• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Geography, climate, and histor...
 Government
 Population
 Health
 Housing and natural resources
 Commerce
 Native labour
 Wages and cost of living
 Education and welfare institut...
 Communications and transport
 Banking, currency, and weights...
 Public works
 Justice, police, and prisons
 Legislation
 Public finance and taxation
 Bibliography
 Map
 Back Cover














Group Title: Colonial annual reports
Title: Annual report on the social and economic progress of the people of Northern Rhodesia
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072649/00001
 Material Information
Title: Annual report on the social and economic progress of the people of Northern Rhodesia
Series Title: Colonial annual reports
Physical Description: 8 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Great Britain -- Colonial Office
Publisher: H.M.S.O.
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1938
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Zambia   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1938.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072649
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 24616871
 Related Items
Preceded by: Northern Rhodesia
Succeeded by: Annual report on Northern Rhodesia

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Geography, climate, and history
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Government
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Population
        Page 8
    Health
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Housing and natural resources
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Commerce
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Native labour
        Page 23
    Wages and cost of living
        Page 24
    Education and welfare institutions
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Communications and transport
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Banking, currency, and weights and measures
        Page 32
    Public works
        Page 33
    Justice, police, and prisons
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Legislation
        Page 36
    Public finance and taxation
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Bibliography
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Map
        Page 41
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

















































DT
963
.G73
1937










COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL -'


No. 1868


Annual Report on the Social and Economic
Progress of the People of


NORTHERN RHODESIA


1937
(For Reports for r93Q' and r93T see Nos. I7j( and ISIi
respectively (price 2s. od. each))




Crown Copyright Reserved














LONDON
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE
To be purchased directly from H.M. STATIONERY OFFICE at the following addresses:
York House, Kingsway, London, W.C.2; Izo George Street, Edinburgh 2;
26 York Street, Manchester I ; I St. Andrew's Crescent, Cardiff;
80 Chichester Street, Belfast;
or through any bookseller
r938
Price is. od. net




North v itr' University


The J );eph Schaffner
Library of Commeroe
ANNUAL REPORT ON THE


SOCIAL AND


ECONOMIC PROGRESS OF THE PEOPLE OF

NORTHERN RHODESIA, 1937



CONTENTS


Chapter.
[.--GEOGRAPHY, CLIMATE, AND I [lRY ...
II.-G;OVERNMIENT ...
III.--POPULATION... ...
1V.--HEALTH ... ..
V.--HOUSING ...
VI.--NATU RAL RESOURCES ...
V .-- C('OMM- 'RCE ... ... ... ... ...
VIII.- NATIVIV- L ... OU... ... ...
IX.--W VAGES AND CosT OF LiVIN; ...
X.-EDUCATION AND \V\rELF.ARE INSTITiU'l IONS
XI.-CoMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSPORT ...


XII.-BANKING, CURRENCY, AND WEIGHTI
XIII.-PUBLIC WORKS ...
XIV.--JUSTICE, POLICE, AND PRISONS ...
XV.-LEGISLATION ...

XVI.-PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION ...
APPENDIX-BIBLIOGRAPHY ...
MAP


Page



S
... ... ... 2
... ... ... i

... ... ... 92
... 12





-I
.. .. -'i
.. ... 254

... ... 27


FS ANDI MEASURE ... .. 32

... ... ... 33
... ... ... 34
... ... ... 3
... ... 37
... ... 3 )


I.-GEOGRAPHY, CLIMATE, AND HISTORY.

Geography.

The territory known as the Protectorate of Northern Rhodesia
lies between longitudes 22' E. and 33 33' E. and between lati-
tudes 8 15' S. and 18 S. It is bounded on the west b5 Angola,
on the north-west by the Belgian Congo, on the north-east by
Tanganyika Territory, on the east by the Nyasaland Prc tectorate
and Portuguese East Africa, and on the south by Southern
Rhodesia and the mandated territory of South Wes: Africa,
comprising in all an area that is computed to be about 290,320
square miles. The River Zambesi forms the greater pc rt of the
southern boundary; its two main northern tributaries are the
rivers Kafue and Luangwa. With the exception of these river






NORTHERN RHODESIA, 1937 3
valleys, the territory consists of a table-land varying from 3,000
to 4,500 feet in height, though in the north-eastern portion, and
especially in the vicinity of Lake Tanganyika, the altitude is
greater.
History.
The little that is known of the early history of Northern
Rhodesia is very fragmentary and is gleaned from the accounts
of the few intrepid travellers who penetrated into this unknown
territory.
The Portuguese Governor of Sena, Dr. Lacerda, encouraged
by the report of the half-breed Fereira who returned from
Kasembe's capital, close to the eastern shores of Lake Mweru in
June, 1798, decided to set out on the expedition he had planned
the year before, and on 3rd July, 1798, left Tete for the north.
He was accompanied by Fathers Francisco, Jose and Pinto,
twelve officers and fifty men-at-arms, but failed to reach his
goal, and died within a few miles of Kasembe's capital. Father
Pinto led the remnants of the expedition back to Sena, and it is
from Dr. Lacerda's diaries, which Father Pinto with great diffi-
culty saved, that the first authentic history of what is now
North-Eastern Rhodesia was taken. Dr. Lacerda was followed in
the early 19th century by two Portuguese traders, Baptista and
Jose, who brought back stories of the great interior kingdom of
the Balunda, which extended from Lake Mweru to the confines
of Barotseland and included the whole of the country drained by
the Upper Congo and its tributaries. This kingdom is reputed
to have lasted from the 16th to the Igth century. Very few
historical facts are known about it, but the name of Mwatiamvo,
the dynastic title of the paramount chief, is associated, like
Monomotapa, with many half-legendary stories. Neither of
these expeditions was of any great geographical value and it was
not till 1851, when Dr. Livingstone made his great missionary
journeys and travelled through Barotseland and in 1855 dis-
covered the Victoria Falls, that the civilised world had its first
authentic information of Northern Rhodesia. Other and later
explorers who brought back stories of the barbarism of the
natives, of the wealth of game, and of the glories of the Victoria
Falls, were Serpa Pinto, Cameron, Selous and Arnot.
From the very early days when the hordes of migratory Bantu
swept southward from Central and Northern Africa, Northern
Rhodesia has been subject to constant invasion from stronger
tribes on its borders, so much so, that the vast majority of the
present native population, though of Bantu origin, is descended
from men who themselves invaded this country not earlier
than 1700 A.D. One or two small tribes, numbering now only
a very few thousand, such as the Masubia on the Zambesi, are
all that remain of the inhabitants of Northern Rhodesia prior to


',~ 11 I







4 COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL
that date. Though the story of these invasions has passed into
oblivion, their traces remain in the extraordinary number and
diversity of races and of languages in the country.
At the present time the population of the territory has been
classified into seventy-three different tribes, the most important
of which are the Wemba, Ngoni, Chewa, and Wisa in the north-
eastern districts, the Rozi, Tonga, Luvale, Lenje, and Ila in the
north-western districts, and the Senga, Lala, and Lunda, mem-
bers of which are resident in both the eastern and western areas.
There are some thirty different dialects in use, but many of them
vary so slightly that a knowledge of six of the principal languages
will enable a person to converse with every native in the country.
Chinyanja is in use as the official language of the police
and is probably the language most generally spoken by Euro-
peans; it is in reality a Nyasaland language-the word means
Language of the Lake "-but it is also spoken to some extent
round Fort Jameson. In many instances the tribes overlap and
encroach upon each other, and it is not uncommon to find a
group of villages of one tribe entirely surrounded by villages of
another tribe. Many of the tribes on the borders extend into
neighboring territories; in some instances the paramount chief
resides in a foreign country and only a small proportion of the
tribe lives in Northern Rhodesia.
The chief invaders of the early part of the Igth century were
the Arabs from the north, the Angoni, a branch of the early Zulus
who fled from the oppressive tyranny of Tchaka and who settled
in the north-east of the territory, and the Makololo, an offshoot
of the Basuto family, who in the beginning of the 19th century
fought their way from the south through Bechuanaland and
across the Zambesi under the noted Chief Sebitoani; they con-
quered the Batoka, the Masubia, and the Marozi and founded
a kingdom which was distinguished by a comparatively high
degree of social organization.
The duration of the Makololo kingdom was short, lasting
between twenty and thirty years. Soon after the death of Sebi-
toani, the Marozi rebelled and massacred the Makololo to a man,
keeping their women. As a result of this the influence of their
occupation is still to be seen in the Sikololo language, which is
largely spoken amongst the tribes near the Zambesi. The Marozi
under Lewanika enlarged their kingdom, by conquering several
surrounding tribes, such as the Mankoya, the Malovale, and the
Batoka. Beyond these limits their authority was both nebulous
and ephemeral.
In the year 1891 Lewanika was informed that the protection of
Her Majesty's Government had been extended to his country as
he had requested that it should be, and on I7th October, g9oo,
the Barotse Concession was signed by him and his chiefs and
representatives of the Chartered Company. The concession






NORTHERN RHODESIA, 1937
was confirmed in due course by the Secretary of State for the
Colonies and under its terms the Company acquired certain
trading and mineral rights over the 'whole of Lewanika's
dominion, while the paramount chief was to receive, among
other advantages, an annual subsidy of 850.
During this time the slave trade established by the Arabs
continued unchecked. Its baleful influence had gradually
spread from the shores of Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika over
the whole territory; but with the establishment of a Government
post at Abercorn in 1893 the slave trade in this part of Africa
received its first serious check. In each succeeding year more
Arab settlements on the Lake shore were destroyed. Sir Harry
Johnston defeated the Arab Chief Mlozi at Karonga in 1894,
and the last caravan of slaves, which was intercepted on its way
to the east coast, was released at Fort Jameson in, 898. Even
after that, bands of slave-raiders were occasionally encountered
on the north-east boundary and skirmishes with them took place
as late as Igoo; but with the final establishment of the adminis-
tration of the British South Africa Company the slavers quickly
disappeared from the country.
The status of the conquered tribes under Lewanika's dominion
was that of a mild form of slavery. This social serfdom was
brought to an end by the edict of Lewanika, who in 19o6 agreed
to the emancipation of the slave tribes.
Before 1899 the whole territory had been vaguely included
in the Charter granted to the British South Africa Company,
but in that year the Barotseland-North Western Rhodesia Order
in Council placed the Company's administration of the western
portion of the country on a firm basis; it was closely followed
by the North-Eastern Rhodesia Order in Council of g9oo which
had a similar effect. The two territories were amalgamated in
1911 under the designation of Northern Rhodesia, and the
administration of the Company (subject to the exercise of certain
powers of control by the Crown) continued until 1924. In
that year the administration of the territory was assumed by
the Crown in terms of a settlement arrived at between the Crown
and the Company, and the first Governor was appointed on
Ist April, 1924.
Since that date rich copper deposits have been discovered in
the north-west of the territory and have been developed into an
extensive industrial area embodying three large townships with
a population including several thousands of Europeans.
Climate.
There are considerable differences between various parts of
the country. The Zambesi, the Luangwa and the Kafue valleys
experience a much greater humidity and a more trying heat than
do the plateaux above 3,500 or 4,000 feet. The hottest months
are October and November before the rains break, when the
13033 A 2







