Shona grammar is therefore concerned with
morphemes and their combinations into larger and larger construe :c -
There is a hierarchy of levels of constructions. This can be
illustrated by the diagram below, where a,b,...k represent morphemes
and the lines (or "tree branches")indicate the structural relations
between the morphemes and groups of morphemes.

abc d ef ghi j k



C

The combinations a-b, c-d-e, f-g, h-i, j-k are constructions at
level A. (a-b) (c-d-e), and (f-g) (h-i) (j-k) are
constructions at level B. The two large groups together are a
construction at level C. This is the constituent structure of
this hypothetical sequence of morphemes.

The levels in a constituent structure analyst s are given
names, such as word, phrase, clause, and sentence. There are
usually several different constructions at each level. For
example, at the word level there is noun, adjective, enumerative,
demonstrative, pronoun, etc. Even though word constructions
might be fairly complex, grammatical description does not begin
and end with the description of words only. All the larger
constructions up to the sentence must be described.
/While...


In criticising the Doke model I would not wish to minimize in
any way the tremendous contribution made by Professor Doke and
his followers to Bantu linguistic study. Progress is only made
by a critical appraisal of what has been done before. I have
not given a full evaluation of the Doke model here, but have only
mentioned its most serious weakness.
Phonological words coincide to a large extent with grammatical
words. For example /mombe/ (cattle) and /mukdrd/ (big) are
both phonological words and grammatical words. In fact all
grammatical words in Shona are also phonological words. All
phonological words, on the other hand, are not grammatical words.
In the utterance /nem6mbe dzemurudm uyu/ (and the cattle of this
man) /nem6mbe/ and /dzemurdm6/ are phonological words but not
grammatical words. The grammatical words involved are /mombe/
(cattle) and /murudm/ (man), and the structure of the utterance
can be diagrammed thus:-
nem6mbe dz6murine uu

The underlined segments are grammatical words. The larger
constructions are different kinds of phrases.
viii











While a constituent structure analysis is a significant step
forward from the Doke model it nevertheless suffers from a
deficiency inherent in this kind of description. Certain
utterances of a language are best described not as having a
structure of their own but rather as being derived from some other
structure or structures. They are "transformations" of other
utterances. Some simple examples of utterances best described as
transformations are:-
1. an6gara Harare (he who lives in Salisbury)
from:
anogara Harare (He lives in Salisbury.)

2. muridm wAkarumw6 nembwa (The man was bitten by the dog.)
from:
imbwa yakaruma murim4 (The dog bit the man.)

A constituent structure description cannot handle these relation-
ships between utterances. A set of transformational rules is
needed for this. The present study is a step towards a more
adequate transformational grammar.

"Some aspects" in the title of this study indicates its
restricted scope. I have tried to omit from the description
structures which are clearly transformations. This accounts for
several notable omissions. Some utterances which are in all
probability transformations are included because the solution is
not yet clear. In several places I have indicated the need for
transformational rules, but no attempt has yet been made to
formulate these.

There are also deficiencies in the constituent structure
description given. In particular "verbal" constructions need
further study. The problems here, however, are fairly complex
and a satisfactory constituent structure description will probably
only be possible when the accompanying transformational rules have
been formulated. What is given here is at least a pointer to what
still needs to be done.

This study is not presented in "polished" form. It has not
been written in the order in which it is presented, and cross-
references and footnotes are therefore not all that could be
desired. I trust, however, that the description is intelligible.











PHO NOLO GY


o)i,1. Segmental Phonemes

.b.1.1. Vowels
There are five vowels which involve a front-back:high-low
contrast. The vowels appear to have no appreciable allophones.

High

i u

Front e o Back

a

Low


1.2. Consonants

The following is one phonemic interpretation of the
consonantal syllabic onsets:-
Position of Articulation


Voiced 6 g
03 0 4- 43



Voiceless p t k

( tVoiced 6 cc (g)
f f
4- (Voiceless t
St+lp.rndg.





Nasals m n 3

Misc.Continuants v r y w


lIn the grammatical description which follows some of the phonemes
are represented by different symbols. The correspondences are
the following:-
:oh 6:b cf:d 6:sh P:sv
v:j vvh U:v 2:zh ;:zv
jiny j:ng'

The phoneme /g/ which is listed in the above chart as (g) occurs
only in clusters with other consonants. It occurs very frequently
clustered with /h/. The sequence /gh/ is represented as /g/ in
the orthography used in the grammatical description. See the
discussion on the consonantal analysis on page











PHO NOLO GY


o)i,1. Segmental Phonemes

.b.1.1. Vowels
There are five vowels which involve a front-back:high-low
contrast. The vowels appear to have no appreciable allophones.

High

i u

Front e o Back

a

Low


1.2. Consonants

The following is one phonemic interpretation of the
consonantal syllabic onsets:-
Position of Articulation


Voiced 6 g
03 0 4- 43



Voiceless p t k

( tVoiced 6 cc (g)
f f
4- (Voiceless t
St+lp.rndg.





Nasals m n 3

Misc.Continuants v r y w


lIn the grammatical description which follows some of the phonemes
are represented by different symbols. The correspondences are
the following:-
:oh 6:b cf:d 6:sh P:sv
v:j vvh U:v 2:zh ;:zv
jiny j:ng'

The phoneme /g/ which is listed in the above chart as (g) occurs
only in clusters with other consonants. It occurs very frequently
clustered with /h/. The sequence /gh/ is represented as /g/ in
the orthography used in the grammatical description. See the
discussion on the consonantal analysis on page











PHO NOLO GY


o)i,1. Segmental Phonemes

.b.1.1. Vowels
There are five vowels which involve a front-back:high-low
contrast. The vowels appear to have no appreciable allophones.

High

i u

Front e o Back

a

Low


1.2. Consonants

The following is one phonemic interpretation of the
consonantal syllabic onsets:-
Position of Articulation


Voiced 6 g
03 0 4- 43



Voiceless p t k

( tVoiced 6 cc (g)
f f
4- (Voiceless t
St+lp.rndg.





Nasals m n 3

Misc.Continuants v r y w


lIn the grammatical description which follows some of the phonemes
are represented by different symbols. The correspondences are
the following:-
:oh 6:b cf:d 6:sh P:sv
v:j vvh U:v 2:zh ;:zv
jiny j:ng'

The phoneme /g/ which is listed in the above chart as (g) occurs
only in clusters with other consonants. It occurs very frequently
clustered with /h/. The sequence /gh/ is represented as /g/ in
the orthography used in the grammatical description. See the
discussion on the consonantal analysis on page











PHO NOLO GY


o)i,1. Segmental Phonemes

.b.1.1. Vowels
There are five vowels which involve a front-back:high-low
contrast. The vowels appear to have no appreciable allophones.

High

i u

Front e o Back

a

Low


1.2. Consonants

The following is one phonemic interpretation of the
consonantal syllabic onsets:-
Position of Articulation


Voiced 6 g
03 0 4- 43



Voiceless p t k

( tVoiced 6 cc (g)
f f
4- (Voiceless t
St+lp.rndg.





Nasals m n 3

Misc.Continuants v r y w


lIn the grammatical description which follows some of the phonemes
are represented by different symbols. The correspondences are
the following:-
:oh 6:b cf:d 6:sh P:sv
v:j vvh U:v 2:zh ;:zv
jiny j:ng'

The phoneme /g/ which is listed in the above chart as (g) occurs
only in clusters with other consonants. It occurs very frequently
clustered with /h/. The sequence /gh/ is represented as /g/ in
the orthography used in the grammatical description. See the
discussion on the consonantal analysis on page









D.. 1.53 Consonant Clusters
Phonetic values, where significantly different from the
phonemic symbols, are given in square brackets.
Nasal Clusters


m6 [mb ]
my


nda[nd] Ji
nz


Affricate Clusters


pf


6v [bv]


[dz]
[d<]


h Clusters


6h [bh] dh [dh]
mh nh


w Clusters


pw [px]
6w [b4j






mw [m5 ]


tw [txw]
dw [dw]
sw [sxw
w [sxw ]
zw [zw]
ZW [W ]
nw
rw [rw]
tsw [tsxw]
tpw [tgxw]
dzw [dzvw]
cftw [diw ]


cw Jc'xwj
jw Drw]
sw rsxw]


W [w i


jIw lj5w]


In the w clusters the phonetic segment denoted [x] is often
more k] or something between [x] and [k] perhaps [kx].

Miscellaneous Clusters

Ek 5g

The [k] in /6k/ sometimes seems more like [x] or perhaps kx ].
The [g] in /3g/ sometimes seems more like [] or perhaps [g ].


In the grammatical description which follows the clusters are either
written as in the above charts (e.g. nz,mv,tw,gw,hw), or as combinations
of the correspondences given in the footnote on the preceding page
(e.g. tp:tsv, 6h:bh, n;:nzv).
/gh/ is always written g.
/6k/ is written ty.
i/g/ is written dy.









0.1.1.4. Alternative Consonant Analyses

(i) Stops and Affricates1

(a) p t c k
6 d 5 g

Here the voiced velar stop is regarded as a single phoneme.

(b) p t c k
b d 5 g
6 (f
Here the explosive segments (b) and [d] are regarded
as the voiced counterparts of /p/ and /t/. The voiced
stop series are then homogeneous in being all explosive.

(c) p t k
6 cd g /(g)
Here the palatal members are interpreted as affricate
cluster: /!S/.nd /dE/ rather than unit phonemes /6/and /3/.

/mh/ and /nh/ are obviously best treated as clusters of /m/ and /n/
with /h/. /bh/, /dh/ and /gh/ have accompanying glottal friction
in much the same way as /mh/ and /nh/.
The segments (b3, [d3, and [g) occur in clusters ([mb nd Ig by
dz dz] ). (C and [dj are therefore in complementation with
[f6andC(]. (g] does not have any implosive counterpart. The
interpretation given in 0.1.1.2. and 0.1.1.3. with respect to the
voiced labial, alveolar, and velar stops is the following:-
/6/= [6 bJ
/d/ = [: dl
// = [g]
[6landld] occur in isolation whereas [b], [d] and [g] occur
only in clusters.
The morphophonemic changes accompanying the class 5 gender concord
-1 confirm the analysis given in 0.1.1.2. with respect to the
voiced labial, alveolar, and velar stops. See MR 9 section 0.3.1.2.


p t r ( k
6 d' 3 g

(ii) The onset Cv] has accompanying glottal friction. Can this be
regarded as a cluster of /?/ and /h/?


See also the article by Earl W. Stevick "The Implosive-Explosive
Contrast in Manyika", African Studies Vol. 19 No. 2, 1960.









0.1.2. Suprasegmental Phonemes

0.1.2.1. Tones


There are two tonal phonemes, H and L, which are
phonemically represented by an acute accent (') and no
accent or grave (') respectively. Every syllable, whether
V, CV, or C, carries one of these tones.1
The tones do not have an exact and constant phonetic
pitch, but in the same environment H is higher in pitch
than L. The environment within which H and L contrast is
called a "tonal step". A phonological phrase might have
several such tonal steps, each of which is successively
lower than the preceding step. This is the phenomenon of
"downdrift".


L>JL]!


L-


H and L tones at the beginning of the phonological phrase are
higher in pitch than H and L tones at the end.

In addition to downdrift there are several other factors
which condition allotones of the H and L tones.

Allotones of H

(a) Certain of the consonantal syllable onsets
cause an immediately following H to be realized as a
rising glide. These onsets ,called depressors, are
listed below.


jira -]
gmi L
zvingu -

kashinji [-- / J3
hama t' IJI
ndakavhunza /
njdma [L "]
mvidrA 6 -
hanzvAdzi / _]
nzombe
bvembe [-
kudzvuri


(ten)
(mine)
(tooth)
(several times)
(relative)
(I asked)
hornlesss animal)
(water, rain)
(sibling of opposite sex)
(ox)
(watermelon)
(to stamp)


1 C' in 'CV' represents consonantall onset" (to a syllable).
may be a single consonant or a cluster of consonants.
>"


This


2
2The description of Shona allotones given here is not a thorough
study, but the main allotones are indicated.


j
g
zv
z
zh
h
vh
vh
nj
my
nzv
nz
by
dzv


-]I-


~ '1~-7









0.1.2. Suprasegmental Phonemes

0.1.2.1. Tones


There are two tonal phonemes, H and L, which are
phonemically represented by an acute accent (') and no
accent or grave (') respectively. Every syllable, whether
V, CV, or C, carries one of these tones.1
The tones do not have an exact and constant phonetic
pitch, but in the same environment H is higher in pitch
than L. The environment within which H and L contrast is
called a "tonal step". A phonological phrase might have
several such tonal steps, each of which is successively
lower than the preceding step. This is the phenomenon of
"downdrift".


L>JL]!


L-


H and L tones at the beginning of the phonological phrase are
higher in pitch than H and L tones at the end.

In addition to downdrift there are several other factors
which condition allotones of the H and L tones.

Allotones of H

(a) Certain of the consonantal syllable onsets
cause an immediately following H to be realized as a
rising glide. These onsets ,called depressors, are
listed below.


jira -]
gmi L
zvingu -

kashinji [-- / J3
hama t' IJI
ndakavhunza /
njdma [L "]
mvidrA 6 -
hanzvAdzi / _]
nzombe
bvembe [-
kudzvuri


(ten)
(mine)
(tooth)
(several times)
(relative)
(I asked)
hornlesss animal)
(water, rain)
(sibling of opposite sex)
(ox)
(watermelon)
(to stamp)


1 C' in 'CV' represents consonantall onset" (to a syllable).
may be a single consonant or a cluster of consonants.
>"


This


2
2The description of Shona allotones given here is not a thorough
study, but the main allotones are indicated.


j
g
zv
z
zh
h
vh
vh
nj
my
nzv
nz
by
dzv


-]I-


~ '1~-7











dz

bh

dh

mh

nh

bw

dw

jw

gw
zvw

zw

zhw

hw

dzw

dy

dzvw
rw


dzungu

bh6ra

dhuku

mh6p6

nhm6o

ibw4

dw6

ndakdjw6nya

igwdro

r6zvwa

izwl

zhwezhwdzhwe

hwahwA

kukudzwd

kudya~


irwA


[H-]
C" -3




C[- -]
[---1







C- /J
[-"]
[E,]





[-' -]
[- .-,3

[ ']



[-_ -



- -I
[_--i


(b) When a sequence of H's is immediately followed by word-final
L the second and following H's are successively higher in
pitch. Without following word-final L a sequence of H's does not
show this "crescendo".


muprbk6edzi

muchr6ech6dzo

muitngesi

cf. kutengesa

mu6nesgro
cf. ku6ndsa

mushambadziro

kushgmbadza


L- -- -]-

C- ----1

[- ~-

C- ----j

[----, 1

K--- -j

[---- -_I
[-. -. -I


(one who accompanies)

(a sign or mark)

(one who sells)
(to sell)

(way of showing)
(to show)

(way of hawking)

(to hawk)


(dizziness)

(ball)

headscarff)

(wind)

(trouble)

(it is a stone)

(of dripping ideo.)

(I crushed)

(it is a letter)

(perish!)

(word)

(crying of many children)

(beer)

(to be honoured)

(to eat)


(fight!)









Allotones of L

(a) A L after a depressor onset is lower in pitch than a L
after a non-depressor.


-- --

E- --

[- -


(evening)

(horses)

(cigarette lighters)


(b) A L tone after a H and following a non-depressor onset is
realized as a falling glide which is most noticeable when
on the penultimate syllable. (A L tone after a H and
following a depressor onset is realized as a level low.)

ndhitenzi (it is the master)

cf. ihama (it is a relative)

mdtengi (it is a buyer)

cf. chidhinha (it is a brick)


(c)
two


A L after a non-depressor onset and between two H's is
raised in pitch. A L after a depressor onset and between
H's is only slightly raised.

vAchi6na -- ] (they saw it)

vazvi6n i (they saw them)

ndin6mu6na -- (I will see him)

vAdzimai (mothers, women)

muk6mana [ (boy)


(d) A sequence of L's, especially
becomes successively lower in

kutarisa [-._ -

kutevera _

kutambudza -- _

kugadzira -- _


when in final position,
pitch.

(to look at)

(to follow)

(to trouble)

(to repair)


manherid

mabhizg

magwenyA














0.1.2.2. Length-Stress1


2
Most phonological words and phonological phrase are
demarcated by penultimate prominence.3 This prominence
appears to be phonetically a feature of length-stress.
A phoneme of length-stress is posited although the functional
load of this phoneme iS very low.

Minimal pairs which differ only in presence or absence of
length-stress are hard to find, but note the following:-


ndipe


C-. -


ndi6 :ne {"'J

ndione f- -~


(shall I give?)

(give me)


(shall I see?)


(see me)


1Professor G. Fortune has produced a short (mimeographed)
paper entitled Some Notes on Length in Shona. He indicates
that more research is needed on length and says, "The
function of length is uncertain in Shona." I have not
worked on length and am not reduplicating his findings here,
but wish merely to indicate that there is a phoneme of
length-stress.

2
The words thus demarcated are the subject of the grammatical
model followed in An Analytical Grammar of Shona. The
ideophone is one kind of word not demarcated by penultimate
length.