6 COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL
maximum is 970 F. at Zambesi valley stations and 850 F. at
plateau stations. The mean maximum for the eight months of
the hot season (September to April) is approximately 90o F.
with a mean minimum of 64 F., while the corresponding figures
for the four months of the cold season (May to August) are
79! F. and 46 F.
The following table gives representative temperatures for the
territory experienced during 1937:-
Highest Lowest Absolute Absolute
mean Month. mean Month. Max. "F. Month. Min. F. Month.
Max. F. Min. F.
Livingstone, 97-6 Nov. 41-2 June 1o5-2 Nov. 29-8 June
3,160 ft.
Broken Hill, 88-5 Nov. 45'9 July 97'5 Nov. 36-1 June
3,920 ft.
Isoka, 4,210 ft. 87 Nov 545 July 9 Nov. 5 Ju 9 48-0 July
Balovale, 86-3 Nov. 42 5 July 102 o Nov. 32-0 July
3,400 ft.
Highest temperature ... ... 110o F., Mulungushi
Lowest temperature ... ... 28 F., Solwezi

The rainy season usually begins in November and lasts until
April. Slight showers occur to the north-east of the territory in
August and to the north-east and north-west in September. In
October the rains begin to spread over the whole territory, reach-
ing a maximum in December. The intensity of rainfall
decreases in January, this falling-off appearing to be the nearest
approach to a break in the rains, which is characteristic of the
two seasonal areas of the central tropical zone. In February the
rains re-establish themselves over the whole of the central area
of the territory, following much the same contour alignment as
in December. In March the zone of heavy rainfall shifts well
to the north and east. By April the rains have moved north and
in May they have practically ceased.
The greatest rainfall recorded in 24 hours was 5 50 inches on
the 22nd February, at Kapara in the Fort Jameson district.

II.-GOVERNMENT.

Central Administration.
The office of Governor was created by an Order of His Majesty
in Council dated 20th February, 1924, and the first Governor
assumed his duties on Ist April, 1924.
The Governor is advised by an Executive Council which con-
sists of five members-the Chief Secretary, the Attorney-
General, the Financial Secretary, the Senior Provincial Commis-
sioner, and the Director of Medical Services. Provision is also
made for the inclusion of extraordinary members on special
occasions.






NORTHERN RHODESIA, 1937 7
The Order in Council provided that a Legislative Council
should be constituted in accordance with the terms of the
Northern Rhodesia (Legislative Council) Order in Council, dated
20th February, 1924, to consist of the Governor as President, the
members of the Executive Council ex officio, nominated official
members not exceeding four in number, and five elected un-
official members.
In I929 the number of elected unofficial members was
increased to seven consequent upon the very considerable
increase in the European population. During the coming year
the numbers of official and unofficial members are being equal-
ised by the addition of a nominated unofficial member to repre-
sent native interests and a reduction by one of the number of
official members.
The seat of government was transferred from Livingstone to
Lusaka during the year, the official inauguration of the new
capital being arranged to coincide with the ceremonial celebra-
tion of His late Majesty's birthday on the 3rd of June.

Provincial Administration.
For administrative purposes the territory was formerly divided
into nine provinces, each of which was under a Provincial Com-
missioner responsible for his province to the Governor. The
provinces were grouped together under five Provincial Commis-
sioners in 1933 and as from Ist January, 1935, the number of
provinces was reduced to five. During 1937 the number was
increased to six. The provinces are divided into districts under
the charge of District Commissioners responsible to the Pro-
vincial Commissioners.

Native Administration.
In 1936 a new Native Authority Ordinance was passed, which
modified the previous Ordinance, providing for the recognition
of Native Authorities by the Governor, instead of their appoint-
ment, as previously. Emphasis is laid on the development of
tribal institutions on traditional lines. The Ordinance gives
powers to Native Authorities to issue Orders and to make rules
to enable them to govern and maintain order in tribal areas.
Provision is also made for the setting up of Native Treasuries,
and powers are given to Native Authorities to impose rates,
dues and fees, subject to the Governor's approval. The passing
of the Ordinance marks a definite advance in the development
of tribal self-government. Native Treasuries came into opera-
tion during the year.
A similar Ordinance was also passed for Barotseland during
1936, with the concurrence of the Barotse Native Government.
It follows closely the provisions of the Native Authority Ordi-
nance, but gives the Paramount Chief wider powers than are
13033 A







COLONIAL REPORTS--ANNUAL
given to Native Authorities elsewhere. A Native Treasury had
already been established in Barotseland, and its institution con-
tinues to show improvement in the control of moneys by the
Barotse Native Government.


III.-POPULATION.
The first census of the territory took place on the 7th May,
I)II, prior to the amalgamation in the same year of North-
Eastern and North-Western Rhodesia under the title of Northern
Rhodesia; the second was held on the 3rd May, 1921, and the
third on the 5th May, 1931.
The following table shows the increase of population since
ic19 (the figures for European population for 1931 are census
figures, whilst all those for African population are taken from
the annual Native Affairs Reports):
Proportion
of Africans
Increase Increase to one
Year. Europeans. per cent. Africans. per cent. European.
1911 ... 1,497 821,063 548-47
1921 ... 3,634 143 979,704 19 269-59
1931 .-. 13,846 381 1,372,235 40 99
The increase in the number of Europeans between 1921 and
1931 was due to the influx which took place during the develop-
ment of the copper mines in the Ndola district between 1927
and 1931. The mines had nearly completed construction
towards the end of the year 1931 and a considerable number of
Europeans left the territory in consequence.
The economic depression which set in towards the end of
the same year was the cause of a further drop of 23-7 per cent.
during 1932. In 1933 and 1934 an increase was brought about
by the renewed activity at the copper mines. The European
population is now in the region of 10,500.
The numbers of Asiatics and non-native coloured persons in
the territory at the 1931 census amounted to 176 and 425 respec-
tively.
The African population in 1934 was estimated to be 1,366,425,
which showed a decrease of 4,788 or -34 per cent. on the
previous year, and its average density through the territory was
4- 7 to the square mile. No count of the native population has
since been made but so far as is known there has been little
change.
Immigration.
Fourteen thousand, five hundred and seventy-eight persons
entered Northern Rhodesia during 1937. This number includes
immigrants, returning residents, visitors, tourists, and a small
percentage of persons in transit.






NORTHERN RHODESIA, 1937 9
Immigrants numbered 2,737 of whom 2,524 were British Sub-
jects and 213 Aliens, the percentage of Aliens being 7-78 per
cent. of the year's total.
The following comparative table of Immigrants shows the
progress of the territory:-
198-. 1929. 1930. 193r. 1932. 1933. 1934. 1935. 1936. 1937.
1,066 1,86I 3,651 1,702 615 80o 1,726 1,352 1,212 2,737
Ten persons were removed from the territory in terms of the
Immigration Ordinance. Seven persons were deported as
indigent, and three on account of previous convictions.
Accurate figures of emigration are not available.
One destitute person with four dependants was repatriated to
the Union of South Africa at Government expense during the
year, a decrease of 14 on the total for 1936.

Asiatic Population.
The Asiatic population as at the 3Ist December, 1937, was
approximately 421, as compared with 360 in 1936. All these
Asiatics are British Indians.

IV.-HEALTH.
The medical facilities available to the European and native
population in the past year were maintained throughout the
year, and were as follows:-
European Hospitals. Native Hospitals.
Lusaka. Lusaka.
Livingstone. Livingstone.
Broken Hill. Choma.
Ndola. Mazabuka.
Kasama. Broken Hill.
Fort Jameson. Ndola.
Mongu. Kasama.
Fort Rosebery.
Fort Jameson.
Mongu.
Balovale.
Abercorn.

In addition to these hospitals, Government maintained 23
dispensaries at Government stations and 15 in rural districts
in charge of native orderlies. The rural dispensaries are visited
from time to time by the medical officer of the district.
Owing to the vastness of the territory and the lack of means
of communication, the treatment of the African population
presents considerable difficulty. Steps have already been taken
13033 A4







10 COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL
to increase the number of rural dispensaries and native medical
orderlies are being trained at the Medical Training School,
Lusaka for this purpose.
A great deal of valuable medical work has been done by the
various missions, who control many hospitals and dispensaries
under the supervision of doctors, trained nurses and missionaries
with some medical training. These services to the natives are
subsidized by Government to the extent of 3,465 per annum.
The large mines in the copper belt maintain their own medical
staff in addition to well-equipped hospitals in which t ley care
for their employees. The mine hospitals also treat destitute
Europeans and unemployed natives in the copper belt al Gov-
ernment expense in cases of urgency, but other cases a'e, when
possible, transported to the Government hospital at Ndola.
The railway maintains either full-time or part-time medical
officers at Lusaka, Livingstone, Choma, Broken Hill and Ndola,
who give medical treatment to railway employees as required.
School Inspections.-Medical and dental inspections of all
European schools are carried out by Government medical
officers and dental surgeons subsidized by Government, and
parents are advised as regards the health of their children.
The response of European parents in seeking dental treatment
is disappointing, although the impecunious receive fr',e treat-
ment.
European Vital Statistics.
1930. i93I. 1932. 1933. 1934. 1935. 19 6. 1937.
Number of 163 210 117 103 108 100 7- 115
deaths.
Deaths of 28 28 24 13 15 15 11I
infants under
i year of age.
Mortality per o10256 84-08 72-29 40-88 47-61 53-00 19 16 37-16
I,ooo live
births.
Number of births, 296.
Birth rates and death rates are not now calculated since no
sufficiently close knowledge of the population exists.
One post of health officer, which had been abolished in 1933,
was reconstituted during the year, and part-time medical officers
of health were appointed to the three growing townships in the
copper belt. All medical officers attempt to perform the duties
of medical officers of health, in addition to their clinical duties.
The general health of the country throughout the year was
good, and no epidemic disease of great importance was recorded.
Malaria and Blackwater Fever.-Considerable anti malarial
measures continue to be undertaken by the chief min ng com-
panies with excellent results. The following table of European







NORTHERN RHODESIA, 1937 II
deaths indicates a general improvement of conditions as com-
pared with 1931 and 1932:
Deaths. 1931. 1932. 1933. 1934. 1935. 1936. 1937.
Malaria ... ... 22 16 3 io 8 9 8
Blackwater... ... 19 22 20 II 13 5 II
Trypanosomiasis.-Thirty-four cases of this disease were
reported during the year. All these cases were natives, and only
eight deaths occurred. The distribution of cases was as
follows: -
Cases. Deaths.
Lusaka ... ... 4 2
Ndola ... ... ... 14 3
Kasama ... ... 16 3

34 8

Typhoid.-Six European and fifteen native cases were
reported during the year, with one European and two native
deaths.
Variola.-There were no cases of variola major in 1937, but
certain precautionary measures were taken to stop the spread
of infection into the territory from areas on the Eastern, North-
Western and Western borders where epidemics were reported.
Measles.-Twenty-two Europeans and 121 native cases with
four native deaths were reported during the year from rail line
stations and Fort Rosebery in the Northern Province. This
disease only developed epidemic proportions at Fort Rosebery
where there were 103 native cases with four deaths.
Influenza.-There were no epidemics of influenza, the total
number of cases treated being 28 with seven deaths, as follows:-
Cases. D aths.
Fort Rosebery... ... 22 I
Abercorn ... ... 5 5
Balovale ... ... I I
28 7

Child Welfare.
The welfare clinics previously established at Livingstone,
Lusaka, Ndola and Luanshya functioned throughout the year,
and reports received are most encouraging. This work is
developing and increasing among both European and natives.
At Lusaka, Ndola and Luanshya full-time nursing sisters of the
Government Service are engaged in welfare work. At Lusaka a
second nurse is paid by the Town Management Board. At
Livingstone a voluntary society interested in this aspect of medi-
cal work employs a nurse, and derives funds from annual grants-
in-aid contributed by the Beit Trustees, the Railway Company,
the Municipality and the Government.
13033 '\ 5







COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL


V.-HOUSING.
European Government Housing.
The new houses at the new capital are brick built and are
mostly of two-storey villa type without verandahs. There are
also six blocks of flats, each flat containing two rooms, kitchen
and bathroom. Each block contains eight flats. The newest
houses and the flats are not mosquito-proofed. Old and new
Government houses at Lusaka have been given wate -carried,
indoor sanitation.
Outside Lusaka, most Government quarters are brick build-
ings of bungalow type with wide verandahs, and many are
provided with mosquito gauze. Domestic sanitation consists
of earth closets.
European Non-Government Housing.
Modern buildings, most suitable to this country, and q-,ipped
with every convenience, are to be found on all the min -s on the
copper belt. Most privately-owned residences throughout the
territory are similar to the older type of Government h )uses.

Native Housing.
In areas where most Europeans live the natives are 1 oused in
locations. The houses themselves, in most places, c nd their
surroundings leave much to be desired, but efforts a re being
made to get away from the old compound atmosphere and to
provide quarters best described as an improved African village.
The Governor's Village and the personal servants' compound
at the new capital are examples of this, and these have water-
borne sanitary arrangements.
The housing of natives in the mining areas is very good on
the whole, and compares very favourably with most town
compounds in the railway line townships.
There are many evidences that natives themselves a )preciate
good and sanitary housing, and improvement as to spa:?e light-
ing and ventilation may be seen in native villages.

VI.--NATURAL RESOURCES.
Land and Agriculture.
Of the total area of the territory, approximately 275,0o(' square
miles, some 13,700 square miles, or about 41 per cent., has been
alienated to Europeans.
The report of the Ecological Survey of North Western
Rhodesia was published early in 1937. The main object ts of the
survey are to explore the natural resources of the ten itory, to
assess the potentialities of different types of cou-itry for







NORTHERN RHODESIA, 1937 13
European settlement and to make a study of Native agricultural
systems. As far as the North-Western area is concerned, natural
resources have proved few enough and the amount of Crown
land of promise for European farming is limited by the predomi-
nance of poor soils. The study of Native agriculture has, how-
ever, provided data of great value.
The quantities of the major agricultural commodities produced
by Europeans in the last two years are given in the following
table: -
Maize. Tobacco,. Wheat. Mixed
Bags of Lb. uf Bags of Vegetables.
200 lb. c d l 00 lb. Tons.
19.3, ... ... 329,00o 1,275,o0jo 11,120 1,130
o37 ... ... 294,500 1,26o,oo,o 5,500 1,125
For the fourth successive season the annual rainfall in the
railway belt has been low and permanent water supplies
have been seriously reduced in consequence. The effective rains
ended early in 1937, but this had no serious effect on the maize
crop. The average European production fell from the
" bumper figure of 8.o to 6.6 bags per acre, but only a few
years ago 6.6 bags would have been regarded as very satisfac-
tory indeed.
The general standard of farming has improved greatly in
recent years and the acreage under green manures has increased
from 8,500 in 1931 to 16,ooo in 1937.
Wheat is grown almost exclusively as a winter crop under
irrigation. Lusaka is the main producing centre. For the second
successive season the crop was a poor one as much of it was
ruined by water shortage. Only 2,524 acres were planted as
compared with 4,249 in the previous year, but the water supply
was inadequate even for this reduced acreage. Much of the
acreage had to be grazed off. This abandonment brought the
average yield down to 2-2 bags per acre as compared with a
normal yield of 5 bags, and the total production was the smallest
for many years.
Tobacco is grown chiefly in the Fort Jameson district. The
district as a whole enjoyed the best season it has had for years.
Crops were free from disease and of good quality and the prices
obtained were the highest since the boom of ten years ago.
Customs figures for export of tobacco during 1937 are as
follows :-
Lb. Value h
Overseas ... ... ... ... 350,912 10,235
I'nion of South Africa ... ... 398,423 22,250
Southern Rhodesia ... ... 272,J48 9,299
Totals ... ... ... 1,021,483 L41 784







14 COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL
Exports of maize grain during the year were approxin Lately:-
Bags. I aliu L
Overseas ... ... ... 195,200 58,1,6
Union of South Africa ... ... 34,260 11,5'
Southern Rhodesia ... ... 28,450 10,7:
Totals ... ... ... 257,910 8o,4.J6

During the latter part of the year internal consumption of
maize increased considerably. Current consumption is estimated
at rather over 250,000 bags per annum, an increase of almost
25 per cent. over last year's figure.
The Economics of Native maize production have bee a revolu-
tionized by maize control. Where formerly but a fraction of his
surplus maize was sold, an assured market now exists or every
bag of maize the Native cares to bring in. Production of Native
maize for sale in 1937 is estimated at 170,000 bags. In the
first pool-year, the Control Board price for Native maiz: was 5s.
per bag, which, as it was fixed before the phenomen l rise in
export parity, resulted in a profit of 17,ooo on Native maize
transactions. This sum has been held in reserve as a fund to
stabilize prices. In the current year the price offered n as raised
to 6s. as there was no indication of a decline in export parity.
The scheme for supplying the internal market hi s had a
stimulating effect on the Native production of groundnuts and
beans. The certainty of being able to dispose of the crop has led
to increased production, although this has not all gone :o supply
the internal market, since a shortage in Southern Rhodesia
diverted a portion of it to that territory. In addition, lhe mines
provide a considerable market for mixed Native procuce such
as vegetables, relish crops, honey, Kaffir corn, cassava, tobacco
and even dried caterpillars. Government propag nda has
already had a stimulating effect on Native production of bees-
wax, and wax to the value of 5,ooo was exported during 1937.
The territory continues to obtain the bulk of its fruit require-
ments from Southern Rhodesia and the Union of South Africa.
Deciduous fruit trees are successful only in a few favoured
localities, but citrus thrives in most places where irrigation is
possible. The equivalent of about 6,500 cases of locally-produced
citrus was sold during 1937.
Coffee yields were again low but production increa sed from
430 cwt. in 1936 to 518 cwt. in 1937.

Livestock.
Northern Rhodesia remains free from the major diseases of
stock, with the exception of contagious bovine pleuro-
pneumonia. The preliminary investigational work on the







NORTHERN RHODESIA, 1937 15
behaviour of vaccine in combating the disease was so far sucess-
ful as to warrant a measure of field inoculation, which, it is
hoped, will be extended during the coming year. Foot and
mouth disease was finally eradicated from the territory early in
1936 and, fortunately, no recrudescence has occurred.
The usual incidence of redwater, gallsickness, heart-water and
other tick-borne diseases occurred, and it is unfortunate that
certain stockowners still fail to realize the value of short-interval
dipping in the control of these conditions. Trypanosomiasis is
very prevalent in certain areas of the territory. Sporadic out-
breaks of anthrax, quarter evil and other bacterial diseases occur
and are controlled by prophylactic inoculation. The territory
remains free from Rinderpest and East Coast fever. The inci-
dence of parasitic worms is high, particularly in sheep.
Pigs are singularly free from disease and thrive well. Out-
breaks of fowl typhoid and fowl pox occur among poultry.
Prophylactic inoculation is employed by the more progressive
flock owners.
The demand for slaughter cattle increased during the year to
such an extent that it was impossible to supply from sources
within the territory. Importation from Southern Rhodesia and
Bechuanaland therefore became necessary. Importation of
breeding stock from Southern Rhodesia and the Union of South
Africa continued throughout the year.

Mining.
PRODUCING MINES.
Roan Antelope Mine.-Extensive driving on the 820 level was
carried out and the 820 North Limb haulage was connected by a
cross cut to the No. 15 shaft. The Storke Service shaft reached
its final depth of 2,644 feet and the headgear was completed. In
addition, work in the Storke Hoisting shaft was continued and
No. 16 shaft had been sunk to 670 feet by the end of the year.
During the period of complete derestriction production in-
creased rapidly, reaching a maximum monthly output of 304,200
short tons of ore in September.
Nkana Mine.-Sinking operations were carried out in the
Central Shaft, which had reached a depth of 1,850 feet at the
end of the year. Development on the 1050 and 1250 levels was
completed and connection made between the Central Shaft and
No. 4 shaft. At the Mindola section stopping commenced and
No. i shaft hoisting equipment and the necessary storage bins
were completed and brought into commission. At the smelter
a second cobalt lectromelt furnace was installed and started
operations, the output of cobalt for the year being increased
by 933,154 lb.







b1 COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL
Mufulira Mine.-During the year intensive development of
advance stopping and general preparation for increased produc-
tion was carried out. The extraction of ore was confirm d to the
three ore bodies on the 460 and 600 levels. The main pumping
station and settling sumps were completed and equipped to
pump 8,000 gallons of water per minute. Extensions we re made
to the concentrator plant and further extensions are in progress
which will enable the plant to handle up to 8,000 tons of ore
per day. The smelter started operations early in the yar and
proved satisfactory.
Work was started on the erection of a high-tensio j power
transmission line to connect the Roan Antelope Mine with the
Mufulira Mine. This is being done in order to permit t:re inter-
change of power between the two mines. It is hoped that this
transmission line will be completed and brought into use in
April, 1938.
Broken Hill Mine.-The production of zinc was curtailed
owing to the shortage of water in the Mulungushi Dam, but with
vanadium in demand at good prices the production of this metal
was increased. Diamond drilling continued steadily :hrough-
out the year to prove the extent of the ore bodies. Th( sinking
of the new Davis Shaft was started in September in arepara-
tion for mining the several ore bodies at depth.
This shaft is being sunk by the cementation method and by
the end of the year had reached a depth of over 200 ft It will
probably ultimately reach a depth of about I,Ioo ft. and will
serve as a pumping shaft to deal with the large quantities of
water which are likely to be encountered. During 1),38 it is
intended to begin work on a service shaft.
Luiri Gold Areas.-No development work was done on these
areas, but 25,184 tons of ore were milled, producing 3,41 ounces
of gold. At the end of the year the mine closed down for recon-
struction before resuming under a new management.
Kansanshi Mine.-At the end of June this mine was re-opened,
with the object of checking, sampling and recalculating the ore
reserves. Work was confined to opening up the old drives and
crosscuts for examination.
New Jessie Mine.-No development work was done, most of
the ore treated being obtained from small veins exposed in the
hillside below the mill and from the Klipspringer claim -. The
mine was closed down in October. The output of gol:l during
the year was only 337 ounces.
Sachenga Mine.-This property was worked during the year
and produced 8,928 lb. of Mica.
Cassiterides.-From this property 7-75 tons of Tin Concen-
trates were produced and shipped during the year.
Sasare West Mine.-No mining was done on this property,
but the treatment of the sands dump produced 167 ozs. of gold.