It is not nearly as noticeable as in Nguni.


ndf:pe C-_-1






0.2. GENDER CONCORDANCE

0.2.1. Gender Concord Morphemes
Concordance is such an important feature of Shona that it
deserves special consideration. This presentation of Shona
grammar is a morphemic analysis, and structures are stated in
terms of morpheme combinations. It is therefore necessary to
find out exactly what the gender concord morphemes are. My
approach to the subject is set out in the following points:-
(a) Nouns are members of one or other of twenty one grammatical
classes, each of which is distinguished by a characteristic
prefixal morpheme.
(b) Several different kinds of words (e.g. adjectives, pronouns,
enumeratives, demonstratives), and some grammatical
constructions (e.g. possessive phrases), which are in constituent
relationship with nouns (e.g. as qualifiers) incorporate concord
morphemes which show agreement with the noun prefixes. There are
almost as many concords for each of these constructions as there
are for nouns. A noun governs (i.e. causes the appearance of
concords of the same class) the concords of words or constructions
in constituent relationship with it.
(c) The noun prefixes are given numbers (1 to 21) in general
accordance with the Heinhof system of numbering, and all the
other concord series are given numberscorresponding to the noun
prefix numbers. A few !lasses are added to Meinhof "(la,2a,2b),
and two classes have Meinhof's numbers reversed (12 is nowka-
and 13 is now tu-).
(d) The noun prefixes and all the concord series are called
"gender concords".
(e) WVhile the approach followed in existing Shona grammars
is that each gender concord series is distinct, it is quite
clear that the series can be greatly conflated. If all the
gender concord series are placed side by side one is struck with
the redundancy. Some classes have the same form throughout
(e.g. class 2 va-), or in some constructions a form can easily
be regarded as an allomorph of the usual form (e.g. class 7
ch- in the pronoun and quantitative occurs before /o/ while
chi- occurs in the other series before consonants).
(f) An attempt is made here to answer the question as to what
the gender concord morphemes are. We obviously cannot
substantiate nine different class 7 chi- morphemes (noun chi-,
adjective chi-, enumerative chi-, demonstrative chi-, selector
chi-, subject prefix chi-, object prefix chi-, pronoun ch-,
quantitative ch-.).
(g) The procedure followed in establishing the gender concord
morphemes was to set out all the gender concord series side
by side and to remove from each series forms which could be placed
in some "basic" list. This can easily be done for classes
2,7,8,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18. The remaining persons and
classes are not as straight-forward, as the forms occurring in the
different series cannot all easily be regarded as allomorphs.
For example class 1 has the forms /u-/, /a-/, /mu-/, /-ye/, and
/-ke/. If these are regarded as allomorphs their distribution
is morphologically (or "constructionally"?) conditioned. It is
much easier to regard such forms as separate morphemes which
replace one another in different constructions. One of these
forms can be chosen for the basic series, and the others left in
subsidiary series. In classes like class 1 the form occurring
most frequently in all the constructions is the one chosen for the
basic series. Forms in the basic series are not regarded as
being the original forms from which the other (subsidiary) forms
have originated. Neither does the basic series in

/classes
This is the general approach followed in the Department of
African Languages at the University of the Witwatersrand.






0.2. GENDER CONCORDANCE

0.2.1. Gender Concord Morphemes
Concordance is such an important feature of Shona that it
deserves special consideration. This presentation of Shona
grammar is a morphemic analysis, and structures are stated in
terms of morpheme combinations. It is therefore necessary to
find out exactly what the gender concord morphemes are. My
approach to the subject is set out in the following points:-
(a) Nouns are members of one or other of twenty one grammatical
classes, each of which is distinguished by a characteristic
prefixal morpheme.
(b) Several different kinds of words (e.g. adjectives, pronouns,
enumeratives, demonstratives), and some grammatical
constructions (e.g. possessive phrases), which are in constituent
relationship with nouns (e.g. as qualifiers) incorporate concord
morphemes which show agreement with the noun prefixes. There are
almost as many concords for each of these constructions as there
are for nouns. A noun governs (i.e. causes the appearance of
concords of the same class) the concords of words or constructions
in constituent relationship with it.
(c) The noun prefixes are given numbers (1 to 21) in general
accordance with the Heinhof system of numbering, and all the
other concord series are given numberscorresponding to the noun
prefix numbers. A few !lasses are added to Meinhof "(la,2a,2b),
and two classes have Meinhof's numbers reversed (12 is nowka-
and 13 is now tu-).
(d) The noun prefixes and all the concord series are called
"gender concords".
(e) WVhile the approach followed in existing Shona grammars
is that each gender concord series is distinct, it is quite
clear that the series can be greatly conflated. If all the
gender concord series are placed side by side one is struck with
the redundancy. Some classes have the same form throughout
(e.g. class 2 va-), or in some constructions a form can easily
be regarded as an allomorph of the usual form (e.g. class 7
ch- in the pronoun and quantitative occurs before /o/ while
chi- occurs in the other series before consonants).
(f) An attempt is made here to answer the question as to what
the gender concord morphemes are. We obviously cannot
substantiate nine different class 7 chi- morphemes (noun chi-,
adjective chi-, enumerative chi-, demonstrative chi-, selector
chi-, subject prefix chi-, object prefix chi-, pronoun ch-,
quantitative ch-.).
(g) The procedure followed in establishing the gender concord
morphemes was to set out all the gender concord series side
by side and to remove from each series forms which could be placed
in some "basic" list. This can easily be done for classes
2,7,8,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18. The remaining persons and
classes are not as straight-forward, as the forms occurring in the
different series cannot all easily be regarded as allomorphs.
For example class 1 has the forms /u-/, /a-/, /mu-/, /-ye/, and
/-ke/. If these are regarded as allomorphs their distribution
is morphologically (or "constructionally"?) conditioned. It is
much easier to regard such forms as separate morphemes which
replace one another in different constructions. One of these
forms can be chosen for the basic series, and the others left in
subsidiary series. In classes like class 1 the form occurring
most frequently in all the constructions is the one chosen for the
basic series. Forms in the basic series are not regarded as
being the original forms from which the other (subsidiary) forms
have originated. Neither does the basic series in

/classes
This is the general approach followed in the Department of
African Languages at the University of the Witwatersrand.








classes 1,3,4,6, and 9 reflect the fact that the noun is the
"pivot" of the concordance system. It is unnecessary to
reflect this fact in a chart whose purpose is only to set out
all the gender concord morphemes of the language.
(h) The gender concord series in their conflated forms are
designated a,b,c,....j, series a being the basic series and
b to j the subsidiary series. The conflated series are set
out in section 0.2.3. on page 12 .
(j) The gender concord morphemes having been determined,
powerful morphophonemic rules can be formulated which
apply to these morphemes. If each gender concord series is
regarded as distinct, the same kind of morphophonemic rules
must be repeated for each series. The conflation of the
gender concord series obviates this needless redundancy and
gives a clearer picture of the morphophonemics. The
morphophonemic rules applicable to the gender concords are set
out in section 0.3.1.1.on page IS In the grammatical
description the morphophonemic rules are repeated (where
applicable) for each gender concord series. This is only to
facilitate understanding of the analysis and would be omitted
in a more concise presentation.

0.2.2. Class 9

Special consideration must be given to the noun and
adjective class 9 morpheme N- The problem also involves the
class 10 morpheme dzi-. The discussion below is confined to
the noun. The adjective has no class 10 morpheme dzi-.
Briefly, the situation is as follows:-
N- occurs in nouns which are singular and plural.
mbidzi (goat)
mbidzi (goats)

ny6ki (snake)
ny6ki (snakes)
/dzi-/ occurs in two words with a plural meaning.
dzimba (houses) cf. imba (house)
dzimb6 (songs) rumb6 (song)

The traditional treatment of these nouns is to set up the
following classes:-

9 N- singular
10 N- / dzi- plural
The implication is that N- and dzi- in 10 are allomorphs. Forms
with N- are singular and plural in meaning, and as the concord
system as a whole presents a distinction between singular and
plural, it is felt that forms with N- must belong to two classes,
the one singular and the other plural. The assignment of the
plural N- to class 10 would appear to be borne out by the use
of class 10 concords in agreement.
mbddzi dzsngu dzinofura pan6.
(My goats graze here.)
There are, however, a number of arguments against the
traditional analysis. Consider the following points:-
(a) N- and dzi- have been regarded as allomorphs of the class
10 morpheme. This means they cannot contrast in meaning.
/But...


See An Analytical Grammar of Shona, pages 83 and 88.





10


But there are words which occur with N- and dzi- and which
have different meanings. To regard N- and dzi- as allomorphs
is surely to negate the morpheme as a "minimal meaningful unit."
nzira idzi (these paths)
dzinzira idzi (these many paths)

nyati (buffaloes)
dzinyati (many buffaloes)

ny6ka (snakes)
dziny6kA (many snakes)

hova (rivers)
dzihova (many rivers)
There are also examples in which another concord is superimposed
onto dzi-.
madzinyanga (many horns) cf. manyangi (big horns)
nyanga (horn/horns)
madzimuto (many kinds mamuto (thick, badly
of soup) cooked soup)
muto (soup)

madzitare (many courts) matare (courts)

madzimisha (many villages) mamisha (villages)
mishap (villages)

madziminya (lot of left-over maminya (bad left-overs)
food) minya (left-overs)


(b) The class 10 dzi- in the above examples is in secondary
association. If N- and dzi- are both class 10 forms then
this means that one allomorph of the morpheme (viz. N-) occurs
in primary association while the other (viz. dzi-) occurs in
secondary association. None of the other noun gender concords
can occur in both primary and secondary association with the
same stems.

(c) No speaker of Zezuru can tell whether nouns with _- (in
isolation) are singular or whether they are plural.
hama (reltive/relatives)
mbddzi (goat/goats)
ny6ki (snake/snakes)
The noun gender concords on the whole serve to distinguish such
things as singular and plural.
munhu (person)
vanhu (people)

muti (tree)
miti (trees)
chigaro (chair)
zvigaro (chairs)
If class 9 is N- and class 10 is N- there is the rather unlikely
situation of a singular-plural pair of morphemes being identical
-- where elsewhere the singular-plural distinction is maintained
by the morphemes. In other words, there are contrasting morphemes
with the same form.

1My informant maintains that these forms with dzi- are much more
vivid than those with N-. "It is as though you can see them."
See the Analytical Grammar for explanation of primary and secondary
association. Pages 54,55.




11


(d) The system of class numbering of gender concords reflects
a historical situation. Presumably Proto-Bantu had a
number of gender concord morphemes from which the Shona gender
concords are descended. Thus, the gender concords of class
3 (mu-), 7 (chi-;, and 11 (ru-) are reflexes of morphemes in
Proto-Bantu. If class 9 is N- and class 10 is N- we imply that
they are reflexes of two morphemes at the Proto level. Proto
class 9 is set up as *ni-, and Proto class 10 is set up as *l-ni-.
If there is a class 10 N- in Shona it must be a reflex of *li-ni-.
N- is clearly a reflex of 'i- and if we trace it to *l.-ni- we
must say (as D.T. Cole does) that it is really ON-. This seems
most improbable, especially as *ni- was an existing separate
prefix at the proto level. If *1l- of the class 10 *lp-ni-
is moved the form is in fact class 9 *ni-.


The analysis adopted here is the following:-

N- class 9 number unspecified
dzi- class 10 plural (in primary association with a few
stems)
multiplicity (in secondary association)

What has happened in Shona is that the semantic system has been
restructured. Class 10 might well have been the normal plural
of class 9 or 11 (as in imba:dzimb6 and rumb6:dzimb6), but this
pairing is now no longer maintained. The class 9 gender concord
N- has changed its meaning from singular to number unspecified.
The number of class 9 nouns is conveyed by other concords in
agreement (in much the same way as the number of "sheep" in
English is indicated by such words as "is" and "are"). The
same applies to the adjective class 9 gender concord N-, which
is of course the same morpheme as occurs with the noun. Class 9
nouns which are exclusively singular or exclusively plural are
only so because of their correlative pairing with another
singular or plural gender concord. There is nevertheless a
general tendency for class 9 nouns which do have correlatives
in other classes to mean "number unspecified."
rumbabvu 11 (rib)
mbabvu 9 (rib/ribs)

rutsanga 11 (reed)
tsanga 9 (reed/reeds)

The number of class 9 nouns is conveyed by the concords in
agreement. These concords can be either those of class 9 or
those of class 10, depending on whether the thing referred to
is singular or plural. It is true that gender concords governed
by a noun are usually of the same class as the noun. Note,
however, that class 21 nouns take class 5 agreements.
There is no class 10 concord dzi- with adjectives. N-
in the adjective series, as for the noun, is "number unspecified."
Class 10 nouns have to take class 9 agreements in the adjective.
The heteroconcordance is as follows:-

(a) Noun Concordance
9 N- ... **(singular)
10 '(plural)
(b) Noun Adjective Concordance
9 N- ....... N- :::; ...... (singular)
10 .... (plural)
(c) Noun Adjective Concordance
9 -N- ...
(


dzi--"


'"**(plural)





12


Gender Concord Morpheme Table


0.2.5.


a b c d e f g h j

Basic Subject Dem. PronouPoss Noun Adj. Enum. Object
Sel. nucleus

Is ndi- ini -ngu -
Ip ti- isu -dd -
IIs u- iwe -k6 -ku-
IIp mu- imi -inyu /
1 u- a- -ye -k6 mu-
la -
2 va-
2a -
2b a- -
3 u- mu-
4 i- mi-
5 ri- /
6 a- ma-
7 chi-
8 zvi-
9 i- N-
10 dzi-
11 ru- rwu-
12 ka-
13 tu- twu-
14 hu- hwu-
15 ku- -
16 pa-
17 ku-
18 mu-
21 zi- / -
RP -vi-

(RP stands for "reflexive prefix".)

Morphemes in series b to j are replacement morphemes, that is, in
certain constructions (indicated at the head of each column) they
replace the corresponding morphemes in series a. Notice that
certain replacement morphemes are shared by more than one series.
These morphemes are: class 1 mu- (f,g,h,j); class 3 mu- (f,g,h);
class 4 mi- (f,g,h); class 5 T- (f,g); class 6 ma- (f,g,h);
class 9 N- (f,g); class 21 zi- (f,g). Notice also that the morpheme
-ku- of IIs series j is shared with lip as an alternative to mu-.
To denote the 2nd person plural it occurs with simultaneous suffixal
inflection /-yi/.
Blank in series b to j indicates that the person/class is as for
series a. A dash (-) indicates that the person/class has no member
for that series. A slash indicates that more than one morpheme occurs.
The morphemes in the table are base forms and most are subject to
morphophonemic rules.
The relationship of ru-:rwu-, tu-:twu-, and hu-:hwu- is not yet certain.
In some constructions they appear to be in free variation, but in the
demonstrative and selector the forms without /w/ are not common.





13




0.5. MORPHOPHONEMICS



It is of some advantage to treat together all the
morphophonemic rules of the language in one place in the
grammatical description. The statement of structure (in
terms of morphemes and their combinations) need not then be
cluttered with morphophonemic rules. This gives a neater
picture of the structure. In the present description, 1
however, the morphophonemic rules are given wherever relevant.


It is also unnecessary for the morphophonemics of each
morpheme to be stated separately. Several morphemes are
covered by the same rule. The formulation of these power-
ful rules which apply to more than one morpheme gives a much
clearer picture of the morphophonemics of the language than
the repetition of essentially the same kind of rules again
and again.

Only the gender concord morphophonemic rules are
presented here.



0.3.1. Gender Concord Morphophonemics



Once the gender concord morphemes have been determined
(see section 0.2.) powerful rules which apply to several
gender concord morphemes can be formulated. With the
exception of class 5 ( 0- ) and class 9 (N-) and a few
gender concords which coalesce with /a/, these rules (which
cover all allomorphs of gender concords in all constructions)
can be stated on one page.

As most of the morphophonemic rules apply to several
morphemes, it is desirable to have a convenient way of
referring to all the morphemes covered by the same rule.
Morphemes are represented in the rules in their canonical
forms. For example, MR 1 is given as:-

jCV-j is realized as /C-/ before.......

The gender concords to which this rule applies are all of
the type CV (that is, consonantal onset and vowel), and they
are all represented by ICV-}. (The particular gender
concord morphemes are specified at the head of each rule.)

Classes 1,5, and 18 have the form mu-, and classes 15
and 17 have the form ku- Classes 1,3, and 18 are represent-
ed in the morphophonemic rules by Smu-} and classes 15 and 17
by ku-j. This is not meant to imply that 1,3, and 18 are one
morpheme, or that 15 and 17 are one morpheme.

/Work still....

A more concise description is being prepared where all
morphophonemic rules will be treated in one place and not
scattered through the morphology.





13




0.5. MORPHOPHONEMICS



It is of some advantage to treat together all the
morphophonemic rules of the language in one place in the
grammatical description. The statement of structure (in
terms of morphemes and their combinations) need not then be
cluttered with morphophonemic rules. This gives a neater
picture of the structure. In the present description, 1
however, the morphophonemic rules are given wherever relevant.


It is also unnecessary for the morphophonemics of each
morpheme to be stated separately. Several morphemes are
covered by the same rule. The formulation of these power-
ful rules which apply to more than one morpheme gives a much
clearer picture of the morphophonemics of the language than
the repetition of essentially the same kind of rules again
and again.

Only the gender concord morphophonemic rules are
presented here.



0.3.1. Gender Concord Morphophonemics



Once the gender concord morphemes have been determined
(see section 0.2.) powerful rules which apply to several
gender concord morphemes can be formulated. With the
exception of class 5 ( 0- ) and class 9 (N-) and a few
gender concords which coalesce with /a/, these rules (which
cover all allomorphs of gender concords in all constructions)
can be stated on one page.

As most of the morphophonemic rules apply to several
morphemes, it is desirable to have a convenient way of
referring to all the morphemes covered by the same rule.
Morphemes are represented in the rules in their canonical
forms. For example, MR 1 is given as:-

jCV-j is realized as /C-/ before.......

The gender concords to which this rule applies are all of
the type CV (that is, consonantal onset and vowel), and they
are all represented by ICV-}. (The particular gender
concord morphemes are specified at the head of each rule.)

Classes 1,5, and 18 have the form mu-, and classes 15
and 17 have the form ku- Classes 1,3, and 18 are represent-
ed in the morphophonemic rules by Smu-} and classes 15 and 17
by ku-j. This is not meant to imply that 1,3, and 18 are one
morpheme, or that 15 and 17 are one morpheme.

/Work still....