NORTHERN RHODESIA, 1937


DEVELOPING MINES.
Nchanga Mine.-At the beginning of the year the Power Plant
was reconditioned and put into commission. Two incline shafts
at an inclination of 15 degrees and a vertical shaft were started
and satisfactory progress was made. In the incline shafts
haulage is being carried out by means of endless rope haulages.
A new power plant, together with the necessary workshops, is in
the course of being erected.
Chakwcnga Mine.-The power plant, consisting of two semi-
portable boilers and two air compressors, was put into commis-
sion in February and worked satisfactorily throughout the year.
Underground operations were confined principally to the sink-
ing of No. 2 shaft, which advanced 275 ft. to a total depth of
325 ft. Other development work consisted of cutting a station
at 300 ft. below surface, 321 ft. of driving and 759 ft. of cross-
cutting.
Kasonso Mine.-Two small shafts were sunk and at Ioo ft. in
depth crosscuts were driven to the reef. The mine was closed
down in November.
CONCESSIONS.
Rhokana Concession.-In this Concession 2,217 square miles
were traversed and mapped. Potholing and trenching was car-
ried out at several mineral occurences north and south of
Nchanga and also in the Mwinilunga District. At Konkola, about
20 miles north of Nchanga, 15 diamond drill holes, with an
average depth of 830 ft., were completed. One diamond drill
was employed at Katwishi 70 miles north-west of Nchanga near
the Belgian Congo border.
Loangwa Concession.-The field parties prospected and
mapped out 1,840 square miles, principally in the Abercorn and
Kasama districts. The gold-bearing gravels in several streams
tributary to the Chambezi River were investigated but the quan-
tity of gravel available and the gold content were too low for
company operations.
Rhodesia Mineral Concessions.-Field work was carried out
principally on either side of the railway line north of the Kafue
River and 596 square miles were prospected and mapped.

GENERAL.
From January to September, copper production was free from
quota restriction and during this unrestricted period the copper
mines were working at high pressure. In October the copper
quota was re-introduced. Owing to high prices and increased
production, the total value of minerals produced was twice as
great as in the year 1936, amounting to 12,751,014.
The production of gold was again disappointing, being 4,228
ounces.
For the first time since mining started in the territory, selenium
was produced, it was obtained from the Nkana refinery slimes.







COLONIAL REPORTS--ANNUAL


VII.-COMMERCE.
Chiefly as a result of the prosperity of the copper producing
industry the value of both imports and exports rose substantially
as the result of the year's trading. The value of merchandise
imported during 1937 amounted to 4,004,402 as compared with
2,291,953 in 1936, an increase of 1,712,449, or 75 -:er cent.
In addition Government stores valued at 46,947 ar d specie
totalling 34,596 were imported.
Total exports of merchandise reached the record value of
,12,021,542 as compared with 6,037,616 in 1936, a expan-
sion of 5,983,926 or 99 per cent. Specie to the value of
9,057 was exported.
The higher value of imports was reflected in all classes of
merchandise, but was particularly marked in the case of
Class V (metals, metal manufactures, machinery and vehicles),
rising from 680,278 in 1936 to 1,680,621 in 1937 as a result
mainly of heavy purchases for replacement and development
purposes by the mining interests. Enhanced purchasing power
both among Europeans and Natives, particularly on the copper
belt, led to an increase in all imports classed as normal con-
sumption goods.
The British Empire supplied 75 per cent. in value of the total
imports of merchandise during 1937 as compared wit- 77 per
cent., 75 per cent., 79 per cent., and 78 per cent. during the
years 1933 to 1936. The United Kingdom, as usual, was the
main country of supply with 37 per cent. of the total imports
and the United States was again the largest non-Empire supplier
with 12 per cent. Metals accounted for 97 per cen:. of the
total value of domestic exports, copper representing 90 per cent.
The heavy expansion in the value of exports is due not only
to the higher prices obtained for copper as compared with
1936, but also to heavily increased shipments of bliste copper.
The largest purchasers of domestic exports were th? United
Kingdom (51 per cent.), Germany (21 per cent.) and Italy
(II per cent.).
The following figures give the values of imports, exports and
re-exports of merchandise during the past ten years: -
Exports am
Year. Imports. Re-exports.
1928 ... 2,366,317 847,068
1929 ... ... ... 3,602,417 899,736
1930 ... ... ... 4,862,722 885,976
1931 ... ... 5,140,548 1,178,515
1932 ... ... ... 1,864,902 2,675,248
1933 .. ... ... 1,931,829 3,715,396
1934 ... ... ... 2,884,506 4,530,933
1935 .. .. .. 2,902,960 4,778,604
1936 ..... 2,291,953 6,037,616
1937 ... ... ... 4,004,402 12,021,542








NORTHERN RHODESIA, 1937 19

Imports.
The following summary furnishes a comparison of the value
of merchandise imported during the years 1934 to 1937, which
originated from Empire and from foreign countries:-
Iimpoirtld from '934- '935* 19'3. 1937.

Union of South Africa ... 448,629 410,140 377,096 716,061
Southern Rhodesia ... 422,574 449,673 492,557 623,642


United Kingdom and other
Empire countries ...


1,299,686 1,444,298 917,595 1,650,277


Total British Empire 2,170,889 2,304,11 1,787,248 2,,8),980

Foreign countries ... ... 713,617 598,849 504,705 1,014,422

Total merchandise ... 2,884,506 2,902,960 2,291,953 4,001,402

For the purpose of illustrating the routes of import trade,
the following table shows the value of merchandise from the
Union of South Africa and Southern Rhodesia and directly from
overseas during the years 1934 to 1937: -
[;iuorjts Jro)11. z934. 1935. 1936. 1937.
/


Union of South Africa
Southern Rhodesia
Overseas (direct) ...


626,520 552,485
1,040,278 I,085,314
... 1,217,708 1,265,161


2,884,506 2,902,960 2,291,953 4.0o4,402

The following table gives the values of the principal classes
of imports during the years 1933 to 1937:-


Clas,;.


Animals (living ...
Foodstuffs, etc.
Ales, spirits and wines,
etc. (potable).
Spirits (non-potable)
Tobacco manufactures ..
Textiles, apparel, yarns
and fibres.
Metals, metal manufac-
tures, machinery and
vehicles.
Minerals, earthenware,
glassware and cement.
Oils, waxes, resins, paints
and varnishes.
Drugs, chemicals and fer-
tilizers.
Leather and rubber, and
manufactures thereof.
Wood, cane, wicker, and
manufactures thereof.
Books, paper and sta-
tionery.
Jewellery, time pieces,
fancy goods, etc.
Miscellaneous ...


1933.

367
197,810
74,475

1,400
53,432
308,423


1934.

13,845
229,444
88,052

1,928
62,071
350,353


1935.

9,o15
218,662
93,306

1,846
63,393
411,109


486,546 1,187,340 1,210,149


1936.

11,697
193,200
83,805

1,642
58,473
370,825


1937.

23,493
267,348
112,190

I,9io
71,286
546,896


680,278 1,680,621


176,292 247,218 253,649 236,622 373,682

126,318 137,597 140,151 144,982 194,448

64,175 85,588 76,614 72,133 96,677

58,854 78,403 64,575 63,031 97,081

48,092 71,749 48,009 53,927 I10,I72

34,805 38,546 44,300 40,497 50,283

25,419 28,310 32,773 26,387 36,729


275,421 264,062


Total Merchandise ... 1,931,829 2,884,506 2,902,960


2,291,9534,oo4,402


546,720
1,o25,783
719,450


987,489
1,512,400
1,504,513


235,409 254,454 341,586








COLONIAL REPORTS---ANNUAL


Exports.
The following table shows the values of exports and re exports
during the years 1934 to 1937: -


1934. 1935.

4,399,990 4,671,c95
... 130,943 106,709


Exports ...
Re-exports


1936.

5,936,0()2
100,924


1)37.

1 1,o3,7J2
117,830


Total Merchandise ... 4,530,933 4,778,604 6,037,610 12,c21,542


Specie ...


9,462 23,159


Grand Totals....


7,521


9,057


... 4,540,354 4,802.563 6,045,137 12!.3o0,509


In the following table a comparison is given betw::en the
values of exports and re-exports to the Union of South Africa,
Southern Rhodesia, the United Kingdom and other Empire
Countries and to foreign countries during the years r934 to
1937:-


Exports.


To Union of South Africa ...
To Southern Rhodesia
To United Kingdon and other
Empire countries.
To Foreign Countries ...

Total Exports ... ...

Re-exports.

To Union of South Africa .
To Southern Rhodesia
To United Kingdom and other
Empire countries.
To Foreign countries ... ...


1934. 1935.

69,5o8 102,300
20,210 26,768
1,947,989 2,470,154


1936.

294,217
53,294
3,208,822


1937.

323,649
79,539
.02(,71 1


2,362,211 2,012,673 2,30,359 5,470,813

1,399,990 4,671,8' 5 5,936,692 11,903,712


1934.

37,870
63,879
19,211


1935.

27,474
66,772
1,693


1930.

29,170
61,905
2,469


9,983 10,770 7,3>0o


1937.

27,725
71,967
8,784

9,354


Total Re-exports


.. 30,943 o06,709 100,924 117,830


The values of the principal articles exported during the years
1933 to 1937 are given below:
Article. 1933. 1934. 1935. 1936. 1o37.














Copper ... ... 3,114,618 3,705,783 3,976,504 4,994,716
Cobalt ... ... 39,008 191,755 132,646 152,056
Zinc... ... ... 275,834 330,454 295,092 334,621
Vanadium ... ... 19,638 37,224 81,395 125,571
Gold ... ... 6,833 6,351 10,057* 22,962
Tobacco (leaf) ... 35,196 41,669 43,220 37,658
Wood 11,626 20,891 25,931 31,425
(unmanufactured).
Wood 46,829 42,215 78,712 111,203
(manufactured).
Hides and skins ... 8,314 9,946 10,613 16,493
Value calculated at prices ruling at time of export.


*


( ,704,078
2(2,328
377,991
1 7,081
28,983
41,784
39,791


107,904

23,124






NORTHERN RHODESIA, 1937 21
For Customs purposes Northern Rhodesia is divided into two
zones known as the Congo and Zambesi Basins. The Congo
Basin consists approximately of all the territory north of a line
drawn from Fife in the north-east to the south-east corner of
the Katanga pedicle of the Belgian Congo. The remainder of
the territory to the west and the south of this line constitutes
the Zambesi Basin, which is by far the more important part
of the territory industrially, more than go per cent. of the total
trade being transacted within it.
The Zambesi Basin is subject to Customs Agreements with
Southern Rhodesia, the Union of South Africa, and the
Bechuanaland Protectorate, Basutoland, and Swaziland. The
agreements provide in general for considerable rebates upon
interchange of local manufactures, and for free interchange
of raw products with limitation in the case of leaf tobacco.
The part of the territory in the Congo Basin is within the
area covered by the Berlin Conference of 1885, and under the
terms of the Convention revising the General Act and Declara-
tion of Brussels of the 2nd July, 18go, signed at St. Germain-en-
Laye on the ioth September, 1919, commercial equality within
this area must be granted to nationals of the Signatory Powers
and of States Members of the League of Nations which adhere
to the Convention. This part of the territory is therefore
excluded from the terms of the Customs Agreements mentioned
in the preceding paragraph.
In the Zambesi Basin, Empire preference is given in the case
of the following classes of goods, which are mainly liable to
ad valorem rates of duty:-clothing, blankets and rugs, cotton
piece-goods, motor cars and all articles usually imported for
household and native use, the duty on Empire products being
in almost every instance Io per cent. or 12 per cent., and the
duty on foreign products varying from 15 to 30 per cent. In
the case of cotton and silk piece-goods, shirts, singlets, and
rubber shoes from foreign countries, the tariff provides for
alternative specific rates of duty if such should be greater. Agri-
cultural, electrical, mining, and other industrial machinery,
pipes and piping, metals and metal manufactures imported for
industrial purposes, if of Empire manufacture, are free of duty,
and if of foreign origin are subject to an ad valorem duty of
5 per cent., except in the case of foreign electrical machinery.
on which the duty is 15 per cent. ad valorem.
Specific rates of duty apply to practically all imported food-
stuffs, lubricating oils, paraffin and cement, and to spirits,
wines, beer, and tobacco. Upon the latter items, apart from
rum, no preference is granted except under the terms of the
Customs Agreements with the neighboring territories in the
south, but varying rates of preference are granted to foodstuffs
of Empire origin.


g;Kj~~ 11







22 COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL
The Customs Tariff contains two scales of duty:-
Scale A "-in respect of goods not entitled to pre-
ferential treatment;
Scale B "-in respect of goods from the Uniied King-
dom and British Possessions, and all goods imported into
the Congo Basin area.

PORTS OF ENTRY.
The following are the ports of entry into and (xit from
Northern Rhodesia: -Lusaka, Ndola, Livingstone, Fort
Jameson, Broken Hill (free warehousing ports), Abercorn,
Solwezi, Fort Rosebery, Chingola, Kawambwa, Mpika,
Balovale, Mwinilunga, Isoka, Chiengi, Feira, K;izangula,
Lundazi and Mufulira.

CUSTOMS AGREEMENTS.
The terms of the Agreement with the Union of South Africa
provide for the transfer of Union rates of duty or Northern
Rhodesia rates of duty, if these are higher, when overseas
goods are removed from the Union to Northern Rhodesia, and
for the transfer of Union rates of duty when overseas goods
are removed from Northern Rhodesia to the Union. In respect
of local manufactures (with certain exceptions) removed
between the two territories, Government payments f 15 per
cent. of the export value of foodstuffs and Io per cent. of the
export value of other manufactures are made. As 1he result
of an amendment made in 1936 no Government payment is
now made on electrolytic copper and zinc produced in Northern
Rhodesia and removed to the Union. The other exceptions are
manufactured tobacco, beer, wines and spirits, vhich are
directly taxed at tariff rates subject to the following rebates:-
manufactured tobacco, 75 per cent.; beer and wines, 50 per
cent.; spirits, 25 per cent. Free interchange of unman;lfactured
goods is provided for, but Northern Rhodesia least tobacco
exported to the Union is limited to 400,000 lb. per annum free
of duty and Union leaf tobacco imported into Northern
Rhodesia is limited to 50,000 lb. free of duty.
The terms of the Agreement with Southern Rhodesi, provide
for a uniform tariff so far as possible and the transfer of duty at
whichever is the higher rate when imported goods are removed
from one territory to the other. In respect of local man ifactures
removed between the two territories, Government payments of
12 per cent. of the export value of foodstuffs and 9 per cent. of
the export value of all other local manufactures are transferred,
except in the case of beer, wines and spirits, which are directly
taxed at tariff rates subject to the following rebates:--beer and
wines, 50 per cent.; spirits, 25 per cent. Cigarettes and tobacco







NORTHERN RHODESIA, 1937 23
of Southern Rhodesia or Northern Rhodesia manufacture are
not liable to import rates upon removal from one territory to the
other, but are subject to a transferred payment of the appro-
priate excise duties. Free interchange of unmanufactured goods
is provided for.

VIII.-NATIVE LABOUR.
It is estimated that there are 279,949 able-bodied males
domiciled in Northern Rhodesia and of this number approxi-
mately 134,382 were in employment at the end of the year-
66,606 within the territory and 67,776 outside. Of those working
within the territory, 22,500 were employed on mines, about
Io,ooo as domestic servants and 9,ooo on farms. Of those em-
ployed outside the territory about 46,ooo were in Southern
Rhodesia, 11,615 in Tanganyika Territory and o1,161 in the
Belgian Congo, the Union of South Africa and elsewhere. The
main labour supplying areas are the Northern Province, the
Eastern Province and the Barotse Province.
The average wage paid to unskilled labourers varies from 5s.
a month for agricultural labourers to about 45s. a month for
underground miners. In addition to wages employers are
required by law to provide adequate housing and good and
sufficient rations.
A Migrant Labour Agreement between Northern Rhodesia,
Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland came into force on 4th June
for a minimum period of four years. The main objects of the
Agreement are to regulate the flow of labour so that the require-
ments of the three territories shall be met as far as possible to
ensure the comfort and well-being of the labourers both when
travelling and at work, and to ensure the regular return of the
labourers and some of their earnings to their homes.
In December the Governors of Northern Rhodesia, Southern
Rhodesia and Nyasaland met a representative of the Transvaal
Chamber of Mines at Salisbury and it was then decided, inter
alia, that the experiment of employing 1,500 natives of Northern
Rhodesia on the mines of the Witwatersrand, which started in
1936, should be continued for a second year and that in the
meantime no recruiting for the Johannesburg Mines should be
permitted in Northern Rhodesia.
There is at present no Labour Department in the territory, but
all matters of importance relating to native labour are referred
for advice to a Native Industrial Labour Advisory Board con-
sisting of both officials and unofficial. It is proposed to set up
a Labour Department in the near future, and Major G. St. J.
Orde Browne, O.B.E., arrived in October to advise on the
formation of this department and on native labour matters
generally.







COLONIAL REPORTS--ANNUAL


IX.-WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.
The cost of living for Europeans is governed mainly by the
cost of transport. Transport charges, even to place; on the
railway, add considerably to the price of commodities. When
transport by motor or other means is necessary, as it is fI r places
off the line of rail, the average price is still further increased.
The average price of various commodities on the lii -: of rail
is as follows:--


Bread, per lb. loal ...
Local flour (ist grade), per lb.
Patna rice, per lb....
Mazawattee tea, per lb.
Sugar (white granulated), per lb....
Coffee (average, loose and tinned), per 111.
Butter, per lb. ...
Bacon, per 11).
Eggs (European farms), per doz....
Milk, per pint ... ...
B eef, per 11 ... ... ... ... ...
Soap (Sunlight), per packet
Kerosene, tin of 4 gallons ...
Motor spirit (Shell), per gallon


I,

I)


Income tax on individuals is charged as follows:-
For every

I of the first 1oo of chargeable income ... ...
i of the next foo of chargeable income ... ...
I of the next 1oo of chargeable income ... .. I ,
i of the next Ioo of chargeable income ... ...
( of the next 1oo of chargeable income ...
1 in excess of 500 of chargeable income ... .

The following deductions are allowed:
Personal, 30o.
For a wife, 42o.
For children, Ioo each.
For a dependant the amount expended, not e,: ,eding
100.
For life insurance premiums paid, not exceeding one-sixth
of the income remaining after deducting the personal
deduction.
An individual who is a non-resident and not a British subject
is eligible for the personal deduction of 300oo only. Company
income tax is at the rate of 4s. in the pound. Relief is allowed in
respect of United Kingdom and Empire income tax.







NORTHERN RHODESIA, 1937


X.-EDUCATION AND WELFARE INSTITUTIONS.
For the education of European children there were in 1937
controlled schools at Livingstone, Choma, Mazabuka, Lusaka,
Broken Hill, Ndola, Luanshya, Kitwe and Mufulira, offering
primary education up to Standard VII, with the additional sub-
jects, Latin, French, Algebra, Geometry and Science in
Standards VI and VII. There were controlled schools at Fort
Jameson (for the third and fourth Quarters), Mulendema and
Silver Rest offering primary education up to Standard V. All
these schools were under Government management, the tuition
fees varying from 7s. 6d. to i I7s. 6d. per quarter.
The following schools, although privately managed, were con-
trolled by Government:-
The Convent School, Offering education up to the
Broken Hill. standard of the South
African Matriculation Ex-
almination.
The Convent School,
Ndola ......
Mulobesi School ... Offering primary education
Sakeji School ...up to Standard V.
Chomba School
The Convent School, Offering primary education
Livingstone. up to Standard IV.
During the year a number of small uncontrolled schools also
remained open.
Boarding accommodation was available for girls at the Beit
School, Choma, and for boys at the Codrington School,
Mazabuka, the boarding fees being 12 Ios. per quarter in each
case; and for boys and girls at Lusaka School, the boarding
fees being ,{9 per quarter. All three of these schools were under
Government management. The Convent Schools at Broken
Hill and Ndola, and Sakeji School, all under private manage-
ment, also provided boarding accommodation.
Fifty teachers were employed in the controlled schools under
Government management, the enrolment at the end of 1937
being 959. At the same time, 204 children were attending con-
trolled schools under private management and 40 were receiving
education through the Southern Rhodesia correspondence
classes.
Education for Africans in Northern Rhodesia is still mainly
provided through the agency of mission societies. These, how-
ever, receive financial support from Government and profes-
sional guidance from the inspecting officers of the Native
Education Department. Nineteen of the missionary societies
operating in the country maintain village elementary schools,







20 COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL
boys and girls boarding schools, and teacher-training institu-
tions recognized as eligible for Government grants. A total
sum of 14,961 was directly distributed among them in recur-
rent grants in 1937. This amount included a grani of 250
from the Carnegie Corporation and 1,677 from the. Barotse
Trust Fund, the latter being distributed among the societies
carrying on educational work in Barotseland.
Recurrent expenditure on Native education during the year
1937 was as follows:-
From Government revenue ... ... ... 28,705
Carnegie Corporation ... ... ... 250
Barotse Trust Fund ... ... ... ... 1,677
Total ... ... ... 30,032

Since 1929 a total sum of 13,800, generously grant -d by the
Beit Railway Trustees, has been spent on building and equip-
ping the Jeanes, Normal, Middle and Elementary Schools at
Mazabuka. In connection with the establishment of the Native
Trades School at Lusaka, buildings were erected between 1932
and 1934 by means of appropriations from Loan Funds.
Owing to the growth of an inspectorate during the past few
years, it is becoming possible to carry out more frequent inspec-
tions and to ensure that the moneys paid by Government are
being utilized satisfactorily and that a steady impro\ ement in
the standard of education is being maintained.
Eighty-six African teachers passed the written part of the
Government examinations during the year, making i total of
764 Africans who have passed this test. A total of 340 have
been given certificates after inspection of their practical work.
Annual returns show that the Government and mission
societies employed on 31st December, 1937, some 1,9oC teachers
in 2,067 recognized and ungraded schools. The majority of
these teachers must still be classed as catechists or evangelists
in charge of so-called bush schools and have nevei had an
adequate course of professional training. Approximately 602
trained teachers were in the service of missions at the end of
the year and qualified for Government grants-in-aid.
A hundred and one European teachers and technical instruc-
tors were engaged in Native education during the year. Four-
teen Europeans and 32 African teachers and instructors, includ-
ing the staff of the Barotse National School, comprised the staff
of the Native Education Department.
Returns, which must be regarded as approximate, s low that
21,593 boys and 8,430 girls attended recognized schools, while
roughly 74,149 children attended ungraded schools. It is esti-
mated that there are about 300,000 children of school age in
Northern Rhodesia.