A more concise description is being prepared where all
morphophonemic rules will be treated in one place and not
scattered through the morphology.





14


Work still needs to be done on the tonal allomorphs of
the gender concords. For syllabic gender concords in different
constructions the situation is as follows:-


Substantival


L
L


Enumerative L
Subject Prefix III: L
Demonstrative L
Selector H


Predicative (copulative
or not relative)

H
H
H
L
H
(Inflection by {ndhe-1.)
(Inflection by fndhe-1.)


For the subject prefix it would appear that the L occurring
in the relative is a tonal morpheme and not an allomorph of the H
form. The same could be said for the adjective and enumerative
if the predicative form (copulative) is set up as the basic one.
The"substantival"morpheme L would then replace H on the predicative
form. The allomorphs of the gender concord would be:


g'C .v gc


(where gc is toneless).


But what of the noun, which has the same copulative rules
as the adjective and enumerative? We obviously do not want to
set up the predicative form of nouns as the basic one (e.g. murume
it is a man). On the other hand we would not want to -et up the
relative form of verbal constructions as basic.
Notice that the selector gender concords are H in the
substantial form.


Noun


Adjective





15


LIFT FOR G.C. MORPHOPHONEMICS

AND CHART


`"


_ i..


i




GENDER CONCORD MORPHOPHONEMICS -- EXAMPLES MR 1

MR 1: Is,Ip,IIp,2,5,7,8,10,11,12,13,14,16,18,21 (see also MR 6 for classes 1,3,4,6,9)
CV-j is realized as /C-/ before vowel-commencing morphemes and non-deverbative vowel-
commencing noun stems.
..... .............. ........ ....... ..... ... ... .... ........ ........... ........... ........................ ......---.............................
SNoun Demonstrative Pronoun Quantitative Subject Prefix Possessive
SIs nd6ga ndadya Is
Ip t6ga tadya Ip
JIp rr6ga madya lip
...... .. ". .... .. .... ................ ....... .. ........ ............ ..... .......... ...
i2 vene (owners) avo ivo yoga vadya vangu 2
5 iro fro r6ga r dya rangu 5
................................ ......... ......... .... ..... .................. ..............
S7 chot6 (fireplace) icho fnho choga chadya chngu 7
8 zvot6 (fireplaces) izvo fzvo zvoga zvadya zvingu 8
j10 idzo idzo dzo6ga dzadya dzangu 10

S....... ... ................................................... ... ......... .......... .............. u o ...1.......


.... ........... ..a....... ..o...... .......... .............. ga...... .......... ..................... ....na............................................................................angu......................................................
12 kan (small child) o i ga kdya k ngu 12




18 umo mo noga makanaka mangu 18
I ........ ....... .... ......................... .......... .. .......... ........... ............................ ...................... .. ..................................... ....................................... ............ ................... ......... ...




MR la: Classes 7 and 8
tCi-] is realized as /Ca-/ before a few noun stems, with some as an alternative to /Ci-/.

7 chapungu/chipung- (type of eagle) 8 zvapungud/zvipung6 (eagles)
7 chamh6mbe (north)
7 chadnga/chiunga (magical medicine) 8 zvaunga/zviunga (magical medicines)
MR lb: Class 2
va-I is realized as /va-/ before at least one vowel-commencing non-deverbative noun stem.
vaeni (strangers)




17


EXAMPLES MR 2


MR 2: Classes 11,15,14
Cu-y is realized as /Cw-/



Noun Pronoun

11 rwizi (river) frwo

13 twan6 (small itwo
children)

14 hwan6 (childhood) ihwo


before vowel-commencing morphemes
and non-deverbative vowel-commencing
noun stems.


Quantitative Subject Prefix Possessive


rw6ga

tw6ga


hw6ga


rwakanAka

twakanaka


hwakan4ka


rwangu

twngu


hwAngu


MR 2a: Class 11

ru-j is realized as /ru-/ before at least one non-deverbative
vowel-commencing noun stem.


ru6k6


(arm)


IMR 2b: Class 14

hu-7 is realized as /u-/ in free variation with /hu-/ before
noun stems.


ubabA/h.bahvl
uchi/huchi
usikd/husiku
uroyi/huroyi


MR 2c: Classes 11,13

Cu- is realized


(fatherhood)
(honey)
(night)
(sorcery)



as /Cwu-/ apparently in free variation with
/Cu-/ in nouns and certain other


constructions.
rukuni/rwukini (noun 11: piece of firewood)
rukova/rwukova ( r-i 11: river)
ru6k6/rwu6k6 (noun 11: arm)
rukdrd/rwukudr (.'jc-Live 11: big)
rutete/rwutete (adjective 11: thin)
rumwe/rwumwe enumerativee 11: another)
run6/rwin6 (selector 11: this one near me)
tuvanhu/twuvanhu (noun 13: small people)
tukomand/twuk6manA (noun 15: small boys)
tutete/twutete (adjective 13: thin ones)
tupfupi/twupfupi (adjective 13: short ones)
tumwe/twumwe (onumerative 13: others)
tdn6/twun6 (selector 13: these near me)




18


EXAMPLES MR 5


MR _: Classes 15 and 17
ku- is realized as /kw-/ before /a/
/k-/ before /o/

Demonstrative Pronoun Quantitative Subject Prefix Possessive
15 uko iko k6ga kw6ka'naka kwangu
17 uko Iko k6ga kwAkanaka kwangu

MR 5a: Classes 15 and 17
iku- is realized as /kw-/ before the quantitative morpheme {-o-j
in free variation with /k-/

15 kw6ga/k6ga
17 kw6ga/k6ga


EXAMPLES MR 4

MR 4: IIs,,53,4,6,9
V-j is realized as /C-/ before vowel-commencing morphemes.
IIs,1,5: fu-t is realized as/w-/
4,9: i-3 is realized as /y-/
1,6: aa-) is realized as /w-/ before /o/
$ before /a/

Pronoun Quantitative Subject Prefix Possessive

IIs w6ga wadya
1 w6ga _adya/wdya wangu
3 iwo w6ga wdkanaka wangu
4 iZo y6ga akaanaka angu
6 iwo w6ga _akainka _angu
9 i~o 16ga kaana ka yingu

MR 4a: IIs,1,5,6

iV-j is realized as 0 in free variation with /C-/ before
the quantitative morpheme I-o-1.

IIs _6ga/wga
1 _6ga/w6ga
3 _6ga/w6ga
6 _6ga/w6ga









EXAMPLES MR 5


MR 5: Classes 1,3,4,6,9

{V-i is realized as /yV-/ in the demonstrative after IV -J,


ayai
iiy


EXAMPLES MR 6


MR 6: (= MR 1

V-( is


1
3
4
6
9


applied after IMR 5) Classes 1,3,4,6,9

realized as /y-/ in the demonstrative after l-1
and before {-oj.

uyo
uyo
iyo
ayo
iyo


Examples MR 7


MR7Z: Classes 1,3,4


,mV-} is realized as /mw-/ before vowel-commencing non-
deverbative noun stems.
/m-/ before /o/-commencing noun stems
as a free variant to /mw-/

1 mwand (child)
1 mwene (owner)
3 mwedzi (moon)
3 mwando (breeze)
3 mwot6/mot6 (fire)
3 mwoyo/moyo (heart)
4 mwedzi (months)
4 mwando (breezes)
4 mwot6/mot6 (fires)
4 mwoyo/moyo (hearts)





20





EXAMPLES MR 8


MR 8: Classes 1,3,18

(mu-r is realized as syllabic /m-/ in quick speech with
polysyllabic noun and
adjective stems commencing
mainly with labials and
alveolars.


mperek'dzi
mp~irIdzi
mjanA
fipfdpi
fibve6e
mpangar61
fiatete
mm~hango


(noun:companion)
(noun:preacher)
(noun: one who has a turn)
(adjective:short)
(noun:type of tree)
(noun:type of tree)
(adjective:thin)
(noun:in the hole of the tree)





21


0.3.1.2. Gender Concord Morphophonemics Involving "Fusion" of Morphemes


MR 9: Gender concord series f,g class 5 + initial consonant
of stem (noun and adjective) results in a series of phonemic
changes. Not all initial consonantslare affected. Those
which are affected are listed below.


+ p > b


bdng6 O-p6ngd}


dem6 {i-tem6l


gore


j k6


-+ pf > bv/pf
bveni
pfudzi


(knife)


(axe)


(cloud)


(sickle)


(baboon)
(shoulder)


cf, map6ng& 6


matem6 6


makor4 6


mach6k6 6


mapfeni 6
mapfudzi 6


(knives)


(axes)


(clouds)


(sickles)


(baboons)
(shoulders)


j- + ts > dz/ts (Apparantly always /dz/ when I-O is in secondary function.


(big hare)
(spring)


tsuro 9
matsim6 6


(hare)
(springs)


- + tsv>dzv


dzvatsvgtsva


(kind of spider)


matsvatsvgtsva/
madzvatsvitsva


J- + f > bv/f (Apparantly always /bv/ when -"is in secondary function.)


(big furrow)
(froth)


f6ro 9
mafur6 6


(furrow)
much froth)


0- + s > dz/s (Apparantly always /dz/ when i-7 is in secondary function.)


(big head)
(strength)


mus6r6 3
masimbA 6


-+ sv > dav/sv
dzvikiro
dzvingA


jiri-
shizha



dy6rah6p4


poor medium)
big bundle of
wood)


svikiro 5 (medium)
svinga 5 (bundle of
wood)


0- + sh > j/sh (Apparantly always /j/ when -)in secondary function.)


i- + ty > dy


big bird)
leaf)


(something that
interrupts sleep)


shiri 9 (bird)
mashizha 6 (leaves)



kuty6rah6pe(to break
sleep)


The same


- + t > d


-+ k > g


- + ch > j


dzuro
time


bv6ro
fir6


dz6r6
simbg


(head)
(powers)


1Here and for MR 10 the examples given are mainly nouns.
changes take place in the adjective.




22


MR 10: Gender concord series f,g class 9 N-1 + initial consonant
of stem (noun and adjective) results in a series of phonemic
changes. Not all initial consonants are affected. Those
which are affected are listed below.


N- + p > mh mhas& (mats) of.
N- + t > nh nhivi (sides)
N- + k > h hova (rivers)
N- + kw > hw hwegdri (old person)
N- + d > nd ndiki (small (adj.))
N- + d > nh (One example only)
nhiridzo (watered part)
N- + r > nd ndaramo (long life)
N- + rw >nz/nzw nziy6/nzwiy6 (songs)
N- + v > mb mbiriso (baking powder)
N- + zh ; nj njamb6 (noise)
N- + w > nzw nzware (flat rocks)
N- + f > pf/f pfungwa (thought)
fufunhe (indigestion)
N- + s > ts/s tsara (rows)
sdrudzo (strained
mealie cob ash
used for salt)
N- + sv >tsv/sv tsvingo (stone-wall
ruins)
svip6 (spittle)
N- + b .> mb mbereko (cradle-skin)
N- + g > ng ngaro (settlement)
N- + z > nz nzarira (diaphragms)
N- + zv > nzv nzvimbira (place of
swelling)
N- + dz > ndz ndziwo (stopper)
N- + vh > my mvuto (bellows)
mvemvi (flirt)


(N.B.


N- + dy > ndy

N- + hw > mbw


the second /m/)


ndyire-ndyire (greed)

mbwire-mbwire (food that
is a powder --
e.g. salt)


rupas6 11
rutivi 11
rukova 11
-kwe4guir
vadiki 2

-diridz-
-raram-
rwiy6 11
-viris-
-zhamb-
ruwar6 11
-fung-
-fufunh-
rusar 11
-surudza-


rusvingo

-svip:
-berek-
-gar-
ruzarira 11
-zvimbir.

chidziwo 7
-vhut-
-vhevh-


-dyir4

-hwir4


(mat)
(side)
(river)
(live long)
(small (adj.))

(water)
(live, survive)
(song)
(boil (trans.))
(make a noise)
(flat rock)
(think)
(eat reluctantly)
(row)
strain)


(stone-wall
ruin)
(spit)
(bear)
(sit)
(diaphragm)
(overeat)

(stopper)
(blow)
(court)

(eat with
applied ext.)
(eat food that
is a powder)


There are also a number of nouns commencing with /ny/, /nz/, /ng/,
/ng'/, and /nj/. The morphophonemic change is not postulated as
historical evidence is necessary for this.
nyati (buffalo)
nyama (meat)
ny6ka (snake)
nziy6 (songs) cf. rwiy6 11 (song)
nzara (hunger)
ngano (fable) cf. mazano 6 (plans)
ngoma (drum)
ng'anga (doctor) cf. hwanga 14 (doctor's


njiri
njiva


medicines)


(warthog)
(pigeon)


The examples given are mainly nouns.




23




MR 11: Morphemes consisting of, or ending in, /a/ coalesce with
following /i/ as listed below. ... + ... > /...e.../.
The gender concords involved in this morphophonemic process
are gender concord series f class 6, series d Is,Ip,IIs,IIp,
and series e Ip and IIp.


(a) Series f class 6:-
With two noun stems: ma- + i > me

ma- + in6 > men6 (teeth) cf. zin6 5 (tooth)
ma- + is6 > mes6 (eyes) zis6 5 (eye)

Each stem is treated as having two allomorphs:
/zind -in6/
/zis6 -is6/
ma--! occurs with both allomorphs, giving:-
mazin6/men6 (teeth)
mazis6/mes6 (eyes)


(b) Adverbial and possessive inflections of substantive phrases
with gender concord series d Is,Ip,IIs,IIp as nucleus.
Adverbial na ,sa-, and possessive $-a- coalesce with /i/.
Pronoun Adverbial Inflection Possessive Inflection

Is ini neni seni weni
(I) (with me) (like me) (mine)
Ip isd nesd sesu wesu
(we) (with us) (like us) (ours)
IIs iwe newer sewer wewe
(you) (with you)(like you) (yours)
IIp imi nemi semi wemi
(you) (with you)(like you) (yours)

(c) Possessive inflection of substantive phrases with gender
concord series e Ip and IIp. `-a-+ i.. ? -e...

Ip -idu wa- + -idu > w6dd (ours)


wa- + -inyd > wenyu (yours)


IIp -inyd













1. SUB S T A N T I V A L


Substantival constructions are those whose nuclei are
typically the substantives described in section 1.1. below.
There are word, phrase, and sentence substantial constructions.





1.1. WORD


There are seven different word constructions:-

noun
adjective
enumerative
demonstrative
selector
pronoun
quantitative.

In the sections below each is defined, the constituents listed,
any relevant morphophonemic rules given, and (with the exception
of the noun) a paradigm of examples given.




Grammatical words (i.e. certain combinations of morphemes) must
be distinguished from phonological words. The stream of speech
is "punctuated" by the phoneme of (penultimate) length-stress.
The segments thus demarcated in slow speech are phonological
words. For example, in the utterance:-
a^<1
nem6mbe dzeni mukurd (the cattle of me the elder)
A
/nem6mbe/, /dzeni/ and /mukudr/ are phonological words (their
penultimate syllables are long).
Phonological words coincide to a large extent with grammatical
words. For example /mombe/ (cattle) and /mukurd/ (big) are
both phonological words and grammatical words. In fact all
the grammatical words are also phonological words. All the
phonological words, on the other hand, are not grammatical
words. /nem6mbe/ and /dzeni/ are phonological words but not
grammatical words. The grammatical words involved are /mombe/
and /ini/, and the structure of the utterance is as follows:-

nem6mbe dzeni mukuir

r

The underlined segments are grammatical words. The larger
constructions are different kinds of phrases.


C 0 NSTRU C TI 0 NS













1. SUB S T A N T I V A L


Substantival constructions are those whose nuclei are
typically the substantives described in section 1.1. below.
There are word, phrase, and sentence substantial constructions.





1.1. WORD


There are seven different word constructions:-

noun
adjective
enumerative
demonstrative
selector
pronoun
quantitative.

In the sections below each is defined, the constituents listed,
any relevant morphophonemic rules given, and (with the exception
of the noun) a paradigm of examples given.




Grammatical words (i.e. certain combinations of morphemes) must
be distinguished from phonological words. The stream of speech
is "punctuated" by the phoneme of (penultimate) length-stress.
The segments thus demarcated in slow speech are phonological
words. For example, in the utterance:-
a^<1
nem6mbe dzeni mukurd (the cattle of me the elder)
A
/nem6mbe/, /dzeni/ and /mukudr/ are phonological words (their
penultimate syllables are long).
Phonological words coincide to a large extent with grammatical
words. For example /mombe/ (cattle) and /mukurd/ (big) are
both phonological words and grammatical words. In fact all
the grammatical words are also phonological words. All the
phonological words, on the other hand, are not grammatical
words. /nem6mbe/ and /dzeni/ are phonological words but not
grammatical words. The grammatical words involved are /mombe/
and /ini/, and the structure of the utterance is as follows:-

nem6mbe dzeni mukuir

r

The underlined segments are grammatical words. The larger
constructions are different kinds of phrases.


C 0 NSTRU C TI 0 NS





25


1.1.1. NOUN


Definition: A noun is a word which consists of:-
(a) at least one, and at the most three, of the series f
gender concords1
(b) a L tonal morpheme(s) carried by the gender concord(s),
with the exception of classes 2a and 2b, and gender
concords which are not syllabic
(c) a stem which may be morphemically complex ,

and whose stem does not occur with all the gender concords
of series f.


tm:L
Summary: + gc:f 16,17,18


tm:L
+ gc:f


tm:L
+ gc:f


+ nuc:ns


Nouns which would otherwise be monosyllabic (only in
classes la,5, and 9) incorporate the morpheme /i-/ which
serves to add a syllable. When such nouns are the nucleus
of the substantive phrase constituent of adverbial, possessive,
locative, and ownership phrases, /i-/ may be retained or
dropped with apparently no change in meaning. In
copulative phrases the /i-/ is dropped.