NORTHERN RHODESIA, 1937 27
The foregoing figures give some idea of the magnitude of the
task to which Government and missions are devoting them-
selves. The Jeanes Training School, established by Government
at Mazabuka, is an important and effective agent in the work.
At present there are 23 selected mission teachers being trained
as Jeanes teachers. Their wives also receive training in hygiene,
child welfare, and other domestic subjects.
At Mbereshi (London Missionary Society) women teachers are
being trained along Jeanes lines. A grant of 350 was given
in 1937 towards the cost of their training, part being borne by
Government and part by the Carnegie Corporation. There are
19 girls' boarding schools subsidized by Government, with an
enrolment of approximately 800 pupils. Domestic and voca-
tional training is an important feature of the curricula of these
girls' schools.
Boys receive training as carpenters, masons, and bricklayers
at the Barotse National School, at Mbereshi and to a lesser
degree at several other mission stations. The Government
trades school for the training of carpenters, masons and brick-
layers at Lusaka has 72 apprentices in training.
Government has also established elementary and middle
schools at Mazabuka, Ndola and Kasama. The Government
Normal School at Mazabuka trains teachers for Government
requirements and for the smaller missions which have no train-
ing schools of their own.
The proportion of recurrent expenditure (including grants
from Trust Funds and Barotse Native Treasury) on Native
education to the total expenditure was at the rate of approxi-
mately 3-47 per cent. The amount spent per head of native
population on Native education was approximately 5-62d.,
but it must be borne in mind that much the greater part of
Native education is carried out by the various missions, and
it is impossible to compute with any accuracy what their edu-
cational services represent in terms of expenditure. If it were
possible to arrive at such a sum, the figure given above would
be very largely increased.

XI.-COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSPORT,
Railways.
The railway from Southern Rhodesia via the Victoria Falls to
the Belgian Congo passes through North-Western Rhodesia and
branch lines serving the Roan Antelope, Nkana, and Mufulira
copper mines radiate from the main line at Ndola. Three
through passenger trains, on which dining-cars and sleeping
accommodation are available, run weekly in each direction over
the main line. In addition, local mixed trains with second-class
and native accommodation run daily in each direction between







28 COLONIAL REPORTS--ANNUALI
Livingstone and Ndola. No dining-cars are attached to these
latter trains, but stops are made at convenient places sufficiently
long to allow of passengers taking a meal at the local -,otel. In
addition to these a regular goods train service is in opei ntion for
the conveyance of goods and mineral traffic, and loads of 1,300
tons in the northward direction are regularly obtained ver long
sections by these latter trains.

River Transport.
Transport to stations in the Barotse valley is by bar-;c along
the Zambesi river, but for rapid transport light aeropmines are
now being used to Mongu, where there is a Governm nt aero-
drome. There is no sleeping accommodation on the barges,
which are made fast to the river bank for the nigl t whilst
travellers camp on shore. The journey up the Zanib:si from
Livingstone to Mongu by barge takes from twelve days to three
weeks: by air it is effected in three hours.

Roads.
The roads of the territory are of earth with the exception of
the portion of the Great North Road which runs f:om the
Victoria Falls to Livingstone-a distance of some eight miles-
and a stretch of two miles in Lusaka, which are bitumen-
surfaced.
The arterial road system consists of three main routes viz.,
the Great North Road from Livingstone, which runs ad acent to
the railway as far as Kapiri Mposhi (460 miles) where it turns
north-east to Abercorn and Mpulungu on Lake Tanganyika, a
total distance of 982 miles. The principal towns and Govern-
ment stations on this route are Kalomo, Choma, Mazabuka,
Lusaka, Broken Hill, Mpika, Kasama and Abercorn. At
Mpulungu the lake steamer connects with Kigoma on the
Tanganyika Railway.
The Congo Border Road branches off from the Grec t North
Road at Kapiri Mposhi and traverses the Copper Belt, Bwana
Mkubwa, Ndola, Nkana, Nchanga and Solwezi being t te prin-
cipal towns through which it passes. From Solwezi the road
turns southward and passing through Kasempa and M:umbwa
joins the Great North Road again 45 miles south of Broken Hill.
The length of the Congo Border Road is 650 miles.
The Great East Road leaves the Great North Road at Lusaka
and proceeds to Fort Jameson and the Nyasaland border, where
it connects up with the Nyasaland road system. The distance to
Fort Jameson is 392 miles and this town is twelve miles from the
Nyasaland border.
In addition to the main routes mentioned above, t ere are
4,950 miles of secondary roads which connect settled aras and
Government stations throughout the greater part of the t( rritory.







NORTHERN RHODESIA, 1937 29
The roads generally are passable for traffic during nine months
of the year, but during the rainy season, from December to
April, the traffic is restricted to 7,000 lb. gross loading on some
roads and 5,000 lb. on others. The arterial roads have, with
the exception of the Congo Border Road, been bridged and
culverted with permanent structures. On other roads, water-
ways, etc., are crossed by bush timber bridges. A number of
pontoons are provided at other major river crossings, for the
use of which Government charges a moderate fee. Travellers
can be accommodated at hotels and rest-houses at suitable points
on all the arterial road systems.
The main road reconstruction programme was resumed
towards the end of the year. Work started just south of Broken
Hill and was in progress between Kapiri Mposhi and Bwana
Mkubwa at the end of the year. In the Mining Area the earth
road from Nkana to Mufulira was completed and a start was
made on a new road to Nchanga. A Pioneer track was com-
pleted between Mumbwa and Mongu with a ferry across the
Kafue, thus establishing road connection between the railway
line and the administrative centre of Barotseland. Hitherto the
only alternative methods of reaching Mongu have been by air
in three hours from Lusaka or by water in three weeks. In the
near future it should be possible to complete the journey in
three days by road. A short connecting road near Fort Jameson
constructed during the year shortens the distance to Salisbury
to 490 miles as compared with 585 miles via Dedza and 720 miles
via Blantyre.
Postal.
The year was probably the busiest the Department has ever
known and the revenue collected (64,900) was 20,000 higher
than in 1936 and ,TI,OOO higher than the previous peak year
of 193i. io,8oo of this revenue came from the sale of Corona-
tion stamps to dealers and philatelists. The total stamp sales
amounted to 35,500, an increase of 14,500 on the previous
year.
There was a considerable increase in the mail matter handled,
both forwarded and received. Figures for the years 1935, 1936
and 1937 are as follows:
1 ,;.5. rq36. 193 7.
Postedr--- land ... r,73( ,82 1,563,736 1,560,208
External ... 1,776,580 1,280,766 1,779,388
Received-- external ... 3,427,164 2,777,788 4,990,982
Totals ... ... 6,940,726 5,622,290 S 3305.78

Money orders and postal orders issued during the year
amounted to 107,900, compared with 91,400 in 1936, and
paid orders increased from 42,600 to 48,300. The number







30 COLONIAL REPORTS--ANNUAL
of cash on delivery parcels increased from 11,9oo to I,,200 and
the total amount of trade charges collected and remitted to the
senders rose from 622,I00 to 27,000.
There is a daily mail service between offices on thle line of
rail, while offices off the line of rail are served either by motor
vehicle or by carriers at least once weekly. The service to
Barotseland is carried mainly by barge on the Zamb si River.
Mails are exchanged with Southern Rhodesia by rail daily and
there is also an air service twice a week from Lusaka to Salis-
bury. Nyasaland has a service by road from Fort Jameson
twice a week and a service by air for first-class nail from
Lusaka via Salisbury also twice a week. Other mails are car-
ried by rail via Salisbury and Beira. To South Africa there is
a service by rail three times a week and by air twice a week via
Beira as part of the Empire Air Mail Scheme. There is also a
surcharged air service once a week by South African Airways.
Mails to Great Britain, which up to July, 1937, had be(n carried
once a week by sea from Cape Town, are now taken by the
Empire Air Mail and all letter mails to England an:l British
countries between Northern Rhodesia and England are now con-
veyed by air three times a week (twice via Beira and once by
direct machine from Lusaka to Kisumu). The sea roilte is still
used for printed papers. Parcel mails from Great Britain are
received via Cape Town or via Lobito Bay.
Telegraphs.
The main telegraph and trunk telephone route follows the
track of the railway line from the Victoria Falls to Ndola. From
Ndola there are separate branches to Luanshya and t:) Nkana
and Mufulira. The telegraph line only is continued from Ndola
to the Congo Border. Fort Jameson is connected with the
Nyasaland telegraph system and Kasama and Aberc:rn with
the Tanganyika system. There was a large increase in tele-
graph traffic handled during the year and the gross receipts were
12,500 as compared with 9,700 in the previous year, while the
net revenue increased from 7,600 to 10,9goo. The following
are details of the last three years:
1935. 1936. 1937.
Paid telegrams ... ... 50,)64 45,088 55 400
Official telegrams ... 16,457 1,256 17 30
Net revenue ... ... 8,22 7,593 I )0oo

Telephones.
Automatic telephone exchanges have been established at
Lusaka, Broken Hill, Livingstone, Luanshya, Mazab.ika and
Ndola. The Rhokana Corporation were given a licence during
the year to extend their private system as a public syst in to the
new township of Kitwe. Private exchanges are operated under






NORTHERN RHODESIA, 1937 31
licence by the Roan Antelope Copper Mine at Luanshya and
by the Mufulira Mine at Mufulira. All these exchanges, includ-
ing the private ones, have facilities for trunk communication.
Call offices provide trunk communication during certain periods
of the day and are established at the majority of Post Offices on
the main route.
Telephone Revenue.
1935. 1936. 1937.
Exchange rentals ... 3,841 4,326 4,500
Call OffLce and trunk fees 3,629 3,758 4,500
Miscellaneous... ... ... 21 15 150
Totals ... ... /7,59I 8,235 0, I50

Radio Communication.
Internal point to point communication for public traffic is pro-
vided between Abercorn, Fort Jameson, Mpika and Broken Hill,
the latter station being on the line of rail and acting as the trans-
mitting station between the land lines and radio stations.
Communication is principally made on short wave lengths. The
Broken Hill station also communicates with stations in Tan-
ganyika, Southern Rhodesia and the Union of South Africa.

Aeronautical Services.
The stations at Mpika and Broken Hill are equipped with
transmitters for communication with aircraft in flight and watch
is kept in connection with the Imperial Airways England-
South Africa air route.
There is also a short-wave station at Livingstone, which is
used for aeronautical services in connection with the South
African Airways flights between South Africa and Kisumu.

Civil Aviation.
The following air routes have been established in Northern
Rhodesia and pilots of all aircraft, especially those which are
single-engined, are advised in the interests of safety to follow
them when flying between the places mentioned:-
(1) Livingstone to Balovale (or intermediate stations)
via Sesheke, Njoko, Sioma, Senanga, and Mongu.
(2) Livingstone to Ndola (or intermediate stations) via
Kalomo, Choma, Mazabuka, Lusaka, Chisamba, Broken
Hill and Kapiri Mposhi.
(3) Lusaka to Fort Jameson via Nyangwena, Rufunsa,
Nyimba and Sasare.
(4) Broken Hill to Mbeya (or intermediate stations) via
Mtuga, Ndabala, Kanona (for Serenje) Kalonje, Mpika,
Shiwa Ngandu, Chinsali, Isoka and Mwenimpanza.







32 COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL
(5) Broken Hill to Abercorn via Mtuga, Ndabala,
Kanona, Kalonje, Mpika, Kasama and Rosa.
(6) Ndola to Mbeya (or intermediate stations) via Kapiri
Mposhi, Mtuga, Ndabala, Kanona, Kalonje, Mpika; Shiwa
Ngandu, Chinsali, Isoka and Mwenimpanza.
(7) Ndola to Abercorn via Kapiri Mposhi, Mtuga,
Ndabala, Kanona, Kalonje, Mpika, Kasama and Rosa.
(8) Abercorn to any line of rail station, i ia Rosa,
Kasama, Mpika, Kalonje, Kanona, Ndabala, Mtuga,
Broken Hill and then to the required destination via the
railway line.
(9) Lusaka to Mumbwa, Broken Hill to \Iumbwa.
Mazabuka to Mumbwa.
Aerodromes and landing grounds are maintained in good
condition in the more settled areas, but it is not always- possible
to maintain distant emergency landing grounds to the same
extent, although every endeavour is made to do so.

Airways.
The service of Imperial Airways operated until the 4th July.
From the 4th July, with the opening of the Empire Air Mail
route, the Wilson Airways of Nairobi commenced operating a
service between Lusaka and Kisumu twice a we k. The
Rhodesian and Nyasaland Airways, Ltd., also started operating
a service on the Empire Air Mail route between Lusaka and
Beira twice a week, making a complete land linl< between
Kisumu and Beira with the Imperial Airways Flying Boat Ser-
vice to Durban and Southampton. South African Airways
started operating a weekly service between Johanne burg via
Lusaka to Kisumu. Regue Air Afrique is a new company
formed during the year, which operates a weeklV service
between Elizabethville and Madagascar via Broken Hill, super-
seding the French Air Service.
The Flying Club (founded in May, 1935) has its headquarters
at Lusaka, and branches are maintained at Livingston Broken
Hill, and Nkana. The Club possess one aircraft, a Hor net Moth.

XII.-BANKING, CURRENCY AND WEIGHTS AND
MEASURES.
The Standard Bank of South Africa, Limited, and Barclays
Bank (Dominion, Colonial and Overseas) operate in the terri-
tory, with branches or agencies at the more important centres.
The total deposits at those banks at 31st December, 1937,
amounted to 1,170,016, as compared with 9o2,212 .t he end
of the previous year.







NORTHERN RHODESIA, 1937 33
The Post Office Savings Bank deposits amounted to 41,039
at 31st December, 1937, as compared with .33,283 at the end
of the previous year.
There is no Land or Agricultural Bank in the territory.
The Bank Notes and Coinage Ordinance, 1931, Bank Notes
and Coinage (Amendment) Ordinance, 1934, and Proclamation
No. I of 1935 prescribe as legal tender throughout the territory
(a) Bank of England notes, (b) bank-notes issued by the
Standard Bank of South Africa, Limited, and Barclays Bank
(Dominion, Colonial and Overseas) at their offices at Salisbury,
Southern Rhodesia, (c) the standard coinage in use in England,
(d) silver coinage of Southern Rhodesia for any amount not
exceeding 2 sterling value and (e) cupro-nickel coinage of
Southern Rhodesia for any amount not exceeding one shilling
in value. The enactment of the first Ordinance on the 12th
October, 931i, marked the departure of Northern Rhodesia from
the gold standard of currency.
The English standards of weights and measures are in force.

XIII.-PUBLIC WORKS.
The following buildings were under construction during the
year:
Lusaka.-Three small cottages were constructed for junior
married officers.
Nkana (Kilzwe).-Nine bungalows and two sets of single
quarters were approaching completion at the end of the year.
The houses were of the types designed by the Engineering
Department of the Rhokana Corporation and built by contract
under its supervision.
MJlulira.-By a similar arrangement eight houses of these
types were constructed for Government at Mufulira.

Other Works.
Kafue Bridge.-This crosses the Kafue River on the new road
from Nkana to Mufulira. It provides a single track width of
Io ft. and crosses the river on two shore spans of 50 ft. and two
central spans of Ioo ft. The steel structure of each span consists
of 2 N-type Lattice Girder spaced at 12 ft. centres connected
by cross joists on which rests a reinforced concrete deck 9 in.
thick. It is designed to carry Crown Agents Heavy Loading.
The piers and abutments were all founded on rock and con-
structed in reinforced concrete.
Hangar:. Lusaka.-The need for Hangar accommodation at
the Air Port at Lusaka was met on the advice of the Air
Ministry by transferring an existing Hangar from Broken Hill,







34 COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL
and re-erecting it there with an extra bay. The leadir:g dimen-
sions now are 120 ft. by 125 ft. 6 in. by 30 ft. in height, and a
concrete floor and apron have been provided.

XIV.-JUSTICE, POLICE AND PRISONS.
Justice.
Justice is administered by the High Court of Northern
Rhodesia and by the Magistrates' Courts, subject to ;appeal to
and review by the High Court.
During the year the High Court dealt with 140 civil matters
as against 139 in the preceding year, and heard four actions
and two appeals. Two petitions in bankruptcy were presented.
Sessions were held in May at points along the line of railway.
Thirty-seven criminal cases came before the Court, exclusive of
reviews of judgments in the lower Courts, which numb bred 153.
Of these, 115 convictions involving one or more persons were
approved, 15 quashed, 22 altered, and the remaining one case
was referred to the High Court on a point of law.

Native Courts.
A Native Courts Ordinance was passed in 1936 and applies
to the whole of the territory, except Barotseland, which has a
Special Ordinance.
The present Native Courts Ordinance is more detailed than the
former one, and deals with many matters which were p previously
provided for by rules. Like the Native Authority Ordinance,
it emphasizes that everything shall be done in accordance with
native law and custom. The Courts must be constituted in
accordance with native law and custom, and are th(n recog-
nized by the Governor, who lays down their powers and juris-
diction by Warrant. Provision is also made for the institution
of Native Court prisons and for Native Courts of Appeal, as
well as appeals to the Courts of District Officers and :he High
Court.
The Barotse Native Courts Ordinance is similar, ind was
enacted in accordance with an agreement entered into between
the Crown and the Paramount Chief. The construction and
jurisdiction of the Courts is as laid down in the agreement. In
criminal cases there is an appeal to the Provincial Commissioner
from the Native Court of Appeal, but in civil cases the appeal
lies to the High Court only.
The general conduct of Native Courts continues to be satis-
factory.
Excluding the Barotse Province, 6,522 criminal ca;es were
heard during the year by Native Courts, and 7,o81 civil cases.








NORTHERN RHODESIA, 1937


Police.
The Police prosecuted a total number of 7,058 cases during
the year 1937, a decrease of 4,065 cases on the figures for 1936.
There was a decrease of 15 convictions against Europeans under
the Penal Code and a decrease of 204 convictions under local
laws. Convictions against natives under the Penal Code showed
a decrease of 78 and under local laws a decrease of 3,048. The
following is a list of persons convicted of the more serious
offences during 1937:-
Totals.


Crime.


Affray... ......
Arson ... ..
Assault, common .. ..
Assault, 0.A.B3.H ...
Assault on police ..
Burglary ...
Extortion ...
Forgery ......
Fraud ... ...
Housebrea ling
Indecent assault on a female
Indecently insulting a female
Manslaughter...
Murder .. ...
Attempted murder ...
Obtaining goods by false
pretences.
Perjury
Rape and attempted rape ...
Receiving ...g
Robbery
Stealing an I left, all forms
Unlawful wounding ... ...
Uttering ... ... ...


Eurto


5
I


pcans. Natives. 1937. 1936.
I 21 22 55
- 7 7 15
4 147 201 151
8 184 202 175
- 7 7 17
72 72 134
2
2 28 30 32
- 23
16 116 154
I 12 13 8
-3 3 4
12 12 13
I 19 20 i8
8 8 8
2 16 I8 8


2
IS
i8
41
5
I,01r
20
26


The foregoing figures include only those cases taken to court
by the police and do not include cases heard by a Magistrate at
stations where the police are not posted.

Prisons.
There are six central prisons in the territory, situated at
Livingstone, Broken Hill, .Kasama, Mongu, Fort Jameson, and
Lusaka. In addition to the central prisons there are also 29
local prisons situated at each of the other Government stations.
Committals to all prisons during the year were as follows: -


Livingstonc ... ...
Broken Hill ... .
Fort Jameson ...
Kasama ...
ongu ... ...
Lusaka ...
All local prisons ...


Total


... ... 292
... 252
. ... ... 79
... 66


... 231
... ... ... 3
... ... 4,062

... ... 5,013







30 COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL
The daily average of prisoners for all prisons was 1 o028. The
daily average of sick was 40. There were six execution., during
the year, and ten deaths from natural causes.