Series f Gender Concords
The gender concords indicate


Class
1
la
2
2a
2b
5
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
16
17
18
21


number and grammatical class.


mu-

va-
va-
a-
mu-
mi-
II-
ma-
chi-
zvi-
N-
dzi-
ru-
ka-
tu-
hu-
pa-
ku-
mu-
zi-


The order groups of the concords have
2In class 2b the L tone belongs to the


not yet been determined.
go, thus /a-/.


Derivation is not dealt with in this study, but see the Analytical
Grammar, pages 110 to 128.
This is one of the differences between nouns on the one hand, and
adjectives and enumeratives on the other.
5This morpheme is dictated by the requirements of the phonology.
Phonological words, with the exception of ideophones and interjections,
cannot be monosyllabic in Zezuru. /i-/ also occurs with otherwise
monosyllabic adjectives of classes 5 and 9 (section 1.1.2.), and in
imperative clauses where the root of the verb phrase constituent does
not contain a vowel (see section 2.2.2.). /i-/ (the same morpheme
but with high tone) occurs with pronouns of classes 1 to 18 (see
section 1.1.6.).
"Number is used in a broad sense to include such things as singular,
plural, mass-abstract, number irrelevant, etc.


1.1.1.1.


1.1.1.2.









Morphophonemics Applicable to Gender Concords Series f


(a) Classes other than 5 and 9:

MR 1. Classes 1,3,4,11,15,14:-
{CV-1 is realized as /Cw-/ before vowel-commencing non-deverbative
stems.
la. Classes 5 and 4:-
nmV-j is realized as /m-/ before at least two vowel-commencing
(both commence with /o/) non-deverbative
stems, as an alternative to /mw-/.
lb. Class 11:-
jru-) is realized as /ru-/ before at least one vowel-commencing
non-deverbative stem.
Ic. Class 14:-
hu- is realized as /u-/ before consonant-commencing stems as a
free variant to /hu-/.
ld. Classes 11,15, and 14:-
Cu-i is realized as /Cwu-/ before most consonant-commencing stems
(in class 13 apparently all) as a free
variant to /Cu-/.

MR 2. Classes 2,7,8,12,21:-
ICV-j is realized as /C-/ before vowel-commencing non-deverbative
stems.
2a. Class 2:-
va-j is realized as /va-/ before at least one vowel-commencing
non-deverbative stem.
2b. Classes 7 and 8:-
{Ci- is realized as /Ca-/ before a few stems, as an alternative
to /Ci-/ with some.
2c. Class 21:-
zi-l is realized as /zh-/ before one vowel-commencing non-deverbative
stem.

LR_ Classes 1 and 3:-
{mu-j is realized as /m-/ before stems commencing with a labial or
alveolar consonant, as an alternative to
/mu-/ in quick speech.

R 4. Class 6:-
jma-I before two stems commencing with /i/:-
ma- + i > me


MR 5. All the above classes:-
CV- is realized as /CV-/ in all other cases.


1. .1.35.













Examples of Morphophonemic Rules Applicable to Classes
other than 5 and 9


MR 1 Classes 1,5,4,11,13,14:-
CV- i realized as /Cw-/
ZCV-k is realized as /Cw-/


(child)
(owner)
(moon)
(breeze)
(months)
(breezes)


MR la Classes 3 and 4:-
{mV- is realized as /m-/


mot6/mwot6
moyo/mwoyo


(fire)
(heart)


before vowel-commencing
non-deverbative stems.


rwizi
rwanA
twan6


hwahwA
hwang


(river)
(thin child)
(small children)


(beer)
(childhood)


before at least two vowel-
commencing (both commence
with /o/-) non-deverbative
stems, as an alternative to /mw-/.


mot6/mwot6
moyo/mwoyo


(fires)
(hearts)


MR Ib Class 11:-
{ru-i is realized as /ru-/ before one vowel-commencing
non-deverbative stem.


ru6k6


(arm)


MR lc Class 14:-
.hu-j is realized as /u-/ before consonant-commencing
stems as a free variant to /hu-/.


husiku/usikui
huroyi/uroyi
huneto/uneto
hupfu/upfu


(night)
(sorcery)
(tiredness)
(flour)


mwani
mwene
mwedzi
mwando
mwedzi
mwando




28


MR 2 Classes 2,7,8,12,21:-
CV-4 is realized as /C-/ before vowel-commencing
non-deverbative stems.


vene 2 (owners)
vang 2 (children)
cf. mwan6(child)
chot6 7 (fireplace)
cheng6 7 (wall)
zvot6 8 (fireplaces)
zveng6 8 (walls)


kan~i
of.
zot6
zand


12
mwanA
21
21


small child)
child)
(large fireplace)
(large child)


MR 2a Class 2:-
va-j is realized as /va-/ before at least one vowel-
commencing non-deverbative stem.


vaeni


(strangers)


MR 2b Classes 7 and 8:-
Ci-i is realized as


chapingi/chipingi
zvapdngd/zvipingd
chamh4mbe
chiunga/chaunga


/Ca-/ before a few stems, as an
alternative to /Ci-/ with some.
Note that some are deideophonic
7 (type of eagle) stems,
8 (eagles)
7 (north)
7 (medicine believed to have magical
properties)


zviunga/zvainga 8 (medicines as above)
chivheevhee/chavheevhee 7 (running and dodging in a chase)
chimuvheevhee/chamuvheevhee cf. vh6e (ideophone)
chimuchacha-muchacha/chamuchacha-muchacha (sound of rain
falling)
cf. cha cha cha (ideophone)
MR 2c Class 21:-
zi-i is realized as /zh-/ before one vowel-commencing
non-deverbative stem.

zhenje (large torch) of. mwenje 5 (torch).

MR 3 Classes 1,3,18:-

tmu-i is realized as /m-/ before polysyllabic stems mostly
oommencing with a labial or
alveolar consonant, as an
alternative to /mu-/ in quick
speech.


mp6rek6dzi/muperekedzi
ms6r6 3 as in pams6r6
mpdridzi/muparidzi
1jan6/mujana
mbvana/mubvang

ibvee/mubv6e
mmhango/mumhango
fpangara/mupangarg


1 (companion)
(on top)
1 (preacher)
1 (one who has a turn)
1 (daughter with one or two
children)
5 (type of tree)
18 (in the hole of the tree)
3 (type of tree)





29


MR 4 Class 6:-


With two stems:

ma- + -ir
ma- + -i


ma- + i > me


> men6
> mes6


(teeth)
(eyes)


(Note that each stem has two allomorphs:
/zin6 x-,i. -in6/
/zis6 -is6/
ma-1 can be used with either allomorph, giving:
mazin6 / mend (teeth)
mazis6 / mes6 (eyes)

An alternative to the above treatment would be to add
a morphophonemic rule to class 5, thus:
is realized as /z-/ before two stems
commencing with /i/.
The forms /mazin6/ and /mazIs6/ then have class 6 prefix
superimposed onto class 5, i.e. ma-z-ino and ma-z-iso.)


MR All Classes:

4CV-1 is realized as /CV-/ in all other cases.


muk6dzi 1
muiti 1
< -it-


mukaka
muitir


misang
rudzi
ruedzo


tumiti
tunhu
husfik
huipi

mabwe
mapgng
mazano


3
5 3

< -it-
4
11
11

< -edz-
13
13
14
14
< -ip-
6
S6
6


(woman)
(agent)
(do)
(milk)
(ways of
acting)
(do)
(backs)
(tribe)
(long-maintained
attempt)
(try)
(small trees)
(small thing)
(night)
(evil)
become bad)
(stones)
(knives)
(plans)


vakadzi
vaiti


chinhu 7
chiito 7
< -it-
zviito 8
zvire6m 8
dzimbA 10
dzimb6 10
kamwan6 12
kambwi 12
zibAngA 21
zimbwa 21
pasi 16
pakati 16
kutsf 17
kushdre 17
mukatf 18


(women)
(agents)


(thing)
(deed)
(do)
(deeds)
(cripples)
(houses)
(songs)
(small child)
(small dog)
(huge knife)
(big dog)
(the floor)
(the centre)
(underneath)
(behind)
(inside)





30


1.1,1.3. (cntd.) Morphophonemics Applicable to Gender Concords
Series f

(b) Class 5


+ p b


(hoe)
(knife)
(cave)
(bald man)


(cheek)
(axe)
(cattle pen)
(bow)


cf. mapadzA
mapangA
mapako
maparo


cf. mat6mA
mat6m6
matangg
matiti


(hoes)
(knives)
(caves)
(bald men)


(cheeks)
(axes)
(cattle pens)
(boww)


(cloud)
(battle axe)
(red soil)
potsherdd use
for frying)


(cloth)
(sickle)
(sand)
(cockrel)


cf. makor6
makdn6
makova
*d making


cf. machird 6
machek6 6
machecha 6
machongw6 6


(clouds)
(battle axes)
(red soil)
(potsherds)


(cloths)
(sickles)
(sand)
(cockrels)


- + pf > bv/pf
bveni
bvdpa
pfudp
pfddzi


- + ts>dz/ts (i
dzuro
dziru
cf. tsiru
dziko
cf. tsiko
dzatsi

time
dzarai


(baboon)
(bone)

(shoulder)


Always /dz/ when (-
(big hare) cf.
(fat heifer)
5(heifer)
(big hoof)
5(hoof)
(bundle of fish)

(spring)
(big line)


cf. mapfeni
mapfdp6
mabvdp&
mapfidzi


(baboons)
(bones)

(shoulders)


is in secondary function)
tsuro 9 (hare)
madziru 6 (fat heifers)
matsfru 6 (heifers)
madziko 6 (big hooves)
matsiko 6 (hooves)
matsatsi bundles...)
madzatsi (big bundles...
matsime (springs)
mutsarg 3 (line)


badzg
bingA
bako
baro


- + t > d


d6md

dangA
dati


- + k > g


gore
gan6
gova
gang6


- + ch > j


jiri
j k6
j6cha
jongw4








- + tsv > dzv
dzvatsvitsva (kind of spider) cf. matsvatsvAtsva
madzvatsvAtsva
idzv6 (short fat ki'ndey) itsv6 9 (kidney)
cf. ziidzv6(huge, long kidney)


-+ f ) bv/f

bv6
bvu


bve
fev
fur


(Always /bv/ when $- is in secondary

ro (big furrow) of. f6ro 9
ro (large grazing mafuro
area)
ve (huge prostitute) mafeve
e 5 (prostitute)
6 (froth) mafdr6


function) *

(furrow)
6 (pastures)

6 (prostitute)

6 (much froth)


- + s > dz/s (Always
dzor6
dzikana.
simbA


/dz/ when 0- is in secondary function)
(big head) of. mus6r6 5 (head)
(big girl) musikanA 1 (girl)
(strength) masimbd 6 (powers)


- + sv > dzv/sv (Always
dzvikiro
dzvinga


- + sh > j/sh (Always
jat6
jiri
jambwd
shizha


/dzv/ when 0- is in secondary
(poor medium) cf. svikiro
(big bundle of svingi
wood) masvinga


/j/ when I- is
(big python)
(big bird)
(big calamity)
(leaf)


function)
5 (medium)
5 (bundle'...)
6 (bundles ...)


in secondary function)
cf. shAt6 9 (python)
shiri 9 (bird)
rushambw 11 (calamity)
mashizha 6 (leaves)


*Most of the examples on this page were first elicited by
Professor G. Fortune.


I'*tA.,f





32


1.1.1.5. (cntd.) Morphophonemics Applicable to Gender Concords
Series f


(c) Class 9 *


N- + p > mh
mhasA
mhurud

mhereko
mhondi


(mats)
(calf)

(something given)
(murderer)


cf, rupasi
rupuru
rumhuru
-p re~k
-pond-


(mat)

(poor calf)

(give)
(kill)


t > nh
nhivi (sides)
nhemb (chisel)
nhdr6 (something off-loaded
from the head)
nhar6 (drawn line)


cf. rutivi
-t6m-
-tibr-


-ttr


(side)
(cut)
(remove load
from head)
(draw a line)


N- + k > h
hova
hiuni


(rivers)
(firewood)


cf. rukova
rukuni


hivhute (umbilical cords)

honzeri (one who causes)


kw> hw
hwir6
hw6gdri


(place for climbing) cf.
(old person usually
a woman)


rukuvhute 11

-k6nzer-



-kwirl
-kw6gdir


(river)
(piece of
firewood)
(umbilical
cord)
(cause)



(climb)
(live long)


+ d > nh
nhiridzo


(one example only)
(watered part)


cf. -diridz-


N- + r > nd
ndaramo
ndimo
ndimi
ndumure


(long life) cf. -raram-
(place for ploughing) -rim-
(languages) rurimi
(weaned child) -rimdr


J N- + rw > nz/nzw
nziyo (songs)
nzwiy6


cf. rwiy6


(live, survive)
(cultivate)
11 (language)
(wean)


11 (song)


(rivers)
(frying panp)
(journeys)


rwizi
rweng4
rwendo
-end-


(river)
(frying pan )
(journey)
(go)


Some examples in this section were first elicited by Professor Fortune.


N- +


I N-


(water)


nzwizi
noenga
nzendo









N- + v > mh
mbiriso (baking powder,
yeast)
mbavariro (intention)


N- + zh > nj
njdmb6


(noise)


of. -viris-

-vavArir-



cf. -zhimb-


(boil(trans.))

(strive after)



(make a noise)


(flat rocks)


cf. ruware


11 (flat rock)


N- + f > pf/f
pfungwda
pfambi
fufunhe
fddya


N- + s > ts/s
tsara
tsero
suridzo


(thought)
(prostitute)
(indigestion)
(tobacco)



(rows)
(winnowing baskets)
(strained mealie-cob
ash used for salt)


cf. -fung- (think)
-famb- (walk)
-fufunh- (eat reluctantly)
folha (Portuguese: leaf)


cf. rusarA
rusero
-sirddz-


(row)
(basket)
(strain)


N- + sv >tsv/sv
tsvingo (s

tsvitsa (w
svip6 (s]


N- + b > mb
mbereko (ci
mbuwo (he


N- + g > ng
ngaro
ngore


N- + z >nz
nzarfra


tone-wall ruins)

adding)
little)



radle-skin)
)rsefly)


(settlement)
(cloud)


(diaphragms)


cf. rusvingo

-svik-
-svip-



cf. -berek-
kabuwo 12


cf. -gar-
gore 5


of. ruzarira


(stone-wall
ruin)
(arrive)
(spit)



(bear)
(small horsefly)


(set)
(cloud)


(diaphragm)


N- + zv > nzv
nzv6ri (something (class 9) cf.
which bear)
nzvimbira( place of swelling)


-zvar-

-zvimbifr.


(bear)

(overeat inch.)


N- + dz >ndz
ndziwo


cf. chidziwo 7


33


w > nzw
nzwar4


(stopper)


(stopper)









N- + vh > mv
mvuto


(bellows)


mvemvi (flirt)
(N.B. the second /m/)
mvUir (water)


cf. -vhut-
-vhevh-


(blow)
(court)


chivhdr6-mabwe 7 (hail)


N- + dy > ndy
ndyire-ndyire (greed). cf. -dyir-
-6svo +h> mbw-** ^


N- + hw > mbw


mbwire-mbwire (food that is
a powder --
e.g. salt)


of. -hwir-


(eat with
applied ext.)




(eat food that
is a powder)


There are a number of words in class 9 which commence with
/ny/, /nz/, /ng/, /ng'/, or /nj/. In words with initial
/ny/ the stem is probably vowel-commencing. Some, at least,
of the other nouns must in time past have commenced with
consonants. This is preserved in the morphophonemics
of class 9, but the morphophonemic process is not postulated
here as the initial consonants involved can only be
ascertained by historical study. The examples given below
are all taken from An Analytical Grammar of Shona, pages 86,87.


nyati
nyama
nyika
nydchi
nynyedzi
ny6ka
ny6ta


(buffalo)
(meat)
(country)
(bee)
(star)
(snake)
(thirst)


IL L.,cO-../,--
C('rJU Uvh.hqJ-' :~ICifL ..z
^s^^-L *^.^-


(journeys)

(songs)
(frying-pans,
(hunger)


cf. rwendo
-end-
rwiy6
rwenga


ll(journey)
(go)
11 (song)
11 (frying-pan) '-y.pn


(path) __&
(bull)
(elephant)
(groundnut)


(fable)


cf. mazano 6 (plans)


(drum)
(sterile man)
(pig)
(cradle-skin)
(crocodile)


nzendo

nziy6
nzenga
nzara
nzira
nz6mbe
nzou
nzungd

ngano
ngoma
ngomwi
nguruve
nguo
ngwena












z

ng'anga
ng'ombe/mombe


njiri
njedzana
nj6r6
njiv4


(doctor)
(cattle)


cf. hwanga 14 (doctor's medicines)


(warthog)
(new moon) cf. mwedzi 3 (moon)
(cleverness)
(pigeon)


L-'--t I* '- ^


1.1.1.4. Examples


See the Analytical Grammar, pages 54 to 105, for examples
of nouns in the different classes, and for the semantic
categories represented by the classes. Remember, however,
that in the Analytical Grammar some classes are numbered
differently than they are in this analysis.


Analytical Grammar

N-/dzi-

tu-


This Analysis

dzi-

ka-


ka-


35


Class

10

12


^ ^









1.1.1.5. Class 2a Nouns


The class 2a noun gender concord (/vg-/) is H in tone and
causes a series of tonal changes in the noun stem.1 The changes
are as follows:-

(a) A single L (i.e. one syllable) or sequence of L's has the
first L changed to H. If, however, the stem incorporates a
syllabic gender concord and has the tone LLL it becomes HHL
and not the usual HLL.

(b) A H or unbroken sequence of H's become low.

In detail, the changes are the following:-


L H Igo

LL HL mambo


LLL


HLL
HHL 2


Nyakuti
Chigaro


LLH.. HLH.. Fungisayi


H L ishe

HH LL k6nd6


HL.. LL.. t6nzi

HHH LLL G&ring&

HHL.. LLL.. s46kru

HLH..3 LLH.. n6vanje


la (name)

la (chief)


(name)
(name)


la (girl's name)


la (chief)

la (hammer-head
bird)

la (owner)

la (name)

la (grandfather)

la (first-born)


vGG6/v6igo (Mr Igo)

v4mdmbo 2a(chiefs)

vANyAkuti 2a(Mr Nyakuti)
v'Chig4ro 2a(Mr Chigaro)


vFdungisayl


vashe


2a(chiefs)


vakondo 2a(hammerheads)


vAtenzi 2a(owners)

viGaranga 2a(Mr Garanga)

vasekuru 2a(grandfathers)

vAnevanje 2a(firstborn)


Professor Fortune calls the changes a "tonal declension."
The changes are the same as occur in adverbial phrase, copulative
phrases, "ownership" phrases, and possessive phrases.

2
This change takes place when the stem incorporates a syllabic
gender concord.

The ellipses indicate that following tones, if any, are not
affected.





37


1.1.2. ADJECTIVE

1.1.2.1. Definition: An adjective is a word which consists of:-
(a) one of the series g gender concords
(b) a L tonal morpheme carried by the gender concord when
the latter is syllabic
(c) one of the adjective stems listed below,

and whose stem can occur with all the gender concords of
series g (apart from semantic incompatibilities).
tm:L
Summary: + gc:g + nuc:as

Adjectives which would otherwise be monosyllabic (only
in classes 5 and 9 with two stems) incorporate the
morpheme /i-/ which serves to add a syllable. When
such adjectives are the nucleus of the substantive phrase
constituent of adverbial, possessive, and locative phrases,
/i-/ may usually be retained or dropped with apparently no
change in meaning. In copulative phrases the /1-/ is
dropped.


1.1.2.2.


Series a Gender


Concords


Class


mu-
va-
mu-
mi-
1-
ma-
chi-
zvi-
N-

ru-
ka-
tu-
hu-
ku-
pa-
ku-
mu-
zi-


This morpheme is dictated by the requirements of the phgnology.
Phonological words, with the exception of ideophones and interjections,
cannot be monosyllabic in Zezuru. /1-/ also occurs with otherwise
monosyllabic nouns of classes la,5, and 9 (section 1.1.1.), and in
imperative clauses where the root of the verb phrase constituent does
not contain a vowel (section 2.2.2.). /i-/ (the same morpheme but
with high tone) occurs with pronouns of classes 1 to 18 (section 1.1.6.





38


Adjective Stems


-viri
-tatd
-na
-shinu
-tfnhatu
-nomwe
-sbr6
-pfumbamwe
-ngani
-kurd
-zhinji
-kdk-dtd
-refu
-kobvu
-uya
-chena


(two)
(three)
(four)
(five)
(six)
(seven)
(eight)
(nine)
(how many?)
(big)
(many)
(hard)
(long)
(thick)
(good)
(white)


-shiva
-pamhi
-tsvene
-homb6
-diki/ddku
-shoma
-ny6r6
-pfupi
-tete
-tsva
-tema
-pfumbid
-shora
-penyng'S
-mbishi
-tsvuk-i


(red)
(broad)
(pure)
(big)
(small)
(few, small)
(soft)
(short)
(thin)
(new)
(black)
(blue, grey)
(yellow)
(alive)
(unripe)
(red)


Morphophonemics Applicable to Gender Concord Series g


Only classes 5 & 9 of gender concord series g have
morphophonemic rules. The rules for both classes
are the same rules as apply to classes 5 and 9 of
the noun gender concords (series f). See section
1.1.1.3. (b) and (c), page

Class 5


- + p > b


g6mand bamhi
bhiza benyng'd


- + t > d


bango dete
bhiza demai


- + k > g
bhiza guiru
sadza gudkdt
bango gobvui


(huge young man)
(an alive horse)



(thin pole)
(black horse)


(big horse)
(hard sadza)
(thick pole)


of. 6
6


cf. 6
6


of. 6
6
6


mapamhi
mapenyng'd


matete
matemA


makudrd
makdkdtu
makobvu


1.1.2.3.












- + ch > j
bhizg jena


+- + pf 7


bv/pf
bhatye bvumbil
bango pfupi
bvupi


- + tsv > dzv
izwi dzvene
jir6 dzvukui
bhhdku idzvd


(a white horse) cf. machena



(a greyish jacket) of. 6 mapfumbi


short pole)



pure word)
red cloth)
new book)


6 mapfupi


cf. 6 matsvene
6 matsvuk6
6 matsvA


Notice that the stem -uya (good) has an
is it /puya/?) which occurs in class 5.
izwl bdya (a good word)


allomorph /-buya/ (or

of. 6 mauya


Class 9


N- + p > mh
nzira
mombe

N- + t > nh
mombe
mombe


mhamhi (a broad path)
mhenyng'6 (alive cattle)


nhete
nhemi


N- + k > h
mombe huru
hdni hukdtdu
hdni hobvu

N- + d > nd
mombe ndiki

N- + r nd
mombe ndefu

N- + v > mb
mombe mbiri

N- + s > ts
mombe tser6


(thin cattle)
(black cattle)


(big cattle)
(hard firewood)
(thick firewood)


(small cattle)


(tall cattle)


(two cattle)


(eight cattle)


cf. 6
6


cf. 6
6


cf. 6
6
6


mapamhi
mapenyng'd


matete
matema


makudr
makdkuit
makobvd


cf. 6 madiki


cf. 6 marefi


cf. 6 mavirl


cf. 6 maserd


39













Paradigmatic


(a)
mukdru
vakudr
mukurd
mikdru



makidrd
chikird
zvikdrd
huru
(No class
rukurd
kakidrd
tukuru
hukuru
kukdrd
pakudr
kukudrd
mukurdi


(b)
mupfupi
vapfupi
mupfdpi
mipfdpi
bvdpi
pfupi
mapfupi
chipfdpi
zvipfipi
pfupi
10 forms for
rupfipi
kapfupi
tupfupi
hupfdpi


papfupi
kupfupi
mupfdpi


(c)
mudiki
vadiki
mudiki
midiki
diki

madiki
chidiki
zvidiki
ndiki
the adjective
rudiki
kadiki
tudiki
hudiki


padiki
kudiki
mudiki


(d)
mutete
vatete
mutete
mitete
dete

matete
chitete
zvitete
nhete
in Zezuru.)
rutete
katete
tutete
hutete


patete
kutete


1
2
3
4
5

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18



(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)


40


1.1.2.4.


Examples


"big"

"short"

"small"

"thin"













ENUMERATIVE


1.1.3.1. Definition: An enumerative is a word which consists of:-

(a) one of the series h gender concords
(b) a L tonal morpheme carried by the gender concord
(c) one of the three enumerative stems listed below,

and whose stem, apart from semantic restrictions, can
occur with all the gender concords of series h.

Summary: + gc:h + nuc:es


1.1.3.2.


Series h Gender Concords


Class
1
2

3
4
5
6

7
8

9
10
11
12

13
14
15
16
17
18


mu-
va-
mu-
mi-
ri-
ma-
chi-
zvi-
i-
dzi-
ru-
ka-
tu-
hu-
ku-
pa-
ku-
mu-


Enumerative Stems


(another, some, other)
(one, same)
(what sort of?)


-mwe
-mw6

-yi


1.1.3.













1.1.3.4. Paradigmatic Examples


Class

1
2

3
4
5
6

7
8

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18


Meaning:


(a)

mumwe
vamwe
mumwe
mimwe
rimwe
mamwe
chimwe
zvimwe
imwe
dzimwe
rumwe
kamwe
tumwe
humwe
kumwe
pamwe
kumwe
mumwe


(a)
(b)
(c)


(b)

mumwe
vamwe
mumwe
mimwe
rimw6
mamw6
chimw6
zvimw6
imw6
dzimwe
rumw6
kamw6
tumw6
humw6
kumw6
pamw6
kumwe
mumwe


"another, some,
"one, the same"
"what sort of? "


(c)

muyi
vayl
muyi
miyf
riyl
mayi
chiyl
zviyi
iyl
dziyi
ruyi
kayi
tuyi
huyi
kuyi
payi
kuyi
muyl


other"














1.1.4. DEMONSTRATIVE

1.1.4.1. Definition: A demonstrative is a word which
incorporates the morpheme {V' and a gender
concord of series c.
There are two types of demonstrative. Type A
consists of jVl-} and a gender concord. Type B
consists of l -i, a gender concord, and the morpheme
/-o/ ("that").

Summary: Type A +V -_ + gc:c
Type B + VI; + gc:c + -o


1.1.4.2. Series c Gender Concords

Class

1 u-
2 va-
3 u-
4 i-
5 ri-
6 a-
7 chi-
8 zvi-
9 i-
10 dzi-
11 rwu-
12 ka-
13 twu-
14 hwu-
15 ku-
16 pa-
17 ku-
18 mu-















Morphophonemics

Rules 1 and 2 apply to Type A, and all the rules to
Type B. The rules are applied in order.


MR 1. Applies to LV -1.

V1 -is realized as





MR 2. Applies to gc's of

/-V/ is realized as


MR 2


u-yu


u-yu

i-yi


a-ya




i-yi


S/u-/ when the go contains

/a-/ when the go contains
/i-/ when the gc contains

classes 1, 3, 4, 6, 9.

/-yV/ after IV1-1.


MR 1&2 MR 3


/u/

/a/
/i/.


MR 3. Applies to all the gender concords.

/-CV-/ is realized as /-C-/ before /-o/.


TYPE A TYPE B
Base Phonemic


Phonemic
Forms

uyu

ava

uyu

iyi
iri

aya

ichi

izvi

iyi
idzi

urwu

aka

utwu

uhwu

uku

apa
uku

umu


Base
Morphemes

1
V -u

V -va

V l_u


V 1-ri
1
V -a

1
V -ri

Vl-a

V -chi

V -zvi

V1-i

V 1-dzi

V -rwu

V -ka

Vl-twu
V 1-hwu

V1 ku

V -pa

V -ku

V -mu


Phonemic
Forms

uyo

avo

uyo
iyo

iro

ayo

icho

izvo

iyo

idzo

urwo

ako

utwo

uhwo

uko

apo

uko

umo


MR 1


u-u

a-va
u-u

i-i

i-ri

a-a

i-chi

i-zvi

i-i

i-dzi

u-rwu

a-ka

u-twu

u-hwu

u-ku

a-pa

u-ku

u-mu


u-yu-o

a-va-o

u-yu-o

i-yi-o

i-ri-o

a-ya-o

i-chi-o
i-zvi-o

i-yi-o

i-dzi-o

u-rwu-o

a-ka-o

u-twu-o

u-hwu-o

u-ku-o

a-pa-o

u-ku-o

u-mu-o


u-y-o

a-v-o

u-y-o

i-y-o

i-r-o

a-y-o

i-ch-o

i-zv-o

i-y-o
i-dz-o

u-rw-o

a-k-o

u-tw-o

u-hw-o

u-k-o

a-p-o

u-k-o

u-m-o


1.1.4.3.


i


TYPE A


TYPE B














1.1.4.4. Paradigmatic Examples


TYPE A


1
2

3
4
5
6

7
8

9
10
11
12

13
14
15
16

17
18


Meaning:


uyu
ava
uyu
iyi
iri
aya
ichi
izvi
iyi
idzi
urvm
aka
utwu
uhwu
uku
apa
uku
umu


TYPE B


uyo
avo
uyo
iyo
iro
ayo
icho
izvo
iyo
idzo
urwo
ako
utwo
uhwo
uko
apo
uko
umo


Type A "this" relatively near the speaker
in space or concept.
Type B "that" relatively remote from the
speaker in space or concept.





46


SELECTOR


1.1.5.1. Definition: A selector is a word which consists of:-

(a) one of the series c gender concords
(b) a H tonomorph on the gender concord
(c) one of the three selector stems listed below.


The stems can occur with all the gender concords of
series c.


Summary:

1.1.5.2. Series c


H
+ gc:c + nuc:ss

Gender Concords


Class

1
2

3
4
5
6

7
8

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18


u-
va-
u-
i-
ri-
a-
chi-
zvi-
i-
dzi-
rwu-
ka-
twu-
hwu-
ku-
pa-
ku-
mu-


Selector Stems


-no (specifically near the speaker in
space or conception)
This stem is H in certain syntactic
environments. See
-ye (specifically remote from the speaker
in space out of sight)
This stem is H in certain syntactic
environments. See
-p/i (which?)


1.1.5.














1.1.5.4. Paradigmatic


Class

1
2

3
4
5
6

7
8

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18


(a)

uno
vano
lAno
ino
rino
Ano
chino
zvino
ino
dzino
rwuno
kino
twdno
hwvino
kino
pino
kdno
muno


"this/these
"that/those
"which?"


next to speaker"
out of sight"


uye
v4ye
uye
fye
riye
aye
chlye
zviye
lye
dziye
rwdye
kAye
twvdye
hvdye
kdye
p6ye
kdye
mdye


upi
vapi
upi
ipi
ripi
Api
chipi
zvipi
ipi
dzipi
rwupi
kapi
twdpi
hvwnpi
kdpi

papi
kupi
mdpi


Meaning:


Examples






48




1.1.6. PRONOUN

1.1.6.1. Definition: A pronoun is a word which:-
(a) in the 1st and 2nd persons consists of a gender
concord of series d
(b) in class 1 consists of /i-/ and a gender concord
of series d
(c) in classes 2 18 consists of /i-/, a gender concord
of series d, and /-6/.

With some phrase inflections the /i-/ in classes 1 18
is optional. (See

Summary: (a) I,II: + gc:d I,II
(b) 1: + i- + gc:d 1
(c) 2 -18: + i- + gc:d 2-18 + -h

1.1.6.2. Series d Gender Concords

Class
Is ini
Ip isi
IIs iwe
IIp imi
1 -ye
2 -va-
3 -u-
4 -i-
5 -ri-
6 -a-
7 -chi-
8 -zvi-
9 -i-
10 -dzi-
11 -ru-
12 -ka-
13 -tu-
14 -hu-
15 -ku-
16 -pa-
17 -ku-
18 -mu-





49


1.1.6.5. Morphophonemics Applicable to Gender Concords Series d


Classes 2,5,7,8,10,12,15,16,17,18:-

tCV-j is realized as /C-/ before /-o/.

Classes 11,13,14:-

iCu-j is realized as /Cw-/ before /-o/.

Classes 3 and 6:-

jV-} is realized as /w-/ before /-o/.

Classes 4 and 9:-

i-} is realized as /y-/ before /-o/.


Paradigmatic Examples


Phonemic Forms

ini
isu
iw6
imi
lye
ivo
iwo
iyo
iro
iwo
icho
izvo
iyo
idzo
irwo
iko
itwo
ihwo
iko
ipo
iko
imo


Base Forms

ini
isu
iw4
imi
i-ye
i-va-o
i-u-o
i-i-o
i-ri-o
i-a-o
i-chi-o
i-zvi-o
i-i-o
i-dzi-o
i-ru-o
i-ka-o
i-tu-o
i-hu-o
i-ku-o
i-pa-o
i-ku-o
i-mu-o


Morphophonemic Rule


MR 1



MR 2



MR 5



MR 4


1.1.6.4.


Class

Is
Ip
IIs
IIp
"p
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9.
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18











1.1.7.


QUANTITATIVE


1.1.7.1. Definition. A satm is a word which consists of:-

(a) one of the series a gender concords
(b) the morpheme i-6-(
(c) one of the two quantitative stems listed below.


Both stems, apart from semantic restrictions, can
occur with all the gender concords of series a.


Summary:


+ gc:a + i-o-
t- .)


+ nuc:qs


1.1.7.2. Series a Gender Concords


Person/Class


Is

Ip
II6
lip
1
2

3
4
5
6

7
8

9
10
11
12

13
14
15
16

17
18


ndi-
ti-
u-
mu-
u-
va-
u-
i-
ri-
a-
chi-
zvi-
i-
dzi-
ru-
ka-
tu-
hu-
ku-
pa-
ku-
mu-


Quantitative Stems


(alone)
(all, the whole of)


50


-ga v -ga
-se






1.1.7.3. Morphophonemics

Gender Concord Morphophonemics:

MR 1 Is, Ip, IIp, 2,5,7,8,10,12,16,18:

tCV-1 is realized as /C-/ before I-o0.

MR 2 11,15,14,15,17:

Cu-} is realized as /Cw-/ before -o-}.

MR 3 Is, 1,3:

ju-? is realized as /w-/ free vritin before
free variation before -o-\.

MR 4 4,9:

i-j is realized as /y-/ before -0-3.

MR 5 6:

{a-r is realized as /w-/
a is realized as /w-/ free variation before -o-} .


Morphophonemics Applicable to -o- :

%-o-} is realized as /-o-/ in free variation.
/-e-/
1.1.7.4. Paradigmatic Examples (The relevant gc MR is'indicated.)
(a) (b) MR
Is nd6ga/ndega nd6s6/ndes6 1
Ip t6ga/t6ga t6se/t6s4 1
IIs woga/6ga/wega w6s/6ose/wvese 3
lip m6ga/mega m6se/ms46 1
1 w6ga/6ga/wega/6ga w6se/6se/w6s6/6se 3
2 v6ga/v4ga v6s6/vs46 1
3 w6ga/6ga/wega v6s6/w6se 3
4 y6ga/y4ga y6s6/y6s6 4
5 r6ga/r6ga r6s4/re6s 1
6 w6ga/6ga/ega w6se/6s64/4s 5
7 ch6ga/ch6ga ch6s4/ch6s4 1
8 zv6ga/zv6ga zv6se/zvs6i 1
9 y6ga/yega yose/y6se 4
10 dz6ga/dz6ga dz6se/dze6s 1
11 rw6ga/rw6ga rw6s6/rwes4 2
12 k6ga/kega k6s6/k4s4 1
13 tw6ga/tw6ga tw6se/twese 2
14 hw6ga/hw6ga hw6s6/hwes4 2
15 kw6ga/kw6ga kw6s4/kwes4 2
16 p6ga/p6ga p6s6/pese 1
17 kw6ga/kwiga kw6se/kwese 2
18 m6ga/m6ga mjs6/mes4 1
Meaning: (a) "alone" (b) "all, the whole of"









PHRASES


There are eight phrase types, as followsi-


Phrase Syntactic Distribution1


1. Substantive Phrase



2. Adverbial Phrase2



3. Copulative Phrase

4. Possessive Phrase



5. Locative Phrase



6. Ownership Phrase



7. Presentative Phrase

8. Associative Phrase


Subject, object, and topic slots
in sentences;
nuclear slots in other phrases.