XV.-LEGISLATION.
During the year under review, Sessions of the Legislative
Council were held in May and November. Thirty-th -ee Ordin-
ances were enacted, of which 20 were amendments to the
existing law.
The more important Ordinances were:-
The Rhodes-Livingstone Institute (No. I of 1937,.
The Importation of Butter (No. 20 of 1937).
The Markets (No. 21 of 1937).
The Northern Rhodesia Regiment (No. 25 of 197 1.
The Shop Assistants (No. 27 of 1937).
The Insurance (No. 33 of 1937).
I. The Rhodes-Livingslone Institute Ordinance establishes a
Board of Trustees for the preservation of the valuable objects
exhibited in the Museum at Livingstone and provides for the
control of funds, acquisition of lands and buildings and other
purposes in connection with the Institute.
2. The Importation of Butter Ordinance is designed tc control
the importation of butter into the territory in the i: terests of
local producers. To protect consumers, such control is subject
to the recommendation of a Board on which produce rs, manu-
facturers, retailers and consumers are all represent d. The
Governor in Council has power to control importatio-t, on the
advice of the Board.
3. The Markets Ordinance provides for the establishment of
native markets to foster native trade and facilitate the exchange
of produce. The management and control of markets is in the
hands of local authorities in municipalities and towr ships and
of native authorities in tribal areas.
4. The Northern Rhodesia Regiment Ordinance replaces
Chapter 46 of the Revised Edition. Owing to the r organiza-
tion of the Regiment, the existing law was found to be inade-
quate. The principal alteration in the new Ordinance is that, in
future, soldiers will be enlisted for a period of year; with the
Colours and then a period of years with the Reserve.
5. The Shop Assistants Ordinance was enacted at t ie request
of the Elected Members of the Legislative Council. It closely
follows the law of Southern Rhodesia, the chief objec's being to
limit the hours of employment of shop assistants and in ogegulate
their conditions of leave.








NORTHERN RHODESIA, 1937 37
o. The Insurance Ordinance.-Prior to the passing of this
Ordinance there was no law controlling the operation of insur-
ance companies in the territory. Provision is now made for the
registration and licensing of companies, and it is an offence for
policies to be issued in the territory by any person or company
which has not been duly licensed, and by further providing that
all benefits must be payable in the territory.

XVI.-PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION.
The revenue and expenditure for the past nine years have
been:-
Expenditure.
Extra- Total
Year. Revenue. Recurrent. ordinary. Expenditure.

1929-30 ... 672,289 532,367 22,160 554,527
1930-31 ... 830,254 668,083 36,903 704,986
1931-32 ... 856,376 793,798 26,258 820,056
1932 ... 649,538 777,290 13,216 790,506
1933 ... 718,283 773,985 4,894 778,870
1934 ... 693,337 710,774 2,129 712,903
1935 ... 833,484 780,930 25,499 806,429
1936 ... 863,255 836,174 51,243 887,417
1937 ... 981,894 895,089 14,163 909,252
These figures exclude repayments to the Imperial Exchequer
of grants-in-aid received in 1924-5 and 1925-6, and the loan of
240,ooo received from the Colonial Development Fund and
lent to the Rhokana Corporation in 1934.
Loan expenditure on capital development amounted to:-
566,8oi at 31st March, 1931.
1,216,681 at 31st March, 1932.
1,475,130 at 31st December, 1932.
1,821,123 at 31st December, 1933.
1,991,387 at 31st December, 1934.
2,159,826 at 31st December, 1935.
2,190,402 at 31st December, 1936.
2,211,112 at 31st December, 1937.
The public debt consists of 1,250,ooo 5 per cent. inscribed
stock 1950-70 issued in 1932 and 1,097,000 31 per cent.
inscribed stock 1955-65 issued in 1933.
The assets of the territory at the 3Ist December, 1937, con-
sisted of:-

Cash ... ... ... ..... . .. 220,475
Investments ... ... ... .. .. ... ... 91,380
Advances pending the receipt of grants from Beit 2,888
Railway Trust.
Sundry debtors ... .. ... ... ... ... 6o,833
Stores ... ........ ... .. .. 48,68
Total ... ... ... 424,257








38 COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL
The liabilities were:

Post Office Savings Bank ... ... .... .. ... 4 618
Native Reserves Fund ... ... ... ... ... 4 597
Sundry creditors ... ... ... ... ... o8 635
Northern Rhodesia 31, per cent. Loan, 1955-65, un- 34,862
expended balance.
Seigniorage Reserve ... ... ... ... ... 5,039
Reserve Fund ... .. .. ... .. ... ;o,0ooo
Excess of assets over liabilities ... .. ... 1(0,506

Total ... ... ... 24,57

The main headings of taxation and yields during 1)37 were
as follows:

Licences ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 6
Native Tax ... ... .. .. ... ... 14,3 7
Customs and Excise Duties .... ... ... 311,982
Incom e Tax ... ... ... ... ... .. ... 2 o, 182

Licence fees are principally derived from trading, vehicles,
arms, shooting of game, sale of liquor, and prospe-ting for
minerals.
The annual native tax rates and the yields in 1937 are as
follows: -

Barotse Province (7s. ( 6 .) ... .. ... ... ... 2
Other Provinces (from 7;. (d. to I~ s. accoIding to ,ii5
district).
Total ... ... . 07

All male natives are liable to pay one tax annuall, if they
have reached eighteen years of age and are not indigent by
reason of age, disease or such other cause as the Distri t Officer
may accept. Women and children are not liable and there is
no tax on additional huts or on plural wives. It is not the
practice to enforce payment on local natives who have been
absent from the territory for periods exceeding twelve months if
they are able to produce a tax receipt from an adjoining terri-
tory for that period and if they have not cultivated lands
locally. The persons liable for tax are recorded in registers
compiled under the supervision of District Officers. Collection
is direct by officials of the Government and not b. Native
Authorities. Recovery for default is by distress through the
Courts. The tax may be accepted in grain or stock or other
produce at the discretion of the District Officer, but the practice
is rare. Thirty per cent. of the Barotse tax is paid to a Trust
Fund and applied directly to expenditure on native interests in
the Barotse area.








NORTHERN RHODESIA, 1937


APPENDIX.

PUBLICATIONS OF GENERAL INTEREST RELATING TO
NORTHERN RHODESIA.

Expedition to the Zambesi and Its Discovery of Lakes Shirwa and Nyasa.
By D. and C. Livingstone. (John Murray, London. 1865. 21s.)
The Lands of the Cazembe. Translation of Dr. Lacerda's diaries and
information about Portuguese expeditions. By Sir Richard Burton.
Published by the Royal Geographical Society. (John Murray, London.
1873.)
Livingstone and the Exploration of Central Africa. By Sir H. H.
Johnston. (Phillip & Son, London. 1894. 4s. 6d.)
On the Threshold of Central Africa. By F. Coillard. (Hodder &
Stoughton, London. 1897. 15s.) Contains an account of the social and
political status of the Natives.
Exploration and Hunting in Central Africa. By A. St. H. Gibbons.
(Methuen & Co., London. 1898. 15s.) Contains a full, careful description
of the Upper Zambesi, and an account of the subjects of Chief Lewanika.
Au Pays des Ba-Rotsi, Haut-Zambebi. By A. Bertrand. Hachette,
Paris. 1898. English Edition, Unwin. 16s.)
In Remotest Barotseland. By Colonel C. Harding. (Hurst & Blackett,
London 19o0. los. 6d.)
The Great Plateau of Northern Rhodesia. By G. Gouldsbury and
H. Sheane. (Arnold, London. 1911. 16s.)
The Ila Speaking Peoples of Northern Rhodesia. By Rev. E. W. Smith
and Captain A. M. Dale. (MacMillan & Co., London. 1920. 2 vols. 5os.)
In Witch-bound Africa. By F. H. Melland. (Seeley, Service, London.
1923. 21s.)
The Making of Rhodesia. By H. Marshall Hole. (MacMillan & Co.,
London. 1926. 18s.)
The Way of the White Fields in Rhodesia. By Rev. E. W. Smith.
(World Dominion Press, London. 1928. 5s.)
The British in Tropical Africa. By I. L. Evans. (Cambridge University
Press. 1929. 12s. 6d.)
The Lambas of Northern Rhodesia. By C. M. Doke. (Harrap, London.
1931. 36s.)
A Faunal Survey of Northern Rhodesia, with Especial Reference to Game,
Elephant Control and National Parks, with Maps. By C. R. S. Pitman.
(Government Printer, Northern Rhodesia. 1934. 7s. 6d.)
Native Tribes of North-Eastern Rhodesia. By J. C. C. Coxhead.
Published by the Royal Anthropological Institute.
Tribal Areas in Northern Rhodesia. By Thomson J. Moffat and W. G.
Fairweather. (Governrnent Printer, Northern Rhodesia. 3s.)
Native Tribes of the East Luangwa Province of Northern Rhodesia.
By E. M. Lane Poole. (Government Printer, Northern Rhodesia. 1934.
3S.)
British South Africa Company's Reports on the Administration of
Rhodesia.
European Education Committee. Report, 1929. (Government Printer,
Northern Rhodesia. 2s.)








40 COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL
NORTHERN RHODESIA, 1937
Present Position of the Agricultural Industry, and the necessity or
otherwise of Encouraging Further European Settlement in Agricultural
Areas. Report by S. Milligan, 1931. (Government Printer, Northern
Rhodesia. 2s.)
Census of 1931. Report of Director. (Government Printer Northern
Rhodesia. 2s. 6d.)
Defence Commission. Report, 1932. (Government Printej, Northern
Rhodesia. 2s. 6d.)
Finance Commission. Report, 1932. (Government Printer, Northern
Rhodesia. 2s. 6d.)
Agricultural Survey Commission. Report, 1930-1932. (C government
Printer, Northern Rhodesia. 7s. 6d.)
Copperbelt Disturbances. Report of Commission of Enquiry, 1935.
Cmd. 5009. (H.M. Stationery Office, London. is. 6d.) Evidmnce taken
by the Commission. (Government Printer, Northern Rhodesia. I5s.)
Economics of the Cattle Industry in Northern Rhodesia. Me:norandum,
1935. (Government Printer, Northern Rhodesia. is.)
General Geology of Northern Rhodesia. Notes by J. A. Ba croft and
R. A. Pelletier. (Government Printer, Northern Rhodesia. i;. 6d.)
Blue Book (Annually). (Government Printer, Northern Rhodesia
ios. 6d.)
Annual Reports of the Several Government Departments. (Government
Printer, Northern Rhodesia. Various prices.)
The Soils, Vegetation and Agricultural Systems of Nor:h-Western
Rhodesia: Report of the Ecological Survey by C. G. Trapnell and J. M.
Clothier. (Government Printer, Northern Rhodesia. I5s.)
Northern Rhodesia Police: Report of Sir Herbert Dowbiggin, C.M.G.
(Government Printer, Northern Rhodesia. 5s.)
Disturbances at Nkana: Report of an Enquiry into the causes of.
E. E. Jenkins. (Government Printer, Northern Rhodesia. 2S.)
The Planting of Trees and Shrubs. E. A. T. Dutton, C.B.E. (Govern-
ment Printer, Northern Rhodesia. is. 6d.)
Note.-The Crown Agents for the Colonies, London, are agents for the
sale of publications issued by the Northern Rhodesia Governi ent.


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NORTHERN RHODESIA
SCALE
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