Adverbial slots in verb phrases;
nuclear slots in associative phrases.

Predicative slots in sentences.

Nuclear and qualificative slots in
substantive phrases;
nuclear slots in other phrases.

Subject, object, and topic slots
in sentences;
nuclear slots in other phrases.

Nuclear slots in substantive phrases;
nuclear slots in other phrases.

Predicative slots in sentences.

Predicative slots in sentences (only
principal type);
nuclear and qualificative slots in
substantive phrases (relative type).


All the phrases but for the substantive phrase have as
constituents a phonologically bound morpheme (i.e. an affix) or
group of morphemes and a phrase. A summary of the constituents
of each phrase type is given below.


1The 'other phrases' referred to are types 2. to 8. on
and do not include verb phrases or ideophone phrases.

2Adverbial phrases with ina-I also occur in subject or
together with a preceding substantive phrase.


this page


object slots


Mbudzl dzangu nem6mbe dza&k dzinofura pan6.
( SP )(Adv. phrase )
( SUBJECT )
(My goats and your cattle graze here.)
These are best treated as transformations from two sentences.
MbGdzi dzangu dzinofura pan6. (My goats graze here.)
Mombe dzak6 dzinofura pan6. (Your cattle graze here.)


1.2.


52


If





53


Phrase Constituents


1. Substantive Phrase


(SP)


+ nuc: noun + qualifiers
adjective
enumerative
demonstrative
selector
pronoun
quantitative
possessive phrase
associative phrase (rel.)
infinitive clause
relative clause


2. Adverbial Phrase


adjective
enumerative
demonstrative
selector
quantitative
possessive phrase
associative phrase(rel.
relative clause


(AP)


+ adv:{na-}
{sa-}


+ nuc: substantive phrase
possessive phrase
ownership phrase
locative phrase
associative phrase


(relative)


3. Copulative Phrase

+ cops ndhe-)





4. Possessive Phrase

+ poss: gc-l-a-I


5. Locative Phrase


+ loo: pa-
ku-
mu-


(CP)


+nuc2 substantive phrase
possessive phrase
ownership phrase
locative phrase
associative phrase

(PP)

+ nuc: substantive phrase
possessive phrase
ownership phrase
locative phrase
associative phrase
participial clause


(LP)


+ nuc: substantive phrase


(SP nuclei are limited to noun, adjective, and infinitive clause)


6. Ownership Phrase


(OP)


+ own: sa-
nya-
muzvina-
vazvlna-


+ nuc: substantive phrase


(SP nuclei limited to nouns other than la,2a,2b, and infinitive
clause; qualifiers severely limited)

7. Presentative Phrase (TP)

+ presentative: ha-I + nuc: substantive phrase
(SP nuclei limited to demonstratives and selectors)


8. Associative Phrase


(HP)


+ nuc: adverbial phrase (only {na-j type)


+ gc a





54



1.2.1. Substantive Phrase


These are constructions whose constituents are a nucleus
and a qualifier or qualifiers.

+ nucleus + qualifier + qualifier .... + qualifier

The nucleus may be one of the following:-

noun
adjective
enumerative
demonstrative
selector
pronoun
quantitative
possessive phrase
associative phrase (relative)
infinitive clause
relative clause (all tenses)


The qualifiers are the following:-1

adjective
enumerative
demonstrative
selector
quantitative
possessive phrase
associative phrase (relative)
relative clause (all tenses)


The order of qualifiers, and the order classes of adjectives, if
any, have not yet been determined.


The qualifier constituents within a substantive phrase all show
concordial agreement with the nucleus.


"Nouns in apposition" are two substantive phrases, the second being
in "topic" relationship to the first.









1.2.1.1. Substantive Phrase Examples


The constituents of each substantive phrase are indicated beneath
each example. The abbreviations are as follows:-

n noun PP possessive phrase
a adjective HP associative phrase
e enumerative IC infinitive clause
d demonstrative RC relative clause
s selector
p pronoun
q quantitative


1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.


7.


8.


9.


10.


11.


12.


13.


14.


15.


16.


muk6mana uyo mumwe mukurd
n d e a

muk6mang mumwe uyo mukidr
n e d a

muk6mana mukidr mumwe uyo
n a e d

chimwe chikdru chak6
e a PP

chimwe chk4e chikdru
e PP a

fvo van6teng6sd huini
S( RC )

kudyA kwakAnaka kwdzvo
IC ( RC )

mwand wandinodd kwazvo
n ( PP )

imbwd yemurdme uyo
n ( PP )

vak6mana v6s6 vapfdpi
n q a

vak6mana vapfdpi v6se
n a q

v6se vapfupi
q a

vapfdpi v6se
a q

un6 wandinoda kwazvo
s ( PP )

uyo wandinodA kwazvo
d ( PP )

muk6mand mumw6 uin6
n e s


(that other big boy)


(that other big boy)


(that other big boy)


(one of his big ones)


(one of his big ones)


(those who sell firewood)


(very nice food)


(the child whom I like very much)


(the dog of that man)


(all the short boys)


(all the short boys)


(all the short ones)


(all the short ones)


(this one whom I like most)


(that one whom I like most)


(the same boy right here)





56


17. munhu wandinoziva zvakanaka anembwa mbirl
n ( PP ( HP )
(the person whom I know very well and who has two dogs)

18. munhu an6mbwa mbirl wandinoziva zvakanaka
n ( HP )( PP)
(the person who has two dogs and whom I know very well)



Examples incorporating possessive and associative phrases, and
infinitive and relative clauses are best handled
transformationally. The following appear to involve two
phrases, the second being in topic relationship to the
first:-


19. anembwa mbirl uyu
( SP )(SP)


of. uyu anembwa mbiri
( SP)

20. y6murudm mukudr iyi
( PP )( SP)
cf. iyi yemurdime mukdru
( SP


(this one who has two dogs)



(this one who has two dogs)


(something (indicated) for an
elder person)

(this one of an elder person)


They would also be treated transformationally.





57


1.2.2. Adverbial Phrase

An adverbial phrase is a construction whose constituents are
one of the adverbial morphemes ana-} (with, by maans of, and) or
isa-} (like) and a nucleus. The nucleus may be a substantive phrase,
a possessive phrase, an ownership phrase, a locative phrase, or an
associative phrase (relative type).

+ adv s{na- + nuc. substantive phrase
{sa-3 possessive phrase
ownership phrase
locative phrase
associative phrase

When a substantive phrase is nucleus it can itself have as nucleus a
noun, adjective, enumerative, demonstrative, selector, pronoun,
infinitive clause, or relative clause. Quantitatives only rarely
occur as nucleus of the substantive phrase constituent. It is more
usual for them to qualify a pronoun nucleus. It appears that
quantitatives of the 1st and 2nd persons are never the nucleus of the
substantive phrase constituent of an adverbial phrase.

1.2.2.1. Morphophonemics

Segmental Allomorphy
([na-1 and jsa-} are represented by Ca-[.)
1. When the nucleus is a substantive phrase7-

tCa-1 is realized as /Ce-/ with all substantive phrase nuclei other
than nouns of la,2a,2b, and pronouns.

/Ca-/ (a) when the substantive phrase nucleus is
a noun of la,2a,2b, or a pronoun
(b) with all nuclei other than relative
and infinitive clauses as a free
variant to /Ce-/, when the gender
concord of the nucleus contains the
vowel /a/.

/Co-/ with all nuclei other than nouns of la,
2a,2b, pronouns, and relative clauses,
as a free variant to /Ce-/ when the gender
concord of the nucleus contains the vowel
/u/.

/Ca-/ coalesces with pronouns of the first and second persons.
Ca- + i > Ce

2. When the nucleus is a possessive phrasei-
Ca-j is realized as /Ce-/.

3. When the nucleus is an ownership phrase:-
Ca-j is realized as /Ca-/.

4. When the nucleus is a locative phraseg-
Ca-} is realized as /Ce-/ or /Co-/
5. When the nucleus is an associative phrase:-
Ca-] is realized as /Oa-/, /8o-/, /Ca-/ distribution as under 1

'My informants accept them somewhat reluctantly so they are omitted
from this discussion.





58


Tonal Allomorphy

1. When the nucleus is a substantive phrases-

A. Ca-j is L with the following substantive phrase nuclei:-
(a) nouns of la,2a,2b
(b) selectors
Spronouns with the morpheme (i-O (3rd person only)

B. iCa-l is H when the nucleus of the substantive phrase is
a relative clause.

C. When the nucleus is one of the following:-
(a) noun other than la,2a,2b
(b) adjective
(c) enumerative
(d) demonstrative
e) pronoun without the morpheme 'i-J(3rd person)
(f) infinitive clause,

Ca-} shows tonal polarity with the immediately following
tone. This is, however, only after a change in the tones
of the nucleus. The series of tonal changes involves
certain sequences of tones irrespective of the status or
"assignment" of the individual tones. The changes are as
followsr-
(a) a single L (i.e. one syllable), or sequence of L's has
the first L changed to H.
(b) a H or unbroken sequence of H's becomes taw.

In detail, the changes are the following:-

L > H
LL > HL
LLL 1 > HLL
LLH. > HLH..

H > L
HH > LL
HL.. > LL.
HHH > LLL
HHoL.. > LLL..
HLH. > LLH..
When the above tonal changes have taken place kna-j and
Lsa-} show polarity with the immediately following tone.


2. When the nucleus is a possessive phrasei-
Ca-' is H, and the possessive morpheme i-a-} becomes L if it is
not already L. In some cases the nuclear constituent of the
possessive phrase undergoes tonal change. With certain nuclei
there is a reversion to 'basic' tones. See the examples below.

3. When the nucleus is an ownership phrasei-
Ca-] is L with /nya-/ and /s6-/
H with /muzvina-/ and /vazvind-/.

4. When the nucleus is a locative phrase:-
kCa-i is L, tonal change (as under 1.C. above) to the nucleus,

5. When the nucleus is an associative phrase:-
$Ca-3 is H.
1The ellipses indicate that following tones, if any, are not affected.





59


Examples (presented according to the SP nucleus)


Nouns of la,2a,2b


1. nashe uyu
ishe uyu

2. samambo mukuGru
mambo mukiru

3. savam'mbo ava
vamambo ava


4. navanevanje
vanevanje

5. naamAi v6ga
amii v6ga


(/Ca-/, no tonal change)


(with this chief)
la (this chief)

(like a senior chief)
la (a senior chief)

(like these chiefs)
2a (these chiefs)


avo
avo 2a


(with those firstborn)
(those firstborn)


(with mother only)
2b (mother only)


Nouns other than la,2a,2b, and adjectives


( Ca-~, tonal change and
polarity)


1. nemvura iyo
mvira iyo

2. sesadza rangu
sadza rangu

3. s6muti mukiru
somuti mukurui
muti mukuru

4. nemwana wangu
n6mwana wangu
mwana wangu

5. nemazwi av$
nimazwi avo
mazwi avo

6. sechikhrui chake
chikuru chake

7. nevashoma vakriu
navashoma vakuru
vashoma vakurui


(with that water)
9 (that water)

(like my sadza)
5 (my sadza)

(like a big tree)

3 (a big tree)

(with my child)

1 (my child)

(by means of their words)

6 (their words)

(like his big one)
(his big one)

(with a few big ones)

(a few big ones)











Enumerative


1. nem6mwe mukuri
nomumwe mukuri
mumwe mukiri

2. semamwe madiki
samamwe madiki
mamwe madiki

3. neimwe yangu
imw6 yangu

4. nevayi vadiki
navayi vadiki
vayl vadiki



Demonstrative (

1. neuyu mukuru
nouyu muktrl
uyu mukuru

2. seavo vadiki
saavo vadiki
avo vadiki

3. neichi chimwe
ichi chimwe

4. seurwu rwak
sourwu rwake
urwu rwake


Selector


i.

L
L

L


tonal changes and polarity)


(with another big one)

(another big one)

(like the other small ones)

(the other small ones)

(with my same one)
(my same one)

(with what sort of small ones?)

(what sort of small ones?)


[Ca-1, tonal changes and polarity)


(with this big one)

(this big one)

(like those small ones)

(those small ones)

(by means of this one only)
(this one only)


(like this one of his)

(this one of his)


(.(Ca-} (low tone), no tonal changes)


1. neun6 muk{ru
nouno mukiru
uno mukuru'

2. nevan6 vadiki
navano vadiki
van6 vadiki

3. nechiye chimwe
chiye chimwe


(with this big one right here)

(this big one right here)

(with these small ones right here)

(these small ones right here)

(by means of that same one)
(that same one)


60










Pronoun (a) with ji- : /Ca-/ is L, no tonal change
(b) without i-j:/Ca-/, tonal change and polarity.(Always L)
(c) /Ca-/ coalesces with 1st and 2nd person forms.


1. neni
ini

2. sesiu
isu

3. newe
iwe

4. semi
imi


mukLru
mukur&


vakGru toga
vakuru~ toga

unod' mimbo
un6da mambo

m6se vakiru~
mose vakuru


(with me the big one)
(me the big one)


(like us old people only)
(us old people only)

(with you who like the chief)
(you who like the chief)

(like all of you big ones)
(all of you big ones)


5. naivo v6se
navo vose

ivo vose

6. sairo guru rangu

sar6 guru rangu
iro guru rangu


7. nairwo urwu
narwo urwu
irwo urwu


Infinitive Clause

1. nekudya sadzE


nokudya sadza
kudya sadza:


2. sekGchera gon
sokichera gor
kuchera gom

3. nekut6ma muti
n6kutema muti
kut6ma muti


Relative Clause

1. n6anoshanda H
anoshanda H

2. sevaivhima mt

vaivhima mu

3. nevachachera
vachachera


(with them all)


(all of them)


(like my big one)

(my big one)


S(with this one)

(this one)


(jCa-), tonal change and polarity)

(and to eat sadza)

(to eat sadza)

ib5 (like digging a hole)

iba (digging a hole)

(by cutting the tree)

(cutting the tree)


(/Ce-/,(H tone), no tonal change)

Earare (with him who works in Salisbury)
Iarare (he who works in Salisbury)

tsango (like those who used to hunt in the
veld)
isango (those who used to hunt in the veld)

gomba (with those who will dig the hole)
gomba (those who will dig the hole)









Examples -- Possessive Phrase as Nucleus


For tonal comparison the adverbial phrase is given first, then the
possessive phrase, and then the substantive phrase nucleus of the
possessive phrase.


1. nedzashe uyu
dzAshe uyu
ish6 uyu

2. n4waMvurg uyo
wdMvura uyo
Mvidr uyo

3. neavamambo ava
avAmambo ava
vamdmbo ava

4. n4waamdi v6ga
waamAi v6ga
amAi v6ga

5. sedzevinhu v6dd
dzevgnhu v6dd
vanhu vedd

6. s6yegaranga rangu
y6garanga rangu
gArAnga r6ngu

7. n6chomumw6 mukurd
ch6mumwe mukudr
mumw6 mukurd

8. n6chomumwe mukurd
chomdmwe mukurd
mumwe mukdrd

9. s6zveavo vadiki
zve6vo vadiki
avo vadiki

10. n6wodn6 mukird
woun6 mukurd
dn6 mukurd

11. n6dzang6 mukdrd
dzangu mukdrd
ini mukurd

12. sevesd vakudr t6ga
vesd vakurd t6ga
isu vakdrd t6ga

13. n6radz6 dz6se
rAdzo dz6s6
idzo dz6s6


(and those of this chief)
those of this chief)
this chief)

(with the one of that Mr Mivura)
Sthe one of that Mr Mvura)
that Mr Mvura)

(by means of those (courts) of these chiefs
those of these chiefs)
these chiefs)

(with the one of mother alone)
(the one of mother alone)
(mother alone)

(like those of our people)
(those of our people)
(our people)

(like that of my second wife)
that of my second wife)
(my second wife)

(with the one of the same big one)
the one of the same big one)
the same big one)

(with the one of another big one)
(the one of another big one)
(another big one)

(like those of those small ones)
(those of those small ones)
(those small ones)

(with the one of this elder)
(the one of this elder)
(this big one)

(and those of me the senior)
(those of me the senior)
(me the senior)

(like those of us elders alone)
(those of us elders alone)
(us elders alone)
(and that of them all)
(that of them all)
(all of them)










Ownership Phrase as Nucleus


1. nasAwachi iyi
sAwachi iyi
wAchi iyi

2. nanyamukAdzi waik
nyamukadzi wake
mukadzi wake

3. s6muzvindhwahwd uhwu
muzvin6hwahwa uhwu
hwahw6 uhwu

4. nasinyika iyo
sAnylka iyo
nyika iyo


Locative Phrase as Nucleus


1. nekumusha dye
kumushi dye

2. nemdmushA wangu
mumusha wangu

3. nomuchit6ro ch6ke
muchit6ro chake


(and the owner of this watch)
(the owner of this watch)
(this watch)

(with that fellow and his wife)
that fellow and his wife)
his wife)

(like the owner of this beer)
(the owner of this beer)
(this beer)

(and the one responsible for that country)
(the one responsible for that country)
(that country)


(through that village)
(that village)

(through the middle of my village)
(my village)

(through his store)
(his store)


Associative Phrase as Nucleus


1. neaneimba huru
aneimba hudr

2. sdvanesidza rangu
van6sadza rangu

3. nekuneuyu mudiki
kuneuyu mudiki

4. n6kun6iy6 mudiki
n'kun6idy mudiki
kune6ye mudiki

5. n4kunemuimwe mukdrd
kunemumwe mukuru


(with the one who has a big house)
(the one who has a big house)

(like those who have my sadza)
(those who have my sadza)

(through the place where this small one is)
(where this small one is)

(through the place where th small one is)

(the place where that small one is)

(and where the other big one is)
(where the other big one is)


63





64

1.2.3. Copulative Phrase


A copulative phrase is a construction whose constituents are
the copulative morpheme ndhe-5 and a nucleus. The nucleus may be
a substantive phrase, a possessive phrase, an ownership phrase, a
locative phrase, or an associative phrase.

+ cop: {ndhe-} + nuc: substantive phrase
possessive phrase
ownership phrase
locative phrase
associative phrase (relative)

Quantitatives only rarely occur as nucleus of the substantive phrase
constituent. It is more usual for them to qualify a pronoun which
is nucleus. It appears that quantitatives of the 1st and 2nd
persons are never the nucleus of the substantive phrase constituent
of a copulative phrase.

1.2.3.1. Morphophonemics

Copulative Morpheme Allomorphy

Nucleus Jndhe-}is realized as:-

1. Substantive Phrase

Noun of la /ndhi-/
Noun of 2a,2b /ndha-/
Noun of 5,9 /
Noun other than
la,2a,2b,5,9 /

Adjective 5,9 /-/
Adjective other than
5,9 /
Enumerative / "/
Demonstrative /ndhe-/
/ndh6-/ as free variant to /ndhb-/
when the gc contains /u/
/ndhi-/ as free variant to /ndhe-/
when the gc contains /a/.
Selector /ndhe-/
/ndho-/ as free variant to /ndhe-/
when the gc contains /u/
/ndha-/ as free variant to /ndhe-/
when the gc contains /a/.
Pronoun /ndh-/
Infinitive Clause / '/
Relative Clause /ndhe-/
i............... ................. ... ....... .. ................... ............ .......................................................................... ........ ....... ... .... ... .. ............. ...... ..... ....... .................. ....
i2. Possessive Phrase /ndhe-/
3. Ownership Phrase /ndhi-/ with /sg-/ and /nya-/
/ '/ with /muzvina-/, /vazvina-/

4. Locative Phrase /ndhdo-/ or /ndhe/ or /. .
5. Associative Phrase /ndhe-/

The allomorph / '/ replaces the initial L tone of the nucleus. This
is usually carried by a gender concord, but with nouns having vowel-
commencing stems and a gender concord without a vowel the first tone
is carried by the first vowel of the stem.






65


Nucleus Tone Changes
The nuclei affected are the following:-
1. Substantive Phrase Nucleus:-

The copulative morpheme causes changes in the tones of most
substantive phrase nuclei.
(a) Pronouns of the 1st and 2nd persons have the first syllable
changed from L to H.

(b) In most other nuclei there is a tonal change which involves
certain sequences of tones irrespective of the status or
"assignment" of the individual tones. The tones immediately
following the copulative morpheme (whatever the particular
allomorph) are changed. The nuclei thus affected are the
following:-
i) nouns other than 2a and 2b
ii) adjectives
iii) demonstratives
iv) enumeratives
(v) infinitive clauses

The tonal changes are as follows:-
(a) a single L (i.e. one syllable), or sequence of L's has
the first L changed to H.

(b) a H or unbroken sequence of H's becomes low.

In detail, the changes are the following:-

L > H
LL > HL
LLL > HLL
HHL (with la nouns whose stem
incorporates a syllabic gender
concord)
LLH.. > HLH..

H > L
HH > LL
HL.. > LL..
HHH > LLL
HHL.. > LLL..
HLL.. > LLL..


2. Possessive Phrase Nucleus:-

The possessive morpheme ,-a-} becomes L if it is not already L.
In some cases the nuclear constituent of the possessive phrase
undergoes tonal change. With certain nuclei there is a reversion
to "basic" tones. See the examples below.


3. Ownership Phrase Nucleus:-

With /muzvinA/ and /vazvinA-/ there is a tonal change after the
copulative morpheme ('/). The change is as under l(b) above,
i.e. HH > LL.


That is, whether they are themselves morphemes or part of morphemes, and
whatever the morphemes they are of 'belong to', is of no consequence.
The changes are the same changes as occur in class 2a nouns, and
adverbial, possessive, and ownership phrases.
2The ellipses indicate that following tones, if any, are not affected.










Examples (presented according to the SP nucleus)


(/ndhi-/, tonal change)


1. ndhishe uyu
ish4 uyu

2. ndhimambo mukurd
mambo mukdrd

3. ndhiChigaro uyu
Chigaro uyu

4. ndhiNyakuti
Nyakuti

5. ndhitenzi mukurd
tenzi mukudr


(it is this chief)
(this chief)

(it is a senior chief)
(a senior chief)

(it is this Mr Chigaro)
(this Chigaro)

(it is so-and-so)
(so-and-so)

(it is the big owner)
(the big owner)


Nouns of 2a and 2b (/ndha-/, no tonal change)


1. ndhavababi vakurd
vAbaba vakdru 2a

2. ndhavam6mbo ava
vam'mbo ava 2a

5. ndhaamdi v6ga
amai v6ga 2b


Nouns and Adjectives of Classes


(it is the elder fathers)
(the elder fathers)

(it is these chiefs)
(these chiefs)

(it is mother only)
(mother only)


5 and 9 (/i-/, tonal change)


1. imvura iyo
mvtir iyo

2. imbwa yedid
imbwa y6d

3. isadza rangu
sadza ringu

4. ish6ma idzi
shoma idzi

5. iguru rangu
gird rangu

6. igore iri
gore iri


(it is that water)
9 (that water)

(it is our dog)
9 (our dog)

(it is my sadza)
5 (my sadza)

(it is these few)
(adj)9 (these few)

(it is my big one)
(adj)5 (my big one)

(it is this year)
5 (this year)


1.2.5.2.


Nouns of la


66


The /i-/ in /imbwa/ is the copulative morpheme, but the /i-/ in
/imbwa/ is the morpheme which serves only to add a syllable to
an otherwise monosyllabic form.





67


Nouns and Adjectives of Classes other than la,2a,2b,5,9

(/'/and tonal change)


I. mutl mukudr
muti mukudr

2. mwanA wangu
mwana wAngu

3. chikuru chike
chikdru ch6k4

4. v6sh6ma vakuru
vashoma vakudr

5. zvigaro zvangu
zvigaro zvangu

6. mazwi av6
mazwl av6


Enumerative (/'/ a

1. chimwe chikidr
chimwe chikudr

2. imwe yangu
imwe yangu

3. zviyi zvidiki
zviyi zvidiki

4. kAmwe kaye
kamwe k6ye


(it is a big tree)
(a big tree)

(it is my child)
(my child)

(it is his big one)
(his big one)

(they are a few big ones)
(a few big ones)

(they are my chairs)
(my chairs)

(it is their words)
(their words)


nd tonal change)


(it is another big one )
(another big one)

(it is my same one)
(my same one)

(what sort of small ones are they?)
(what sort of small ones)

(it is that other one)
(that other one)


Demonstrative (/ndhe-/, /ndhb-/, /ndh&-/, tonal change)


1. ndhedyu mukudr
ndhouyu mukudr
uyu mukurdi

2. ndheavo vadiki
ndhaivo vadiki
avo vadiki

3. ndheichi chimw6
ichi chimwe


Selector


(it is this big one)

(this big one)

(it is those small ones)

(those small ones)

(it is this one only)
(this one only)


(/ndhe-/, /ndho-/, /ndha-/, no tonal change)


1. ndhedn6 mukurd
ndhoun6 mukidr
un6 mukurdu

2. ndhevan6 vadiki
ndhavan6 vadiki
van6 vadiki

3. ndhechly6 chimw6
chiye chimwe


(it is this big one)

(this big one)

(it is these small ones right here)

(these small ones right here)

(it is that same one)
(that same one)





68





Pronoun (/ndh-/, first syllable of 1st and 2nd persons becomes H)


1. ndhisi vakdru t6ga
isu vakudr t6ga

2. ndhimi m6se vakudr
imi m6se vakudr

3. ndhfiw un6dd mambo
iwe un6da m6mb6

4. ndhicho chik4
icho ch6ke

5. ndhiko kamwe
iko kamwe

6. ndhidzo dzangu
idzo dzangu



Infinitive Clause (//

1. kudya kwakinaka
kudya kwakinaka

2. kuch6ra gomba
kuchera gomba

3. kutengesa hembe
kutengesa h6mbe




Relative Clause (/ndh6e


1. ndheanoshandA Harare
anoshAnda Hardre

2. ndhevaivhima musang6

vaivhim6 musang6

3. ndh6akatengesa mombe
akat6ngesa mombe


(it is us old people only)
(us old people only)

(it is all of you big ones)
(all of you big ones)

(it is you who like the chief)
(you who like the chief)

(it is his)
(his)

(it is another one)
(another one)

(they are mine)
(mine)



,tonal change)

(it is good food)
(good food)

(it is digging a hole)
(digging a hole)

(it is selling the shirt)
(to sell the shirt)




-/ no tonal change)


(it is he who works in Salisbury)
(he who works in Salisbury)

(it is they who used to hunt in the
veld)
(they who used to hunt in the veld)

(it is he who sold the cattle)
(he who sold the cattle)





69



Examples -- Possessive Phrase as Nucleus

(/ndh6-/, gc-a- becomes L if not already, sometimes further tonal chang

For tonal comparison the copulative phrase is given first, then the
possessive phrase, and then the substantive phrase nucleus of the
possessive phrase.


1. ndhedzashe uyu
dzashe uyu
ishe uyu

2. ndhewaMvura uyo
waMvura uyo
Mvura uyo

3. ndheavamambo ava
avimambo ava
v6ammbo ava

4. ndhewaamgi v6ga
waamai v6ga
amai v6ga

5. ndhddzevanhu v6dd
dzevanhu vddi
vanhu v6dd

6. ndh4yegarangd rangu
yegaranga rangu
garang6 rangu

7. ndhechomumw4 mukurd
ch6mumwe mukird
mumw6 mukdrd

8. ndh6chomimwe mukdrd
chomimwe mukdru
mumwe mukdrd

9. ndhezveivo vadiki
zveavo vadiki
avo vadiki

10. ndhewodn6 mukudr
wodn6 mukird
dn6 mukurdu

11. ndh6dzangd mukrdu
dzangu mukdri
ini mukurd

12. ndhevedu vakdru t6ga
ndh6vedu vakdrd t6ga
vedd vakdrd t6ga
isu vakdru t6ga

13. ndh6radz6 dz6s6
radzo dz6s6
idzo dzose


(it is those of this chief)
(those of this chief)
(this chief)

(it is the one of that Mr Mvura)
(the one of that Mr Mvura)
that Mr Mvura)

(it is those (courts) of these chiefs)
(those of these chiefs)
these chiefs)

(it is the one of mother alone)
(the one of mother alone)
(mother alone)

(it is those of our people)
(those of our people)
(our people)

(it is the one of my second wife)
(the one of my second wife)
(my second wife)

(it is the one of the same big one)
(the one of the same big one)
(the same big one)

(it is the one of another big one)
(the one of another big one)
(another big one)

(it is those of those small ones)
those of those small ones)
those small ones)

(it is the one of this elder)
the one of this elder)
this elder)

(it is those of me the senior one)
(those of me the senior one)
(me the senior one)

(it is those of all us elders)

(those of all us elders)
(all us elders)

(it is the one of them all)
the one of them all)
(them all)











Ownership Phrase as Nucleus
(/ndhi-/ with /sA-/ and /nya-/, no tonal change.
/'/ with /muzvini-/ and /vazvina-/, tonal change. )


1. ndhisfwachi iyi
sawachi iyi

2. ndhinyabhdku iri
nyabhuku iri

5. vazvinahwaahw uhwu
vazvindhwahwa uhwu

4. ndhisinyika iyo
sAnyika iyo


(it is the owner of this watch)
(the owner of this watch)

(it is the owner of this book)
(the owner of this book)

(they are the owners of this. beer)
(the owners of this beer)

(it is the one in charge of that country)
(the one in charge of that country)


Locative Phrase as Nucleus
(/ndh6-/ or /ndhe-/ or /'/)

1. ndhepamushA wake mukdrd
ndh6pamusha wake mukdru (it is his headquarters)
pAmusha wike mukdri *
pamush6 wak6 mukidr (at his big village)





Associative Phrase (relative) as Nucleus


(/ndh6-/)


1. ndh4an6imbd hird
an4imba hudr

2. ndhevan64sdza rangu
van4sadza rangu

3. ndhekuneiyu mudiki
kuneuyu mudiki

4. ndhekun6iye mudiki
kun6udy mudiki

5. ndhekunemimwe mukdrd
kunemimwe mukdrd


(it is the one who has a big house)
(the one who has a big house)

(it is those who have my sadza)
(those who have my sadza)

(it is the place where this small one is)
(where this small one is)

(it is the place where that small one is)
(the place where that small one is)

(it is where the other big one is)
(where the other big one is)





71


1.2.4. Possessive Phrase

A possessive phrase is a construction whose constituents are
a gender concord and the possessive morpheme -a-), and a nucleus.
The nucleus may be a substantive phrase, a possessive phrase, an
ownership phrase, a locative phrase, an associative phrase, or a
participial clause.
+ poss: gc-i-a-3 + nuc: substantive phrase
possessive phrase
ownership phrase
locative phrase
associative phrase (relative)
participial clause

The nucleus of a substantive phrase constituent can be any of the
substantive phrase nuclei listed in section 1.2.1. other than the
quantitative.
Pronouns of the 1st and 2nd persons and class 1, when nucleus of
the substantive phrase constituent, are usually replaced by the
corresponding replacement gender concord morphemes of series e.
When the pronouns of 1st and 2nd person and class 1 are the nucleus
the meaning is more emphatic than when the substitute morphemes are
nucleus. See examples under Pronoun below.

Pronoun Replacement morphemes (series e)

Is ini -ngu
Ip isu -idi
IIs iw& -k6
lip imi -inyu
1 lye -k6

These replacement morphemes occur only in possessively inflected
substantive phrases.

1.2.4.1. Morphophonemics

Possessive Gender Concord Morphophonemics

MR 1: Classes 2,5,7,8,10,12,16,18
CV-i is realized as /C-/ before the possessive morpheme -a--

MR 2: Classes 11,15,14
$Cu-j is realized as /Cw-/ before the possessive morpheme (-a-j

MR 3: Classes 15,17
jku-j is realized as /kw-/ before possessive allomorphs /-a-/
and /-e-/
/k-/ before the possessive allomorph /-o-/

MR 4: Classes 1 and 3
$u-} is realized as /w-/ before the possessive morpheme f-a-J

MR 5: Classes 4 and 9
ki-i is realized as /y-/ before the possessive morpheme -a-*

MR 6: Class 6
ka-i is realized as before the possessive morpheme -a-











go Series a


1 u-

2 va-


5 ri-

6 a-

7 chi-

8 zvi-

9 i-
10 dzi-

11 ru-

12 ka-

13 tu-

14 hu-

15 ku-

16 pa-

17 ku-


mu-


The possessive morpheme coalesces with pronouns of the
persons, and with the substitute morphemes /-idA/ (1st
/-inyu/ (2nd plural).
a + i > e


1st and 2nd
plural) and


Morphophonemics of Possessive Morpheme and Tonal Changes in Nucleus


The possessive morpheme -a-} has three allomorphs, /-a-,-e-r-o-/
which are conditioned by the nucleus of the possessive phrase. In
the case of a substantive phrase nucleus the allomorphs are conditioned
by the nucleus of the substantive phrase.
with some
With several nucleiQ-a-jcauses a tonal change in the nucleus an~ tnen
shows polarity with the first tone of the nucleus. The nuclei thus
affected are the following:-


Substantive Phrase:






Ownership Phrase
with /nya-/


Nouns other than 2a,2b
Adjective
Enumerative
Demonstrative
Pronoun classes 1 and 2 without fi-}

/nya-/ and immediately following
L's become high.


Locative Phrase


The tonal change in the nucleus involves certain sequences of tones
irrespective of the status or "assignment" of the individual tones.


1That is, whether they are themselves morphemes or part of morphemes,
and whatever the morphemes they are or 'belong to', is of no
consequence. The changes are the same changes as occur in class 2a
nouns, and adverbial, copulative, and ownership phrases.


72


+ /-a-/


+ /-e-/


w-e-

v-e-

w-e-

y-e-
r-e-

e-

ch-e-

zv-e-


v-a-
w-a-

y-a-

r-a-

a-

ch-a-

zv-a-

y-a-

dz-a-

rw-a-

k-a-

tw-a-

hw-a-

kw-a-

p-a-

kw-a-

m-a-


y-e-
dz-e-

rw-e-

k-e-

tw-e-

hw-e-

kw-e-

p-e-
kw-e-

m-e-


w-o-

v-o-

w-o-

y-o-
r-o-

0-

ch-o-

zv-o-


dz-o-

rw-o-

k-o-

tw-o-

hw-o-

k-o-

p-o-
k-o-

m-o-





73


The tonal changes are as follows:-
(a) A single L (i.e. only one syllable), or sequence of L's has the
first L changed to H.
(b) A H or unbroken sequence of H's becomes low.
In detail:-


L >
LL >
LLL


LLH..
H
HH
HL..
HHH >
HHL.. >
HLH.. >


H
HL
HLL
HHL (with la nouns whose stem incorp
a syllabic gender concord)
HLH..
L
LL
LL..
LLL
LLL..
LLH..


With nouns other than la, adjectives, enumeratives, demonstratives,
locative phrases, and infinitive clauses i-a-} shows polarity with the
immediately following tone after the tonal change in the nucleus.
Nucleus Allomorph of i-a- Nucleus Tones


1. Substantive Phrase
Nouns of la
Nouns of 2a,2b


change
no change


.........I .... I..... ..........................................................


Other nouns
Adjectives
Enumeratives
Demonstratives
Infinitive clauses


Selector




Pronoun





Relative clause


/-e-/
/-o-/ free variant to /-e-/
when gc contains /u/
/-a-/ free variant to /-e-/
when gc contains /a/
Tonal polarity with following
tone after nucleus tone change


/-6-/ free variant to /-e-/
when go contains /u/
/-a-/ free variant - /--
v/hen go contains [a/
............................ ........ ...I.. ....... ........ .........................
/-a-/ (a) with substitute
morphemes
(b) 2 18 without [i-1
/--/ I(a) pronouns I,II,1
(b) 2 18 with i1-}
. ... . ..,,.. .


2. Possessive Phrase /-6-/


5. Ownership Phrase


change


no change




classes
without
become H



no change
gc-a- becomes
L if not a

change with
/nya-/


4. Locative Phrase --/ free variants (polarity) change
5. Assciativ/Phras


5. Associative Phrase /-e-/
(relative)

6. Participial Clause /-


no change


no change


The ellipses indicate that following tones, if any, are not affected.


/-a-/


/-a-/
/-a-/









Examples (presented according to the SP nucleus)


(gc-/-a-/, tonal change)


1. dare rAmambo mukuru
mambo mukidr

2. munda waChigaro uyu
Chigaro uyu

3. mombe y6she uyu
mombe yaishe uyu

ish6 uyu

4. d6m6 rababa mukurd
baba mukurd

5. bh6tye ratezvara
tezvara



Nouns of 2a and 2b (gc-


1. matare avma'mbo ava (th
vamambo ava (th

2. imbA yavaHarahwa van6gara pan6

v4Harahwa van6gara pin6

3. durl raambuya vaye (th
ambiya vaye (th:

4. dziva ravakondo ava (th<
vakondo ava (th


Nouns other than la,2a,2b, and adje<

1. manyerenyete ehari yake (th
hari yak4 (he]

2. vana vemapfeni ava (the
vamapfeni aya
mapfeni aya (the

3. dzimb6 dzevsnhu vedu (thE
dzavanhu vedu
vanhu vedd (ou

4. mutauri w6rurimi urwu (thE
w6rurimi urwu
rurimi urwu (thj
5. mhuru dzenhanhatu idzo (thE
nhAnhatu idzo (the

6. mwang wemukdrd iye (the
womuKuru uye
mukurd dye (the


(the court of the senior chief)
(the senior chief)

(the field of this Mr Chigaro)
(this Mr Chigaro)

(the head of cattle of this chief)


(this chief)

(the axe of father's elder brother)
(father's elder brother)

(father-in-law's jacket)
(father-in-law)



no tonal change)


e courts of these chief's)
ese chiefs)

(the house of Mr H. who lives
here)
(Mr H. who lives here)

e pestle of that grandmother)
at grandmother)

e pool of these hammer heads)
ese hammerheads)


ctives (gc- a-a- tonal change,
polarity)
e patterns of her pot)
r pot)

e young of these baboons)
ese baboons)

e houses of our people)
r people)

e speaker of this tongue)

is tongue)
e calves of those six)
'se six)

child of that big one)
it big one)


1.2.4.2.


Nouns of la


74




75


Enumerative (gc- {-a-} tonal change, polarity)


1. imbwa yechimwe chlye
chimwe chlye

2. imbwa yechimwe chlye
chimw6 chlye

3. dzimba dzemumwe mudiki
dzimb6 dz6mumw6 mudiki
mumwe mudiki

4. mwen6 wemamwe 6ga
mwene wamamwe 6ga
mamwe 6ga


Demonstrative


1. mwana wedyu mukurd.
mwana wouyu mukuru
mwand woyu mukudr

uyu mukuru

2. mabhiku eavo vadiki
mabhdku aavo vadiki
avo vadiki

5. chigaro cheiri rimwe
iri rimwe


Selector


(the dog of that other one)
(that other one)

(the dog of that same one)
(that same one)

(the houses of the same small one)

(the same small one)

(the owner of the other ones only)


(the other ones only)


(gc-{-a-}, tonal change, polarity)


(the child of this big one)



(this big one)

(the books of those small ones)

(those small ones)

(the chair of this one only)
(this one only)


(gc- -j--(low tone), no tonal change)


1. mwana wedn6 mukurd
mwana wouno mukidr
in6 mukurd

2. mwana wedpi mukuru
mwana woupi mukuru
upi mukuird

3. mabhdku evaye vadiki
mabhdku avaye vadiki
vay6 vadiki

4. imbwa yechipi chimwe
chipi chimwe


(the child of this big one right her


(this big one right

(the child of which

(which big one?)

(the books of those


here)

big one?)



small ones)


(those small ones)

(the dog of which other one?)
(which other one?)





76


Pronoun gc-/-a-/, only tonal change is class 2 without 9i-3 which
becomes H. Coalescence with I and II and substitute morphemes
of Ip anad UIp.
/-a-/ with pronouns of I and II (coalescence), class 1
with or without ki-1, and classes 2-18 with i-} .
/-4-/ with substitute morphemes (I,II, and class 1 -
coalescence with Ip and IIp), and pronouns 2-18 without {i-].


Nucleus Possessive phrase


-ngu /
-id /
-k6 /
-inyu /
-k4 /


ini
isd
iw6
imi
iye
ivo
iwo
iyo
iro
iwo
icho


changu
cheddu
chak6
chenyd
chak4


cheni
chesu
chewed
chemi
chaye /chaiye
chiv6 /chaivo
chawo /chaiwo
chayo /chaiyo
charo chairo
chawo /chaiwo
chacho/chaicho


Pronouns of the 1st and 2nd persons and class 1, when nucleus of
the substantive phrase constituent, are usually replaced by the
corresponding replacement gender concord morphemes of series e.
When the pronouns of 1st and 2nd person and class 1 are the nucleus
of the substantive phrase constituent the meaning is more emphatic
than when the substitute morphemes are nucleus.


1. mombe dzAngu mukurd
mombe dzeni mukurd
ini mukdrdi

2. vana vedd vakudr t6ga
vani vesu vakdru t6ga
isu vakdru t6ga

5. musha w~k6 un6da mAmbo

musha wew6 un6da mimbo


4. danga ridzo dzo6s
dangA raidzo dz6se
idzo dz6s4

5. bhuku raye anodziidza mazwi
bhiku raiye anodziidza mazwl


(the cattle of me the big one)
(the cattle of me the big one)
(me the big one)

(the children of us old people only)
(the children of we old people only)
(us old people only)

(the village of you who likes the
chief)
(the village of you who likes the
chief)

(the kraal of them all)

(all of them)

(the book of him who studies words)


iye anodziidza mazwi(he who studies words)


Is
Ip
IIs
IIp
1











Relative Clause (gc-/-1-/, no tonal change)


1. musha weanoshandA Harare (the home of him who works in S.)
anoshanda Harare (he who works in Salisbury)

2. imbw6 dzevanovhima musang6 (the dogs of them who hunt in the
veld)
vanovhimA musAng6 (they who hunt in the veld)

5. chit6ro cheakdt6ngesa mombe (the store of him who sold the
cattle)
akdtingesa mombe (he who sold the cattle)



Infinitive Clause (gc-/e-/ or /-o-/, tonal change and polarity)


1. dem6 rekute4m muti
dem6 r6kut4mi muti
kut4ma muti

2. mapadzi ekuchera gomba
mapadza okuchera gomba
kuchera gomba

3. mukidzi w6kur66ra
mukadzi w6kur66ra

kur66ra


(an axe to cut the tree with)

(to cut the tree)

(hoes to dig the hole with)

(to dig the hole)

(a woman to marry)


(to marry)


Participial Clause (gc-/-a-/, no tonal change)


mwand wav6nodd

mombe dzavak6araya

sadza raviri kudy6

vakidzi vav6char66ra


(the child whom they like)

(the cattle which they killed)

(the sadza which they are eating)

(the womenwhom they will marry)




78


Possessive Phrase as Nucleus
(gc/4-/, gc (-a-I becomes L if not already L, sometimes further tonal
change)


1. chinhu ch6wembA. iyi

wemba iyi


2. chewaiyo imbi
waiyo imba

3. chewelyo hirdu
welyo hdrdi

4. cheweimwe imba
weimwe imba


(the thing of the one (e.g. owner) of
this house)
(the one of this house)


(the one
(the one

(the one
(the one

(the one
(the one


the one of the house)
the house)

the one of that big one)
that big one)

the one of the other house)
the other house)


Ownership Phrase as Nucleus
(gc-/---/, tonal change with /nya-/)


1. imbwa yasdwachi
sawachi

2. imbwa y4ny4mukAdzi wake
nyamukddzi wak6


(the dog of the owner of the watch)
(the owner of the watch)

(the dog of him and his wife)
(he and his wife)


3. imba ydvazvinihwahwg uhwu (the house of the owners of this beer)
imba yanyamuzvinwahwahw uhwu (the house of the owner of this beer)

nyamuzvinAhwahw6 uhwu (the owner of this beer

4. vand visAnyika iyo (the children of the one in charge of
that country)
sanyika iyo 1 (the one in charge of that country)


Locative Phrase as Nucleus
(gc-/-e-/ or /-6-/, tonal change (J-a- shows polarity))


1. vana vekimush6 dye
kumushi dye

2. dzep4mukurd dye
pamukird dye

3. hidk dzemumush6 wingu
mumushd wingu


(the children of that village)
(to that village)

(those of the place where that elder is)
(where that elder is)

(the fowls of my village)
(in my village)


Associative Phrase(relative) as Nucleus
(gc-/e-/, no tonal change)


1. mwana weandimbA hudr
an4imbi hudr

2. vanA vevan6m6mbe zhinji
vanem6mbe zhinji


(the child of the one with a big house)
(the one with a big house)

(the children of those with many cattle)
(those with many cattle)


1Dialectal tonal variation in these utterances.









Locative Phrase


A locative phrase is a construction whose constituents are one
of the locative morphemes pa-, ku-, or mu- (which are gender concords
of classes 16,17, and 18 respectively), and a substantive phrase.
The substantive phrase constituent of a locative phrase can only have
a noun other than of classes la,2a, or 2b, an adjective, or an
infinitive clause as nucleus.
Locative phrases must be distinguished from substantive phrases
in which the nucleus is in classes 16,17, or 18. In a substantive
phrase with nucleus in 16,17, or 18 the concordial agreement of the
qualifiers is 16,17, or 18. But in a locative phrase the qualifiers
of the substantive phrase show agreement with the nucleus of the
substantive phrase and not with pa-, ku-, or mu-.


Locative Phrase =


pa-
+ loc- ku-
mu-


1. pamusha mukuru wake
( SP )
( locative phrase )

of. pamusha pakuru pake
( SP )

2. kumusha wake
( SP )
( loc. phrase)
of. kumusha kwake
( SP )

3. mumba yangu
( SP )
( loc. phrase)
of. mumba mangu
( SP )

4. pamudiki uyu
( SP )
(loc. phrase)
cf. pamudiki apa

5. kumukuru wak6
( SP )
( loc. phrase)

6. pakudya sadza
( inf. clause)
( loc. phrase )

7. mukuenda kumusha
( inf. clause )
( locative phrase)


(at his big village)



(at his big village and its
surroundings)

(at his home)


(in the vicinity of his home)


(in my house)


(in the inside of my house)


(at the place where this small one is)


(here at the small one)

(to his elder)



(at the time for eating sadza)



(while going home)


+ nuc:SP


1.2.5.





80


1.2.6.


Ownership Phrase1


An ownership phrase is a construction whose constituents
are Ad-/, /nya-/, /muzvina-/ or /vazvind-/, and a substantive
phrase.


nya-
+ ownership: a-
muzvina-
vazvlna-


+ nuc:SP


There are severe restrictions on the substantive phrase constituent.
It appears that only nouns other than la,2a,2b, and infinitive
clauses may be nucleus. No examples have been found with more
than one qualifier in the substantive phrase, and usually there are
none. It would seem therefore that /sa-/, /nya-/, /muzvina-/ and
/vazvin6-/ (the latter two obviously incorporating a gender concord)
are mainly noun formatives but have a limited function as substantive
phrase inflectors.


1.2.6.1. Miorphophonemics

/sa-/, /muzvina-/ and /vazvind-/ cause a tonal change in the nucleus.2
The series of tonal changes involves certain sequences of tones
irrespective of the status or "assignment" of the individual tones.
The changes are as follows:-

(a) A single L (i.e. one syllable), or sequence of L's has the
first L changed to H.

(b) A H or unbroken sequence of H's becomes low.

In detail, the changes are the following:-


L
LL
LLL
LLH..

H
HH
HL..
HHH
HHL .3
HLH..


H
HL
HLL
HLH..

L
LL
LL..
LLL
LLL..
LLH..


Imuzvini -a
Svare
{vazvina-


realized


as /muzvina-/
/vazvina-/


when the nucleus is a
monosyllabic H.


The term "ownership" is not satisfactory, but it does indicate
something of the meaning of the morphemes involved.

jnuzvina-'and vazvin6-j seem to cause only the (a) tonal changes,
that is, low to high.
The ellipses indicate that following tones, if any, are not
affected.










1.2.6.2.


Examples


1. siwachi iyi
wachi iyi

2. sanyika iyo
nyika iyo

5. saimbd yak6
imba yk46

4. nyamukadzi wak4
mukadzi wa&k

5. nyabhdku iri
bhuku iri

6. muzvinahwahw6 uhwu
vazvin6hwahwa uhwu
hwahw6 uhwu

7. nyakuba zvavAmwe
kubd zvavamwe

8. muzvinAkudya kwak6
kudya kwak6

9. nyakubvuta zv6mwan6
kubvuta zv6mwana

10. nyakuwana mukidzi

kuwana mukadzi


11. muzvinimh6sva
mhosva

12. muzvinamba hudr
muzvinAimba huri
imbi hdru

15. muzvingm~nda mukurd
munda mukurd

14. muzvin6g-hwa
guhwa

15. vazvinabh6ra
bh6ra


(the owner of this watch)
(this watch)

(the owner of that land)
(that land)

(a married person)
(his house)

(he and his (noted) wife)
(his wife)

(the owner of this book)
(this book)

(the owner of this beer)
(the owners of this beer)
(this beer)

(the thief of other people's things)
(to steal other people's things)

(one who invites others to his food)
(his food)

(one who grabs the child things)
(to grab the child's things)

(one who has recently married)

(to find a woman; marry)

(the accused (in a repeated case)
(a case)

(the owner of the big house)

(a big house)

(the owner of a big field)
(a big field)

(a noted liar)
(a lie)

(football players)
(football)


81








1.2.7.


Presentative Phrase


A presentative phrase is a construction whose constituents
are the presentative morpheme 5hA-) and a substantive phrase.

+ pres: {ha- + nuc:SP

Only demonstratives and selectors occur as nuclei of the
substantive phrase constituent.1

1.2.7.1. Morhphopnemics

ha'-j is realized as /ha-/ '(a) with demonstratives as nucleus of
the substantive phrase constituent


(b) as a free variant to /he-/ with
selectors as nucleus when the
selector gender concord contains
vowel /a/


the


/ho-/ as a free variant to /h6-/ with
selectors as nucleus when the
selector gender concord contains the
vowel /u/.

/he-/ with all selectors as nucleus.

/ha-/ coalesces with the first vowel of the demonstrative.


ha + a
h6 + u


ha + i he


1.2.7.2.
Demonstrative


1. h4yo mombe yabab6 yadz6ka


2. havo vanhu vaye

3. h6yo muk6man6 ari kudya

4. h6rwo rwana


Selector
1. h6hwdno hwahw6 hwakinaka
h6hwuno hwahwa hwakanika


2. h6dzino dzdk6

5. h6hwdye hwAngu
h6hwdye hwangu

4. he6vye vadiki
havaye vadiki


(There is father's head of cattle
which has returned.)

(There are those people.)

(There is the boy coming.)

(There is the miserable child.)



(Here is the good beer)


(Here are yours.)

(There is mine.)


(There are the small ones)


Nouns do occur as nucleus, but my informants feel these are
shortened forms from a pronoun nucleus + a noun topic.
Eg. hav.anhu vaye (There are those people) from: havo vanhu vaye
These would be treated transformationally.


82


Examples





83





1.2.8. Associative Phrase


There are two types of associative phrase, positive and negative.
Their structure is different.

1.2.8.1. Positive

A positive associative phrase has a gender concord of series b
and an adverbial phrase as constituents. There are principal,
participial, and relative types. The relative and participial
are transformations from the principal, but are included in the
description here.

Principal: + gc:b + nuc:adverbial phrase

gc is L for I,II
H for III

na-jof the adverbial phrase shows polarity with the gc.
In some instances the nucleus of the adverbial phrase
reverts to basic tones.


Relative: As for principal, except that:-

gc is L for I,II,III
In most cases fna- shows polarity with the gc.
Participial: As for principal, except that:-

gc is H for I,II,III


Gender Concord Series b

Is ndi-
Ip ti-
IIs u-
IIp mu-
1 a-
2 va-
3 u-
4 i-
5 ri-
6 a-
7 chi-
8 zvi-
9 i-
10 dzi-
11 ru-
12 ka-
13 tu-
14 hu-
15 ku-
16 pa-
17 ku-
18 mu-




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs