• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Foreword
 Introduction
 Schedule
 An address by the honourable minister...
 Talk by the chief social welfare...
 Zonal reports to the conferenc...
 Lectures
 A model draft constitution for...
 Workshop reports
 Evaluation of the conference
 Discussion emanating from Mr. Graham's...
 Zonal delegates, observers, and...
 Zonal reports of the conferenc...
 Back Cover






Group Title: Official document ; no. 25 of 1965
Title: Report of the first conference of Eastern Nigeria Councils of Social Service held at Nsukka from 19-21 February 1965
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072641/00001
 Material Information
Title: Report of the first conference of Eastern Nigeria Councils of Social Service held at Nsukka from 19-21 February 1965
Series Title: Official document
Alternate Title: Report of the first conference of Councils of Social Service
Physical Description: 6, 88 p. : ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Eastern Nigeria (Nigeria) -- Councils of Social Service
Conference: Conference of Eastern Nigeria Councils of Social Service, 1965
Publisher: Government Printer
Place of Publication: Enugu
Publication Date: 1965
 Subjects
Subject: Social service -- Nigeria, Eastern   ( lcsh )
Genre: multistate government publication   ( marcgt )
conference publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Funding: Official document (Eastern Nigeria, Nigeria) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072641
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: African Studies Collections in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 33399296

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Foreword
        Foreword
    Introduction
        Introduction 1
        Introduction 2
    Schedule
        Section 1
        Section 2
        Section 3
    An address by the honourable minister of internal affairs, chief I. U. Akpabio, c.f.r.
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Talk by the chief social welfare officer, Mr. P. Graham, m.f.r., on the role of cultural union in welfare work
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Zonal reports to the conference
        Page 8
        Aba
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
        Abakaliki
            Page 11
            Page 12
        Calabar
            Page 13
            Page 14
        Enugu
            Page 15
            Page 16
        Onitsha
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
        Port Harcourt
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
    Lectures
        Page 24
        Social changes in Nigeria, their effects on individual, the family and the society, by Dr. Akinsola Akiwow, senior lecturer in sociology, University of Nigeria
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
        Instrument of operation of a council of social services by Dr. S. M. Ibeziako, lecturer in law
            Page 28
        Constitution workshops report
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
    A model draft constitution for a council of social service and the standing orders
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Workshop reports
        Page 42
        Constitution
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
        Citizenship centre committee
            Page 47
        Marriage guidance and family reconciliation committee
            Page 48
        Youth committee
            Page 49
        Blind welfare committee
            Page 49
        Mental health committee
            Page 50
            Page 51
        Welfare week and fund raising committee
            Page 52
    Evaluation of the conference
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Discussion emanating from Mr. Graham's speech
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Zonal delegates, observers, and the steering committee members
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Zonal reports of the conference
        Page 59
        Aba
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
        Abakaliki
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
        Calabar
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
        Enugu
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
        Onitsha
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
        Port Harcourt
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text



S i,-.



REPORT OF THE FIRST

CONFERENCE OF COUNCILS


OF SOCIAL SERVICE HELD AT

NSUKKA FROM 19-21 FEB. 1965






















HV
465.5
.E271
1965









REPORT OF THE FIRST CONFERENCE

OF EASTERN NIGERIA COUNCILS OF

SOCIAL SERVICE HELD AT NSUKKA

FROM 19-21 FEBRUARY 1965























Printed and Published by
THE GOVERNMENT PRINTER ENUGU
1965


UNIVERSITY OF P'.9r.IA LIRARIES











C ON T E N T S
Chapter
Foreword
Introduction
Schedule
PART ONE
I An Address by the Ionourable Minister of Internal Affairs, Chief I. U.
Akpabio, C.F.R....
II Talk by the Chief Social Welfare Officer, Mr P. Graham, M.F.R., on the
role of Cultural Union in Welfare Work ... ...
PART TWO


Page


III Zonal Reports to the Conference:
Aba ...
Abakaliki ... ...
Calabar ... ...
Enugu ...
Onitsha ... ...
Port Harcourt ...


...
. .... 11
. ... 13
15
17
21


PART TIIREE
IV Lectures:
Social ( h i,..- in Nigeria, their Effects on Individual, the Family
and the Society, by Dr Akinsola Akiwowo, Senior Lecturer in
Sociology, University of N-i i ... ... ... ... ... 21
Instrument of Operation of a Council of Social Services by Dr
S. M. Ibeziako, Lecturer in Law ... ... ... ... ... 2
Constitution Workshops Report ... ... .. ... ... 28
PART FOUR
V A Model Draft Constitution for a Council of Social Service and the
Standing Orders ... ... ... ... .. ... ... 33
VI Workshop Reports:
Constitution ... ... ... ... ...... 12
Citizenship Centre Committe ....... ... .. .. ... 47
Marriage Guidance and Family Reconciliation Committee ... ... 4;,
Youth Committee ... ... ..... ... ... ... 49
Blind Welfare Committee ... ... ... .. ... ... 49
Mental Health Committee ... ... ... .. .. 50
Welfare Week and Fund Raising Committee ... ... .. ... 52
PART FIVE
VII Evaluation of the Conference ... ... ... .. ... .. ... 53
VIII Discussion Emanating from Mr Graham's Speech ... ... 55










C 0 N T E N T S--continued
Chapter Page
PART Six
IX Zonal Delegates, Observers, and the Steering Committee Members ... 57
X Zonal Reports of the Conference:
Aba ... .. .. ..... 59
Abakaliki ... ... .. ... ... .. ... ... ... 62
C alabar ... ... ... ... ... .. ... 72
E nugu ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 75
O nitsha ... ... ... ... ... .. ... .. ... 79
Port Harcourt ... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... 85













FOREWORD
With the Councils of Social Service Conference having been held at the
University of Nigeria, Nsukka, from 19th to 21st February, 1965, a milestone
was reached in the implementation of the new policy on Social Welfare in the
Region. Before the conference, there had been some speculation as to whether
the third party (the community) in the implementation of the new policy would
move side by side with the other partners (the Regional Government and the
Local Government Bodies).
Ever since the new policy was launched four years ago, the Regional Govern-
ment in its contribution had increased the team of social workers considerably
from ten to fifty and the Local Government bodies had engaged nineteen Divi-
sional Social Workers-and made other contributions such as office accommoda-
tions for the social workers. Also grants of land and money were made by the
Port Harcourt 3Municipal Councilfor the purpose of 1 -....' .: a Citizenship Centre.
At the conference, the community represented by the Councils of Social
Service (cifliaton of Cultural Unions and Voluntary Organizations) demons-
trated its awareness and preparedness to participate in the new policy. Over
one hundred and twenty delegates drawn from various walks of life representing
"Councils" in the six Social Welfare Zones of the Region met and discussed
social problems in the Region and outlined plans towards their solution.
The conference brought to light what each zone had accomplished, its
present activities and its future plans. Delegates received 1'- I .,',;: lectures
on the Social Welfare Service and the Government reassured the community of
its determination to co-operate and help in the solution of the common task.
Finally the conference laid the foundationfor the formation of County, Divisional,
Provincial and Regional Councils of Social Service.
We are indebted to the University of Nigeria, Nsukka for making its
facilities available for the conference. Also to the following staff of the univer-
sity: Dr Buschman and Mir Udokara, Director and Assistant Director res-
pectively of the Division of the Extramural Studies, University of Nigeria,
Nsukka; Dr A. Akiwowo, Senior Lecturer in S,, ,.'.... i and Dr S. M. Ibeziako,
Lecturer in Law for their excellent assistance and talks during the conference.
Special gratitude also goes to some Voluntary Agencies in the Region who sent
representatives as observers.
I. U. AKPABIO
Minister of Internal Affairs
Eastern Nigeria











INTRODUCTION


Partnership for Social Work

It was a stirring and stimulating experience to listen to the deliberations of the
Nsukka Conference of Councils of Social Service. At Nsukka were gathered men and
women of different social status and of divergent background, but all with one common
purpose-the welfare of every citizen of the Region. There was mutual respect without
any shallow pretence of total agreement. There were some fiery speeches but no fiery
tempers. There was self-criticism as well as mutual criticism.

The purpose of the conference was to examine the past in order to improve the
future; to analyze what each social welfare zone has done well or badly, in the common
enterprise of preparing to do better.

In the speech by the Honourable Minister of Internal Affairs, Chief I. U. Akpabio,
C.F.R., the importance of co-operation between the Government and the citizens in the
common task of developing a happy and prosperous community was stressed.

The Chief Social Welfare Officer, Mr P. Graham, M.F.R., warned against the dangers
of family disintegration as a result of urbanization and industrialization, and maintained
that strengthening the family could assist in crime prevention and restrain social disorder
and chaos in Nigerian society. He saw in the coming together of cultural unions and the
community as a whole, an effective method of bringing about social control and conformity,
and he finally suggested the formation of County, Provincial and Regional Councils of
Social Service.

Dr Akinsola Akiwowo, Senior Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Nigeria,
in his lecture stressed the effects of social changes on the individual, the family and society.
He advised the Councils of Social Service to be ever alert as they "counsel the confused
and the misled".

In his lecture on the "Constitution or Instrument of Operation of a Council of
Social Service", Dr S. M. Ibeziako, Lecturer in Law, University of Nigeria, pointed
out that the primary aim of any Council of Social Service "is to help the helpless, en-
courage and counsel the despondent... the weak and the poor members of the
community", and that it was possible to fashion a constitution to provide for the establish-
ment of various Councils at all levels in the Region.

All the six zones gave reports on their activities to date, their problems and projected
plans. While committees such as Citizenship Centre, Blind Welfare, and Marriage
Guidance have been established in all the zones, other committees such as Mental
Health, Motherless Babies, and Youth Committees have been formed by two or three
of the zones. One zone has gone ahead to form a committee on the repatriation of
destitute persons. Almost all the zones have plans to form committees to deal with juvenile
offenders. Also receiving high priority among the zonal reports are plans for youth









centres, building of permanent citizenship centres, motherless babies' homes, blind
rehabilitation centres, clean up campaigns, annual welfare weeks and fund raising, and
an approved school for girls.

This conference was felt to be important by all the zones. From presenting their
individual work, the zones were able to stimulate one another. Many new ideas and
views were exchanged. Although this was the first of such programmes, it is hoped that
from this experience many more such meetings can take place so that the various zones
can regularly have the opportunity to meet together and discuss their work, as well as
together formulate plans for future development.












Friday, February 19
12 noon 4.00 p.m.


4.00 p.m.





4.30 p.m.












6.30 p.m.

7.30 p.m.
8.30 p.m.


SCHEDULE


Registration. (i. .i.L and settling in payment of conference
expenses, receiving name tags, programmes, a short tour of the
surroundings.
Introduction of Chief the Honourable Minister of Internal
Affairs, I. U. Akpabio, by the Chairman of the Enugu Delegation,
Barrister Chukwuani (5 minutes). (Ile is the first, since he is
regarded as host). "Official opening and welcome speech" by the
\.iir:i.ci of Internal Affairs, Chief the Honourable I. U. Akpabio
(20 minutes).
Presentation of reports from the various Councils of Social
Service, one from each of the six Welfare Zones, beginning with
Aba and continuing through until Port Harcourt. They should
be each 15--20 minutes in length.
The Chairman of the Enugu Delegation continues as ( l i .... ..,
calling for each Zone's report.
Aba (15-20 minutes) --Include time for questions and remarks.
Abakaliki (15-20 minutes) Include time for questions and
remarks.
Calabar (15-20 minutes)-As above.
Enugu (15-20 minutes)-As above.
Onitsha (15-20 minutes)-As above.
Port Harcourt (15-20 minutes)-As above.
Cocktail party in honour of the Minister. A chance to meet one
another.
Dinner.
Depending on whether or not there is a Cocktail party.
Introduction of Dr Ibeziako, of the Law Department, by the
( i ,i!. ,, of the Aba Delegation, Dr T. I. C. Okechukwu
(5 minutes). "Constitutions, Their Purposes and What should
he contained in Them".
This talk should be followed by a question period, with some
discussion led by the Chairman.


Saturday, February 20
7.30 a.m. 8.45 a.m. Breakfast.
8.45 a.m. 9.00 a.m. Group Photograph.
9.00 a.m. Introduction of Mr Buschman, Director of Extra-Mural Prog-
ramme of the University and the continuing Education Centre
by Mr Unaka (5 minutes).
Introduction of the Vice-chancellor of the University by
Mr Buschman (5 minutes).
Brief talk by the Vice-chancellor on the Continuing Education
Programme and official welcoming by the University (15 minutes).
Announcements and brief summary of the evening before.
Assignment into groups to review the constitution.
Any other details that have to be mentioned at this time by
Mr Unaka (10-15 minutes).









9.40 a.m. 10.45 a.m.




10.45 a.m.-11.00 a.m.
11.00 a.m.-12 noon




12 noon 1.00 p.m.
1.00 p.m. 2.00 p.m.





2.00 p.m. 4.00 p.m.


















4.00 p.m.- 4.15 p.m.


SCHEDULE continued
Group workshops in which each group will take a section of the
constitution, review it in detail, and make suggestions for revision
and change. To form eight groups, and divide the constitution
into four parts, having two groups on each part. Chairmen and
Secretaries need to be elected (Secretary can be one of our staff).
Tea and Coffee break.
A plenary session in which reports will be received from the
various workshops. A short question period might follow each
report. The session will be chaired by the Chairman of the
Abakaliki Delegation, Hon. M. N. Nnorom. Need for a
Stenographer.
Dinner.
Introduction of Dr Akiwowo, Sociology Department by Chief
O. A. Nsisuk, Chairman of the Calabar Delegation.
"A talk on social changes occurring in Nigeria, and their effect on
society. How these changes affect the individual, the family,
and the community".
Questions and discussion to follow.
Workshops to discuss and develop the functions, duties, and
plans of action for the various committees existing in the Councils
of Social Service.
Workshop Chairmen will be elected in most instances, except in
those instances when experts exist with special knowledge on the
topic. Secretary will be the Social Welfare Officer assigned to
the group.
Workshops will be in session on:
1. Citizenship Centre Committee (possibly Dr Okechukwu-
Chairman), (Mr Obonna, Mr Effiong--staff).
2. Blind Welfare Committee- (Mr B. C. E. Ajoku --Chairman),
Mr Weeber-staff).
3. Marriage Guidance and Reconciliation--(Barrister R. I.
Egbuziem-Chairman), (Mrs Hogan--staff).
4. Mental Health Committee--(Dr Kalunta --Chairman),
(Miss Olphin-staff).
5. Youth Committee-(Chief O. A. Nsisuk-Chairman),
(Mr Udong, Mr Ugbe-staff).
6. Welfare Week and Fund-raising Committee--(Mr F. F. B. C.
Nwankoro-Chairman), (Mrs Ojike -staff).
Coffee and Tea break.


4.15 p.m. 6.00 p.m. The various workshops are to report back to the plenary session,
to tell of their findings. The Chairman of the Onitsha Delegation,
Dr Eze, will chair the meeting. This will be a time for questions,
discussion, and resolutions. (15-20 minutes time should be
given to each group). (A stenographer, provided bythe university,
should be present, for this session).
6.15 p.m. 7.30p.m. Dinner.
Announcements will be made of the activities occurring on the
campus. Usually there are film shows, or other special attractions
which will prove a source of entertainment and relaxation-
Mr Odokara.








SCHEDULE continued
Sunday, February 21
7.30 a.m. 9.00 a.m. Breakfast.
9.00 a.m. 9.15 a.m. Announcements and any necessary details to be noted-Mr Unaka.


9.15 a.m.-9.45 a.m.


Introduction by the Chairman of the Port Harcourt Delegation,
who will chair this session--Mr Offonry.
"The Formation of Divisional, Zonal, and Regional Councils of
Social Service" !, P. Graham, Chief Social Welfare Officer.


9.45 a.m.-10.45 a.m. Questions and discussion of the above topic. Resolutions
emanating from the above proposal. Plans for a future conference.
Possibility of forming a steering committee who would study the
proposal and make arrangements for another conference.


10.45 a.m.-11.15 a.m.



11.15 a.m.-11.30 a.m.


Evaluation of the conference. This to be written out by each
delegate, stating their likes, dislikes, proposals for changes, and
how soon they would like to meet again, if they do wish to meet
again.
Summation and '1 I.' :, You talk to be given by Mr Unaka.
Closing Remarks.


11.30a.m.-12.30p.m. Dinner.
12.30 p.m. Leave. Disposal.













SPEECH BY CHIEl THE HIONOURABLE I. U. AKPABIO, C.F.R., MINISTER OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS,
ON THE OCCASION OF THE FIRST REGIONAL CONFERENCE OF EASTERN NIGERIA COUNCILS
OF SOCIAL SERVICE, HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA, ON 19TH FEBRUARY,
1965.

Mr Chairman, Delegates, Ladies and Gentlemen,
I am highly delighted for this opportunity of being with you this afternoon, who
have come from various parts of the Region to attend this important conference. This
is the first conference of its kind to be held in the Region, and your presence here today
is evidence of the great importance which you attach to co-operation between the Govern-
ment and the citizens in the common task of developing a happy and prosperous commu-
nity. I wish to assure you that you are engaged on a very worthy course-a course which
deserves full support by all sections of the community.
It cannot be too often emphasized that the welfare and prosperity of any society is
determined not only by the provisions made for the normal and fortunate citizens of the
society, but also by the provisions that are made in the interest of the handicapped and
less fortunate members of the society.
The problems that you are going to discuss in the course of this conference are
numerous and varied. They are problems which call for deep thought and the exercise
of high intellect if adequate solutions are to be found for them. Roughly speaking, the
problems fall into two categories. First, there are those social problems that deal with
physically handicapped members of the society. These include the blind, the lame,
the deaf and dumb, and all others who, for one reason or another, suffer handicaps that
make them unable to exercise their physical faculties normally. These people are found
everywhere throughout the Region and must be cared for.
Then there is another category of handicapped people. These are those who may be
described as mentally or psychologically handicapped. These include the numerous
delinquent children and juveniles who are to be found in every community but more
especially in townships. They also include mad men and women, the number of whom
is increasing day by day. These people, like the physically handicapped have to be
cared for, and unless adequate provision is made for their welfare, our society cannot be
regarded as a prosperous one no matter what amenities are provided for normal citizens.
It is gratifying to note what has already been done in the interest of these people.

As a result of the co-operation between the Government and the community, six
Remand Homes have been established in various parts of the Region-at Aba, Abakaliki,
Calabar, Enugu, Onitsha and Port Harcourt. These Remand Homes have been
re-christened "Citizenship Centres", to emphasize the fact that the inmates are not
outcasts from the community but normal members of the community who, for one reason
or another, have gone astray and are being brought back to the fold. These Citizenship
Centres represent one of the most commendable examples of community effort and
self-help to be found in the Region. I realize that some of the centres are at the moment
being run in rented temporary buildings but I hope it will not be long before, through the
hard work of your councils, all the centres that have not their own permanent buildings
will have them.







CONFERENCE REPORT


At the moment there are six Social Welfare Zones organized round the six towns
already named. Six zones are not enough for a Region of twelve provinces and I hope
that in no distant date more zones will be created. 1 hope this conference will serve as a
stimulus to the development of other welfare zones.
I should like to pay a special tribute to the Juvenile Courts for the excellent work
done during the past year. Through the co-operation of your councils, six Juvenile
Courts have been established in the Region for the treatment of juvenile offenders.
Available statistics show that 738 juveniles charged with various offences ranging from
wandering to stealing appeared before these courts.
Another subject deserving of special mention is the problem of broken homes. The
Social Welfare Division of my Ministry is doing everything possible to bring together the
parties involved by means of mutual reconciliation carried out along traditional lines.
About 1,159 matrimonial cases were treated last year. These problems are a big
challenge to your Councils of Social Service. Most of them arise as a result of disturb-
ances brought about by modern civilization. My Social Welfare Officers have found that
many of these problems can be successfully tackled by a resort to the traditional method
of dealing with such problems.
As the society becomes more and more industrialized, it is inevitable that more and
more people will move away from their homes and family environment and lose the
restraining influence exerted by their families. It is, therefore, of the utmost importance
that the Councils of Social Service should provide what may be regarded as a substitute
for the restraining influence that was exercised by the family in the days before industrial-
ization.
In conclusion, I should like to express special gratitude to the University of Nigeria,
Nsukka, for arranging accommodation and putting the facilities of the university at the
disposal of this conference. I thank those members of the staff of the university,
Dr Buschman, Mr Odokara, Dr Ibeziako and Dr Akiwowo, who have agreed to parti-
cipate in the conference.
When the history of the development of Social Welfare Service in this Region comes
to be written, I venture to predict that this conference will be given a very high place as
the beginning of a nation-wide development of great importance. I thank all delegates
who have come from a long distance and left their normal duties in order to make this
conference a success. I wish you all very successful deliberation and look forward with
pleasure to reading the report of the conference.












AN INTRODUCTORY TALK ON THE FORMATION or DIVISIONAL, ZONAL AND REGIONAL
COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE BY MR P. GRAHAM, M.F.R., CHIEF SOCIAL WELFARE OFFICER,
ENUGU
Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen,
1 shall not take much of your time since by this third and final day of our gathering
here a good number of delegates should have realized the great importance attached
to the Regional Government Policy on Social Welfare Service which stresses that our
traditional pattern of welfare work must serve as a foundation upon which new ones will
be built or our achievements would compare with the results following the legendary
substitution of the magicians "new lamp" for Aladdin's old one. There are many examples
of this substitution which are fraught with disaster morally, socially, economically and
politically but it would suffice to quote an instance from an island in the Pacific. The
people had one stone axe which took many years of warfare to obtain from another very
distant island. The axe was instrumental in maintaining law and order in the island
because the sole custodian was the oldest islander. Individuals had access to the axe
on condition that they behaved and obeyed the orders of the old man not to steal or
covet another man's wife but to work very hard for the uplift of the community as a whole.
When a group of missionaries later came on the scene they found it so easy to obtain
converts by giving out steel axes to whoever was bold enough to denounce the old man and
all that he and his axe stood for. The result was that hell was let loose on the former
peaceful island because the incentive to behave, work hard and suffer privations for the
good of the whole community was no longer there.
It was barely three weeks ago that I had the opportunity and privilege of speaking
from this same rostrum to the Eastern Nigeria members of the National Criminological
Society of Nigeria. The subject of my talk was on "How the strengthening of the family
could assist in crime prevention". It is a very welcome coincidence that I find myself
here again being called upon to pick up the thread from where I left off on the 27th of
January, 1965. 1 tried in the former talk to draw a parallel between the recent Great
Train Robbery in Britain (which yielded over two million pounds to a handful of gangsters
who had not been successfully integrated into the greater community) and the recent
34,000 Airways pay grab at Ikeja. There is one difference however and this lies in the
fact that the former has its roots deep down in the dark Middle Ages, whereas the Ikeja
pay grab was a product of disintegration brought about by social changes barely a hundred
ears old. Dr Akiwowo of the Sociology Department in the University of Nigeria lectur-
ing from this rostrum yesterday explained that just as the weather man can anticipate a
storm days, months and years ahead so also a social scientist could anticipate a social crisis
days, months, years and possibly centuries ahead. A clever social scientist living during
the middle ages and observing the onset of the disintegration of the family system could
have foretold the British Train Robbery in 1964. He could also have foretold that in
1963 an old woman would die in her house situated in a busy street in England unknown
to anyone until a period of 18 months had elapsed: According to an article in a recent
issue of the Daily Mirror published in Britian, Tradesmen and Commercial Travellers
and Advertisers were forced to break through her door when they could find no more room
to press in their papers and samples. This would not happen in present day Nigeria
where at least in the rural areas people instinctively knock at each other's door before
sunrise. But the story will be different a century or two hence if the present rate of
social change and consequent disintegration of the social structure continues without
some check.







CONFERENCE REPORT


Prior to the British feudal and the manorial system of government, greatimportance
was attached to the family. If a man broke the law, it was the duty of his relatives to
bring him to justice or to pay a fine for his misdeeds. In this way law and order was
maintained since each member of the community craved for acceptance, affection,
appreciation and recognition from at least a particular group of people. This explains
why the model constitution which we have assembled here to revise frowns upon indivi-
dual membership of any of the local Councils of Social Service in the Region. Somebody
must belong to a group and accepted, loved, appreciated and recognized by that group
before he could serve as a full member of a Council of Social Service. In this way the
constitution is designed to solve a jig-saw puzzle by putting people back into surroundings
which formerly called for selflessness on their part. I think this is what teachers or books
on school method describe as going from the known to the unknown.
Following a series of invasions culminating in the Norman Conquest in the year 1066
the English tribal system and family links began to disintegrate gradually. People
began to be separated from their families and made new homes in different districts and
leaving behind them the former social controls which made for peace, good order and
good government. It was necessary to find a new way of maintaining law and order.
This gave birth to the feudal and manorial system of government for a law was passed
that every man must have a lord who would be responsible for him just as his family had
been before. Years later the lords of the manors became very selfish and oppressive.
One of the means of escape from their tyranny was the emergence of Town Corporations,
Merchant and Craft-Gilds. These were not only economic institutions, for its members
according to "Groome and H-li,',,..lI worship and feast together and come to one
another's aid in times of sickness or poverty. As between its members it encouraged
unselfishness and co-operation and discouraged dishonesty and sharp practices. But
against the rest of the world, it was nevertheless an exclusive and short-sighted policy.
It has taken over a thousand years for this same phenomenon (minus the feudal and
manorial pattern of culture) to be reproduced in Eastern Nigeria following the advent of
British rule less than a century ago. We began to move from our places of origin and to
go into the new towns which were springing up like mushrooms all over the whole
country. Not unlike the British who started dispersing over a thousand years ago we
also left behind in our native homes the normal traditional restraints which made for
law and good order in the community. But in place of the Merchant and Craft-Gilds
those of us from Eastern Nigeria started forming cultural unions to preserve the interest
of those of us from the same area and to enable us help each other in time of need.
That our society did not break down completely following the great changes brought
about by British rule can be attributed to the great service which these cultural unions
rendered to members of their own groups. By preserving our individual cultures in the
large towns where we are congregated we managed to keep a level and calm head in the
great melting pots or towns to be found throughout the country. The cultural unions
gave food to the hungry, came to the rescue of those in trouble, looked after the sick and
buried the dead, repatriated members of the bereaved family, offered scholarships to
young and intelligent members and in the wake of the occasional visits paid to the home
village or town left a large number of roads, bridges, culverts, schools, colleges, grammar
schools, dispensaries, market stalls, etc. In short, not only did sojourning members
take useful ideas home but it was the strong links forged with those left at home that
enabled the country to rise like one man and ask for independence and got it without
any bloodshed. When the history of this period will be in print pride of place will
certainly be given to the role played by these unions in the struggle for independence.






COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


Scanning through this impressive catalogue of social services rendered by cultural
unions not only to fellow members but also to the whole country in view of their stabilizing
influence, it is not difficult to see why the Government of Eastern Nigeria now places so
much emphasis on harnessing and channelling their latent and apparently great poten-
tialities towards the service of the Region as well as that of the country as a whole. We
have observed earlier in this talk that these unions have certain things in common with the
Merchant and Craft-Gilds which were in vogue during the dark Middle Ages. I refer first
of all to the tradition of worshipping, feasting and coming to one another's aid in times
of sickness or poverty. Secondly there is the point that as between their members they
encouraged unselfishness and co-operation and discouraged dishonesty and sharp
practices. But against the rest of the world they were nevertheless an exclusive and short-
sighted policy.
One of the commonest criticisms against our cultural unions is that they have also
inherited the negative aspects recounted above hence the bane of our present age express-
ing itself in charges and counter charges of tribalism, bribery and nepotism now raging
through the country and bringing her to the verge of collapse time and again.
The Social Welfare policy of this Region by giving every encouragement to the
cultural unions has created an atmosphere conducive to the gradual suppression of the
venom or the sting which is the other side of the morally and socially accepted aspects
of the cultural unions, namely, service to fellow members. It is this apparent and gradual
suppression of the negative aspects which yielded the social and moral dividends as
shown in the zonal report from the leader of each zone on the first day of this conference.
To single out a few:
(a) Various cultural unions in the six large urban areas of Aba, Abakaliki, Calabar,
Enugu, Onitsha and Port Harcourt utilized these negative aspects on the
platform of a local Council of Social Service and one of the results as we have
seen is the successful operation of six Juvenile Courts and six Citizenship
Centres where only one of each existed in the Region for over fifteen years.
(b) It is the suppression of these negative aspects on the level of the local Council
of Social Service which is producing a large number of Committees of the
Councils of Social Service with the object of handling social problems as
they arise from time to time on the fringes of the cultural unions. For
example the Abaja/Ngwo Council of Social Service discovered that there are
about 200 blind people in an area where none was alleged to exist before.
(c) Motherless children outside a cultural group are no one's concern but the
Onitsha Council of Social Service is seeing to it that they are now the collective
concern of all at Onitsha be they Hausas, Yorubas or Ibos.
(d) Cleanliness of our streets is no man's business but the Enugu Council of Social
Service has left the ball at the feet of all cultural unions based at Enugu by
mounting a clean up campaign of the township recently.
(e) The welfare of the children in the townships is no man's business but the
Abakaliki Council of Social Service is leading the way in carrying out an
experiment which will make the welfare of children the collective responsibil-
ity of all in our fast developing urban areas.
(f) Recently the Aba Council of Social Service led the way in dealing with the
lunatics roaming about the town and it is hoped that this is the beginning of
finding a collective solution for the mentally ill in our midst by the establish-
ment of centres where they can be looked after at the onset of trouble.







CONIFERFNCE REPORT


These achievements naturally pose a certain question: If "the negative, short-sighted
and exclusive policies" of the cultural unions yielding place to petty jealousies and wasteful
activities can be harnessed, canalized and channelled along constructive lines on the
platform of a local Council of Social Service the results would be just as imposing (if not
more) if the three Councils of Social Service based in Abaja/y\ .., Nkanu and Ezeagu
County Councils in Udi Division could come together on one common platform: the Udi
Divisional Council of Social Service. There are 187 cultural unions registered in the
Abaja/Ngwo Council of Social Service and the representation in the divisional set up
could be, say, one person per five or ten member organizations registered in each Council
of Social Service. This body will thus be in a position to carry out certain projects
beyond the capacity of one Council of Social Service. For example the Motherless
Babies Home at Oghe in Ezeagu County Council area could well receive the attention an d
patronage of the whole Division through the Divisional Council of Social Service which
might meet every other month to discuss common social problems and how to solve
them.
Going up yet another rung of the ladder, it is possible for all the Councils of Social
Service in the Enugu Social Welfare Zone (ultimately thirteen in all) to come together
on a zonal platform, one representative coming from every ten or fifteen member organiza-
tions registered in each local Council of Social Service. This could meet quarterly to
discuss common social problems and assume responsibility for projects like Citizenship
Centres, Rehabilitation Centres for the Blind, Clinics for the mentally sick, Hostels for
unmarried mothers, etc.
Finally, I think that the last say in the running of all Councils of Social Service in
Eastern Nigeria should be given to a Regional Council of Social Service which will meet
half-yearly at each zonal headquarters in rotation. Such a council will be made up of
about one member per fifteen or twenty member organizations financially registered
with a Local Council of Social Service and accounted for in the Regional I.li.'-ir. This
body will be competent to call in the services of His Excellency the Governor of Eastern
Nigeria and his amiable consort as Patrons. Both have been very exemplary in their
selfless services to the community. Other very highly valued members of the community
might come in as Vice-Patrons, Presidents and Vice-Presidents. The Regional Council
of Social Service will also be in the position to deal with Heads of Ministries and Inter-
national Agencies in all matters concerning services which the community could render
by itself. I also hold the opinion that the Regional C.O.S.S. is so vital at the present stage
of our work hence its formation should hold precedence over the proposed Zonal and the
Divisional Councils of Social Service.

I have no time at my disposal to dwell on the impact this scheme will make on the
social and moral development of our people. It will at least serve as an antidote to the
moral degeneration which is a heritage of the past era and which gave expression to the
recent 34,000 Airways Pay Grab: The prime motive to service in a Local Government
Council is to minister unto the needs of one's people but the onlookers are now more
inclined to view or look at the material gains accruing from sitting fees and bribe for
services rendered. The same reaction holds good for service rendered in the highest
legislative body in the country. On the other hand we joined a local Council of Social
Service for the selfless service we can render to our own immediate relatives but ultimately
find ourselves on the top of the social pyramid rendering selfless service to all and sundry
including Hausas, Yorubas, Ibos, Ibibios, Efiks, Edos, etc. The list does not exclude
the colour, race and creed of people in this country.







COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


In conclusion, I think this scheme reminds one of the story of the Eagle and the
Chickens as told by the late Dr Aggrey. It was after a series of attempts that a farmer
succeeded in influencing the Eagle to leave the chickens and fly away to the heavens
where it rightly belonged. The various levels of the Councils of Social Service provide
an opportunity for people of this Region to move nearer and nearer to God according to
their own pace. There are those who are capable of doing good only on the family level
but there exists the Local Council of Social Service to compensate for their limitations.
There are also those who are capable of serving selflessly on the national level and the
facilities for this are provided by the Social Welfare Policy of this Region which places so
much emphasis on not helping a member of a family in isolation-the family should be
helped to help itself.
For instance we now rely solely on Regional and Local Government funds to re-
orientate blind men at the two Rehabilitation Centres based at Oji River and far off
Ikeja. Because this was done without the active co-operation of immediate relations the
former traditional restraints and customs which saw to it that they were fed, clothed and
sheltered were gradually being weakened. They (the blind) had become the responsibil-
ities of two nebulous bodies-the Local and the Regional Government or sometimes that
of a voluntary agency from nowhere: the "new lamp" has been substituted for the "old
one" not without disastrous consequences to the blind man in particular and the commu-
nity in general. The former had tasted of the good things of this life while in the Reha-
bilitation Centre-a full stomach, clothing and shelter-only to be denied them on his
return to his own people. Fruitlessly he turns to the Local and Regional Governments
for funds to build himself a house and marry himself a wife to care for him. On the
other hand the community or relations which formerly cared for him suffers a loss of
conscience-the selflessness in them had been affected and it would be continually affected
to the detriment of the society as long as the two nebulous bodies or the voluntary agencies
continue to deal with handicapped people in isolation.
Finally, Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen, while thanking you for giving me your
ears and your patience I have the honour and privilege to propose the formation of
Divisional, Zonal and Regional Councils of Social Service. I also trust that the last
named will be given the first attention for there must be a body to provide leadership, set
standards and act as a spokesman for all the Councils of Social Service in the Region. If
it is not possible to inaugurate a Regional body now, we could at least appoint a steering
committee made up of two or three members from each Social Welfare Zone. This
could meet in rotation at each zonal headquarters to plan ways and means of implementing
decisions reached at this conference.










COUNCIL OF SOCIAL SERVICE iLF;:':T, ABA ZONE
BY DR T. L. C. OKECHUKWU (CHAIRMAN)
1. History:
The Aba Council of Social Service was officially launched on Saturday 6th April,
1963, by the Honourable Minister of Internal Affairs-Chiefthe Honourable 1. U. Akpabio.
Since then there has been regular increase in the roll of its membership. This Council
has brought the strength to fifty-five registered unions and organizations with 110
representatives.
2. Activities:
The activities of this Council are mainly carried out in various committees which are
responsible to the main Council. This Council sits once every month to review and
discuss the monthly progress report as could be submitted by the relevant committees
and plan for the promotion of social work in the community.
3. Committees:
The Citizenship Centre Committee (i:. In..I I Home) and the V irr Guidance
Committee are the two strong committees functioning while the Youth Centre Committee
and the Mental Health Committee are still in their embryo stage.
4. Citizenship Centre Committee:
This is a committee of twenty-six made up of representatives from ';"..;. I i divisions
and county councils in Aba Zone set up on 29th September, 1963, to plan and run the
affairs of the Citizenship Centre.
The Citizenship Centre Committee arranged the official opening of the temporary
home at No. 130 Okigwi Road, Aba. This official opening was performed by Honourable
R. 0. Iwuagwu, the Commissioner for Umuahia Province in November, 1963. Other
activities of this committee include:-
(a) The monthly meetings for the management and running of this Centre.
(b) The directing of the use of the government grant of 840 under feeding,
games, payment of wages, crafts, and miscellaneous expenditures.
This committee has employed a matron and a blind handicrafts instructor to work at
the Centre. Efforts are being made by this committee to acquire a permanent site for
the building of the ideal Centre.
A sixteen acre piece of land along Aba/Opobo road has been surveyed and inspected
by this committee. Arrangement has been completed with the owner to give out the
land freehold for 3,168.
Above all this, committee has drawn a well prepared constitution to guide its work
in the future.
5. Marriage Guidance Committee:
A .I 1i.i.,' Guidance Committee was set up on the 13th March, 1964. This
committee of thirteen is made up of 1.. ( ,. a medical officer, a lawyer and distin-
guished men and women from various walks ot lite. The committee has handled a good
number of matrimonial disputes and a few cases of unmarried mothers. They have
S...... -. :',d!, settled ten cases of marital disputes while five are still pending.










COUNCIL OF SOCIAL SERVICE iLF;:':T, ABA ZONE
BY DR T. L. C. OKECHUKWU (CHAIRMAN)
1. History:
The Aba Council of Social Service was officially launched on Saturday 6th April,
1963, by the Honourable Minister of Internal Affairs-Chiefthe Honourable 1. U. Akpabio.
Since then there has been regular increase in the roll of its membership. This Council
has brought the strength to fifty-five registered unions and organizations with 110
representatives.
2. Activities:
The activities of this Council are mainly carried out in various committees which are
responsible to the main Council. This Council sits once every month to review and
discuss the monthly progress report as could be submitted by the relevant committees
and plan for the promotion of social work in the community.
3. Committees:
The Citizenship Centre Committee (i:. In..I I Home) and the V irr Guidance
Committee are the two strong committees functioning while the Youth Centre Committee
and the Mental Health Committee are still in their embryo stage.
4. Citizenship Centre Committee:
This is a committee of twenty-six made up of representatives from ';"..;. I i divisions
and county councils in Aba Zone set up on 29th September, 1963, to plan and run the
affairs of the Citizenship Centre.
The Citizenship Centre Committee arranged the official opening of the temporary
home at No. 130 Okigwi Road, Aba. This official opening was performed by Honourable
R. 0. Iwuagwu, the Commissioner for Umuahia Province in November, 1963. Other
activities of this committee include:-
(a) The monthly meetings for the management and running of this Centre.
(b) The directing of the use of the government grant of 840 under feeding,
games, payment of wages, crafts, and miscellaneous expenditures.
This committee has employed a matron and a blind handicrafts instructor to work at
the Centre. Efforts are being made by this committee to acquire a permanent site for
the building of the ideal Centre.
A sixteen acre piece of land along Aba/Opobo road has been surveyed and inspected
by this committee. Arrangement has been completed with the owner to give out the
land freehold for 3,168.
Above all this, committee has drawn a well prepared constitution to guide its work
in the future.
5. Marriage Guidance Committee:
A .I 1i.i.,' Guidance Committee was set up on the 13th March, 1964. This
committee of thirteen is made up of 1.. ( ,. a medical officer, a lawyer and distin-
guished men and women from various walks ot lite. The committee has handled a good
number of matrimonial disputes and a few cases of unmarried mothers. They have
S...... -. :',d!, settled ten cases of marital disputes while five are still pending.







COiNtil S OF SOCIAL. SERViCEl


The :'- .,.i ,i ,, Guidance Committee has in addition been able to give two public
lectures to the community on:-
(i) "Your duties as fathers/mothers".
(ii) "Home education of the child".
They have also planned to talk to teenagers on their duties to their parents, and to pros-
pective and young couples on how to maintain good happy homes.
6. War against Lunatic 1 ..' !. : ::
The Aba Council of Social Service has proposed to assist the police to rid the town of
lunatics. During the Annual General Meeting as many as thirty prominent members
volunteered to help out in this assignment. The immediate problem now appears to be
the finding of a place to send them.

7. Youth Work:
The Aba Council of Social Service is thinking seriously of the preventive side of
juvenile delinquency. A good number of influential members have been organizing the
existing youth leaders to sell out the idea of youth centres. Series of meetings have been
held by the youth leaders on the best approach to this project. As Aba township is made
up of five distinct sections: Ndiegoro, Ogbo, Eziama, Eziukwu and the main township, it
is in our plan to build in each of these sections a youth centre to cater for young children
living in such area. Steering committees will be set up for every section to plan its own
work.

8. Juvenile Court:
A Juvenile Court has been established since 1961 in this division for trial of juveniles.
A group of volunteers comprising of equal number of men and women of outstanding
personalities serve in this court as assessors.
9. Juvenile Delinquency:
A total of about 240 cases of juvenile delinquencies have been handled by the juvenile
court since it was set up. Juvenile offenders are no longer kept in the police cell, rather
they are sent on arrest, to the Citizenship Centre as awaiting trial.
10. K..=, o!-hi I: -,...
Arrangements have been made whereby three of the inmates of the Remand Home
(Citizenship Centre) are learning to be mechanics. One of the inmates attends school
from the Centre. Two have been placed with masters. In all, the afore-mentioned
arrangements, current reports from the masters revealed that they are doing well.
Problems:
(i) 1 ,,, i. Guidance Committee needs some legal backing to enable it impose
decisions on financial support taken on persons found liable. Should a man
admit being responsible for a pregnancy but fails to implement a decision
agreed upon, what can Marriage Guidance Committee do ?
(ii) High bride price tends to obstruct the chances of young men to get married
and indirectly forces the marriageable girls to drift to townships. These
tendencies, in the opinion of the If I ri. ." Guidance Committee increases the
incidence of the unmarried mothers and seems to call for urgent government
measures-with particular reference to a more effective application of the
Government Law on Bride Price.








CONFERENCE REPORT


(iii) The Citizenship Centre Committee needs financial support for purchase of
land and the building of a Citizenship Centre.
(iv) What can be done to lessen absconding from Citizenship Centres ? Statistics-
From January 1964 to January 1965 a total of about thirty inmates absconded
from the Citizenship Centre.
(v) The Aba Council of Social Service feels that the establishment of an Approved
School for girls is really overdue. The necessity for this does not appear to
merit emphasis.
(vi) There is great difficulty in acquiring land for youth centres.
(vii) More Mental Hospitals needed to serve the region.
(viii) Social Welfare Division to contact Ministry of Information to provide films
showing activities of Social Welfare Department particularly social problems
solved by Council of Social Service so that when appeals for funds are made
the public would respond. Such film shall educate the public in voluntary
work, make the duties of welfare workers more effective and lead to more
volunteers for the future.
(iv) (a) How to get the trained blinds occupied.
(b) Method of getting the blinds to the training centre.

DR T. L. C. OKECHUKWU
Chairman of Aba Zone Delegates











REPORT ON ABAKALIKI COUNCIL OF SOCIAL SERVICE TO COUNCIL
OF SOCIAL SERVICE CONFERENCE HELD AT NSUKKA-
ON 19th FEBRUARY, 1965

The Council of Social Service Organization began in Abakaliki about the middle of
1962 and on 15th December the same year, the Abakaliki Council of Social Service was
officially launched by the then Acting Minister of Internal Affairs, Hon. D. S. Agim.
The Council's Motto is: It is more blessed to give than to receive. The Abakaliki
Provincial Commissioner is the President while four of the Second-class Chiefs who are
members of the Eastern House of Chiefs and three other notable persons in the town are
its patrons. I '. ir i ii.-, .rId designations are borne by the Council's letter-heads.

Activities of the Council:
Since its inception, the Council of Social Service has effected many successful
repatriations of destitute persons, paupers, and children needing care and attention.
Prominent among its members at once toured parts of the Division visiting repatriated
girls from Calabar Remand Home and parts of Ugep, Obubra and Ogoja visiting the
homes of blind persons and recruited seven blind persons who were sent to Ikeja Craft
Centre for the blind in January, 1963. Later, eight more blind recruits were sent out of
which number, two refused training.

Committees of the Council:
Most of the council's activities are carried out through the medium of committees
which are formed as need arises. The principal committees at present operating under
the council are:-
1. THE EXECUTIVE CoMMITTEE.-Comprising the Chairman of the Council of
Social Service, the Treasurer, the officials and twenty-one other members each from a
financial member union. This committee has the power to approve application for
membership of the Council of Social Service. It controls all other committees of the
Council of Social Service, from which it receives reports.
2. REMAND HOME/CITIZENSIHIP CENTRE COMMITTEE.-Originally made up of seven
nominated members from the community, each through his own cultural union. They
included: a senior !\ h .mi.l Officer, an Agricultural Officer, one Senior Health Superin-
tendent, two other civil servants and two well known contractors/traders. This commit-
tee arranged and officially opened a temporary Remand Home in July, 1963. It is
charged with building the permanent Remand Home known now as Citizenship Centre
through community effort. Negotiates for a site through a sub-committee, visits
the Home from time to time for purposes of inspection. Controls the Centre and its
farm. Receives accounts from the officers. Awards contracts for the supply of food, and
firewood and for other works required in the Home. This committee is now expanded to
include representatives from other Councils of Social Service, and catchment areas in
the zone and is re-designated "Zonal Citizenship Centre" as such.

3. FINANCE COMMITTm-EE.-The members were appointed on the floor of the house
of Council of Social Service. It is charged with raising funds. It successfully organized








CONFERENCE REPORT


a Fund-raising Week, realizing over 300 as profit. It organized an All-night Ball,
Fun-fair, a Choral Evening, Cinema show, Football and Netball matches at which gate
fees were collected. Produced and sold the Council's emblem in houses, streets and
offices. Schools, colleges and other institutions in the community were rightly involved
during the Fund-raising Week. The Council has the African Continental Bank as its
bankers. The Chairman and the Treasurer are the Council of Social Service trustees
who operate its account. Recently, the Council succeeded in acquiring a 20-acre piece
of land from the local people with 150 compensation once and for all in lieu of rights.
This should have cost the Council 250 by direct lease in addition to annual rental
payments. Work of the citizenship will shortly start there. Arrangement is being
made to invite a team of the American Cross Roads Africa to help. The Council's
overall financial standing at present is 1,035.
4. JUVENILE WELFARE COMMITTEE of nine members nominated by cultural
unions. Finds ways and means of putting a stop to the movement of juveniles from the
rural areas to the towns by appealing to parents through cultural unions and other organiza-
tions. It recommends Juvenile Court Assessors. Establishes links with the home of
juveniles admitted into the Home. Places juveniles needing care and attention under
masters and settles their wages. A plan is already in progress towards the establishment
of a Youth Centre which will be officially launched in March this year.
5. OTHER PROPOSED COMMITTEE: Blind Welfare Committee.-This is zonal now
that the two Provinces intend to operate a Craft Centre for the blind. Survey of the
blind is being conducted in the two Provinces (Ogoja and Abakaliki) with a view to
finding out the number of blind persons within this Social Welfare Zone.
(ii) Mental Health Committee.--To deal with lunatics, the disabled, maimed and
other social casualties in the area.
General:
The Council of Social Service among other activities levied a 3-voluntary
contribution on every member union during its Fund-raising Week. Member unions
have helped in community projects, a typical example being that of the Women Adult
Education Centre, the work of which attracted a team of the American Operation Cross
Roads, Africa. Members of the Council of Social Service turned out to work with that
team. Mobilizes its members during visits of very important personalities to Abakaliki
to accord the visitors a rousing welcome, e.g., the Governor-General in August, 1963.
Members enjoy lively debates at the Council of Social Service meetings. The Council of
Social Service brings together the various cultural units by enabling members to under-
stand one another through this common forum. It also settles disputes in its member
unions and gets individuals to enlist in their own cultural unions thus bringing peace,
harmony and stability to the whole community. The Council of Social Service has
always maintained a close link and good relationship with the County Councils whose
patronage and assistance it has always received.
M. N. NNOROM, Chairman
Ihfillal. i Council of Social Service












THE ZONAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL OF SOCIAL SERVICE
CALABAR ZONE, PRESENTED TO THE CONFERENCE OF
COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE OPENING AT NSUKKA
UNIVERSITY C, ,IP'':, ON FRIDAY, 19TH FEBRUARY, 1965

Introduction:
The Calabar Council of Social Service on behalf of the Calabar Zone, considers it a
pleasure to be called upon to present to this conference a brief report on its activities,
accomplishments and problems. It is befitting in a report of this nature to express its
appreciation and gratitude to the Ministry of Internal Affairs in particular and the East
Regional Government in general for making it possible for delegates from the different
zones to assemble at a conference like this to exchange views and hold discussions in the
interest of Social Welfare Service in this Region.

In pursuance of the new policy introduced by the Ministry in Social Welfare Service,
a Council of Social Service comprising fifty-four Cultural Unions and Organizations, was
officially launched by the Honourable Minister of Internal Affairs in August, 1963 in
Calabar. This Council was the first of its kind in Calabar Zone which has as its catchment
areas--Uyo, Eket and Enyong Divisions. Neither can we forget to mention the role
played by the Ministry of Local Government-a partner in the new set up-in ..iAini
Divisional Social Workers to establish Councils of Social Service and help them function
in different zones.

Activities and Progress:
Let us now examine vividly some of the activities undertaken and the progress made
by the Calabar Council of Social Service. Our first Divisional Social Worker was
appointed in March, 1963. After his initial training, he assumed duties as a full-time
Organizing Secretary to the Calabar Council of Social Service. Since then, the Council
has been able to hold meetings regularly every month. The Citizenship Centre Commit-
tee which virtually runs the Remand Home at Calabar was formed early last year. Its
meetings are held on the first Thursday of every month. Arrangements have been
concluded for the formation of other vital committees such as the Blind Welfare, the
Mental Health and the Juvenile Delinquency Committees. It is hoped that more
committees will be formed as the need arises. Other aspects of the progress so far made
include the expansion of the Citizenship Centre farm, the appointment of a Temporary
Matron to supervise the Centre's farm and sales of farm proceeds, the inauguration of a
Council of Social Service at Eket and the survey of the blind. Uyo will soon inaugurate a
very powerful Council of Social Service judging by the immense interest shown by the
County Councils and the Divisional Officer of the area. We have here to pay tribute to
the Ministry again for posting to Calabar a Community Organizer who has already
commenced work among the cultural unions. The Calabar Council of Social Service
can now boast of fifty-six affiliated unions with more than 112 representatives. More
applications for membership, recently received indicate that the Council of Social Service
will continue to grow from strength to strength.








1t CONFERENCE REPORT

Problems:
Like every other organization trying to find its feet, the Calabar Council of Social
Service is faced with numerous and varied problems. Calabar is a very old community.
Its inhabitants are slow to embrace any new move. They are apparently suspicious.
They need to be impressed and educated but once convinced, they wade into with all
the enthusiasm, skill and maturity, characteristic of their community life. The existing
Council of Social Service, though a feat by its mere formation in so short a period, was
hurriedly set up and full of members who are of not much value as far as voluntary
Social Welfare Service is concerned. i\..irl n behind the screen, the Organizing
Secretary, the Welfare Team and some active members are engaged in the battle of inducing
the unions to replace such members with more dynamic ones. Recently the Council
has been faced with the difficulty of securing a permanent and central place of meeting.
Some of the members are still irregular at meetings. Minutes of meetings circulated
to all unions are not being read at union meetings, an unfortunate situation since
"reading" the minutes is another means of educating the unions in the activities of the
Council. Our publicity system must be improved and maintained. Experience has
proved that the Calabar Council of Social Service must embark seriously on community
service. Such activities as lectures, youth activities, processions, cleaning up campaigns,
free gifts to the handicapped, visits to the Prison, Mental Hospitals, patients in Hospitals,
parents of delinquent children and other innumerable welfare services which are within
the scope of the Council should be undertaken in this community in order to endear
the Council to the public and create "the impact" which this Council so badly needs.
Then will the Calabar Council of Social Service be better placed to enlist the sympathy of
the public when launching an appeal under its fund raising programme. Some of the
questions facing the Council include "what will the Council of Social Service do for me
as an individual member ? What will be the future of this Council which people talk so
much about ? Is the Councilin a position to influence the Government to create employ-
ment for its members and how soon ?" One can readily see that to be a member of a
Council of Social Service the kind of member must be sufficiently developed and
educated to know that there is greater satisfaction in spending time, energy and effort
in the service of the wrecks of our society without hoping for any remuneration as an
individual. This was the very ideal which our Lord promulgated and preached-
service, selfless service for others. And this same service is what our Council of Social
Service lacks at the moment and which its members must develop in order to realize our
hopes and aspirations. "Though the fields are all white and the reapers are few", we
sincerely hope, God helping us, that by gentle education, persuasion and tact, the
Calabar Council of Social Service will take their proper places with their counterparts
in the Region. And now to all representatives of the different Ministries at this
maiden conference to all delegates, patrons and observers from the different zones
gathered here the Calabar Council of Social Service on behalf of the Calabar Zone says--
Welcome. May God help us to tackle the huge task before us so that in future we may
be proud to look back to ajob well done.

CHIEF O. A. NSISUK, Chairman
Calabar Delegates











ENUGU ZONAL REPORT
Administrative Divisions:
The Administrative Divisions of the Enugu Social Welfare Zone consist of Afikpo,
Awgu, Nsukka, Udi and Enugu Urban.
2. Council of Social Service:
Councils of Social Service have been formed and officially launched in three of the
Divisions, namely, Enugu Urban, Afikpo and Udi (Abaja/Ngwo). It is hoped that
similar councils will be formed in Awgu and Nsukka Divisions when these Divisions
engage their Divisional Social Workers. There has been a considerable progress made
by the existing Councils of Social Service in the zone in the implementation of the social
welfare policy of involving the local authority and the community in solving our common
social problems such as the care of the blind, the infirm, the delinquent, the disabled and
the handicapped. This is made possible through the formation of committees which are
the working organs of the Council of Social Service. The committees already formed
include the following:-

(a) CITIZENSHIP CENTRE COMMITTEE (REMAND HOME):
This committee is responsible for the running and maintenance of the Enugu
Citizenship Centre. The committee pays occasional visits to the Centre in order to
acquaint itself with the requirements of the Centre. The boys in the Centre are provided
with recreational activities such as running of market garden, poultry keeping and
farming with the view to making the Centre self-supporting. In order to meet with
these requirements, the committee approved a total expenditure of 410 (four hundred
and ten pounds) during the months of October, 1964 to March, 1965. The committee
had previously spent a total of 425 5s 10d (four hundred and twenty-five pounds, five
shillings and ten pence) towards services at the Centre during the months of April to
September, 1964.
During the period between February, 1964 to January, 1965 a total of 150 boys
were admitted at the Centre while twenty-six were successfully re-settled with their
parents and relatives. The number of inmates presently at the Centre are thirty-two boys.
The "Houses" at the Centre are named after the Administrative Divisions making
up the Enugu Zone, i.e., Afikpo, Awgu, Udi and Nsukka. Apart from the practical
training in farming and poultry keeping, the boys enjoy regular film shows supplied by
the Ministry of Information and United States Information Service. A Government
Medical Officer offers regular and free medical attention to the boys.

(b) BLIND WELFARE COMMITTEE:
Blind survey has been carried out by the Blind Welfare Committees of the Councils
of Social Service in the zone and a total of over 200 blind ones have been discovered.
With the far reaching proposal undertaken by the councils, it is hoped that a blind
Rehabilitation Centre will be built in Abaja/Ngwo area of authority with a view to
rehabilitating blind ones from the divisions thus overcoming the fears of local blind
trainees who had hitherto been sent to the Ikeja Farm Craft Centre. The committee
also undertakes the campaign against blindness in the local communities.







CONFERENCE REPORT


(c) MENTAL HEALTH COMMITTEE:
This committee has successfully arranged for the admission of six mentally sick
patients in the Enugu Prison Asylum and the Mental Hospital, Calabar through the
co-operation of the relatives of the mental patients. Five other mental patients were
returned to their homes for local treatment on the request of their relatives.

3. Juvenile Court:
During the period between February to December, 1964 a total of 228 juveniles
who were charged with various offences appeared before the Enugu juvenile court.
Details of the offences are as follows:-
129 were charged with stealing.
30 were charged with hawking without permit.
18 were charged with assault and occasioning harm.
11 were charged with entering the railway platform without ticket.
1 was charged with sexual offence.
7 were charged with fighting.
24 appeared for being in need of care and attention.
4 were found begging for alms.
4 were charged with unlawful possession.

Probation.-Seventeen offenders were placed under probation and several of them
responded well to probation treatment.

Repatriation.-Fourty-nine boys and two girls were repatriated to their parents and
relatives in the rural districts.

Approved School.--Five boys were committed to 3 l; .1 School to enable them
settle down and learn useful trades.

4. Matrimonial Disputes:
Marital Disputes and child maintenance matters continue to come to the zonal
offices in a steady stream. Statistics of marital disputes handled by the zone during the
months of August to December, 1964 are as follows:-
Thirty-three cases involved unmarried mothers who sought maintenance from
their lovers.
105 cases involved housewives who sought reasonable monthly maintenance
allowance from their husbands.
Thirty-one cases involved family misunderstanding.
Twelve cases involved child custody.

Settlement:
Fifty-five cases were referred to cultural unions and relatives of the parties con-
cerned; ninety-eight were settled through mutual agreement between the parties;
fourteen referred to divisional social workers in other zones for necessary action;
twelve were voluntarily withdrawn by the complainants; six were referred to court for
settlement.
CHIEF NWAFOR CIIUKWUANI
Chairman, r' -i:. D, ,,,-.'.n












PROGRESS REPORT ON ONITSHA COUNCIL OF SOCIAL SERVICE
FROM FEBRUARY, 1962-FEBRUARY, 1965

Inauguration:
As social problems become i"u ..,1,i.l\h high in Eastern N;-, ii.i, the Mlii-i3 of
Internal Affairs formulated a policy through which every member of the community can
take an active part in the solution of those problems which are now regarded as no man's
business such as the welfare of the blind, the deaf, the dumb, the motherless babies and
orphans, the aged and the infirm, the disabled and the reconciliation of marriage
disputes along traditional lines. The policy is to work through the Council of Social
Service. The Onitsha Community deemed it an obligation to take their place in this
voluntary service of the Region by forming its own Council of Social Service. On the
8th of February, 1962, the Provincial Commissioner, lion. S. 0. MIasi, opened the official
inaugural meeting of Onitsha Council of Social Service. The meeting was presided
over by Chief I. %.11i I., Odu II of Onitsha. Ten voluntary organizations took part in
the inauguration while the personalities who initiated the council included Chief P. 0.
Anatogu, the Onowu of Onitsha, M. O. C. Okoya, Barrister J. C. Anyaduba as chairman
of O.U.C.C., Dr J. O. Onyeachonam, Mrs H. W. N. Betuel and Dr W. C. Eze.
Mrs E. R. Bell-Gain was the first and only Administrative Officer of the Council.

2. Launching:
With the expansion and progress of Social Welfare Work in Onitsha, the need for the
launching of the council became incumbent. The steering committee under the leader-
ship of Dr W. C. Eze and assistance of C. A. Efobi doubled their selfless efforts to make
the launching ceremony a success. On 9th September, 1963, the :l.iiii 1 r of Internal
Affairs, Hon. I. U. Akpabio, performed the iii,, I-!,. ceremony to confirm the existence
of the Council of Social Service in Onitsha. I lI ir as the 6th launching of the council
in the Region.

3. Membership:
The council which started with ten voluntary organizations has got more than
twenty cultural organizations and interested individuals enrolled. There are indications
of more enrolments in the future. Twelve members form the executive committee.
Attendances at full council and committee meetings are encouraging.

4. Committees:
To date we have formed the Citizenship Centre Committee, the Motherless Babies
Committee, Marriage Guidance and 1 in.,g Reconciliation Committees.

5. The Citizenship Centre Committee:
The committee opened a Centre at Onitsha in May, 1964 with two inmates of
Onitsha Welfare Zone repatriated from Enugu. Mr F. O. Abutu is the present
chairman. Some of the activities of the committee are:
(i) To run and maintain the Centre i I as to cater for the inmates of the Centre.
(ii) To provide valuable activities for the inmates such as organized games,
farming, poultry, folk-lores, health education and songs.







CONFERENCE REPORT


(iii) To establish family link and rehabilitation of the juveniles.
(iv) To repatriate the juveniles.
(v) To acquire sites for the Citizenship Centre, award contracts and erect buildings.
(vi) To arrange for the sales of farm and garden products and account for the
same.
The committee pays frequent visits to the Centre, to see the daily activities of the
inmates and to inspect their records. The committee appeals to the community through the
C.O.S.S. to supply equipment, in the form of donations, gifts, poultry, goats, footballs,
and farm equipment. Our present Centre is on a temporary basis and negotiation is
going on to acquire a permanent site.

6. Motherless Babies Committee:
This committee has been formed at Onitsha. The idea is to minimize the high rate
of the motherless babies and orphans mortality and to alleviate their sufferings. Mrs
A. Adogu is the chairman of the committee while Mrs A. Mbanefo is the Secretary.
The activities of the committee are:-
(i) To provide the babies with parental cares which they very much need.
(ii) To maintain them, send them to the doctors for medical attention.
(iii) To feed and inspect them.
(iv) To provide them with matrons, dormitories, beds and beddings.
(v) To appeal to the community for donations and to provide the babies with
foster parents.

The motherless babies home is located near the Citizenship Centre with four inmates
at present. There are two matrons attached to the Centre. The matrons are doing
excellent work. Voluntary organizations and distinguished visitors donate generously
towards the maintenance of the Centre.

7. Marriage Guidance Committee or Marriage Reconciliation Committee:
The committee was formed immediately our C.O.S.S. began but owing to the
fewness of its members it ceased to function. Despite this, our Social Welfare Office
handled 161 marriage and maintenance cases in 1962, 253 in 1963 and 179 in 1964. The
number of cases handled until now totalled 593. In most cases, the couples concerned
were reconciled to live peacefully again but in extremely difficult ones maintenance fees
were recommended. We are intensifying our efforts to form strong Marriage Reconci-
liation Committees on clan or divisional basis by the way of merging cultural unions of
identical marriage traditions into a standing committee for those areas.

8. Juvenile Court:
It is due to the activities and influence of this council that a juvenile court was
established at Onitsha with the Magistrate as the president and a panel of twelve important
personalities who were nominated to serve as court assessors. The juvenile court sits
every Saturday to try juvenile cases but the assessors attend in rotation. The assessors
recommend to the Magistrate the best treatment to be given to the young offender with
the intention to reform him and trying in every possible way to avoid punishment. A
juvenile found guilty of an offence is remanded at the Citizenship Centre for a period of
time before repatriation while an innocent one is discharged to his parents.








COUNCILS 6F SOCIAL SERVICE


9. Juvenile Delinquencies:
Cases of juvenile delinquencies handled in Onitsha Welfare Zone increase from day
to day and year after year. In 1962, 158 juvenile cases were handled, 230 in 1963 and
150 in 1964. On the whole about 550 cases came through our office from 1962 to date.
10. Onitsha Citizenship Centre:
Onitsha Social Welfare Zone is composed of Onitsha Division, Okigwi Division,
Awka and Orlu Divisions. The inmates of the Centre are grouped into four houses
namely, Onitsha House, Awka House, Okigwi House and Orlu House. The dormitories
are also named as such. The children from each division are made to belong to the
house of their division. The idea is to infuse into the children the spirit of belonging and
responsibility. Each house has a leader and their daily activities are controlled by their
respective leaders.
Score Boards:
These are kept and marked daily. On the score board, full marks arc awarded to
houses with the best behaviour in order to maintain their spirit of responsibility. Marks
are deducted in respect of houses that misbehave as a disciplinary punishment against
such houses. The marks are recorded for the week, quarter and the year. The house
that scores the highest marks may be awarded some prize at the end of the year.
Daily Activities:
The children rise at 5.30 a.m. daily to do morning road walk or physical training.
Other activities include manual labour, gardening, football games, ludo, native songs,
dances, and mid-day rest. Literacy classes are held and the boys attend services on
Sunday. They have constructed their own football field for games.
Gardening:
The garden at the centre is divided into four plots. Each plot belongs to a Divisional
House. This grouping arouses the spirit of competition.
The inmates are doing excellent work in gardening and consequently have started
to grow and to produce vegetables of various kinds such as lettuce, onions, tomatoes,
maize, cabbage, pepper, turnips, beans, carrots and garden eggs to a marketable quantity.
Medical Facilities:
Monthly medical cares are provided to the inmates of the centre by the doctors of
Onitsha General Hospital. During visits, the doctors prescribe treatments for every
individual where need be. The Hospital also donated a First Aid box to the centre and
the box is rich with valuable first aid materials.
Staff:
(a) The Institutional Social Worker.-His duties are to supervise and inspect the
children. To keep the records of their daily activities and to report same to the
citizenship centre committee. To make investigations in the circumstances
surrounding the boys' surroundings, life history and family link.
(b) The Welfare Assistant.-He maintains the garden, teaches the children garden
skill and keeps the records of his daily processes. He checks the weeds and
plant diseases in the farm. He writes reports on the boys' social duties.
(c) The .lirx,. --She is concerned with the food of the children. She cooks
their food, inspects the kitchen, cooking utensils, dining rooms and tables.
She measures the daily ration and sees that the correct menu is given to the boys.







CONFERENCE REPORT


Administration:
The Local Government County Councils of the four "catchment areas" of Onitsha
Welfare Zone, namely: Onitsha, Awka, Okigwi and Orlu have employed five Divisional
Social Workers. One is exclusively for Onitsha Urban while the other four are employed
by joint County Councils of the zone. The engagement of these Divisional Social
Workers will strengthen Social Welfare Work in the Region. Some Divisional Social
Workers in Onitsha Zone have been able to form Councils of Social Service in their
areas an 1 others are working hard to do so in the future.

Youth Centre Project:
Our Social Welfare Office through the Community Organizer have contacted more
than twenty youth leaders and all gave the scheme their blessings. Furthermore,
personalities other than youth leaders who will help the project have been contacted.
These include ministers of religion of different denominations and the Provincial
Secretary, Onitsha. The office has made copies of excerps from the talk given to the
Presbyterian Youth Fellowship, Enugu by the Chief Social Welfare Officer and notes on
the re-introduction of Old Village Square in Ogbete, Enugu and given to the people
contacted. These will give the leaders an insight into the proposal. The meeting of
the principal supporters of the Youth Project will be convened in March when the Chief
Social W,. I.i. Officer might have given an assent to do so.
Future Proposals:
The Onitsha Council of Social Service has these proposals in mind:-
1. To acquire a permanent site for the citizenship centre and other rehabilitation
centres.
2. To form strong Marriage Guidance and Marriage Reconciliation Committees.
3. To form Blind Welfare Committee to survey the blind persons in this area.
4. To get rid of the undesirables when the County Councils Lunatic and P,.. -.
Bye-laws come into operation.'
5. To open the Motherless Babies Home officially.
6. To organize clean up campaigns yearly.
7. To organize welfare week and fund raising.
Social Welfare Officer:
A lot of credit must be given to our zonal Social Welfare Officer who throughout
the cold periods of uncertainty maintained the enthusiasm of the members of the council
by way of diligence and devotion to duty before she could be given some supporters in
her office. By her untiring efforts and tactful methods of approach, the former Onitsha
Magistrate's Court has been converted entirely into a Social Welfare Office.
General Appreciation:
I thank the Hon. Minister of Internal Affairs, the Hon. Provincial Commissioner for
Onitsha, and all the personalities who made the inauguration, launching and running of
Onitsha Council of Social Service a reality and a success. In an equal strength I thank
the Local Government County Councils that employ our Divisional Social Workers,
the Chief Social Welfare Officer and his supporters who organized this noble conference
at Nsukka and lastly but not the least all the delegates who ignored their duties at home
to attend this conference for the 11: ., of mankind. Thank you.
DR W. C. EZE
Leader, Onitsha Zone











PROGRESS REPORT OF THE PORT HARCOURT COUNCIL
OF SOCIAL SERVICE

Introduction:
This report is not intended to cover the various activities undertaken by the branch
but to highlight the main events which took place.

Brief History of the Port Harcourt Council of Social Service:
The branch was launched officially on the 2nd of March, 1963 by the Minister of
Internal Affairs, Chief the Hon. I. U. Akpabio.
On the 18th of May, 1963 the first anniversary of work at the Port Harcourt Citizen-
ship Centre was held. This occasion was used by the Port Harcourt Council of Social
Service to educate the general public on its work, and to call for support to meet the
challenges of social ills inherent in a fast growing community like Port Harcourt.
The first anniversary of the inauguration of the branch was held from the 12th to
18th April, 1964. The programme included football matches, traditional dances, a
debate on mental delinquency, a film show on the training of the blind and a public
lecture at the Port Harcourt Municipal Town Hall, given by Dr Kalunta, Superintendent
of the Mental Hospital, Calabar.
Opening of the First Hostel of the Citizenship Centre:
The first hostel of the Citizenship Centre was opened on the 24th of September,
1963 by the Minister of Internal Affairs, supported by a number of leading personalities
from the Municipality and the Port Harcourt Social Welfare Zone. The occasion was
used to launch an appeal for 5,000 for the building of a second hostel at the centre,
and which would increase the potential intake of juvenile delinquents from twenty to
forty.
Membership:
The number of Clan Unions affiliated to the Council increased from thirty to sixty
in 1963 but only a slight increase was registered in 1964. However, the number of
Associated Organizations rose from four to eleven.

Staffing:
Significant changes have taken place in the staffing of the centre with the appoint-
ments of Mr A. U. Akpan, Probation Officer, as a replacement of Mr G. I. Iroegbu;
Miss L. U. Usen, Assistant Welfare Officer; Mr J. N. Maduka, Institutional Social
Worker; Mr C. Onuoha, Community Organizer and F. Okolue, Assistant Probation
Officer. Mention has to be made of a delegation to the Ministry of Internal Affairs in
November, 1963 led by the Council's Chairman, Mr H. K. Offonry, and which inter alia
discussed the staffing of the Port Harcourt Citizenship Centre.
Poultry and Vegetable Garden Project:
The Citizenship Centre vegetable garden and the poultry schemes continue to
receive public support. Donations of 30, from the International Women's Association,
and 28 from AMOSEAS (an American Oil Company), made it possible for the second







CONFERENCE REPORT


hen house in the centre to be completed. It is hoped that the poultry project will be
self-supporting in the near future.

Lucy Home Project:
Approval was received from the Ministry of Town Planning for lease on land for the
building of a house for Lucy, a destitute woman living along Creek Road, Port Harcourt.

Committees:
(a) CITIZENSHIP CENTRE BOARD.-the representation is based on the divisions
comprising the Port Harcourt Welfare Zone. The Council has been particularly lucky
with the moral and considerable financial support it has received from the Port Harcourt
Municipal Council for the buildings at the centre. Other aspects of the growth of the
centre worth mentioning are:-
(i) the Board now meets in the centre;
(ii) Port Harcourt is in the unique position of having a citizenship board instead
of a committee. (No fears ladies and gentlemen: the functions are the same);
(iii) the communal building work which has been a feature of work at the centre;
(iv) donations received from companies and individuals, schools and training
institutions.
(b) BLIND WELFARE, nIENTAL HEALTH AND CARE OF GENERALLY DESTITUTE, comes
together in our Good Samaritan Committee. The work carried out by the Committee in
1964 included:-
(i) investigations about the possibility of sales of blind men's handicrafts;
(ii) investigating possibility of carrying out a survey of destitute mentally ill,
on the streets, and also helps in tracing relatives of those in the Port Harcourt
asylum;
(iii) initiated co-ordinated action on the beggar problem;
(iv) applied for, and negotiated land settlement for Lucy.
(c) VOLUNTARY WORK COMMITTEE.-After much activity in 1963 on the foundations
of the 4-Unit Second Block of the Community Centre, 1964 was not so busy except for
the kitchen for staff and store. 1965 will be a busy year for the committee with Lucy's
lease now through. This committee is responsible for organizing the quota of voluntary
work of member unions.
(d) MARRIAGE GUIDANCE AND RECONCILIATION COMMITTEE.-Is under formation.
Two unions have co-operated for some time in family reconciliation work.
(e) YOUTH CENTRE COMMITTEE.-Ias not yet been formed, though a few C.O.S.S.
members are active in the Orije Youth Centre project. A site has been selected for the
possible building of a Youth Centre.
(f) WELFARE WEEK AND FUND RAISING COMMITTEE.-Falls within the duties of the
Executive Committee which was given the responsibility of organizing the Anniversary
Week, with the assistance of Good Samaritan Committee.

News from other Branches in the Port Harcourt Social Welfare Zone:
,. ] .i..,; Division has two social workers. There are five young branches and which
are particularly active on the family reconciliation side. The other vocal need is accom-
modation for a Motherless Babies Home.






COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


In Owerri Division Mbaise (having its own Social Worker) and Mbaitoli, Oratta, and
Ngor-Okpala have all just established Steering Committees, and so should soon be
moving into action. Khana and Gokana in Ogoni are appointing a District Social
Worker. So also is Obio Urban this coming year, so C.O.S.S. should soon be born there.
Degema and Yenagoa are not yet committed.
TAKING STOCK:
Experience gained from the working of the constitution shows that the following
amendments are necessary:-
(i) An interpretation clause.
(ii) Associated Organizations should be allowed to become full members.
(iii) Citizenship Centre Committee or Board should have a separate financial set-
up and should be controlled by the overall C.O.S.S. financial committee.
Experience has shown that allowing one committee to combine both func-
tions leads to unnecessary delay.
(iv) The C.O.S.S. financial year should run from March to April and therefore
the annual general meetings should be held in April and not in January.

LOOKING AHEAD:
Reviewing the various activities undertaken by the branch in its two years of existence,
1963 was a year of experimentation and 1964 was a year of consolidation. 1965 is going to
be full of many challenges. Among the duties to be undertaken by the branch are a
drive to increase the membership which remain fully static in 1964. The Lucy Home
Scheme will be "the" project for the branch in 1965. People unfamiliar with the project
may want to know more about Lucy. She is a destitute and somewhat mentally deranged
woman who lives along Creek Road in Port Harcourt. The plan is to build a house for
her which will in future become a C.O.S.S. rest house for those in need of temporary
shelter.
M. A. NWANKWO
lHon. Secretary










SOCIAL CHANGES IN NIGERIA, THEIR EFFECTS ON INDIVIDUAL
THE FAMILY AND THE SOCIETY
BEING A REVISED VERSION OF AN ADDRESS DELIVERED BEFORE THE COUNCIL
ON SOCIAL SERVICE-CONTINUING EDUCATION CENTRE, UNIVERSITY OF
NIGERIA, NSUKKA, FEBRUARY 20, 1965 BY DR AKINSOLA AKIWOWO
SENIOR LECTURER IN SOCIOLOGY
Mr Chairman and Distinguished Guests,
I thank you for asking me to be one of those to speak to you on this august occasion.
When I accepted the invitation, I believed, and still do, that we are taking together a
great and determined stride forward to create a common ground where those who teach
primarily and those who practice primarily ideas about man in society and culture may
work. For it is a proved fact that when teachers and practitioners of social action skills
work together for a time over a common problem, then its solution is very close at hand.
We at the University of Nigeria, as you know, in our separate Departments and Faculties,
are severally and collectively committed in varied ways and degrees to making this
institution a real and living part of Eastern Nigeria; to making worthwhile ideas available
to those who make and interpreted policies for the good of our society, as our fund of
knowledge is increased through studies of significant problems of societies.
The problems which confront us in Nigeria today are many and varied. One
problem deals with how we can govern ourselves best; another deals with how best we
can produce the wealth of our land, and with what is a judicious mode of distributing the
wealth which we have all produced. There are problems dealing with education: what
form of education is the best for Nigeria, nay Africa ? How shall we organize and run
the institutions in which we educate our men and women, and our youths, and children.
How far can we go in borrowing ideas from the British, American or Russian Universities
to use in the creation of a national philosophy of education and in the organization of our
institutions of higher learning ?
There is also the larger problem of creating in every individual Nigerian a conscious
feeling that he not only shares a society and a dominant way of life with every other
Nigerian but that he must put into practice that haunting idea in our present national
anthem, which can be paraphrased to mean that we are in fact brotherhood of peoples
and culture, though we may not all be able to make ourselves intelligible to one another
because of our differences of tongue.
But the problem I want to speak more specifically about on this occasion is of a
different nature from those I have already mentioned. It concerns the effects which
certain social facts have upon our families, the communities in which he lives, and our
youths-male and female-who live in villages, towns, and cities. These "social facts"
may be stated in the form of four general statements:
(i) Nigerians are not what they were, say from fifteen to twenty years ago.
(ii) Nigerians today do not see the world the way Nigerians saw it about fifteen
to twenty years ago.
(iii) The number and variety of things needed by Nigerians today to make life
more enjoyable have increased and have become more difficult to obtain.
(iv) Nigerians are increasingly using more rational and scientific ways to solve
common problems which confront them.










SOCIAL CHANGES IN NIGERIA, THEIR EFFECTS ON INDIVIDUAL
THE FAMILY AND THE SOCIETY
BEING A REVISED VERSION OF AN ADDRESS DELIVERED BEFORE THE COUNCIL
ON SOCIAL SERVICE-CONTINUING EDUCATION CENTRE, UNIVERSITY OF
NIGERIA, NSUKKA, FEBRUARY 20, 1965 BY DR AKINSOLA AKIWOWO
SENIOR LECTURER IN SOCIOLOGY
Mr Chairman and Distinguished Guests,
I thank you for asking me to be one of those to speak to you on this august occasion.
When I accepted the invitation, I believed, and still do, that we are taking together a
great and determined stride forward to create a common ground where those who teach
primarily and those who practice primarily ideas about man in society and culture may
work. For it is a proved fact that when teachers and practitioners of social action skills
work together for a time over a common problem, then its solution is very close at hand.
We at the University of Nigeria, as you know, in our separate Departments and Faculties,
are severally and collectively committed in varied ways and degrees to making this
institution a real and living part of Eastern Nigeria; to making worthwhile ideas available
to those who make and interpreted policies for the good of our society, as our fund of
knowledge is increased through studies of significant problems of societies.
The problems which confront us in Nigeria today are many and varied. One
problem deals with how we can govern ourselves best; another deals with how best we
can produce the wealth of our land, and with what is a judicious mode of distributing the
wealth which we have all produced. There are problems dealing with education: what
form of education is the best for Nigeria, nay Africa ? How shall we organize and run
the institutions in which we educate our men and women, and our youths, and children.
How far can we go in borrowing ideas from the British, American or Russian Universities
to use in the creation of a national philosophy of education and in the organization of our
institutions of higher learning ?
There is also the larger problem of creating in every individual Nigerian a conscious
feeling that he not only shares a society and a dominant way of life with every other
Nigerian but that he must put into practice that haunting idea in our present national
anthem, which can be paraphrased to mean that we are in fact brotherhood of peoples
and culture, though we may not all be able to make ourselves intelligible to one another
because of our differences of tongue.
But the problem I want to speak more specifically about on this occasion is of a
different nature from those I have already mentioned. It concerns the effects which
certain social facts have upon our families, the communities in which he lives, and our
youths-male and female-who live in villages, towns, and cities. These "social facts"
may be stated in the form of four general statements:
(i) Nigerians are not what they were, say from fifteen to twenty years ago.
(ii) Nigerians today do not see the world the way Nigerians saw it about fifteen
to twenty years ago.
(iii) The number and variety of things needed by Nigerians today to make life
more enjoyable have increased and have become more difficult to obtain.
(iv) Nigerians are increasingly using more rational and scientific ways to solve
common problems which confront them.







COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


Let us examine these general statements of facts in some detail so that we may get a
clearer understanding of them. Take the first statement: Nigerians are not what they
were, say fifteen to twenty years ago. What is it intended to refer to concretely? It
refers to the increased population, the varied and rich composition of the population, and
the many categories of jobs they pursue, and the different income brackets they occupy.
It refers also to the improving general state of health of most Nigerians.

Nigeria is becoming less and less racially homogeneous. And this is important
because we can benefit from the creative genius of all races of mankind who are committed
to making Nigeria a place where everyone possesses certain fundamental inalienable
rights, duties and responsibilities. These encouraging conditions erstwhile mentioned
did not exist in the Nigeria of two decades ago, and yet we are living witnesses to these
things today.
Or take the second general statement, or proposition: Nigerians, today, do not see
the world the way Nigerians saw it about fifteen to twenty years ago. "How did they see
it during those times you mention ?", some may legitimately ask. In reply, I would cite
as example the fact that many Nigerians did not believe that Nigerians were capable of
ruling themselves and running their own country. I remind you of that time when other
Nigerians did not believe that they were capable of organizing, and managing businesses
of their own. And I would mention those Nigerians who believed that only Europeans
were capable of inventing and manufacturing things. These and many other attitudes
once held about the nature of the world and of the place of Nigeria in it have radically
changed. Today, even though imperceptibly, only a very small proportion holds these
thoughts, and ideas. Instead Nigerians may be seen as business men, educators, and
small manufacturers.
Take the third proposition: The number and variety of things needed today to make
life fairly enjoyable have increased and become more difficult to obtain. When I was a
growing young man in Lagos and later as a clerk in the Treasury Department, Lagos, the
most common means of individual transportation was the bicycle, and the social status of
a person depended upon the make of the cycle. A few young men, Post and Telegraph
Inspectors, rode motor cycles. While a still relatively smaller number who held senior
service jobs had cars. Another aspect of our life where change has taken place is in the
area of mass media. In the years after the Second World War, many Nigerian towns
and few villages had one-knob boxes for radio for re-diffusion of music and news. Only
a few families and well-placed persons had short wave radios. Transistorized radios
were not put on the market then. Telly was not even known. Today, it is safe to say
that there is not a remote village, along most highways of Eastern Nigeria, where the
voice of the radio is not heard in the land.
Finally, let us consider the last statement. Nigerians are increasingly using as
individuals or as groups more rational and scientific ways to solve problems which con-
front them. Recently an "Expressman" once asked "Where are the magical arts and
juju powers which our fathers were reputed to possess and with which they were capable
of afflicting their enemies?" He wondered if these powers existed in the first place.
What you and I know is that beliefs in these powers existed and still do today; but for
many people these have become as "useless beliefs", as one writer to the Editor of Express,
April 26, 1964 put it. The said writer had this to say, and I crave your indulgence to
quote his views in full:
"It happened recently, I mean when a man was almost battered to death by a car
for the sake of mere silly ducks. After the incident I enquired to know why the







CONFERENCE REPORT


driver of the car preferred killing a man to a duck which was basking right in the
middle of the road and 1 was told 'it is a bad omen to kill a duck by motor accident'.
"I term this to be the height of nonsense. I am not suggesting that every duck
found on the road should be killed but when both lives of a duck and man are at stake,
I feel (and rightly too) life of the latter should be preserved.
"I may still believe in superstitions but I refuse to believe this particular one.
It is the height of senselessness. Will someone who knows why ducks should not
be killed by accident explain through this medium, for the good of all."
This letter reveals to us how with increased education, the existence of an open forum,
and a questioning mind, the values of yester-Nigeria are constantly openly challenged
and debunked by more rational, hence more satisfying ideas and explanations. Also, it
is clear from the questions raised by the "Expressman" to which I alluded earlier, how the
old ways of managing the tensions and conflicts endemic in our political and economic
sectors of life.
From these propositions and their consideration, this picture of Nigeria appears: a
society becoming increasingly heterogeneous through intermarriage and naturalization;
increasingly literate and modernized, with observable improvement in the styles of living
of the different classes and groups; society where techniques of tension management used
in the decades gone by are proved ineffective in our times; and a society given to probing
and debunking established beliefs while seeking new and sustaining ones. In short, a
populous and dynamic society.
What then are some of the effects of these changing currents of life, habits, and
attitudes in Nigeria upon the individual and upon such human institutions as the family,
upon men and women, upon our part of the society here in Eastern Nigeria.
To answer this question, you would have to trust the impressions I formed during
my six weeks travel of Eastern Nigeria last summer when I visited Enugu, Aba, Owerri,
Umuahia, Uyo, Port Harcourt and Calabar. A general impression is that many people
are conscious of the fact that they can live at a much better level than they do now.
And this realization has given impetus to migration from rural areas to urban centres of
the East. The pace of migration has doubled with knowledge of the location of cement,
coal, beer and other industries; Port Harcourt offers an example of an urban centre which
attracts people from many ethnic groups round about while Aba offers a stimulating
trading centre to those petty traders who hope to become big business men. Enugu
recently witnessed the predicament of many young women who having finished elemen-
tary schools found themselves lured into the township by the promise of jobs as Secretary-
Typist in the Corporations. To their dismay these girls discovered that it is the girl
most willing and able to ply her sexual skill who succeeds as those with needed educational
and commercial skills walk on the promiseless side of the job market.
The accessibility of roads and cars and lorries to many towns has induced many
young men, who upon finishing Standard Six, to go out into the world from their rural
farming communities for jobs. And youths in many villages even here around Nsukka,
are discovering the use of hemp as "elevating" stimulants as these are brought to their
doors by travelling peddlers.
Increasingly it is becoming clear to me, as I talk to young men who are looking for
jobs that their greatest enemy is a lack of a knowledge of the true nature of labour market
in Nigeria, and the malpractice of that extra-legal form of behaviour which we referred
to in Nigeria as bribery.







COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


Many young men and young women are discovering that they can easily migrate
to other parts of Nigeria, and are no longer in the agricultural sector of their rural economy.
Consequently, only the very old and the very young of men and women remain in many
villages. But for the age-old institution of the age-grade and age-group systems which
serve to bring the migrant sons and daughters of a village back during its annual re-unions,
most Eastern Nigeria small communities would have lost their vitality as human settle-
ments.

I have attempted to show how in any ways we are changing in Nigeria. I have
attempted to indicate a few of these changes. These things are known to us all. But we
do not know the right solutions to these problems. Some have suggested a back-to-land
movement for youths; others have suggested the strengthening of religious values;
others still appealed to the leaders of the nation to set themselves as exemplary lives
before the youth. These are some of the proposed solutions.

But as I have indicated in my fourth proposition that Nigerians are increasingly
applying scientific methods to the solution of individual and group problems, we must
henceforth consciously and increasingly look toward organizations of the nature now
holding this meeting here for student solutions. To you members of the Council of
Social Service, is the task of finding effective and abiding solutions to the by-products of
social change in Nigeria. As you help organize group leaders in different communities
of our great Republic; as you counsel the confused and the misled; as you help to restore
sanity where it has temporarily taken to its flight, I charge you to be ever alert to the
possible ways of combining harmoniously the true and practical in our passing traditional
space-age civilization harmoniously with the theoretical cum practical view of non-
African civilizations.


Thank you.










COUNCIL OF SOCIAL SERVICE CONFERENCE LECTURE ON THE
CONSTITUTION OR INSTRUMENT OF OPERATION OF A
COUNCIL OF SOCIAL SERVICES BY DR S. M. IBEZIAKO
LECTURER IN LAW, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA
NSUKKA
This lecture is an attempt to analyse an ideal constitution of a Council of Social
Services on a local basis in terms of its objects or aims and contents.
Objects or Aims:
It may be said that you all are quite familiar with the main objects or aims that
necessitated the formation of various Councils of Social Services in different parts of
Eastern Nigeria. It therefore seems clear to me that a detailed analysis of this arm of my
lecture will not be necessary. However, I may refresh your minds by saying that the
primary aim of any Council of Social Services is to help the helpless, encourage and
counsel the despondent, the melancholy, the weak and the poor members of the commun-
ity by the efforts and contributions of the members in particular and the community
in general. The secondary aim of the council seems to me to be to promote better
relations, effective understanding and mutual aid amongst its members in particular
and the whole country at large. The question that then necessarily arises is "How can
members of the community band themselves together in order to effect their animating
and highly desired aims or objects ? The answer to this question lies in the constitution
of which is accepted by the members as the guiding "law" or "instrument" for their
activities and operations. The constitution may be written or even unwritten.
A written constitution usually sets out the ideals of the association, the principles
of guidance for the members and the machinery whereby these ideals may be effectuated
and the principles enforced by or against the members. An unwritten constitution on
the other hand as the name suggests is one which is not written. The provisions of such
a constitution are handed down to members from mouth to mouth. It seems that
such an unwritten constitution may be riddled with uncertainty, vagueness, flexibility,
and discordance. In modern societies the idea of written constitutions seems prevalent
and preferable.
Let us now consider an ideal written constitution of a Council of Social Services of a
given locality, say Nsukka. Such a constitution will contain chapters usually called
articles and various provisions grouped in sections. Invariably the constitution opens
with:
Article I: Names:
This article establishes the association envisaged by the promoters and gives it a
name, e.g.
"There shall be an organization to be known as and called the Council of Social
Services, Nsukka (hereinafter referred to as the Council)".
This is followed by
Article II: Objects of the Council:
The objects of the Council shall be:
(1) To provide an opportunity to the members of the Nsukka community to
study their needs and social problems with a view to solving them through
communal help.










COUNCIL OF SOCIAL SERVICE CONFERENCE LECTURE ON THE
CONSTITUTION OR INSTRUMENT OF OPERATION OF A
COUNCIL OF SOCIAL SERVICES BY DR S. M. IBEZIAKO
LECTURER IN LAW, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA
NSUKKA
This lecture is an attempt to analyse an ideal constitution of a Council of Social
Services on a local basis in terms of its objects or aims and contents.
Objects or Aims:
It may be said that you all are quite familiar with the main objects or aims that
necessitated the formation of various Councils of Social Services in different parts of
Eastern Nigeria. It therefore seems clear to me that a detailed analysis of this arm of my
lecture will not be necessary. However, I may refresh your minds by saying that the
primary aim of any Council of Social Services is to help the helpless, encourage and
counsel the despondent, the melancholy, the weak and the poor members of the commun-
ity by the efforts and contributions of the members in particular and the community
in general. The secondary aim of the council seems to me to be to promote better
relations, effective understanding and mutual aid amongst its members in particular
and the whole country at large. The question that then necessarily arises is "How can
members of the community band themselves together in order to effect their animating
and highly desired aims or objects ? The answer to this question lies in the constitution
of which is accepted by the members as the guiding "law" or "instrument" for their
activities and operations. The constitution may be written or even unwritten.
A written constitution usually sets out the ideals of the association, the principles
of guidance for the members and the machinery whereby these ideals may be effectuated
and the principles enforced by or against the members. An unwritten constitution on
the other hand as the name suggests is one which is not written. The provisions of such
a constitution are handed down to members from mouth to mouth. It seems that
such an unwritten constitution may be riddled with uncertainty, vagueness, flexibility,
and discordance. In modern societies the idea of written constitutions seems prevalent
and preferable.
Let us now consider an ideal written constitution of a Council of Social Services of a
given locality, say Nsukka. Such a constitution will contain chapters usually called
articles and various provisions grouped in sections. Invariably the constitution opens
with:
Article I: Names:
This article establishes the association envisaged by the promoters and gives it a
name, e.g.
"There shall be an organization to be known as and called the Council of Social
Services, Nsukka (hereinafter referred to as the Council)".
This is followed by
Article II: Objects of the Council:
The objects of the Council shall be:
(1) To provide an opportunity to the members of the Nsukka community to
study their needs and social problems with a view to solving them through
communal help.







COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


(2) To promote better relations, effective understanding and mutual aid amongst
its members in particular and the entire Nsukka town in general.
(3) To promote and encourage good relations and good neighbourliness amongst
citizens of Nigeria.
(4) To help the blind, the infirm, the delinquent, the disabled, the aged and the
poor, directly or through Local Councils, County Councils, etc.
(5) To facilitate the collection and transmission of the needs and problems of the
community.
(6) To find out and preserve the traditions and customs of Nsukka.
(7) To promote the interchange of ideas between cultural organizations.
(8) To encourage the youth in their share of the communal development.
(9) To encourage and uphold high social and service standards.
(10) To advise members of the community on various matters connected with the
objects of the council.
(11) To engage in fund raising activities as permitted by law.
(12) To maintain truth, justice, non-violence and positive actions to accomplish
the foregoing.

Article III: Membership:
(1) Membership shall be open to
(a) local cultural organizations,
(b) societies,
(c) social clubs.
(2) Registration of Membership:
Procedure or method of registration.
(3) Resignation of membership.
(4) Suspension of membership.
(5) Termination of membership.
(6) Re-admission of ex-members.

Article IV: Associated Organizations:
(1) Nature of Associated Organizations.
(2) Procedure for their admission.
(3) Termination of their membership.
(4) Suspension of membership.
(5) Re-admission of ex-associated organizations.
(6) Their role in the council.

Article V: Honorary Members:
(1) Who may become honorary members.
(2) Procedure for admission to membership.
(3) Termination of membership.

Article VI: Patrons:
(1) Who may become Patrons.
(2) Precedure for choosing Patrons.
(3) Number of Patrons.
(4) Tenure of Office.
(5) Termination.







CONFERENCE REPORT


Article VII: Officers of Council:
The Officers of the Council shall be:
(a) (1) The President.
(2) The Vice-President.
(3) The Secretary.
(4) The Assistant Secretary.
(5) The Financial Secretary or Treasurer.
(6) The Provost.
(7) The Circulators.
(b) The functions of these Officers.

Article VIII: Executive Committee:
(1) Composition.
(2) Procedure for election.
(3) Proceedings and Minutes and Procedure at Executive Meetings.
(4) Quorum for meetings.
(5) Powers of the Executive, e.g.
(a) to make rules and regulations for the operations and welfare of the council,
(b) to act for and on behalf of the council on any emergency,
(c) to determine what constitutes an emergency,
subject to ratification by the council at the next general meeting.

Article IX: Committees:
(1) The council may at any time during the proceedings of its meetings resolve
itself into various committees.
(2) Standing Committees:
(i) Blind Welfare Committee.
(ii) Marriage Guidance Committee.
(iii) Probation Committee.
(iv) Youth Work Committee.
(v) Discharged Prisoners' Committee.
(vi) Deaf and Dumb Committee.
(vii) Old Age Committee.
(viii) Citizenship Training Centre Committee.
(ix) Remand Home Committee.
(x) Civic Duties Committee.
(3) The same persons may serve in one or more committees. A committee may
choose its own officers and may resolve itself into sub-committees.
(4) Functions of committees.
(5) Procedure for selection of members of committees.
(6) Tenure of office.
(7) Report of committee.

Article X: Finance:
(1) Sources of Income, e.g.
(a) membership fees,
(b) fines,
(c) donations, etc.
(2) Bank for accounts of council.







COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


(3) Operation of the Bank Account, e.g., all cheques drawn on this account to be
signed by the Financial Secretary or Treasurer and countersigned by the
President or in his absence by the Vice-President.
(4) The Auditor:
(a) Appointment of.
(b) Functions.
(c) His Report.
(d) Tenure of office.
(5) Examination of the books and accounts of council by members:
facilities for.
Article XI: The Secretariat:
(1) Location of Head Office.
(2) Location of branch offices, if any.
(3) Management of Secretariat and branches.
(4) Remuneration of employees of council.
Article XII: Meetings of Council:
(1) Annual General Meetings.
(2) Ordinary Meetings.
(3) Extraordinary or emergency Meetings.
(4) Executive Meetings.
(5) Who may convene these meetings.
(6) Notices of meetings: circulation and periods of issue.
(7) Agenda of meetings.
(8) Quorum at meetings: what number or percentage of total membership.
(9) Voting at meetings.
(10) Motions: procedure for.
(11) Resolutions: kinds of and procedure for.
(12) Minutes of meetings.

Article XIII: Discipline of Members:
(1) Punishment for lateness at meetings.
(2) Punishment for disturbances at meetings.
(3) Who may impose the punishments.

Article XIV: Interpretation of Constitution:
(1) Who may interpreted the constitution of the council.
(a) The President.
(b) The Executive Committee.
(The latter is not advisable).

Article XV: Amendment of Constitution:
(1) Procedure for Amendment: e.g.
(a) Notice of amendment to be given in writing, stating the offensive part or
parts to be amended and the nature of the amendment.
(b) Who may vote on the motion for amendment and how, e.g., by raising of
hands or by secret ballot.
(c) Passage of amendment by a two-thirds majority.
(d) Any amendment to be deemed an integral part of the constitution.







CONFERENCE REPORT


Article XVI: Dissolution of Council:
(1) Grounds for dissolution: e.g.
(a) bankruptcy:
(b) by order of Court.
(c) by Regional Law.
(2) Procedure for dissolution, e.g., by a special resolution.
(3) Effect of dissolution.
(4) Disposition of the assets and payment of the debts of the council on dissolution.
This in short is the constitution of a Council of Social Services on a local basis.
The points raised are not exhaustive, nor are they intended to be so. However, these
points will serve as the basis for improvement.
It may also be mentioned that apart from the Council of Social Services based on
local or parochial units, it is possible to have the following bodies, namely,
(1) Divisional Council of Social Services based on the County Council units
within a Division, e.g., Nsukka Division.
(2) Zonal Council of Social Services based on administrative divisions or zones,
e.g., Enugu Zone, Udi Zone, etc., and
(3) The Regional Council of Social Services which may be made up of representa-
tives from the zonal organizations within the Eastern Region.
However, in order to enable any of these social service bodies to operate effectively
it must adopt a written constitution setting out as we have seen earlier the name, objects,
members, officers, committees, finances, meetings, interpretation, amendment and
dissolution of the body.
It may be possible to fashion a constitution to provide for the establishment of
various Councils of Social Services at various levels, e.g., local, divisional, zonal and
regional levels. Such a constitution I dare say will indeed be a voluminous literature.

Thanks.
DR S. M. IBEZIAKO
Lecturer in Law, U.N.N.











MODEL DRAFT CONSTITUTION FOR A COUNCIL OF SOCIAL SERVICE

PREPARED BY TIE SOCIAL WELFARE DIVISION AT THE REQUEST OF THE
PORT IIARCOURT STEERING COMMITTEE MEETING HELD ON 28-5-65

ARTICLE I: Name
T he nam e of the organization is................................................................................ Council of Social
Service or C.O.S.S. for short.

ARTICLE II: Aims
(a) T o afford the C citizens of............................................................................... C council area of
jurisdiction the opportunity of studying and focusing attention on their needs
and responsibilities. TheC.O.S.S. isdedicatedto the service of allpeopleand
as a democratic organization, to work through indigenous cultural organiza-
tions, local and international voluntary organizations.

(b) In pursuit of its aims, the C.O.S.S. shall seek:


(i)


(ii)
(iii)

(iv)

(v)
(vi)

(vii)

(viii)

(ix)


(x)
(xi)

(xii)
(xiii)


T o assist................................................................... L local G overnm ent A authority to
solve local social problems relating to mental health, prevention of
crime, juvenile delinquency, and prostitution; care of the blind, the
lepers, the aged, motherless babies, destitutes, unmarried mothers, etc.,
in the light of local traditions.
To increase inter-racial respect and to foster international and inter-
tribal understanding and co-operation.
To facilitate the collection of information about the needs and problems
of all members of the community.
To promote the interchange of ideas between cultural organizations and
international voluntary organizations.
To encourage young people to take a full measure of responsibility both
in their own organizations and in the life of the community as a whole.
To hear and advise on any question put forward by a member or associate
member organization.
To engage in fund-raising activities in accordance with the stipulations of
local, regional and federal legislation.
To establish and maintain relations with local organizations both
voluntary and governmental.
To initiate, stimulate and co-ordinate such work as may be deemed
advantageous to the community whilst not in any way infringing the
rights or interfering with the liberty of individual unions, clubs and
organizations.
To encourage and promote research into causes of social problems.
To find out and preserve the good customs and traditions of the various
communities of Eastern Nigeria.
To advise members of the community on various matters connected with
the aims and objects of the C.O.S.S.
To arrange talks, discussions, seminars and conferences on local level.







CONFERENCE REPORT


ARTICLE III: Membership
(a) Membership shall be open to local cultural unions, societies, social clubs, and
international voluntary organizations by a majority vote of the members
present at a meeting following recommendations by the Credential Committee.
(b) Registration fee is X guineas.
(c) Each member organization shall send three representatives to meetings, all
collectively having one vote. At least one of these representatives shall be a
woman.
(d) Nominations or re-nominations of representatives must reach the Secretariat
on or before the 31st of March every year.

ARTICLE IV: Associate Members
(a) The C.O.S.S. has the power to admit voluntary organizations engaged in
social services as associate members if they are not prepared to take up full
membership.
(b) Associate members shall have the right to send one representative to the
meetings of the C.O.S.S.; to speak at the Chairman's discretion and not to vote.

ARTICLE V: Officers
(a) PATRONs.-There will be a number of Patrons each domiciled in the......................
Council area of jurisdiction and selected because of the considerable influence
and loyal respect which each commands over this area. A Patron shall hold
office for three years and may be re-elected.
(b) The President shall be the....................................................... Provincial Commissioner.
He shall preside over ceremonial occasions and over the Annual General
Meetings.
(c) The Vice-President shall be the Chairm an of...........................................................Council.
He shall deputize for the President in the latter's absence.
(d) The Chairman who is elected annually and may be re-elected shall preside over
all meetings of the C.O.S.S. except the Annual General Meeting.
(e) First and Second Vice-Chairmen: any of these will act in the Chairman's
absence.
(f) Hon. General Secretary is the Executive Agent of the C.O.S.S. He directs,
inspires and controls all the staff of the Secretariat.
(g) First and Second Assistant Hon. General Secretaries will individually or jointly
perform the duties of the Hon. General Secretary in the latter's absence.
(h) Treasurer receives all C.O.S.S. moneys through the Financial Secretary and
banks them according to the constitution.
(i) Legal Adviser handles all legal matters and gives legal advice to the C.O.S.S.
when necessary.
(j) Financial Secretary collects all moneys and issues receipts and hands them to
the Treasurer. He keeps correct records of all moneys collected.

ARTICLE VI: Executive Committee
(a) The Executive Committee of the C.O.S.S. shall be made up of the following
officers:
(i) All officers except the Patrons, the President, and the Vice-President.
(ii) Twelve other elected members of the C.O.S.S.
(iii) Chairman and Secretary of each existing committee of the C.O.S.S.







COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


(b) Functions of the Executive Committee:
It shall meet at least once in a month to determine the main line of policy,
shall receive and consider reports on the C.O.S.S. activities and give any
necessary instructions for the furtherance of the work of the C.O.S.S. It
will be responsible for carrying out the work of the C.O.S.S. subject to the
prior approval of the General Meeting. It shall formulate the details of policy
arrange conferences and initiate activities.
(c) In case of emergency the Executive Committee meets when called by the
Chairman or at the request of at least one-quarter of its members in writing.
(d) No decision shall take place or any vote taken unless one half of the members
of the Executive Committee are present. The Executive Committee's
decisions are made by a two-third majority of the members present.
(e) The rules and procedure are fixed by Standing Orders.
ARTICLE VII: Meetings
(a) The Annual General Meeting of the C.O.S.S. shall be convened early in April
of each year when the dates for subsequent monthly General Meetings shall be
fixed. At least one week's notice shall be given for any of these meetings.
(b) The Chairman, through the Hon. General Secretary shall have power to
convene an emergency meeting of the C.O.S.S. when demanded in writing by
at least one-third of the affiliated member organizations.
ARTICLE VIII: Quorum
No meeting of the C.O.S.S. shall be held without at least one-third of the affiliated
member organizations present.
ARTICLE IX: Committees
(a) The C.O.S.S. shall appoint a number of committees each to initiate, stimulate
and co-ordinate such work as may be deemed advantageous to the community
such as: Blind Welfare, Marriage Guidance, Probation, Youth Work, Dis-
charged Prisoners' Aid, Deaf and Dumb, Old People's Home, Citizenship
Training Centre (Remand Home), Civic Duties, Juvenile Court, Citizen
Advice Bureau, Credentials, Publicity, etc.
(b) A member organization or union having been requested to serve on any
committee of the C.O.S.S. is to select any person other than the official
representative on the C.O.S.S. to represent it on such committee.
(c) Co-options: Each committee shall have the power to co-opt persons with
specialist knowledge relevant to the subject of the committee.
(d) Each committee shall make its own bye-laws and appoint its own officers
subject to the approval of the C.O.S.S.
ARTICLE X: Finance
(a) The annual receipts of the C.O.S.S. shall be composed of:-
(i) Registration fees.
(ii) Annual dues of X guineas which will be paid monthly, quarterly, half-
yearly, or annually.
(iii) Grants from Local Government bodies and other sources.
(iv) Gifts and legacies.
(v) Levies.
(vi) Income from unexpected sources.
(vii) Fines.






CONFERENCE REPORT


(b) A careful account of all receipts and expenditure of the C.O.S.S. shall be
kept by the Financial Secretary.
(c) At each annual general meeting the C.O.S.S. receives a report on the financial
situation, examines the accounts and fixes the budget.
(d) The Chairman, the General Secretary and the Treasurer are authorized to
operate the accounts of the C.O.S.S.
(e) Every member of the C.O.S.S. has the right to examine and verify the books
and accounts of the C.O.S.S. during thirty days preceding an annual general
meeting.
(f) Revenue earning committees of the C.O.S.S. shall runits own accounts subject
to over-all supervision and approval by the C.O.S.S.
(g) All moneys of the C.O.S.S. shall be deposited in a recognized bank.
(h) The Treasurer should have an imprest account not exceeding X pounds.
(i) All moneys made by each committee shall be sent to the central Treasurer for
banking except those from revenue earning committee.
(j) Expenditure on each committee shall depend on its needs and industry.
(k) Each committee shall have an imprest account not exceeding X pounds for
emergency.
(1) The financial year of the C.O.S.S. shall run from 1st April to 31st March of
the following year.

ARTICLE XI: Trustees
(a) There shall be Trustees, being a body corporate having perpetual succession
and common seal, who shall apply for registration under section 2 of the Land
(Perpetual Succession) Ordinance, Chapter 107.
(b) Such Trustees (hereinafter known as "the Trustees") shall be seven in number
being representative of each of the important ethnic groups domiciled in the
area of jurisdiction of whom any three acting together at any one time shall
be sufficient and shall be known as THE REGISTERED TRUSTEES OF THE EASTERN
NIGERIAN NATIONAL COUNCIL OF SOCIAL SERVICE.
(c) The Trustees shall be appointed in the first instance by each of the selected
ethnic groups, each group appointing one trustee.
(d) The Trustees shall be appointed for three years and shall be eligible for
re-appointment, but a trustee shall cease to hold office if he:-
(i) resigns his office by letter addressed to the ethnic group concerned and
copied to the C.O.S.S.,
(ii) becomes insane,
(iii) is officially declared bankrupt,
(iv) is convicted of a criminal offence involving dishonesty by a court of
competent jurisdiction,
(v) is recommended for removal from office by the ethnic groups which he
represents and/or by a two-thirds majority of the C.O.S.S. at any
general meeting,
(vi) ceases to reside in the area of jurisdiction.
(e) Upon a vacancy occurring in the number of trustees, the ethnic group which
the retiring trustee represented shall appoint a new one.
(f) The Trustees shall have a common seal, the common seal to be kept by the
General-Secretary who shall produce it when required for the use of the
Trustees.







COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


(g) The common seal of the Trustees shall not be affixed to an instrument except
in pursuance of a resolution of the Trustees which resolution shall be confirmed
at a duly constituted meeting of the C.O.S.S. and in the presence of at least
three Trustees and of the General Secretary, and these three Trustees and
the General Secretary shall sign every instrument to which the common seal
is affixed in their presence.
(h) The Trustees may acquire, purchase and hold any movable and immovable
property whatsoever and may grant, demise, alienate and otherwise dispose of
the same and may do all other things incidental and appertaining to a body
corporate, providing that the trustees shall not alienate, mortgage or demise
any of its property without the authority of the C.O.S.S
(i) Such funds of the C.O.S.S. as may be agreed upon by the C.O.S.S. from time
to time shall be vested in the Trustees.
(j) The Trustees shall administer or give permission to be administered the
properties of the C.O.S.S. in accordance with the rules. The Trustees shall
have no power to interfere in the administration of the C.O.S.S. but if it
appears to them at any time that the interest of the C.O.S.S. justifies such a
course on their part they may request the C.O.S.S. to convene a general
meeting, and if the C.O.S.S. fail to do so within twenty-eight days the Trustees
may themselves convene a meeting by giving twenty-eight days' notice of
their intention to do so and specifying the object of the meeting.
ARTICLE XII: Secretariat
(a) The Secretariat is composed of the hon. General Secretary, the hon. Assistant
General Secretaries and the Administrative Secretary (who ordinarily is the
Divisional Social Worker), or any other paid worker of the C.O.S.S.
(b) The lion. General Secretary is the Executive Agent of the C.O.S.S. lie
directs, inspires and controls all the staff of the Secretariat. lie represents
the C.O.S.S. in all civic business. The Executive Committee shall delegate
to him the powers necessary for this purpose.
(c) Other members of the Secretariat including the Administrative Secretary
who are paid officials of the C.O.S.S., are ex ;. members of all the organs
of the C.O.S.S. without the right to vote.
ARTICLE XIII: Bye-laws
The C.O.S.S. can from time to time make bye-laws governing its activities.

ARTICLE XIV: Provincial Organization
1 |I.- C.O.S.S. is autom atically a m em ber of the..........................................
Provincial C.O.S.S. to which she must pay dues stipulated in the bye-laws of the latter.
ARTICLE XV: Aims
(i) To carry out those functions which are beyond the ability of individual
C.O.S.S.es within ................ .. ............... ... ..... viz.; running of probation
Hostels, Citizenship Centres, Motherless Babies Homes, Orientation Camps
for the handicapped, Provincial Cultural Centres, "llalf Way Houses" for
the aged, the destitutes, unmarried mothers, etc.
(ii) To make high level contacts on provincial level.
(iii) To arrange talks, discussions, seminars, and conferences on provincial level.
(iv) To keep a register of all member organizations *.. ; : J with any C.O.S.S.
in the Province.







CONIVERENCnE REPORT


ARTICLE XVI: Membership
(a) The Chairman, the Secretary General and one other member of the C.O.S.S.
are mem bers of the........................................... Provincial C.O.S.S.
(b) Members of the various specialist committees of the Provincial C.O.S.S.
Each member of these committees shall be a specialist inhis/herfield relating
to the committee he/she is serving and or those wielding wide influence within
the Province.

ARTICLE XVII: Meetings
The Provincial C.O.S.S. meets quarterly to receive reports from the various
committees.

ARTICLE XVIII: Bye-laws
The Provincial C.O.S.S. shall make its own bye-laws which will provide for:
(a) appointment of a Patron (who will be a First-class Chief in the Province) and
Vice-Patrons;
(b) financial levies on member C.O.S.S.es;
(c) election of officers;
(d) appointment of its own paid Administrative Secretary, etc.;
(e) appointment of Trustees.

ARTICLE XIX: R.. ,......i ;... i..:,.
I lih I'rovincial C.O.S.S. is automatically a member of the Eastern
Nigeria C.O.S.S. to which she must pay dues stipulated in the bye-laws of the Regional
C.O.S.S.

ARTICLE XX: Aims
(i) To carry out functions which are beyond the ability of Provincial C.O.S.S.es,
e.g., Regional :1I ii.- Schemes in respect of mental health and blind welfare.
(ii) To formulate policy on the Regional level.
(iii) To make high level contacts with Regional and Federal Governments and
Overseas Agencies.
(iv) To arrange Regional and participate in National and International Con-
ferences, Seminars, T.,1!. -, and Discussions.
(v) To keep a register of all member organizations registered with any C.O.S.S.
in the Region.
(vi) To award certificates of membership to registered organizations.

ARTICLE XXI: Membership
(a) The Chairman, the hon. Secretary General and one other member of the.
Provincial C.O.S.S. are members of the Regional C.O.S.S.
(b) Members of the various specialist committees of the Regional C.O.S.S.
Each member of these committees shall be a specialist in his/her field relating
to the committee he/she is serving, and or those wielding wide influence
within the Region.

ARTICLE XXII: Meetings
The Regional C.O.S.S. meets half-yearly to receive reports from committees.







COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


ARTICLE XXIII: Bye-laws
The Regional C.O.S.S. shall make its own bye-laws which ll Iprovide for:-
(a) appointment of a Patron (who will be the Governor of the Region) and Vice-
Patrons;
(b) financial levies on Provincial C.O.S.S.es;
(c) election of officers;
(d) appointment of its own paid Administrative Secretary;
(e) Appointment of Trustees.
ARTICLE XXIV: Amendments
This constitution may be amended by the C.O.S.S. by a two-thirds majority vote of
affiliated member-organizations present, provided that the notice of proposed amendments
is submitted in writing thirty days in advance to the General Secretary. This notice
shall be discussed after it has been read at three subsequent meetings of the C.O.S.S.

ARTICLE XXV: Dissolution
(a) The C.O.S.S. may by a two-thirds majority vote of the affiliated member-
organizations present, decide to dissolve the organization provided that the
notice of the proposed dissolution is given in writing thirty days in advance
to Honorary General Secretary and shall be discussed in at least three sub-
sequent meetings of the C.O.S.S. following the expiration of the notice.
(b) In the case of dissolution, the C.O.S.S.'s property shall be handed over to the
appropriate Local Government Authority.
(c) Dissolution shall become effective thirty days after the vote of the C.O.S.S.

SUGGESTED STANDING ORDERS
1. Quorum
Unless otherwise decided, all meetings shall begin at............p.m. and end at............p.m.
.................members shall form a quorum. If within half an hour of the time appointed for
the meeting to commence a quorum is not present, the meeting shall be dissolved.

2. Order of Business
An agenda shall be prepared by the Chairman and Secretary, and shall be read by
the Chairman at the opening of each meeting. All items thereon shall take precedence
over all other business. Any member desirous of introducing business for the considera-
tion of the meeting may do so after the business on the agenda has been completed, but
must reduce same to writing, or may give notice of motion to be discussed at a further
meeting.

3. Suspension of Standing Orders
In the event of any matter of urgency, however, the Chairman may accept a motion
for the suspension of the Standing Orders. The member moving such suspension must
clearly state the nature and urgency of his business, the numbers of the Standing Orders
affected, and the length of time (not exceeding thirty minutes) he desires such suspension
to last. At the option of the meeting, a further extension may be allowed, but no
suspension shall take place except by a two-thirds majority vote of the members present.





CONFEREN CE' REPO T


4. Minutes
The Secretary shall read the Minutes of the previous meeting, but no motion or
discussion shall be allowed on the .i i.... .: except in regard to their accuracy. After
the confirmation of the Minutes, they shall be signed by the Chairman, and the members
shall then be at liberty to ask any questions in regard to matters arising out of them.
Such questions shall be allowed for purposes of information only, and no debate on the
policy outlined in the Minutes shall take place.
5. Selection of Speakers
Every member shall stand when speaking, and shall address the Chairman as "Mr
Chairman". When more than one member rises to speak, the first to rise shall be given
precedence, the decision resting with the Chairman, but the member who rose immediately
after the first one shall have the right to speak at the close of such member's address.
6. Chairman's Ruling
If the Chairman rises to call a member to order, or for any other purpose connected
with the proceedings, the member speaking shall thereon resume his seat, and no other
member shall rise until the Chair be resumed. The ruling of the Chairman on any
question under the Standing Orders, or on points of order or explanation, shall be final,
unless challenged by not less than four members, and unless two-thirds of the members
present vote to the contrary.
7. Interruption
If any member interrupts another while addressing the oii ini,, or uses abusive
or profane language, or causes disturbance at any of the meetings, and refuses to obey
the Chairman when called to order, he shall be named by the Chairman. He shall
thereupon be expelled from the room and shall not be allowed to enter again until an
a..: .- satisfactory to the meeting be given. No member shall leave the meeting
before its conclusion without the permission of the Chairman.

8. Speeches
No member shall be allowed to speak more than once upon any subject before the
meeting, unless in committee, or on a point of order or explanation, except the mover of
the Original Motion. But on amendment being moved, any member, even though he
has spoken on the Original Motion, may speak again on the amendment. No member
shall speak for more than ten minutes at one time. Members wishing to raise points of
order or explanation must first obtain the permission of the Chairman, and must rise
immediately the alleged breach has occurred. Any member may formally second any
motion or amendment and reserve his speech until a !.t- pI. .;.1 in the debate.

9. Motions and Amendments
The first proposition on any particular subject shall be known as the Original Motion,
and all succeeding propositions on that subject shall be called amendments. Every
motion or amendment must be moved and seconded by members actually present at the
meeting before they can be discussed, and, wherever possible, should be set forth in
writing. It is permissible for a member to make his speech first and conclude with a
motion. When an amendment is moved to an Original Motion no further amendment
shall be discussed until the first amendment is disposed of. (Notice of any further
amendment must be given before the first amendment is put to the vote).







(CO NU ILS OF SOCIAL SEtl'YI( 1.


10. Substantive Motions
If an amendment be carried, it displaces the Original Motion and itself becomes the
substantive motion, whereupon any further amendment relating to any portion of the
substantive motion may be moved, provided it is consistent with the business and has not
been covered by an amendment or motion which has been previously rejected. After
the vote on each succeeding amendment has been taken, the surviving proposition shall be
put to the vote as the main question, and if carried shall then become a resolution of the
meeting.
11. Right of Reply
The mover of the Original ., i. shall, if no amendment be moved, have the right
to reply at the close of the debate upon such motion. When an amendment is moved he
shall be entitled to speak thereon in accordance with Standing Order No. 8 and at the
close of the debate on such amendment shall reply to the discussion, but shall introduce
no new matter. The question shall then be put to the vote immediately, and under no
circumstances shall any further discussion be allowed once the question has been put from
the Chair. The mover of an amendment shall not be entitled to reply.
12. Withdrawals or Additions
No motion or amendment which has been accepted by the Chair shall be withdrawn
without the unanimous consent of the meeting. Neither shall any addendum or rider
be added to a motion which has once been accepted by the Chair without such full consent.
Should any member dissent, the addendum must be proposed and seconded, and treated
as an ordinary amendment.
13. Closing Debate
The motions for the previous question, next business, or the closure, may be moved
and seconded only by members who have not previously spoken at any time during the
debate. No speeches shall be allowed on such motions. In the event of the closure
being carried, the mover of the Original Mlotion shall have the right to reply in accordance
with Standing Order 11, before the question is put. Should any one of the motions
mentioned in this Standing Order be defeated, ..............................minutes shall elapse before it
can be accepted again by the Chairman, unless he is of the opinion that the circumstances
have materially altered in the meantime.
14. Adjournment
Any member who has not already spoken during the debate may move the adjourn-
ment of the question under discussion, or of the In... iiie. but must confine his remarks
to that question, and must not discuss anv other matter. The mover of the motion upon
which the adjournment has been moved, shall be allowed the right to reply on the question
of the adjournment, but such reply shall not prejudice his right of reply on his own
motion. In the event of such motion being lost it shall not be moved again, except in
accordance with Standing Order 13.
15. Voting
The voting shall be by show of hands, except where a ballot vote is specified by the
General Rules. Where required by such rules, or where deemed necessary by the
Chairman, two scrutineers or tellers shall be appointed by the Chairman. The Chairman
shall not vote on any question, unless there is an equal number of votes, when he shall
have a casting vote.







CONFERENCE REPORT


16. Voting in Committee
Where a difference of opinion on a proposition at a meeting of any committee
occurs, a vote shall be taken, and the names of those voting for and against, and of those
abstaining from voting, shall be stated in the Minutes.
17. Notice of Motion
Notices of motion shall be sent to the Secretary in writing not less than...................days
before the meeting at which they are to be discussed. Such motions shall be placed upon
the Agenda in the order in which they are received by the Secretary.
18. Rescinding a Resolution
No resolution shall be rescinded or amended at the same meeting at which it is
passed ................days notice of its rescindment or amendment must be given, but the
resolution shall not be rescinded or amended unless by the consent of two-thirds of the
delegates present at the meeting when it is considered.
No resolution involving important issues of finance or policy shall be rescinded at
any meeting unless every member eligible to attend such meeting has been duly notified
and given the opportunity of being present.

CONSTITUTION WORKSHOPS REPORT
All Articles were discussed by two separate groups but their recommendations have
been merged where possible or where recommendations conflict, a note made of this.
Otherwise a constitution has been typed incorporating recommendations. Where
only one or two words have been changed from the original, the new words have been
underlined. If the whole Article or Section has been recast this is noted at the beginning
of the Article or Section.
ARTICLE I: (completely recast). Name and Registered Address
(a) There shall be an organization to be known as and called "The.................................
Council of Social Service" (hereinafter referred to as "the.....................C.O.S.S.").
(b) T he registered address of the....................... C .O .S.S. shall be.........................................................
Note.-The Regional body would be "the Eastern Nigeria Council of Social Service"
referred to as E.N.C.O.S.S. while a local body may be "The Aba Council of Social
Service", i.e., A.C.O.S.S. (In fact the latter abbreviation may more often be Aba
C.O.S.S., Abakaliki C.O.S.S., Abak C.O.S.S., Abua C.O.S.S., etc., for purpose of
identification. This is the compiler's observation).
ARTICLE II: Objects and Aims
(a) To afford the citizens of .............................................the opportunity of studying
and focussing attention on their needs and responsibilities. ............C.O.S.S. is
dedicated to the service of all people and as a democratic organization to work
through indigenous cultural organizations, local and international voluntary
organizations.
(b) In pursuit of its aims, ............C.O.S.S. shall seek-
(i) to assist Rural and Urban County Councils, Municipal Councils and
other Local Government Authorities in *................................................ to solve
local social problems (such as the care of the blind, the infirm, the
delinquent, the disabled, the aged and the poor) in the light of local
traditions.







CONFERENCE REPORT


16. Voting in Committee
Where a difference of opinion on a proposition at a meeting of any committee
occurs, a vote shall be taken, and the names of those voting for and against, and of those
abstaining from voting, shall be stated in the Minutes.
17. Notice of Motion
Notices of motion shall be sent to the Secretary in writing not less than...................days
before the meeting at which they are to be discussed. Such motions shall be placed upon
the Agenda in the order in which they are received by the Secretary.
18. Rescinding a Resolution
No resolution shall be rescinded or amended at the same meeting at which it is
passed ................days notice of its rescindment or amendment must be given, but the
resolution shall not be rescinded or amended unless by the consent of two-thirds of the
delegates present at the meeting when it is considered.
No resolution involving important issues of finance or policy shall be rescinded at
any meeting unless every member eligible to attend such meeting has been duly notified
and given the opportunity of being present.

CONSTITUTION WORKSHOPS REPORT
All Articles were discussed by two separate groups but their recommendations have
been merged where possible or where recommendations conflict, a note made of this.
Otherwise a constitution has been typed incorporating recommendations. Where
only one or two words have been changed from the original, the new words have been
underlined. If the whole Article or Section has been recast this is noted at the beginning
of the Article or Section.
ARTICLE I: (completely recast). Name and Registered Address
(a) There shall be an organization to be known as and called "The.................................
Council of Social Service" (hereinafter referred to as "the.....................C.O.S.S.").
(b) T he registered address of the....................... C .O .S.S. shall be.........................................................
Note.-The Regional body would be "the Eastern Nigeria Council of Social Service"
referred to as E.N.C.O.S.S. while a local body may be "The Aba Council of Social
Service", i.e., A.C.O.S.S. (In fact the latter abbreviation may more often be Aba
C.O.S.S., Abakaliki C.O.S.S., Abak C.O.S.S., Abua C.O.S.S., etc., for purpose of
identification. This is the compiler's observation).
ARTICLE II: Objects and Aims
(a) To afford the citizens of .............................................the opportunity of studying
and focussing attention on their needs and responsibilities. ............C.O.S.S. is
dedicated to the service of all people and as a democratic organization to work
through indigenous cultural organizations, local and international voluntary
organizations.
(b) In pursuit of its aims, ............C.O.S.S. shall seek-
(i) to assist Rural and Urban County Councils, Municipal Councils and
other Local Government Authorities in *................................................ to solve
local social problems (such as the care of the blind, the infirm, the
delinquent, the disabled, the aged and the poor) in the light of local
traditions.







COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


(ii) To increase inter-racial respect and to foster international and inter-
tribal understanding and co-operation.
(iii) To facilitate the collection of information about the needs and problems
of all members of the community.
(iv) To promote the interchange of ideas between cultural organizations
and international voluntary organizations.
(v) To encourage young people to take a full measure of responsibility
both in their own organizations and in the life of the community as a
whole.
(vi) To hear and advise on any question put forward by a member or
associate member organization.
(vii) To engage in fund raising activities in accordance with the stipulations
of Local, Regional and i.il i. I .. I ....
(viii) To establish and maintain relations with local organizations both
voluntary and governmental.
(ix) To initiate, stimulate and co-ordinate such work as may be deemed
advantageous to the community whilst not in any way infringing the
rights or interfering with the liberty of individual unions, clubs or
organizations.
(x) To encourage and promote research into causes of social problems.
(xi) To find out and preserve the good customs and traditions of the
various communities of Eastern Nigeria.
(xii) To advise members of the community on various matters connected
with the objects of the ..................C.O.S.S
(xiii) To maintain truth, justice, non-violence and positive actions to accom-
plish the foregoing objects.
Note.-1. "Objects" has been added in the title by one group.
2. The sections (b) (x) (xi) (xii) (xiii) were recommended additions by one or the other group.
3. The spaces marked would be filled by the relevant area definition, e.g., for the Regional
body, "Eastern Nigeria" for a Divisional body "Ahoada Division", for a County Council
unit "Abua County", etc.
ARTICLE III: Membership
(a) Membership shall be open to local Cultural Unions, Societies and Social Clubs by
a majority vote ofthemembers of C.O.S.S., onpayment of a minimum fee of 1 Is Od.
Note.-The second r-oup recommended the original section be -,,. .. .:.. except for
the last phrase to, I on payment of an admission fee of not less than I I :I "
(b) Each member organization shall send two representatives, each of them having
one vote to the meeting of C.O.S.S., nomination to reach the C.O.S.S. at a
time to be specified each year.
Note.-The other group recommended the original of this section should stand.
(c) Membership of C.O.S.S. shall be terminated:
(i) If a member organization gives notice in writing to C.O.S.S. of its
intention to i,. i 1,;
(ii) C.O.S.S. shall have the power by a two-thirds majorityvote of member
organizations present to terminate the ..,. '.1-.. i -ln of any member
organization which in the ... .... of the Council has failed to carry
out the constitution or any rules or regulations made under its
provision provided that any member shall have the right to be heard
by the Council before any decision is made. '1i days notice must
be given of any such resolution of termination of membership.







CONFERaNCE REPORT


ARTICLE IV: Associated (1:,. i. .-:ii,. (completely recast)
Group A recommended a complete change:--
Associated organizations should be admitted as fi, il-,i, I members and recognized as
such in the C.O.S.S.
(Compiler's Note.-This group did not say then whether any fee would he paid or not, but
presumably not or the Article would cease to exist).
Group B modified the original as follows:
(a) C.O.S.S. has the power to admit voluntary organizations engaged in social
services as associated organizations of C.O.S.S. if they so desire.
(b) Associated organizations shall have the right to send one representative to
meetings of C.O.S.S., to speak at the Chairman's discretion and to vote.
Note.--Group B's amendment gives power to associated organizations to participate, but
limits their representation and voting power at the general meeting of C.O.S.S. to half that of the
full members.
ARTICLE V: Honorary Members
(a) Patrons: There will be a number of Patrons each domiciled in *.................. and
selected because of the considerable influence and loyal respect which each
commands over a wide area. A patron shall hold office for three years and
may be re-elected.
(b) The iP',. I. i shall be the Provincial Commissioner for the Province. He
shall preside over ceremonial occasions and over the Annual General Meeting.
(c) The Vice-President shall be the Chairman of the .......................... County Council.
The Vice-President like the President shall appear in C.O.S.S. on ceremonial
occasions and shall perform the duties of the President in his absence.
(Compiler's Note.-(b) and (c) were rushed in the last minutes of the workshop and so were not
adapted to the various levels of the C.O.S.S. p i.. 1,
Both groups recommended that-
(d) "C.O.S.S. committees shall have the power to co-opt individuals who, by
virtue of their expert knowledge in their own field of work can be of service to
that particular committee."
(Compiler's Query.-Should this come under Article V or Article XI ?)
One group recommended that--
"(e) individual membership should, as much as possible, be discouraged."
(Compiler's Query.--Is this Article V or Article III ?)
ARTICLE VI: The Executive Committee
(a) The Executive Committee elected at each annual general meeting is the
supreme organ of the Council. It shall meet at least once in two months to
determine the main lines of policy, shall receive and consider reports on the
Council's activities and give any necessary instructions for the furtherance of
the work of the Council.
(b) Subject to the direction and control of the Council the Executive Committee is
responsible for the management and administration of the Council; it shall
formulate the details of policy, call conferences and initiate activities.
(c) The Executive Committee meets when called by the Chairman or at the request
of at least one-quarter of its members in writing.
(d) No decision shall take place or any vote be taken unless one-half of the mem-
bers of the Executive Committee are present. The Executive Committee's








COUNCILS OF SOC IAL SFR.VICE


decisions are made by a two-thirds majority of the members present. Its rules
of procedure are fixed by standing orders.

ARTICLE VII: Composition of the Executive
(a) The Executive Committee of the Council shall be made up of the following
..Iin..., of the Council: the Chairman, the Vice-Chairman, the Treasurer, the
Financial Secretary, the Auditor, the Publicity Secretary and twenty-one other
members excluding the Organizing Secretary who being a paid official of the
Council has no right to vote.
(b) The proceedings of meetings of the Executive Committee and of the Council
shall be recorded by the Organizing Secretary or other person appointed for
that purpose in a book kept by him for that purpose.
Note.-1. The Workshop suggested that Articles VI and VII should he reversed in order so that the
composition is defined before the duties.
2. Jt lnI o"v"-terdi h'it there should be provision for an external auditor who is not a
t **. .. ,;* ..i l I** *.. '. 1 .*
3. The Executive Committee for a zonal C.O.S.S. should include the officers of C.O.S.S.,
the Chairmen of all C.O.S.S. committees and representatives of all the administrative
areas in the zone.
(Compiler's Cornment.-The last phrase of note 3 means, I think, that in the C.O.S.S. of a
town which is a zonal headquarters the composition of the zone should affect the Executive of the
Municipal C.O.S.S., e.g., in Port Iarcourt, the Port Harcourt Municipal C.O.S.S. makes a point
of including a good representation of cian union branches in Port Harcourt originating from the
Port Ialarcourt zone on to the Executive Committee).
4. The number on the Executive Committee should not exceed twenty-seven.

ARTICLE V/ll: The ,T'Ie.- ;n1 of C.O.S.S.
(a) 1 lI. annual general meeting of C.O.S.S. shall be convened early in April
(January) of each year when the dates for subsequent ordinary n., I ihi'.., not
exceeding three-month intervals, shall be fixed. At least two weeks notice
shall be given for any of these meetings.
(b) The Executive shall have power to convene an emergency meeting of the
Council.
(c) The C .; i, Secretary shall have power to convene an emergency meeting
of the Council when demanded in writing by at least one-third of the affiliated
member organizations. At least one week notice shall be given for any


ARTICLE IX: *a'.wo ; .
No meeting of the Council shall ibe held without at least one-third of the affiliated
member organizations present.

ARTICLE X: The Secretariat
(a) The Secretariat is composed of the Organizing Secretary who ordinarily shall
be the Urban County Council Social Worker and one or more Assistants.
(b) The Organizing Secretary is the Executive Agent of the Council. He directs,
inspires and controls all the staff of the Secretariat. He represents the
Council in all civil business. The Executive Committee shall delegate to him
the powers necessary for this purpose.
(c) Members of the Secretariat or paid officials of the Council are ex officio
members of all the organs of the Council without the right to vote,







CONFERENCE REPORT


ARTICLE XI: Committees
(a) The Council shall appoint a number of committees each to initiate, stimulate
and co-ordinate such work as may be deemed advantageous to the community
such as Blind Welfare, Marriage Guidance, Probation, Youth Work, Dis-
charged Prisoners Aid, Deaf and Dumb, Old People's Home, Citizenship
Training Centre or Remand Home, Civic Duties, Juvenile Court, Citizen
Advice Bureau, Credentials, Publicity, etc. etc.
(b) A member organization or union having been requested to serve on any
committee of the Council is free to select any person other than its official
representative on the Council to represent it on such committee.
(c) Members of a committee shall make their own arrangements and appoint
their own officers to facilitate their particular assignment.
ARTICLE XII: Finance
(a) The annual receipts of the Council are composed of:
(i) Membership fees and subscriptions.
(ii) Grants from Local Government bodies and other sources.
(iii) Gifts and Legacies.
(iv) Levies.
(v) Income from unexpected sources.
(vi) Fines.
(b) A careful account of all receipts and expenditure of the Council shall be kept
by the Financial Secretary.
Note.-(b) may be deleted as it duplicates earlier statement of functions of Financial Secretary
and Treasurer.
(c) At each annual general meeting, the Council receives a report on the financial
situation, examines the accounts and fixes the budget.
(d) The Chairman, Secretary and the Treasurer are authorized to operate the
accounts of C.O.S.S.
Note.-One group added "All expenditure must be approved by the Executive."
(e) Every member of the Council and every member of the Executive Committee
has the right to examine and verify the books and accounts of the Council
during the thirty days preceding an annual general meeting.
(f) The Citizenship Centre committee of C.O.S.S. shall run its own accounts in
accordance with the constitution and subject to overall supervision by the
C.O.S.S.
Note.-One group proposed that the following sections be added to Article XII:-
(f) is a proposed addition.
(g) All moneys of the C.O.S.S. shall be deposited in a bank recognized by the State.
(h) The Treasurer should have an imprest account not exceeding five pounds.
(i) All moneys made by each committee should be sent to the central Treasurer
for banking.
(j) Expenditure on each committee shall depend on its needs and industry.
(k) Each committee should have an imprest account of not less than five pounds
for emergency.
(1) The C.O.S.S. financial year should run from 1st April to 31st March of the
following year.
ARTICLE XIII: Trustees
Trustees shall be three persons elected at the Annual General ', i'.(!,.







COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


ARTICLE XIV: Interpretation
Should be the responsibility of the Chairman of C.O.S.S.

ARTICLE XV: Amendments
This constitution may be amended by the Council by a two-thirds majority vote of
affiliated member organizations present provided that the notice of proposed amendments
is submitted in writing thirty days in advance to the Organizing Secretary.

ARTICLE XVI: Dissolution
(a) The Council may by a two-thirds majority vote of the affiliated member
organizations present decide to dissolve the organization, provided that notice
of the proposed dissolution is given in writing, thirty days in advance of the
balloting to the Secretary.
(b) In case of dissolution the Council's property shall be handed over to the
relevant County Council(s).
(c) Dissolution shall become effective thirty days after the vote of the Council.

CITIZENSHIP CENTRE COMMITTEE
The following recommendations resulted from group discussion:

1. Name and Purpose
The name should be changed from Remand Home as this has particular stigma
attached to it. The new name should be Citizenship Training Centre with the name of
the zone as prefix, e.g., Aba Citizenship Training Centre. The law revision officers
should be asked to implement this change in the appropriate law and rules. The centres
exist as "transit stations" for juveniles to assess their needs and aptitudes to assist in
suitable placing on discharge. They should provide facilities and suitable activities for
juveniles for a period of about six months. Each centre will have a Citizenship Training
Centre Committee of Council of Social Service responsible for the running of the centre.
Port Harcourt Council of Social Service is advised to drop the name "Board" and adopt
"Committee" which is consistent with the constitution.

2. The Plan and Siting of Centres
The site chosen for such a centre should be near to the town so that the boys do not
feel isolated, a cause of absconding. Sometimes boys are threatened by older inmates
so that it is important to be near a town, keeping in touch with relatives and outside
world. The master plan for the centre should be sent to the zones by the Ministry of
Internal Affairs so that County Councils asking for funds, may know exactly what is
planned. Without this it is difficult to convince them.

3. Causes of Juvenile Delinquency: Need for Research Survey
It is observed that the majority of boys before the Juvenile Court are from homes in
the rural area which are broken or poverty stricken. Hunger and a great need for employ-
ment encourage juvenile delinquency.

It is very necessary to initiate a research survey into the facts surrounding juvenile
delinquency to be carried out by experts. It is recommended that the Sociology Depart-
ment of University of Nigeria, Nsukka be approached in this connection.






CONFERENCE REPORT


It is feared (and a survey may confirm this) that parents and children are becoming
institution minded and an adequate questionnaire on admission should be completed
about the child's background. To combat this attitude it is necessary to take up on a
regional level the establishment of temporary foster homes, i.e., a family or married
couple willing to give shelter to a child in need of care.
4. Needs of Citizenship Training Centres
At the moment the needs of such centres are mainly financial. It was suggested
that Council of Social Service member unions should pay monthly or annual voluntary
contributions, i.e., in addition to their membership fees. This is an additional means of
income to that of appealing to County Councils mentioned in paragraph 2.
The profits from the centre gardens should be handed over to the centre committee
who have financial control. Accurate accounts must be kept of garden and poultry
proceeds and savings made to enhance the centre's finances.
MARRIAGE GUIDANCE AND FAMILY RECONCILIATION COMMITTEE
Among the problems mentioned as needing the attention of these committees of
Council of Social Scrvice were homes broken by dispute or death, under-age marriage,
free choice of marriage partner, unmarried mothers, marriage of partners unmatched
educationally, poverty in families, custody of children after breakdown or extra-marital,
control over wife's salary and high bride price. Only a few of these could be discussed
due to time shortage.
1. Unmarried Mothers
The problem of unmarrried mothers is widespread and urgent; ruins the essence of
marriage and hopes for stable families. The problem has several causes:
(a) the migration of girls to townships in search of employment and better living
conditions;
(b) poverty, encouraging money seeking from boy friends;
(c) lack of parental control;
(d) high bride price, causing postponement of marriage;
(e) lack of sex education by schools and parents.
Although some ethnic groups allow illegitimacy as a means of increasing the family the
(girl's father's), girls and parents should be educated of the consequences in present day
society.
It is recommended that the necessary law be passed to permit affiliation proceedings
to ensure the welfare of the children being born in this way.
2. Broken Homes
Divorce is rife among people of all classes and financial stability has therefore little
to do with the stability of the family. The cause can be failure to carry out marriage
responsibilities by one or both parties, or, lack of understanding of marriage. It is
recommended that the Marriage Guidance Council needs to advise both the married and
the unmarried. Marriage problems should be kept between the couple as much as
possible, but if that fails parents and cultural unions should be the first to help in effecting
reconciliation and settlement.
3. Custody of Children
This is always a delicate issue in a broken marriage or non-marriage and it is recom-
mended that where the couple cannot be reconciled the matter should be referred to
courts for custody and maintenance settlement,








COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


4. High Bride Price
It is disappointing to observe, still places prospective husbands in difficult situations,
in spite of the Government Law. It is therefore recommended that the Government
should extend its machinery to educate parents on the need for observance of this law.

YOUTH COMMITTEE REPORT
1. Problems of Youth in the Rural and Urban Areas
(a) In the rural area there is nothing to attract young people to remain as employ-
inent possibilities are few, and there are no facilities to prepare them for later
life. They are too young to do useful work on the farm and there is too much
poverty for their parents to give them adequate care. Generally there is
much idleness and ignorance among the rural youth.
(b) In the urban area the problem is four-fold; there is over-crowded housing;
inadequate money for necessary upkeep; lack of career opportunities and
inadequate recreational facilities.
2. How can some of these needs be met ?
(a) To prevent juvenile delinquency growing out of the situation youth centres
must be established and youth leaders trained. Through cultural unions
parents could be educated on their responsibility and advised to encourage
their children to join international voluntary organizations. Cultural
unions could also set up committees to look into the behaviour and needs of
youths from their own area and to help them.
(b) To help in the problem of youth unemployment, the establishment of village
market gardens and young farmers clubs should be encouraged, while there
should be an extension of domestic science centres for girls.
(c) Village square and age grade activities in the rural areas should be revived to
correspond to the extension of youth centres in the urban areas.
(d) The lack of trained youth leaders is a noticeable handicap and the Regional
Youth Organizer is asked to intensify his training schemes to all zones.
Local programmes of action after each course should be the practice.
3. Use of local resources
In the suggestions above, local resources are to be used extensively, existing youth
organizations co-ordinated, membership drives encouraged, traditional activities revived
and potential leaders trained.

BLIND WELFARE t Of.iifI !Ni.-.

The committee, having considered what a handicapped person is, placed the blind
in this category. It is felt that they are an unfortunate group of the community who
cannot manage life on their own without the help of their fellow men. In making any
suggestions, the committee felt that it would be a wise thing for those considering the
extent of help to be given to the blind, to put themselves in the place of the blind, to be
able to appreciate fully the extent of their handicap before determining what help
could be given to them. The most important thing is that the blind should be made to
accept his blindness and then follow the training that makes it possible for him to adjust
himself.








COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


4. High Bride Price
It is disappointing to observe, still places prospective husbands in difficult situations,
in spite of the Government Law. It is therefore recommended that the Government
should extend its machinery to educate parents on the need for observance of this law.

YOUTH COMMITTEE REPORT
1. Problems of Youth in the Rural and Urban Areas
(a) In the rural area there is nothing to attract young people to remain as employ-
inent possibilities are few, and there are no facilities to prepare them for later
life. They are too young to do useful work on the farm and there is too much
poverty for their parents to give them adequate care. Generally there is
much idleness and ignorance among the rural youth.
(b) In the urban area the problem is four-fold; there is over-crowded housing;
inadequate money for necessary upkeep; lack of career opportunities and
inadequate recreational facilities.
2. How can some of these needs be met ?
(a) To prevent juvenile delinquency growing out of the situation youth centres
must be established and youth leaders trained. Through cultural unions
parents could be educated on their responsibility and advised to encourage
their children to join international voluntary organizations. Cultural
unions could also set up committees to look into the behaviour and needs of
youths from their own area and to help them.
(b) To help in the problem of youth unemployment, the establishment of village
market gardens and young farmers clubs should be encouraged, while there
should be an extension of domestic science centres for girls.
(c) Village square and age grade activities in the rural areas should be revived to
correspond to the extension of youth centres in the urban areas.
(d) The lack of trained youth leaders is a noticeable handicap and the Regional
Youth Organizer is asked to intensify his training schemes to all zones.
Local programmes of action after each course should be the practice.
3. Use of local resources
In the suggestions above, local resources are to be used extensively, existing youth
organizations co-ordinated, membership drives encouraged, traditional activities revived
and potential leaders trained.

BLIND WELFARE t Of.iifI !Ni.-.

The committee, having considered what a handicapped person is, placed the blind
in this category. It is felt that they are an unfortunate group of the community who
cannot manage life on their own without the help of their fellow men. In making any
suggestions, the committee felt that it would be a wise thing for those considering the
extent of help to be given to the blind, to put themselves in the place of the blind, to be
able to appreciate fully the extent of their handicap before determining what help
could be given to them. The most important thing is that the blind should be made to
accept his blindness and then follow the training that makes it possible for him to adjust
himself.







CONFERENCE REPORT


Recommendations of the Blind Welfare Committee
1. The C.O.S.S. should encourage the blind in our community by showing them
due sympathy by establishing in them a sense of security and a sense of belonging in the
community.
2. Efforts should be made by members of the C.O.S.S. to educate the public to
accept the blind in our communities.
3. The C.O.S.S. should take up the survey of blind people in the Region to help to
determine the incidence of blindness in Eastern Nigeria.
4. A Regional Centre should be developed in conjunction with the existing centre in
the Region for the training of blind people.
5. Each zone should develop a Rehabilitation Centre where these trained blind
could be absorbed.
6. The Local Government bodies in each area should undertake the education of
blind children of school age in its area of authority and exceptionally bright ones given the
opportunity to benefit from the Local Government Scholarship Scheme.
7. The C.O.S.S. should make strong appeals to Local Government Bodies, Regional
Government, and private firms to patronize the blind by giving priority to their local
articles instead of buying from the local market.
8. The 4,000 grant paid to Ikeja Farm Craft Centre should be diverted to the Blind
Welfare work in Eastern Nigeria.
9. The blind should be repatriated through their cultural organizations for t, dIii.,
and rehabilitation. Where the blind cannot be trained, the C.O.S.S. should explore the
possibility of helping the individual blind with the co-operation of the cultural union.
10. The C.O.S.S. should organize public lectures and film shows from time to time
thereby educating the community on what the blind can do and how best to prevent
blindness where possible.
11. School medical services should be established in the rural and urban areas by the
Ministry of Health so that certain measures could be taken to correct the sight before
much damage is done.
12. The committee strongly feels that the facilities and resources for blind people in
this Region is yet negligible and therefore they should be given priority in the scheme
of things because of their disability.
13. A community Chest should be set up whereby some funds could be available
for blind welfare work in the Region.
14. An After-care Service should be established whereby the blind craftsmen
working in their homes could be helped out. For example, formation of open workshops
in the local areas or co-operative blind craftsmen union.

MENTAL HEALTH COMMITTEE
1. How great is the problem of mental illness in the Region ?
All members of the committee thought that the number of mentally ill was on the
increase, both in the towns and the villages although it is difficult to assess. In our







COUNCILS ,OF SOCIAL SERVICE


institutions, Prison asylums and Calabar Mental Hospital there are about 800 mental
patients. In fact, a rough estimate is that in every 2,000 of population there is one
mentally ill. The ratio of men to woman patients is not known at the moment.
There are two main groups of mentally ill, the aggressive psychotic and the quieter
neurotics. The first group are the ones we see and notice and who occupy the asylums
while the quiet neurotic group may hardly be observed, staying quietly in their villages.
It is also difficult to draw the line between the mentally ill and beggars since any form
of deviant behaviour from the normal, like begging, is an early form of mental illness.
2. What is the public's attitude to mental illness ?
The public's attitude is largely based on ignorance and fear. In the past there was a
tendency to regard such people as an outcast and a joke. Now there is some improve-
ment in attitude, some of the public show sympathy especially for older ones, not so much
for the young who they believe may be in this condition because of smoking "gay".
Sometimes families even welcome the begging ability of mentally ill relatives. On the
whole the public try to avoid such people as much as possible and reject any approach
from such a person, who may only be touching him for a joke. The reaction of the
public may sometimes invoke the fear-aggressive reaction of the person.
3. What steps can a C.O.S.S. Mental Health Committee take ?
(i) MENTAL ILLNESS IN CHILDREN
Examples of this are seen in the .. i- -i.c of a deaf and dumb child, in juvenile
delinquency, truancy, 11 i ,.:, obstinate disobedient behaviour, etc.
A Child Guidance Clinic is necessary so that the nature of the illness can be assessed
and advice and correction given.
The Committee urged that Councils of Social Service should urge County and
Urban Councils to employ mental health workers, first sending them for training to
Dr Kalunta at Calabar Mental Hospital.
(ii) MENTAL ILLNESS IN ADULTS
The committee recommended that Councils of Social Service should carry out a
nation-ywide survey of the mentally ill in Eastern Nigeria through the Council of Social
Service committees and Divisional Social Workers. Dr Kalunta will produce a simple
questionnaire for this purpose.
It was also recommended that Councils of Social Service should take more interest in
patients in the psychiatric units of General Hospitals where the staffing shortage makes it
difficult for adequate attention to be given to such patients. Again Council Mental
Health workers could help with this.
(iii) REPATRIATION OF TIlE .\L N \i \i ILL
Cultural unions have already been helping in the repatriation of the mentally ill,
tracing relatives and preparing home people for their return.
(iv) PUBLIC EDUCATION ON MENTAL HEALTH AND ILLNESS
(a) Councils of Social Service can help by sponsoring a series of lectures and film
shows on the subject. Council Mental Health workers could help with this.
(b) Councils of Social Service should urge the Ministry of Information to make a
-. i.m11 based film on mental illness, its symptoms and treatment.







CONFE RENCE REtPORT'


4. What facilities exist for the treatment of the Mentally Ill and what local
resources might be used ?
In addition to the Prison Asylums and Calabar Hospital mentioned before, the
committee also noted the existence of psychiatric units in most General Hospitals which
are visited regularly by Dr Kalunta.
The effect of native treatment and prayer houses was observed to be temporarily
successful in some cases but also in the case of a quiet mental disorder, native treatment
may actually be an irritant.
The committee recommends that Councils of Social Services look into the need for
"half way houses". That is, on discharge from a mental hospital, if the patient returns to
a hostile environment his relapse is certain. He needs to be received into a sympathetic
community. If there was a worker's hostel (e.g., Young Men Christian Association or at
the Citizenship Centre) where he could be received and be certain of his meals for a
period, he would eventually look for work and move out into the full community. Again
in this interim period Council '. I.i., I Health workers could help considerably.
Finally this committee recommends that every Council of Social Service establishes
a Mental Health Committee immediately to explore some of the above recommendations.

WELFARE WEEK AND FUND HAlti;N~; (f.' Ri FE

1. Aims and Purposes of Welfare Week
The purpose of a Welfare Week is to arouse the social conscience of the community
and focus their attention on particular local social problems. It should also educate the
general public about the functions of Councils of Social Service. It is time for C.O.S.S.
to take stock of its past activities and to plan for the future.
It is recommended that Welfare Week is held simultaneously throughout the Region
to make a significant impact on the public. The last week of March was proposed.

2. Activities of Welfare Week, which include Fund Raising
The following activities were suggested: public lectures, traditional dance, raffle
draws, wrestling contests, clean-up campaigns, ball-room dance, display of crafts made
by the blind, fun-fair, bazaars and football match.
During the week a Community Chest would be launched for proceeds from any of
the above activities which were money raising and for donations from individuals and
firms to whom appeal letters should be sent. At first the Community Chest should be
organized on a local level although in due course it should become regional.
A special appeal for a grant from County Councils could be lodged at the same time.

3. Fund Raising and County Councils
It was suggested that to build up the funds of C.O.S.S. an appeal should be made to
County Councils through the Local Government Commissioners asking for a regular
annual grant to Councils of Social Services.
Councils of Social Service in the various zones should also make representation to
County Councils to educate them of the need to .ipi .i,,'t Divisional Social Workers.







COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


4. Public Education about Council of Social Service, its work and needs
For successful fund-raising, public education about the purpose of Council of Social
Service, its achievements and needs, is essential. Delegates of Council of Social Service
should attend cultural union meetings to explain these things to them. Also member
cultural unions should pay annual dues to Council of Social Service, a practice which needs
to be well established.
In addition publicity committees of Council of Social Service should be set up,
with publicity men where possible, sent to represent the member unions.
Finally it was agreed that the Welfare Week and Fund Raising Committee should
be formed without delay in all Councils of Social Services.

SUMMARY OF EVALUATION REMARKS OF THE CONFERENCE
What was liked about the Conference
1. The conference venue should remain at the University Campus.
2. The workshop system adopted by the conference.
3. The opportunity given to various sections of the Region to come together.
4. The rotational system of appointing chairman of the conference.
5. The opportunity for each zone to assess its comparative achievements with other
zones in the Region.
6. The educators were very educative.
7. The benefit of having to deliberate with the ( I. I' Welfare Officer for the Region
who has mapped out the wide field of activities open to the Councils of Social
Service.
8. The whole conference has acted as a training ground and at first hand and at the
highest level, the policy and the programme of the Welfare Service has been
made known.
9. The conference has broadened the outlook of our running of the C.O.S.S. by
reports submitted by the different Welfare Zones in the Region (Calabar).
10. Liked the environment and arrangement of accommodations for the delegates.
11. Liked the idea of studying from one another.
12. Liked the idea of bringing in experts to lecture and the fact everybody was given
the chance to express his or her own views.
13. Getting to know the social problems of other places.
14. Gaining of knowledge.
What was disliked
1. The omission of an excursion on the campus, for sight seeing purposes.
2. The time-table is too compact for exhaustive discussion.
3. Problems of the deaf and dumb should not be forgotten.
4. Should afford delegates opportunity for relaxation, touring around, and fuller
discussion of committee reports.
5. More women representatives should be encouraged to attend such meetings.
6. Cost of feeding and lodging is a little too expensive.
7. Programme was too crowded; the time allotted to each item was too short for
effective deliberations.
8. The talk of the C.S.W.O. should have come first.
9. A period of prayer should have been provided.







CONFERENCE REPORT


10. There should be a permanent conference secretary to keep official record. There
was not a good distribution of labour, Mr Unaka looked over-worked.
11. The quality of Nigerian food was not good.
12. There is a need to invite experts concerned in social service work to such
conferences.
13. There was very little briefing before going into the workshops as a result much
time was given to clarification of tasks.
14. No formal arrangement for social relaxation.
15. Ample notice for future conferences should be given.
16. Too paternalistic.
General Comments
Fully endorse the organizations of Regional, Provincial, and Divisional Councils of
Social Service (Aba).
The matter of affiliation proceedings be further investigated with a view to implement its
practice (Aba).
Publicity of the work of the Social Welfare Division through films and publications.
Members of the C.O.S.S. to attend the cultural unions and workers of the Councils of
Social Service occasionally to organize conferences of officers of cultural unions.
Proceedings of the conference should be printed and distributed to the delegates.
The issue of affiliation proceedings should be referred to the steering committee for
further study. The resolution on the issue was premature.
That the conference records appreciation to Dr Ibeziako and Dr Akiwowo.
That the conference be held annually in rotation.
That the agenda be forwarded in sufficient time to the different zones.
Next conference should be held in October.
Steps should be taken to give some legal backing to committees of the C.O.S.S., for
example the Marriage Guidance Committee.
The conference is a good medium of publicizing the achievements and proposals of the
Council of Social Service.
To have a regional conference once a year, preferably in February.
To have a zonal/provincial conference once a year preferably in October.
To incorporate the list of delegates and observers into the report to be circulated.
To publish a quarterly bulletin of the Councils of Social Service.
The delegates are now convinced of the need for the appointment of more divisional
social workers.
Next conference should be held in August.











MAIN POINTS FROM DISCUSSION EMANATING FROM THE LECTURE
GIVEN BY THE CHIEF SOCIAL WELFARE OFFICER ON SUNDAY,
21st FEBRUARY, 1965 AT THE FIRST REGIONAL CONFERENCE
OF COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE

The Chairman, Port Harcourt delegation leader, suggested that we go straight on to
the matter of motion for formation of Regional Council of Social Service.
Several speakers asked opportunity to discuss. All speakers prefaced their remarks
with congratulations and thanks to the Chief Social Welfare Officer for his lecture. Also
all supported ultimately the formation of the Regional Council of Social Service, but
were not all at first in favour of its priority.
OWERRI: (Hon. Onyewuchi) Why is it that the zones are so strangely formed?
Why should Owerri be under Port Harcourt which is 80 miles away while Aba is only
forty miles away? And what is the reason for the division of Owerri Province ? Before
Zonal Councils of Social Service are formed the Social Welfare department should be
reorganized.
CHIEF SOCIAL WELFARE OFFICER (Mr P. Graham): The zones were formed
because the estimates approved by the Government only allowed for five Social Welfare
Officers. When later on the sixth Social Welfare Officer's appointment was approved
there was a re-division of zones. It should be remembered that previously all Social
Welfare was at Calabar and in 1961 when these new zones were formed there was a risk
that the whole division would be wound up. It was only after some battle that this
policy was passed. If there were more Social Welfare Officers then there could be more
reasonable zones.
ABA (Barrister Egbuziem): Social Welfare Officers should attend cultural union
meetings as it has been said cultural unions are the basis of the Council of Social Service
yet the unions themselves need educating of their own true purpose. The unions have
to learn to be efficient and understand what are the important things to be done rather
than wasting time on long disputes over petty matters.
ABA (Dr Okechukwu): In view of the shortage of Social Welfare Officers it is the
members of the C.O.S.S. who should do this education. Those who have journalistic
gifts should write articles for the Outlook and the Times on the value and purpose of
cultural unions. The professional men, the so-called "elite" should be urged to attend
union meetings, and take part in social welfare. They must be convinced of the need
for their participation.
PORT HARCOURT (Mr Jumbo): The cultural unions have been struggling on for a
long time, in face of lack of enthusiasm. They put on a great welcome for brethren
returning from overseas, traditional dances, refreshments, etc., yet they turn away almost
immediately from the union and only stand to criticize from outside. Consequently it
is in fact very few members who are active, take responsibility and represent their union
on C.O.S.S. committees.
ENcGU: It is the wrong side of politics which is spoiling the cultural unions. The
politicians come into the unions and spread confusion and division.







CONFERENCE REPORT


ONITSHA (Rev. Father): A village is composed of families, and a family of indivi-
duals, so we must not forget that man is the root of evil, he is responsible for selfishness
and nepotism. This needs to be dealt with in early days, in the training of our children.
CALABAR (Chief Nsisuk): All these we should take back to our people first. We
should form the Zonal Council of Social Service first, from which the representatives will
be drawn for the Regional Council of Social Service.
ABAJA/NGWO (Dr Odenigwe): Summarizing some of the foregoing discussions the
following seemed the main points:
(1) Councils of Social Service should be formed on county, divisional, provincial
(not zonal) and regional basis.
(2) There should be some clarification of the membership definition, "cultural
unions", as the term is often misunderstood.
(3) That more, permanent staff for welfare services are needed. We should not
go too far in many fields without trained staff. Blind rehabilitation centres,
citizenship centres, etc., all need trained staff to be effective.
THEi CHAIRMAN CALLED FOR A MOTION:
1/ */..,,: That Regional, Provincial, Divisional and County Councils of Social Service be
established.
Moved MR F. F. B. C. NWANKWO Seconded MR ANE
Aba Enugu
Amendment: and that the conference is not satisfied with the present Social Welfare
organization:
.1.., ,/I: on. A. ONYEWUCIII (Owerri, P.H. Zone).
Motion II: That a steering committee should be set up to implement this, composed of
two representatives from each zone, to be nominated by the zonal delegation
present.
.11. .': DR ODENIGWE (Abaja/Ngwo, Enugu) Seconded HON. A. ONYEWUCIII
Owerri, Port Harcourt
.11 '. III: That the said steering committee should meet the Minister of Internal Affairs
requesting an increase in the number of Social Welfare Officer posts to
facilitate increase of number of zones.
Proposed: MR A. E. C. JUMBO, Port Ilarcourt Seconded: MR EKPUNOBI, Abakaliki
.11.':.... IV: That the Steering Committee should, when preparing the constitution, give
due consideration to the amendments recommended on page 3 of the Port

Harcourt Report.
Proposed: Rev. Fr. KENNEDY, Owerri, P.H. Seconded: IKEM OKONKWO, Aba







COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


Aba Zonal Delegates


Dr T. L. C. Okechukwu (Leader)
Mrs Joyce Nwobbi (N.S.)
B. C. E. Ajoku
Chief Igoni Nwagbara
Jeremiah Oteh
Ben Okolo
Okonkwo Ikem
S. U. Ekpo
H. Moses
B. C. Nwabueze (C. Organizer)
Mrs Fola Francis Hogan (S.W.O.)


12. Madam Mary Okezie
13. Dennis T. Long-John
14. Chukwu Adika
15. J. J. Uwa
16. Obediah Odoemene
17. F. F. B. C. Nwankwo
18. Barrister R. I. Egbuziem
19. J. Akpan
20. E. E. Anwanta
21. Wilfred Ekpenyong (D.S.W., Opobo)
22. N. O. U. Ekpo.


Abakaliki Zonal Delegates


Patrick Anosike (Leader)
Peter Ekpunobi
M. Ekpo
C. O. Onuoha
John Ugbe (Community Organizer)
Gregory Effiong (Acting S.W.O.)


7. Councillor J. J. Osim
8. E. O. Aya
9. Peter Agba
10. Chukwuma Eze
11. Cosmas Eze (D.S.W.).


Calabar Zonal Delegates


Chief O. A. Nsisuk (Leader)
E. D. Nsima
Dr A. Kalunta
E. A. Afia
N. Y. Uko
A. I. Okon


P. A. Eyo (D.S.W., Uyo)
J. G. Cokkey
0. O. Eta
E. N. Ekere
Chief E. Nyong
E. U. Ekpenyong (D. S. W., Eket)
E. Udong (S.W.O.).


Enugu Zonal Delegates


Chief N. Chukwuani (Leader)
A. B. C. Nwazota
J. A. Amotsuka
Mrs P. N. Obi
Duru Dika
Dr G. A. Odenigwe
J. O. P. Chime
P. I. Alu
D. E. Akib
L. I. Egwu (D.S.W., Afikpo)
P. Graham (C.S.W.O.)
G. A. Obonna (S.S.W.O.)
E. M. Unaka (H.S.W.O., Conference
Organizer)


14. D. N. Mkpaya
15. N. N. Obi
16. Mrs M. U. Umeh
17. N. O. Hemuka
18. R. W. C. Ezenwakwa
19. I. C. Onyia
20. L. E. Okoh
21. P. E. Ani
22. D. Okoh (D.S.W., Enugu) ,
23. E. A. Eneh (D.S.W., Udi)
24. L. J. Weeber (R.T.O.)
25. F. Y. Amachree (E.O.).
26. E. W. George (S.S.W.O.)








CONFERENCE REPORT


Onitsha Zonal Delegates


1. Dr W. C. Eze (Leader)
2. P. N. Onukwuli
3. Major J. C. Asike
4. C. B. I. Nnadi (Community Organizer)
5. C. A. Mbanusi (D.S.W., Onitsha)


Vincent I. Onubuya
Mrs Ada Adogu (Magistrate)
T. A. Uzukwu
S. U. Anyanwu (D.S.W., Okigwi)
A. E. D. Mgbemena.


Port Harcourt Zonal Delegates


M. A. Nwankwo (Leader)
E. O. Ugoji
Rev. Father R. Frimbam
Rev. P. J. O'Connor
C. O. Maduforo
Mrs Rhoda Ate
U. Thomas (Abua)
O. O. Ngefa
O. Okorowo
Charles Onuoha (Community
Organizer)



Harrison M. Ehiobu
Alfred Hasted
Rev. Father Michael Eneja
Mrs Igoni Nwagbara


11. S. P. Okonny
12. D. E. Amachree
13. I. O. Okon
14. Franklin Leyire Wiko
15. A. E. C. Jumbo
16. J. B. C. Nwokoro
17. Olumba Onyewuchi
18. Sam Ijeoma
19. Adele Nwosu
20. Miss M. Olphin (S.W.O.).


Observers
5. John Nwosu
6. Rev. D. N. Ezirim
7. Rev. Father John Okaih
8. Sister Heeran Mary Timothy.


Members of Steering Committee


Zone
ABA

ABAKALI

CALABAR

ENUGU

ONITSHA

PORT HA


... ... ... 1 .
2.
K I ... ... 1.
2.
S ... ... 1.
2.
... ... ... 1 .
2.
^ ... ... 1.
2.
XRCOURT ... 1.
2.


Name
Barrister R. I. Egbuziem
Mr O. U. Ekpo
Mr P. O. Anosike
Mr C. O. Onuoha
Chief Nsisuk
Mr E. U. Ekpcnyong
Chief N. Chukwuani
Dr G. A. Odenigwe
Dr W. C. Eze
Mr V. I. Onwubuya
Hon. O. Onyewuchi
Mr M. A. Nwankwo











REPORT ON FIRST REGIONAL CONFERENCE OF COUNCILS OF
SOCIAL SERVICE HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA
ON 19th-21st FEBRUARY, 1965, FROM ABA ZONE

1. The Social Welfare Division of the Ministry of Internal Affairs saw it expedient
that delegates or representatives of the Zonal Councils of Social Services would meet
together for the first time to give an account of their welfare activities, to review the
present constitution and suggest ways for improvement on the whole policy.
This call by the Chief Social Welfare Officer was unanimously answered by all
the Social Welfare Zones which sent delegates of specially distinguished personalities
from various works of life. The six Welfare Zones of Aba, Abakaliki, Calabar, Enugu,
Onitsha and Port Harcourt sent each more than twenty delegates to represent them at the
conference thus, well over 160 delegates attended excluding observers. The choice
of the representatives was made by each Council of Social Service itself and the expen-
ditures incurred on this delegation were partly borne by each delegate and partly by
the Zonal Council of Social Service.
2. Reception and Accommodation
The University Authorities provided enough accommodation for the delegates so
much that every delegate felt quite comfortable. The arrangement made by the Chief
Organizer to receive the delegates was excellent too. On arriving at the Campus one
did not bother to ask people his way but to follow directions well mapped on the sign-
boards with the directing arrows until he got to the very building which was used for all
the activities including lodging. The registration, checking and payment of conference
expenses were all made simple by the Social Welfare Officers who directed and attended
the delegates promptly.
3. The Programme and Time-table
A well prepared programme with the time-table attached was given to every delegate
to study and use as a guide. This could bring at a glance the whole work of the con-
ference at their respective stages. The ideas of providing a period for a cocktail party
was superb because it apparently became the only time when all the delegates were drawn
together to exchange hearty greetings. The schedule was so well drawn and arranged
that it provided equally recognizable functions for all the zonal leaders who at one time
or another were called upon to chairman one session of the programme, e.g., Chief Nwafor
Chukwuani the leader of Enugu delegates introduced the Hon. Minister of Internal
Affairs. Doctor T. L. C. Okechukwu was called upon to chairman the workshop for
the Citizenship Centre. The systems of group work in most of the items helped to
achieve a good deal within the short period of the conference. It also gave every
individual an opportunity of giving the best suggestion that he or she had for the items.
4. Constitution
Dr S. M. Ibeziako delivered a well prepared lecture on what a model constitution
should be for the operation of a Council of Social Service. To the delegates his model
constitution provided a guide for the easy review of the former Council of Social Service
Draft Constitution. The constitution was divided into four parts and worked on by
eight different workshop committees for thorough and quicker treatment, The reports











REPORT ON FIRST REGIONAL CONFERENCE OF COUNCILS OF
SOCIAL SERVICE HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA
ON 19th-21st FEBRUARY, 1965, FROM ABA ZONE

1. The Social Welfare Division of the Ministry of Internal Affairs saw it expedient
that delegates or representatives of the Zonal Councils of Social Services would meet
together for the first time to give an account of their welfare activities, to review the
present constitution and suggest ways for improvement on the whole policy.
This call by the Chief Social Welfare Officer was unanimously answered by all
the Social Welfare Zones which sent delegates of specially distinguished personalities
from various works of life. The six Welfare Zones of Aba, Abakaliki, Calabar, Enugu,
Onitsha and Port Harcourt sent each more than twenty delegates to represent them at the
conference thus, well over 160 delegates attended excluding observers. The choice
of the representatives was made by each Council of Social Service itself and the expen-
ditures incurred on this delegation were partly borne by each delegate and partly by
the Zonal Council of Social Service.
2. Reception and Accommodation
The University Authorities provided enough accommodation for the delegates so
much that every delegate felt quite comfortable. The arrangement made by the Chief
Organizer to receive the delegates was excellent too. On arriving at the Campus one
did not bother to ask people his way but to follow directions well mapped on the sign-
boards with the directing arrows until he got to the very building which was used for all
the activities including lodging. The registration, checking and payment of conference
expenses were all made simple by the Social Welfare Officers who directed and attended
the delegates promptly.
3. The Programme and Time-table
A well prepared programme with the time-table attached was given to every delegate
to study and use as a guide. This could bring at a glance the whole work of the con-
ference at their respective stages. The ideas of providing a period for a cocktail party
was superb because it apparently became the only time when all the delegates were drawn
together to exchange hearty greetings. The schedule was so well drawn and arranged
that it provided equally recognizable functions for all the zonal leaders who at one time
or another were called upon to chairman one session of the programme, e.g., Chief Nwafor
Chukwuani the leader of Enugu delegates introduced the Hon. Minister of Internal
Affairs. Doctor T. L. C. Okechukwu was called upon to chairman the workshop for
the Citizenship Centre. The systems of group work in most of the items helped to
achieve a good deal within the short period of the conference. It also gave every
individual an opportunity of giving the best suggestion that he or she had for the items.
4. Constitution
Dr S. M. Ibeziako delivered a well prepared lecture on what a model constitution
should be for the operation of a Council of Social Service. To the delegates his model
constitution provided a guide for the easy review of the former Council of Social Service
Draft Constitution. The constitution was divided into four parts and worked on by
eight different workshop committees for thorough and quicker treatment, The reports







CONFERENCE REPORT


of these committees were read and lively debated upon. The main part on which
decision was taken was the membership. Membership should now include cultural
unions and voluntary organizations. Individual membership as was applied in some
zones should be discontinued. Reports on all other sections of the constitution would
be dealt with by the steering committee.
5. Zonal Reports
Each zone came with a report in which were included the welfare activities of the
zone, the strength and achievements of their Council of Social Service and its relevant
committees and the difficulties the zone is encountering to achieve its purpose as required
in the policy. These reports were read and criticized. Questions were put to the
delegates for further clarifications. This part of the programme was specially commended
because it gave room for constructive criticism and made chances for comparison and
emulation, e.g., in Port Harcourt and Abakaliki, Council of Social Service has got reason-
able amount of money because the M\unicipality and the Urban Councils respectively
have made funds available in the interest of the Councils of Social Service.
6. Committees
As most of our social problems are tackled by various committees of the Council of
Social Service it was needful that people with special interest in such committees be made
to sit together and exchange views on difficulties they have been meeting and then suggest
solutions if possible. There were then six groups made out of the delegates, to study
the working of the following committees:- Citizenship Centre, Marriage Guidance,
Blind Welfare, Youth Centre, Mental Health and Fund Raising. The findings and
recommendations of these groups were submitted to the Chief Organizer, Mr E. M. Unaka,
Higher Social Welfare Officer as requested.
7. Special Invitees
Several experts in the field of learning showed interest in Social Welfare Service.
Dr Akiwowo of Sociology Department delivered a lecture to the delegates on "Present
Day Social Changes in Nigeria". The appreciation of his lecture was shown by a
unanimous demand for the copies of that lecture by all the delegates at all costs.
The Chief Social Welfare Officer and all his higher officers were introduced to the
delegates who were very eager to know them as brains behind this Social Welfare Move-
ment which all have praised so much and have appreciated so practically.
The Chief Social Welfare Officer seized this opportunity also to give first-hand
information or explanation of the new welfare policy to the delegates. By his good
explanation the delegates understood why the Social Welfare work should be done by all
the true sons of the Region for the good of the nation. This idea would descend to all
that they represented.
8. Resolutions
It was discussed and agreed that there should be Council of Social Service formed
on each County or Urban area.
(i) From this County area should be formed zonal Council of Social Service.
From the zones there should be formed Provincial Council of Social Service and
then the Regional Council of Social Service. When this is done welfare
work will spread out like a net involving every part of the Region.
(ii) That delegation be sent to the Ministry for the creation of more zones because
the six existing ones are said to be insufficient to cater for all the corners of








COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


the Region. The delegations should demand for the training of more officers
and discuss other financial handicaps towards successful running of Welfare
Division of the Ministry.
(iii) That a Steering Committee be formed that day to plan the future of the
Regional Council of Social Service. This committee of twelve was actually
formed, two persons from each zone.
(iv) That such conference be summoned yearly and if possible rotatory.
9. One cannot fail to thank the staff of the Social Welfare Department for pains
taken to plan and arrange for such historic educational conference; the authorities and
lecturers of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka for their unique contributions and all
the delegates for their time and money sacrificed for the good of their fellow men.
It is believed that the work will be fully done only when the knowledge so far gained
in this conference is carried down to our brethren whom we represent at this conference
so that when every individual helps to carry out the policy as agreed upon, our
unfortunate brothers and sisters will then get a relief in their plight.
10. It will be good to mention the interests commonly shown and the constructive
ideas made by the delegates throughout the period of the conference. The relationship
amongthe delegates was very cordial. In short, all expressed their willingness to assemble
any time called upon for another Regional Council of Social Service Conference.
The impression so far formed was highly commendable and the policy adopted
equally encouraging.

(Sgd.) B. C. NWABUEZE
Community Organizer,
Social Welfare Office, Aba












THE FIRST EASTERN NIGERIA REGIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE COUNCIL
OF SOCIAL SERVICE HELD AT THE CAMPUS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
NIGERIA, NSUKKA FROM THE 19th TO 21st FEBRUARY, 1965


NAMES OF ABAKALIKI DELEGATES
Mr G. O. Effiong ...

Mr J. A. Ugbe ...
Mr C. O. Eze ...

Mr P. Anosike ...

Mr P. O. Ekpunobi


Mr C. O. Onuoha
Mr M. Okpo
Mr I. Osim
Mr E. O. Aya
Mr Peter Agba


... Acting Social Welfare Officer in-charge,
Abakaliki Social Welfare Zone.
... Probation Officer (Youth Organizer).
... Divisional Social Worker for Abakaliki Urban
County Council.
... Abakaliki Council of Social Service
representative.
... Abakaliki Council of Social Service
representative.
... Ezzikwo County Council.
... Obubra County Council.
... Obubra County Council.
... Ishielu County Council.
... Ishielu County Council.


This is the first Regional Conference of the Councils of Social Service in Eastern
Nigeria. The conference was organized by the staff of the Social Welfare Division of the
Ministry of Internal Affairs under the auspices of the Continuing Education Programme
of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
ARRIVAL OF DELEGATES
Delegates from the six Social Welfare Zones started to arrive at the Campus on the
19th February, 1965. Name tags were distributed and payment of conference expenses
was made. Members soon gradually settled down and were now anticipating the
arrival of the Honourable Minister of Internal Affairs, Chief I. UI. Akpabio. The
Honourable Minister and his entourage arrived at 4 p.m. Barrister Chukwuani, Enugu
delegate, presided on this occasion. The Honourable Minister was introduced to the
delegates by the presiding officer. The Minister then addressed the delegates with a
very touching speech recounting the achievement of the Welfare Division in the six zones
since Social Welfare work took a firm root in the Region. He attributed this achievement
to the efforts of the entire communities in Eastern Nigeria through the hard work of the
Councils of Social Service. He expressed his happiness to see that many communities
are tackling their Social problems with brotherly spirit. He, however, regretted the
fewness of Social Welfare Staff at the moment but hoped that more welfare zones would
be created after expanding the existing staff. He concluded by thanking members for
attending the conference and hoped peaceful and useful deliberations would feature
throughout the conference. The Minister then stayed in as reports from the five out of
six zones were being read and discussed. Port Harcourt's delegates did not arrive in
time, hence their report was not read. Their report was then treated during the evening
session. After the five reports were read and discussed, the Minister and his entourage
then left. There was a short break to allow time for the delegates to prepare for a cock-
tail party organized and sponsored by members of Enugu Council of Social Service.
This was a nice occasion as it gave delegates an opportunity of welcoming one another to








COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


the conference. Besides, it also created an opportunity where old acquaintances were
renewed and new friends made.
The conference resumed at 8.30 p.m. with Dr T. L. C. Okechukwu from Aba zone
on the chair; Port Harcourt Report was read at this session. Questions were asked on all
the reports and free discussions took place.
1. Members from other zones wondered how Abakaliki zone got up to one thousand
and thirty-five pounds (1,035) in their fund as contained in her report. The Secretary
of Abakaliki Council of Social Service briefly explained as follows-
(a) That some of the money was got as a result of the "Fund Raising Week"
which the Council organized early last year.
(b) That some money was got as a result of the grant paid by each of the County
Councils in Abakaliki Welfare Zone to equip its "Houses" in the Citizenship
Centre. That had been easy through the formation of Zonal Citizenship
Centre Committee where each County Council sends in two councillors to
represent its interest in the committee.
(c) And thirdly, that a part of the money was derived from the eight hundred and
forty pounds (840) grant given by the Eastern Nigeria Government to the
Council of Social Service for the upkeep of its Citizenship Centre. Members
from other zones were then advised to emulate the steps taken by Abakaliki
zone in order to raise money for the building and maintenance of their
Citizenship Centres.
AFFILIATION PROCEEDINGS
2. Some members suggested that "Affiliation Proceedings" for girls put in the
family way should be envisaged by the conference. This suggestion was noted down for
a later debate on it.
3. Some delegates also asked why members of the Red Cross Society and Cheshire
Homes did not attend the conference.
The Chief Welfare Officer explained that invitation to attend the conference was
extended to them but he was also surprised why they failed to attend.
4. An expert on leprosy work from Leprosy Settlement, Uzuakoli commented on
the dull attitude of the various communities in the Region on leprosy work. He then
appealed to various Councils of Social Service to help on their respective areas by
reporting in all cases, all persons affected by the disease promptly to Medical Officer or
leprosy attendants in-charge of any of the Leprosy Settlements in the Region. He
further said that through early isolation of the patients to Leprosy Camps, the Councils
shall have helped a lot to call a halt to the surging spread of this dreadful disease.
5. In its report, the Port Harcourt zone called Citizenship Centre Committee-
"Citizenship Centre Board". The word "Board" sparked off heated argument. It was
finally agreed that the word "Board" be dropped and should not be used any longer.
DEAF AND DUMB
6. An observer at the conference, a deaf and dumb teacher at the Deaf and Dumb
School, Oji River asked why in the reports read no mention was made on deaf and dumb.
He was of the opinion that the Councils of Social Service have no interest for the deaf and
dumb, that was why a committee was not set up in any of the Councils for such social
casualties.







CONFERENCE REPORT


Explaining, the Chief Social Welfare Officer, Mr P. Graham, told members that
committees of the Councils of Social Service are formed only as need arises. He
refuted the idea that Councils of Social Service were not interested in the well-being of
the deaf and dumb. He added that the number of deaf and dumb in the respective
areas in the Region is negligibly small in comparison with other social problems that
affect a greater number of people in our communities. He however hoped that this
particular aspect of social problem would be tackled as it arises in each area.
BLIND WELFARE
7. One of the observers to the conference wanted to know why blind persons from
the Region were sent to Ikeja instead of Oji River for training.
The Chief Social Welfare Officer explained that the Eastern Government pays
annually the sum of four thousand pounds (4,000) to maintain the Ikeja Blind Craft
Training Centre. Besides, training there was free. In Oji River only limited chances
are offered annually and there is a charge of thirty-six pounds (36) to be paid on behalf
of each blind trainee. Comparing the two centres it was therefore wise to send them to
Lagos where training is free owing to the yearly grants paid by the Eastern Nigeria
Government.
8. ABAJA/NGWO PROPOSED BLIND FARM-CRAFT CENTRE
The same questioner wanted to know why Abaja/Ngwo Council of Social Service
was intending to open up a Blind Craft Centre whereas the same facilities were offered
at the Oji River Blind Rehabilitation Centre. The Chief Social Welfare Officer was also
called upon to explain. He explained by telling members that in the past, it had been
difficult to get even one blind person to be sent for training. But Abaja/Ngwo Council
of Social Service conducted a blind survey within three days and it was discovered that
there were more than two hundred blind persons in the area. Oji River takes in a limited
number for training annually but the Council was anxious to get all these blind absorbed
in the Craft Training Centre so that they could be useful to themselves and the community
at large. Moreover, if such Craft Training Centre was located near a Farm Settlement,
the blind trainees would be better rehabilitated. Farm instructors could help to advise
the trainees and land also would be made available to them for their little gardens.
Experience had shown that many of the blind persons already trained often sent many
petitions to the Ministry of Internal Affairs asking for money and many other things.
To put an end to this sort of affairs and get the blind persons who have beentrained
usefully employed and well rehabilitated, the Council was embarking on siting this
centre near the existing Farm Settlement.
Second Day 20th February, 1965
At the first session on this day, Dr Buschman the Director of Extramural Studies
was introduced to the members by Mr E. M. Unaka. Responding, Dr Buschman
thanked members for attending the conference and felt that in future arrangements for
feeding and lodging would be improved as this was hurriedly made. A motion was
moved and supported by Aba delegates that zonal reports, Minister's speech, remarks in
the conference, group photographs and speeches by all the lecturers at the conference
be compiled and sent to each delegate after the conference. The motion was unanimously
carried.
Delegates were then assigned to workshops for the study of the constitution of the
Council of Social Service. After this members resumed another plenary session. The
occasion was chairmanned by Dr Okechukwu from Aba zone. He then introduced







COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


Dr S. N. Ibeziakor, Senior Lecturer in the Faculty of Law, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
He was the person who lectured on the draft constitution of any organized body, e.g.,
Council of Social Service. He apologized for being absent the previous night owing to
engagements in Senate meeting of the University. He went through the draft constitu-
tion item by item. Questions were asked on the draft as follows-
(a) Why is auditor not among officers of the Council in Article VII but in separate
Article ?
He explained that auditor was not always a member of an organization.
It was rather advisable to have an independent auditor either from the Govern-
ment or firm where chartered accountancy was available to audit the accounts
of the organization as its auditor, audition would have a bias background.
(b) Why not have Patrons and honorary members under Article III ?
He told members that it was wrong to assume that there was a definite
pattern set out which must always be followed. Rather what was necessary
was that the constitution should be clearly stated having all specifications. He
further argued that it was essential to differentiate honorary members who
were not financial from financial members of the union.

SECOND SESSION
Mr P. Anosike from Abakaliki zone was appointed Chairman at this session. Reports
from various workshops for the study of the model draft constitution were now received.
The model constitution was accepted as Regional Constitution and zonal and divi-
sional constitutions were to be modelled from it. After a break for the midday meal
the conference resumed. Commenting on Onitsha report, a member wanted to know
whether it was advisable to encourage individual membership in the Council of Social
Service. The Chief Social Welfare Officer explained that the right procedure was that
members should come through their cultural unions. He emphasized that individual
representation should be discouraged. It was observed that some high ranking personali-
ties in our societies feel too belittling to belong to their town unions. This idea should
be discouraged and a sense of belonging stimulated. This could be done by advising
such persons to come to the Council through their town unions. The method adopted
by Onitsha Council to admit individual members was therefore condemned. It was
rather felt that such important personalities who have interest in social work but could
not be sent into the Council because of the limited number of representation from each
union, could be co-opted into some committees for expert advice.

A LECTURE BY DR AKIwowo, SENIOR LECTURER IN SOCIOLOGY
UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA
Dr Akiwowo gave a talk on social changes in Nigeria and how these changes affect
the family. He traced the problems facing us in the present day Eastern Nigeria. The
problem of how to govern ourselves best, how to acquire wealth and how to distribute it,
the need for education and the problem in creating in every individual in Nigeria a
conscious feeling and a sense of belonging. He recounted the improvement in the life
of Nigerians and said it was not possible to get the available talents as we now have in
those days. He spoke of how it was believed in those days that only Europeans had the
power to manufacture and invent things-and compared how that statement was untrue
today. He pointed out how things had improved and life was now more enjoyable.
How cars, motor cycles, radio and television sets have all combined to make life more







CON ERIENCE REPORT


enjoyable. Nigeria now uses scientific methods to solve her problems and we are now
in a dynamic society. Many people now feel they could make life more abundant than
hitherto. There is a lot of migration into the townships for a better life. The springing
up of industries in townships also aid this migration. Accessibility of roads for use of
cars provides transport opportunity for boys and girls from rural areas to the townships.
The dislike for agriculture by the present day youths is one of the factors causing them
to migrate to any part of the country leaving their aged parents to toil in the farm. He
then gave some suggestions for a change. He called on our leaders to set the example
that religious practices should be strengthened. He also advocated for more trained
psychiatrists and called on social workers to nip the crisis in social problems in their
infancy.

REPORT ON COMMITTEES
1. MARRIAGE GUIDANCE COMMITTEE
This committee traced the causes of girls put in the family way who have apparently
no husbands. Some of these happen as a result of exodus of girls to townships in
search of jobs, poverty on the par, of parents to clothe and maintain these girls properly
in the modern way, lack of parental control on some of the girls and lack of sex education
and also high bride price.
Broken Homes:
It was observed that the cause of rampant broken homes is due to lack of marriage
understanding. It was therefore suggested that the Marriage Guidance Committees
should endeavour to advise youths before embarking on marriage on the task they are
expected to face in their new life.
2. CITIZENSHIP CENTRE COMMITTEE
It was agreed that the name "Remand Home" be replaced by Citizenship Centre.
Definition was given to Citizenship Centre as a purely transit centre where a lot of
activities are carried out with a view to reform the child. During this period the social
workers in-charge of these centres watch and judge by assessing the aptitude of every
child. It was felt that a questionnaire form be made available where records would be
kept on every child.
Absconding:
It was observed that there were so many abscondings from Aba Citizenship Centre.
The possible causes for absconding of juveniles in general were examined. A sense of
isolation on the part of juveniles was one of the factors. Threat by fellow inmates was
another cause.
Remedy:
It was suggested that Citizenship Centres should be built near townships to banish
from the children a sense of isolation and that through gentle and affectionate handling,
the institutional social workers should make the juveniles feel at home. It was also
suggested that a master plan be made available to all the zones so as to have a uniform
system of buildings. That this plan be prepared by the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
Juvenile DJl,',-., i.. :
Members suggested that there should be a research into the causes of juvenile
delinquency with a view to advising on the ways and means of minimizing them. It was







COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


also felt that creation of Foster Homes be also contemplated at the Regional level. That
thorough investigations into the private life of a child be made before appropriate corrective
punishment is meted out to such a child.
Market Garden:
It was agreed that market gardens be encouraged at the Citizenship Centre and that
Citizenship Centre Committees should be responsible for the sales of the vegetables and
should also control the funds so realized.
3. WELFARE WEEK AND FUND RAISING COMMITTEE
It was observed that Welfare Week or Fund Raising Week was organized with a
view to arouse social consciousness within members of the community. It was agreed
that Fund Raising Week be organized in future by all the Councils of Social Service
in the Region at the same time. That such Fund Raising Week be opened up with public
lectures. That an appeal be made by various Councils of Social Service to their Divisional
Officers or advise their County Councils to make provisions for the employment of
Divisional Social Workers in their estimates and to make provisions for annual grant
from the County Councils to their respective zonal Councils of Social Service to defray
some of their expenses. It was also suggested that a good publicity medium be envisaged
to publicize the activities of the Councils of Social Service.
4. BLIND WELFARE COMMITTEE
It was observed that the blind in communities should be made to accept their
blindness. That Councils of Social Service should encourage sympathy for the blind
through their respective Blind Welfare Committees. The public was to be educated
somehow to accept the blind persons. It was agreed that a general blind survey be
embarked on by all the Councils of Social Service. That each welfare zone should
evolve a Rehabilitation Centre for the training of its blind. That Local Government
Councils be prayed to undertake the training of blind children and also award scholarships
to very clever ones. The method on how to sell the crafts produced by the blind persons
who had already completed their training from any craft training centre was also discussed.
It was agreed that extensive propaganda be made in institutions in each zone; that orders
for crafts which could be produced by trained blind men in that locality be made through
a Council of Social Service operating in that area. That will get the trained blind men
occupied always as their finished crafts are readily sold. It was unanimously agreed
upon that the four thousand pounds (4,000) yearly grant to Ikeja Blind Craft Centre
be diverted to blind work in the Region as blind persons from the Region were not
deriving maximum benefit from the scheme because of the great distance involved. It
was also accepted that cases of eye trouble or accident be taken to hospital immediately
for treatment in order to minimize the growing number of blind persons in the Region.
That a "Community Chest" be set up to get funds for social welfare work in the Region.
It was felt that if the blind can be usefully employed then it would be an open challenge
to the sighted to get settled down to some useful work.
5. YOUTH COMMITTEE
This committee observed the following points before setting out their recommenda-
tions to the conference members:-
(a) What are the problems of the youth in the rural and urban areas ?
(b) What can be done to meet some of these needs ?







CONFERENCE REPORT


(c) What steps can the committees of the C.O.S.S. take in solving the problem
of:-
(i) Juvenile delinquency ?
(ii) Youth unemployment ?
(iii) A lack of village squares and recreational areas in the town ?
(iv) A lack of youth leaders ?
(d) What are the local resources in the community which can be used in meeting
these problems ?

DISCUSSIONS

It was discovered that in the rural areas there was nothing to attract youths to stay
back as employment avenues were very narrow. Because of poverty, some parents in the
rural areas did not exercise proper parental control over their children. That most of
these youths were too small to do any useful physical work in the farm with their parents
and there were lack of facilities to prepare the youths for later life, the youth therefore
become delinquent owing to idleness and ignorance.
In the urban areas the problems were said to be fourfold:- Housing problem,
upkeep of youths, lack of career opportunities and lack of recreational facilities. To
meet some of these needs the following were suggested:-
Juvenile Delinquency.-It was observed that delinquency in youths in our urban
areas was due largely to lack of open spaces for the youths to play hence it was necessary
to envisage for the establishment of Youth Centres and training of youth leaders. By
educating the parents on their parental duties by way of lectures through cultural unions.
To encourage parents to allow their children to enrol in voluntary organizations of their
choice. To recommend to various unions to have greater care for the youth, because
they were the leaders of tomorrow. By studying the behaviours of youths in each par-
ticular area or town and suggesting suitable treatment.
Youth Unemployment.-It was agreed that if establishment of village market
gardens are encouraged our youths will then gradually learn the art of agriculture.
Young Farmers' Clubs be encouraged and establishment of Domestic Science Centres
for girls be advocated for.
Lack of Village Squares.-That encouragement be given on the revival of the village
square activities in the rural areas and youth centre activities in the urban areas.
Lack of Youth Leaders.-That the Regional Youth Organizer intensifies his training
scheme and extends it to zonal areas.

SUMMARY

That there should be co-ordination of the activities of the existing youth clubs and
voluntary organizations. Membership be encouraged in these clubs by appealing to
parents to allow their children enrol in clubs of their choice.
Revival of the use of the old village square and their activities. Suitable born leaders
be trained and there should be a programme of action to follow up every training course.







COUNCILS 'OF SOCIAL SERVICE


Final Session, 21st February, 1965
This session was chairmanned by the Port Harcourt delegate, Mr Offonry. The
Chief Social Welfare Officer, Mr P. Graham addressed the delegates. He traced what
happened in Europe in the year 1066 when people began to disintegrate. He likened it
to what is happening now in Nigeria as families are disintegrating and relations are living
separately from one another. People migrate to urban areas in search of jobs and family
links are gradually disappearing. In Europe in the year about 1066 people lost control
of good order, discipline a. -l .. Ii- I ..rvice.
In Eastern Nigeria, town unions are formed with a view to catering for the good of
their members and giving aid in times of need. Town unions give food to the hungry,
comfort the bereaved, visit the sick and also award scholarships to deserving sons and
daughters. He discouraged individual membership in the Council of Social Service as
there was no link to show the group to which such individuals were responsible. He
further remarked that through the Council of Social Service, a way was paved for a link
between one clan and another. Achievement already experienced was the successful
running of six citizenship centres and Councils of Social Service in six townships and
the successful blind welfare survey carried out by Abaja/Ngwo Council of Social Service
in which more than two hundred blind persons were discovered. This was no man's
business in those days. With the establishment of Councils of Social Service in many
towns in Eastern Nigeria, our communities are gradually feeling the need of tightening
family links which were fast disintegrating.
He recounted the success of each Council of Social Service as follows:-
(i) The Onitsha Council of Social Service has made it possible for the community
to accept the Onitsha 'i'.', Home as its responsibility and not one
man's business.
(i) The Enugu Council of Social Service successfully organized "clean-up-
.,!rp. ,, in the regional capital thus making the community feel the
need to keep the town clean.
(iii) The Abakaliki Council of Social Service feels that the welfare of the children
in the twonships should not be regarded as parent's responsibility alone but
the responsibility of the entire community hence it is embarking on scheme
to establish Youth Centre in Abakaliki town.
(iv) The Aba Council of Social Service has led the way in dealing with the
lunatics and this is the beginning of finding a collective solution for the
mentally ill.

RECOMMENDATIONS
(a) It was agreed in principle that there should be a Regional Council of Social
Service which should be the parent body of all Councils of Social Service.
(b) That the grouping of the Region into six welfare zones was inadequate as it
was the wish of members that welfare work should be extended to all sections
of our communities. Therefore there should be twelve provincial zones
instead of the present six zones. The Chief Social Welfare Officer remarked
at this juncture that welfare staff at the moment was inadequate and that the
Eastern Government nearly withdrew its sponsorship of welfare work in the
Region a few years ago. He said it was only now the Government was highly
interested in welfare work because it had seen the achievements so far made by





CONFERENCE REPORT


the Welfare Division through its Council of Social Service. He further said
the existing staff would not cope with the work if there were twelve zones.
On this score, a steering committee was subsequently set up and assigned
with the following duties:-
(i) To lead a delegation to the Honourable Minister of Internal Affairs
requesting the increase in the strength of existing staff-pointing out
that the conference had agreed that there should be twelve welfare
zones instead of the existing six zones.
(ii) To work out the formula through which the Regional Council of Social
Service would take.
(iii) To impliment all the resolutions of the conference. Mr P. O. Anosike
and Mr C. Onuoha from Abakaliki zone were appointed to the steering
committee.
(c) It was agreed that there should be Provincial, Divisional and Rural Councils
of Social Service in addition to the Regional Council.
(d) That education of town union members on welfare work be done by their
respective members in the Council of Social Service who are their accredited
representatives as the existing strength of staff was small.
(e) That all sections of people in our communities should be involved in welfare
work so as to make things easy.
(f) That members of various town unions should appeal to their highly educated
class to attend their union meetings in order to serve in any capacity.
(g) That there should be an effective publicity organ to publicize welfare activities.
(h) That there should be permanent trained personnel available in various types
of services envisaged by respective ('.,11-.; of Social Service, e.g., blind,
deaf and dumb, etc. That the i .i ) be prayed to take a serious view about
this request.

CLOSING REMARKS BY THE HIGHER SOCIAL WELFARE OFFICER
MR UNAKA
He introduced to members the Chief Social V, I'.., Officer and all other high
officers of the welfare staff. To Dr Buschman who is in charge of continuing education
programme, he thanked him very immensely for making it possible for the conference to
be held at the campus of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. He also thanked the two
lecturers from the University staff, who, despite their crowded daily activities, had an
opportunity to address the delegates on very interesting topics. He continued by saying
that the conference was very historical and that the names of all those who had set aside
their various duties in order to attend would be remembered when the history of Nigeria
shall be written. Hte gave special thanks to the doctors, barristers, Rev. Fathers,
magistrates and other highly placed men and women who attended the conference and
contributed much towards its success by sharing their ideas with others. He appealed to
members to forget any shortcomings and discomforts experienced during their stay
at the campus and hoped that the position of things shall be improved at the next con-
ference. He finally wished delegates safe journey to their respective stations and
appealed to all to put into practice all that had been discussed at the conference. lHe
promised to compile all that had been discussed at the conference and distribute to
members but pointed out that this would require some time to get them ready.
To close up the conference, Rev. Father O'Connor from Owerri was called upon to
lead the house in prayers. Members then left for their respective stations.








COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


OUR IMPRESSIONS ON THE CONFERENCE
The Abakaliki zonal delegates feel that the conference is a huge success. Its
members feel highly impressed in the way lectures and debates were being conducted.
This is a credit to the staff of the Welfare Division of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in
the able way it handled the affairs of the conference. '. Icl I ,. also feel that the know-
ledge gained from this conference especially on how people from other zones are getting
very highly interested in welfare work is an incentive to other County Councils in this
zone who have not engaged divisional social workers to aid and direct them on how to
tackle their social problems. It prays that this Ministry should discuss with the Ministry
of Local Government to give immediate approval to those County Councils who have
recommended the appointment of divisional social workers.

DISLIKES
The delegates, however, regret the omission from the programme a period for
excursion in the University campus especially to important sections.

VENUE
The delegates feel that there should be no change of venue for future such conference
-taking into consideration the accommodation difficulties to such a crowd of people.
Members felt that August, 1965, be considered as the next conference period so as
to rectify the recommendations of the Steering Committee.
On the whole, the Abakaliki delegates wish it to be placed on record its appreciation
of the general performance of all the delegates in the conference.

(Signed) J. A. UGBE
Secretary
Abakaliki Welfare Zone










A REPORT ON THii LAST iE.IGl'CNAL CO!':. ;r'' L OF l'i-E
COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF
NIGERIA, NSUKKA, F2r.OM 19th TO 21st FEBRUARY, 1965

1. Calabar Zone Delegation
The following delegates attended the conference from Calabar Social Welfare
Zone:- Chief 0. A. Nsisuk (Leader), Mr J. G. Cookey, Mr E. D. Nsima, Mr O. O. Eta,
Dr A. Kalunta, Mr E. N. Ekere, Mr E. A. Afia, Chief E. Nyong, Mr M. Y. Uko and
Mr E. U. Ekpenyong. The last five named above are chairmen of the different County
Councils in Uyo Division. The two divisional social workers, Messrs A. I. Okon
and P. A. Eyo from Calabar and Uyo respectively also attended the conference. There
were no delegates from Eket and Enyong Divisions.
2. First Day (19th February) Activities
(a) REGISTRATION: Most of our delegates arrived between 12 noon and 3 p.m.
They were registered and allocated rooms as they paid in their fees. This was followed
by the receiving of name tags and programmes from some of the Social Welfare Division
staff who were engaged in this work.
(b) TIE MINISTER'S SPEECH: A little later than the scheduled time, the delegates
assembled and the Minister of Internal Affairs, Chief I. U. Akpabio, was introduced.
The latter then delivered a speech a copy of which was later distributed to the delegates.
(c) PRESENTATION OF REPORTS FROM THE VARIOUS COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE:
This was done by the chairman of each delegation from the six social welfare zones
one after another. This went on as planned except for one or two hitches-the Abakaliki
chairman could not attend and somebody who acted for him read the report with much
difficulty-the Port Harcourt chairman and their zonal report were not available until
late in the evening. Copies of each zonal report were distributed to delegates. Time
was allowed for delegates to ask questions on the report submitted by each zone. Ques-
tions asked were mostly those for clarification and for information.
(d) PAlRTY: There was a cocktail party in the evening.
3. Second Day (20th February) Activities
This was rather a crowded day with the following activities:-
(a) A lecture by Dr Ibeziako on the "Ideal Constitution" was delivered. Copies
of this were distributed to delegates.
(b) GROUP PHOTOGRAPH: This took place also in the morning.
(c) INTRODUCTION OF THE DIRECTOR OF EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMMES: iMr Buschman,
the Director of the Extramural Programmes of the University was introduced to the
conference by Mr Unaka.
(d) REVIEW OF THE C.O.S.S. CONSTITUTION: For this In"I .... the constitution
was divided into four parts and delegates were divided into eight-group workshops
two of which had to review in detail, making '. .-i;i.- for revision and change, one
part of the constitution so divided and allotted to their particular workshop. This was
an interesting exercise for the ';l1. 1, ,i workshops I'- '., for the lawyer dl',.-I:; .







COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


who became very useful here. But there was hardly enough time for detailed or careful
review. There was also not enough time to treat the reports from all the workshops at a
plenary session as was planned.
(e) DR AKIWOWO'S LECTURE: In the afternoon Dr Akiwowo, Senior Lecturer in
Sociology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka delivered a very interesting lecture on the
"Social Changes in Nigeria". He dealt with their effects on the individual, the family
and the society. Delegates yearned for copies of his lecture and it was promised that
copies would be produced and sent to all later.
(f) \\ I i .:i~'. ON COMMITTEES: Delegates were again divided into six workshops
to discuss and develop the functions, duties and plans of action for the following
committees:--
Committee YNames of Calabar Delegates
in each Workshop
1. Citizenship Centre Committee Chief O. A. Nsisuk.
2. Blind Welfare Committee Messrs E. N. Ekere and J. G. Cookey.
3. Marriage Guidance and Reconciliation Chief E. Nyong and Mr E. A. Afia.
4. Mental Health Committee Dr Kalunta and Mr O. O. Eta.
5. Youth Committee Messrs E. D. Nsima and E. U. Ekpenyong.
6. Welfare Week and Fund Raising MrM. T. Uko.
Committee
Secretaries of the different workshops later submitted their reports in writing to the
conference. It is hoped that these reports would be made available to delegates as there
was no time to treat them in the plenary session as was originally planned.
(g) FILM SrHOW: This was announced in the evening to those who wished to relax.
I attended the film show at the students' theatre and it turned out to be the noisiest I have
ever attended.
4. Third Day (21st February) Activities
The most important item for the third day of the conference was the talk given
by the Chief Social V\ I i In Officer on the formation of Divisional, Zonal and Regional
Councils of Social Service. The discussion which followed this talk was very lively;
and this showed the amount of enthusiasm with which the delegates embraced the idea.
After dealing with the subject exhaustively, a motion was tabled by an Aba delegate that
Divisional, Zonal and Regional Councils of Social Services be formed; and this was
unanimously carried by the conference. Nominees were solicited from the different
zones for the formation of the Zonal C.O.S.S. Steering Committee that will sort out
details.
5. Other Matters
(a) AFFIrIuATION LAw: During one of the plenary sessions a woman delegate wished
to know what action could he taken to introduce this law into the Region in order to
protect unmarried mothers. '! ,, members, especially lawyers, spoke in support of
this but it was later explained that an earlier attempt to introduce the law in the Eastern
House of Assembly was not supported by the Legislature. It is thought (may be
wrongly) that the Region was not advanced enough for the operation of such a law.
(b) GENERAL QUESTIONS: Questions on mental health and other health matters
were directed to Dr Kalunta the psychiatrist and Dr Okchukwu who with specialist
knowledge dealt satisfactorily with them,








CONFERENCE ~ EPORT


(c) THE QUALITY OF DELEGATES: Delegates included lawyers, doctors, university
lecturers, parliamentarians, prominent business men, Chiefs and laymen. The question
of "roping in" more of the elite of the society was examined. It was observed generally
that those who form the elite of the present Nigerian society seem to look down upon
cultural unions and would not register as members in these unions. It was, however,
generally agreed that to bring them into the C.O.S.S., therefore, required tactful
operation. It was further advised that where a suitable non-attached elite was spotted
as a potential useful member of the C.O.S.S. or its committee, persuasive methods
could be adopted to connect him with his union and through this way his services could
be profitably tapped.
(d) OBSERVERS: Apart from official delegates there were a number of observers
representing missionary bodies, leprosy settlements, the press and institutions. A few of
them were anxious to know how C.O.S.S. could help their .;ili. '. i, organizations.
6. General Remarks
The conference was a huge success and had gone a long way to popularize the
C.O.S.S. in Eastern Nigeria. The different delegates have had the opportunity to
exchange ideas and views about the working of the C.O.S.S. The comparison of
activities and progress achieved by the different welfare zones as indicated in their
reports wakened in the delegates the competitive spirit with which they hope to resume
their service in their respective zones.
It is hoped that with the proposed formation of the Regional Council of Social Service
much more would be achieved and that in future more time will be given to the delibera-
tions at such like conferences to enable the delegates to deal exhaustively with whatever
problems they might have to tackle.
E. UDONG
Social Welfare Officer












ENUGU ZONAL REPORT ON THE FIRST REGIONAL CONFERENCE
OF COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY
OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA, FROM 19th FEBRUARY TO
21st FEBRUARY,1965

1. Preparation
On the receipt of the circular letter from the Social Welfare Division of the Ministry
of Internal Affairs, proposing a Regional conference of all Councils of Social Service,
the Enugu Council of Social Service held its usual monthly meeting and gave its blessing
to the proposal. At the meeting, the purpose and the cost of lodging and feeding per
delegate were fully discussed. The cost per delegate was estimated at 3 and the Council
accepted to defray the cost in respect of its eleven delegates. It was also decided that
reserves be appointed with a view to taking the place of any of the would-be delegates in
the event of any disappointment from the latter. At a subsequent meeting of the Council
eleven delegates and five reserves were appointed. They are:-
Delegates
1. U. C. D. Okoye, Esquire.
2. Chief N. Chukwuani.
3. Hon. (Mrs) J. Mokelu.
4. D. N. Mkpaya, Esquire.
5. Malam Hassan.
6. R. W. C. Ezenwukwa, Esquire.
7. A. B. C. Nwazota, Esquire.
8. N. N. Obi, Esquire.
9. J. A. Amotsuka, Esquire.
10. Mrs P. N. Obi.
11. N. O. Ilemuka, Esquire.
Reserves
1. Mrs M. U. Umeh.
2. M. N. Enemo, Esquire.
3. Mrs R. E. Ekwuazi.
4. S. Nwabueze, Esquire.
5. Duru Dike, Esquire.
2. Emergency Meeting
An emergency meeting of the delegates was held on 12th February, 1965, to finalize
arrangements towards the proposed Regional conference. At this meeting, Chief
N. Chukwuani was appointed leader of Enugu delegation in place of Mr U. C. D. Okoye
who was reported ill. A few other would-be delegates were reported to be unable to
attend the conference owing to previous engagements. The final list of delegates to
represent Enugu Council of Social Service at the conference was then made up. They
include:-
1. Chief N. Chukwuani-Leader of delegation.
2. D. N. Mkpaya, Esquire.
3. A. B. C. Nwazota, Esquire.
4. N. N. Obi, Esquire.








CONIFERENLCE REPORT


5. J. A. Amotsuka, Esquire.
6. Mrs M. U. Umeh.
7. Mrs R. E. Ekwuazi.
8. Mrs P. N. Obi.
9. .1. Hemuka, Esquire.
10. Duru Dike, Esquire.
11. M. N. Enemo, Esquire.
Delegates from the sister Councils of Social Service who also joined the team on
behalf of the Enugu zone are:-
1. Dr G. A. Odenigwe Abaja/ .,', C.O.S.S.
2. Mr I. C. Onyia Abaja/Ngwo C.O.S.S.
3. MrJ. O. P. Chime Abaja/', .. C.O.S.S.
4. Mr L. E. Oko Afikpo C.O.S.S.
5. Mr P. I. Alu Afikpo C.O.S.S.
6. MrP. E. Ani -- .I .,niu C.O.S.S.
7. Mr D. E. Akilo Ezeagu C.O.S.S.
The team of delegates was accompanied by their respective C.O.S.S. secretaries,
They are:-
1. Mr D. Okoh Secretary, Enugu C.O.S.S.
2. Mr R. A. Ene Secretary, Abaja/Ngwo C.O.S.S.
3. \ I r L. I. Egwu Secretary, Afikpo C.O.S.S.
3. Opening and Registration of Regional Conference
The conference began at about 12 noon on 19th February, 1965, at the "Continuing
Education" Hostel, University of Nigeria, Nsukka with the arrival and registration of
zonal delegates. This was followed with the allocation of rooms to delegates on payment
of 1. l _'i!n f'e.
At 4 p.m. the Minister of Internal Affairs, Chief the Hon. 1. U. Akpabio officially
opened the first session of the conference with an address. In his impressive speech,
the Minister outlined various social problems rampant in our community. They include
the problems of the blind, the deaf, the dumb, the mentally 1., ii: i, ri'. d, the delinquent
boys and girls and the disabled. He paid tribute to the members of the community, who
through their co-operation with the ',:i.... I Government, have made possible the
establishment of six citizenship centres in various parts of the Region. He prayed
for continued co-operation from all sections of the community in the bid to solve the
above listed social problems. Finally, the Hon. Minister wished the conference a
successful deliberation. Chief N. Chukwuani, leader of Enugu delegation, was chairman
at the opening session.

PRESENTATION OF ZONAL REPORTS
Leaders of delegates from each of the six zones presented reports from their zones
depicting and portraying social ..I", 1,I activities since the inception of Council of Social
Service in their respective areas. The leader of Enugu delegation, Chief N. Chukwuani,
presented the report on behalf of Enugu zone. In his report, he outlined the activities
of the three existing Councils of Social Service within the zone (i.e., Enugu C.O.S.S.,
Abaja/Ngwo C.O.S.S. and Afikpo C.O.S.S.). These activities include the formation
of various committees dealing with different aspects of social problem; survey of the
blind with a view to establishing a blind rehabilitation centre; successful repatriation








COUN CILS OF SOCIAL SE RV1 CC


and rehabilitation of mad men and women in asylums and their homes; establishment of
family links with handicapped citizens; running and maintenance of Enugu Citizenship
Centre and organizing a "Clean Up" campaign during its Welfare Week. The reports
from all the zones were hilariously accepted by all sections of the conference. Discussion,
questions and answers on the reports followed after.
COCKTAIL PARTY
At 6.30 p.m., members retired for a light cocktail party given in honour of the
delegates by the Enugu zone. The party gave a chance for i.i, e.:;i. to meet and chat
with one another.
4. Group Workshops, 20th February, 1965
On the second day of the conference, delegates were split into eight group workshops.
Each group was assigned to study a section of the C.O.S.S. constitution and recommend
necessary ..-_.:..ii..-,i and alternative changes. The constitution was closely and
critically studied by the groups and later their reports were submitted to the plenary
session for discussion and consideration. Chairmen and secretaries were appointed
by each group to conduct and record the proceedings during the workshop stage.
PLENARY SESSION
At the plenary session which followed immediately from 11 a.m.--12 noon, chairmen
of each group workshop read and presented the reports of their respective groups.
Members discussed the reports freely and asked questions where need be. The session
was adjourned for an hour's break.
After the break, the conference resumed at 1 p.m. with Chief O. A. Nsisuk, leader
of Calabar zonal delegation, as chairman.
INTRODUCTION OF LECTURER
The chairman introduced Dr Akinsola Akiwowo, Senior Lecturer in Sociology
at the University of Ni3. i1, Nsukka, who delivered a lecture on "Social changes occur-
ring in Nigeria, and their effect on society-how these changes affect the individual,
the family and the community". Free discussion, questions and answers followed the
lecture immediately after.
At 2 p.m. delegates were again split into group workshops to discuss and develop
the functions, duties and plans of action for the various committees existing in the
Councils of Social Service. The committees are:-
(a) Citizenship Centre Committee.
(b) Blind Welfare Committee.
(c) Marriage Guidance and .' .-..,.!' .' ... Committee.
(d) Youth Centre Committee.
(e) Mental Health Committee.
(f) Welfare Week and Fund Raising Committee.
Each group workshop had its own chairman and secretary appointed among
delegates and staff respectively. At the workshop stage, valuable suggestions were
made and prominent among them was the introduction of the "Affiliation Law" with a
view to giving legal backing to the i ....I I, Reconciliation Committee of the C.O.S.S.
Reports from group workshops were again submitted to the plenary session by their
respective chairmen for discussion and consideration. The chairman of the plenary
session was Dr Eze, leader of Onitsha delegation.








CONtFREaNCI REPORT


LECTURER ON CONSTITUTION
Another lecturer, Dr S. M. Ibeziako, lecturer in Law at the University of Nigeria,
Nsukka was introduced by the chairman. Dr Ibeziako gave a talk on "Constitutions,
their purposes and what should be contained in them". Discussion, questions and
answers on the theme of the lecture followed after.
Sunday, 21st February, 1965
The conference reassembled at 9.00 a.m. on Sunday, 21st February, for the last
day's deliberations. The chairman of the session was the leader of Port IIarcourt
delegation.
LECTURE BY MR P. GRAHAM, CHIEF SOCIAL WELFARE OFFICER
At 9.15 a.m. the Chief Social Welfare Officer, Mr P. Graham, took the platform.
In his one hour speech, the chief gave the background of the pattern of welfare service
in Eastern Nigeria. He recounted the successes of the policy and gave details to show
how the policy helps to promote social development and unity among all cultural units
in our community, be they Hausas, Yorubas, Efiks or Ibos. The chief also singled out
a few of the achievements of various Councils of Social Service whose activities and
objectives are aimed at encouraging a collective concern of all over social problems in
our community which had been regarded as no man's business.
Concluding, the chief proposed the formation of Divisional, Zonal and Regional
Councils of Social Service and asked that the last named be given the first attention. The
Regional Council, he said, would provide leadership, set standard and also act as a spokes-
man for all the Councils of Social Service in the Region.
FORMATION OF REGIONAL COUNCIL OF SOCIAL SERVICE
There was a free discussion on the Chief's proposal, views were expressed by
members on the difficulties confronting the present zoning system in which the Region
is split into six social welfare zones and -ii-Lc.l-.te that the zoning should reflect the
present administrative system of the Region--viz., on County Council level, Divisional
level, Provincial level and finally on Regional level. Subsequently a resolution was
passed supporting the zoning of Welfare Division in accordance with the administrative
pattern of the Region in order to enhance easy and quicker solution of social problems
according to local customs and needs.
APPOINTMENT OF STEERING COMMITTEE
Before the conference signed off, a steering committee was formed comprising of two-
member delegates from each zone. The committee was assigned to look into all the
recommendations reached at during all the stages of the conference and to make arrange-
ments for another Regional conference. It is gratifying to note that the Enugu zone was
represented in the committee by Chief N. Chukwuani tF!Ie:,I C.O.S.S.) and Dr G. A.
Odenigwe (Abaja/Ngwo C.O.S.S.).
The conference came to a close at 12.30 p.m. on Sunday the 21st February, 1965,
after a brief closing remark by the conference organizer, Mr E. M. Unaka, Higher
Social Welfare Officer.
D. OKOH
Divisional Welfare Worker and
Secretary, Enugu Council of
Social Service













A BRIEF REPORT ON FIRST REGIONAL CONFERENCE OF COUNCILS OF
SOCIAL SERVICE HELD AT CONTINUING EDUCATION CENTRE,
UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA CAMPUS
FROM 19th TO 21st FEBRUARY, 1965
By C. B. I. NNADI, COMMUNITY ORGANIZER, ONITSHA


Prelude
A circular letter was received in our office from the Ministry in November last year
to the effect that there was a proposal that a conference of all the Councils of Social
Service in the Region would be held some time at the later part of February, 1965.
'r1 .li -, Ii :i conference would serve the following purposcs:-
(1) To examine the constitution and propose any necessary changes.
(2) To study the idea of-
(a) Divisional Council of Social Service;
(b) Zonal Council of Social Service;
(c) Regional Council of Social Service.
(3) To gain information on social ..iFi problems that might be worked on
through the committees of Council of Social Service.
2. Since after the receipt of the above-mentioned circular letter, the Onitsha Council
of Social Service started to make necessary arrangements concerning the conference;
while copies of the said circular letter and other attachments thereto were sent to all the
Divisional Social Workers in the zone for information and necessary actions.
In pursuance of this, a zonal meeting of all prospective delegates was held on 15th
February, 1965. In the meeting it was found out that only eleven persons-six from
Onitsha Urban, three from Awka Division and two from Orlu Division were to attend.
Other important arrangements were finalized.
In accordance with another letter SWD. 279/25 of 25th January, 1965, and the
schedule for the conference sent, it was understood that the date for the conference
would be 19th to 21st February, 1965.
3. On the 19th February, 1965, I arrived at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka
Campus at 1.30 p.m. I made straight for the Continuing Education Centre, where I got
registered, paid for my accommodation and feeding and received my name tag and an
envelope containing some necessary information papers. Then I was shown. to my
lodging place.
4. At about 3.45 p.m. majority of the delegates who had arrived assembled in a hall
prepared for the conference. The hall was masterly arranged. It was divided into six
sections according to zones. In front of each section there stood on a post a tag bearing
the name of the zone to which it belonged. The Minister of Internal Affairs, Chief the
Hon. I. U. Akpabio and his entourage arrived at 4.00 p.m. The Minister was introduced
by the leader of Enugu zone delegation, Chief Nwafor Chukwuani, an Enugu based
lawyer, and he opened the conference with a well worded welcome address,








CONFERENCE REPORT


Doctor W. C. Eze, leader of Onitsha zone delegation, was called upon to move a
vote of thanks to the Minister on behalf of the delegates.
5. After the vote of thanks the chairman announced that the Minister had obliged
himself to stay a little longer in order to hear some of the zonal reports, which was the
next item according t, the schedule of the conference. At that juncture, the chairman
began to call on the zonal leaders one by one to read their reports. That was done in
alphabetical order. It began with Aba and ended with Port Harcourt.
(a) ABA
In his report the chairman of Aba delegation, Dr T. L. C. Okechukwu, said among
other things that Aba Council of Social Service was officially launched on 6th April, 1963.
That the numerical strength of its registered member unions was fifty-five with 110
representatives. That the Citizenship Centre Committee and Marriage Guidance
Committee were the two strong committees functioning. That many prominent members
had volunteered to help rid Aba of lunatics.
(b) ABAKALIKI
In the absence of leader of Abakaliki delegation, whose telegraph message was read
to the delegates, one of their delegates, Mr P. Ekpunobi, deputized for him. In the
report it was disclosed that Abakaliki Council of Social Service was officially launched on
15th December, 1962. That the C.O.S.S. had recruited fifteen blind men and sent them
to Ikeja Craft Centre; but two of these men refused training. The most striking point
in the report was that the financial credit of the C.O.S.S. at the material time was 1,035,
(c) CALABAR
The report of Calabar zone was read by their leader, Chief 0. A. Nsisuk. He
said among other things that Calabar Council of Social Service comprising fifty-four
member unions, was officially launched in August, 1963. That the only committee
working under the C.O.S.S. was Citizenship Centre Committee. The C.O.S.S. was
making arrangements to set up other committees.
(d) ENUGU
The Enugu zonal report was read by Chief Nwafor Chukwuani, the leader of Enugu
delegation. Some of the important things stated in the report was that three Councils
of Social Service had been successfully inaugurated and officially launched in the zone.
That Nsukka and Awgu Divisions had not engaged divisional social workers. That
the committees already formed were Citizenship Centre Committee, Blind Welfare
Committee and Mental Health Committee.

(e) ONITSHA
The Onitsha zonal report was read by the leader of the delegation, Dr W. C. Eze.
Among many other things the report stated that the Onitsha Council of Social Service
which was inaugurated on 8th February, 1962, was officially launched on 9th September,
1963. That the council had got more than seventy member unions. That the [. Ii.l k s
Babies Committee had got a temporary home for motherless babies.

(f) PORT HARCOURT
Report from Port Harcourt zone was read by one of the prominent members of the
..1!.... ai.. as their leader, Mr II. K. O. li3), was absent. .,\inly other things the









{2OtTN iL8 or SOCIAL SERVICE


report pointed out that the membership of the Port Harcourt Council of Social Service
rose from thirty to sixty member unions in 1963, but only slight increase was registered
in 1964. That the C.O.S.S. was proposing to build a house for a destitute woman
called Lucy. The C.O.S.S. had Citizenship Centre, Good Samaritan and Voluntary
Works Committees working under it.

It was noticed that Port Harcourt C.O.S.S. instead of Citizenship Centre Committee
adopted the name Citizenship Centre Board.

COCKTAIL PARTY
6. After the reading of the zonal reports the next item was a cocktail party thrown to
the delegates by Chief Nwafor Chukwuani, leader of Enugu delegation. That was the
high light of that first session of the conference. It gave the delegates an opportunity
to meet one another and exchange greetings. That was well enjoyed for about thirty
minutes--from 6.45 p.m. to 7.15 p.m.

7. At about 7.30 p.m. the delegates were ushered into a well arranged hall for dinner.
Each of the large round tables was prepared for eight persons. The service was excellent
and.. i tlic- .,. very orderly done.

8. At 8.30 p.m. the delegates reassembled in the conference hall for a talk to be given
by Dr Ibeziako of Law Department, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. But unfortunately
the would-be lecturer was unavoidably absent as he was attending a meeting of the
University Senate holden at that material time. His papers on the proposed talk-
constitution, their purposes and what should be contained in them .-were read to
the delegates by the leader of Aba delegation, who was the chairman of that session of
the conference.

This item brought that first day of the conference to "a call-it-a-day". The
J.. -.., then retired to their respective lodging apartments quite exhausted.

Saturday, February 20
9. The day's activities started with breakfast, from 7.30 a.m. to 8.45 a.m. At
8.45 a.m., that was immediately after the breakfast, all the delegates assembled outside
for a group photograph.

10. A few minutes after 9.00 a.m., Mr E. Unaka, one of the organizing officers,
introduced Mr Buschman, Director of Extramural Programme of the University and
the Continuing Education Centre. Mr Buschman addressing the ,1 k ci.- regretted the
unavoidable absence of the Vice-Chancellor, who would have given us a talk on Continu-
ing Education Programme and who should have welcomed the delegates officially on
behalf of the University.

11. The next item was some announcements and a brief summary of the evening
before by Mr E. Unaka. That was followed by the group review of the constitution.
The delegates were divided into groups. There were eight groups. The constitution
was divided into four parts. Each part of the constitution was assigned to two groups.
To each group was attached a staff of the Social Welfare Division.









CONFERENCE REPORT


SCHEDULE
Group Articles of Constitution assigned
First Group ... ... I and II.
Second Group ... ... III, IV and V.
Third Group ... ... VI, VII, VIII, IX and X.
Fourth Group .. ... XI, XII, XIII and XIV.
Fifth Group ... ... As First Group.
Sixth Group ... ... As Second Group.
Seventh Group ... ... As Third Group.
Eighth Group ... ... As Fourth Group.
Each group elected a chairman and a secretary.
12. At 10.45, there was a little deviation from the order of the schedule. The
delegates reassembled and Dr Ibeziako delivered his talk on constitution. He analyzed
an ideal constitution of Council of Social Service on a local basis of its objects and aims
and contents. That was then followed immediately by a break for tea and coffee.
13. There was a plenary session to receive the reports from different groups on
constitution. In the reports there were many corrigenda in and addenda to the constitu-
tion. For examplein Article III (a) "The citizens of Township" to read "members of
community". The first group also suggested two new clauses to be added to Article
II (b)--
(x) To encourage and promote research into causes of social problems, e.g.,
matrimonial disputes, juvenile delinquencies with a view to making recom-
mendation to solve them.
(xi) To encourage and uphold high social and service standards in the community.
The second group suggested that associate organizations should be allowed full
membership with one representative who shall have right to vote. That membership
of C.O.S.S. shall be on cultural union and voluntary organization basis; but any C.O.S.S.
shall have power to co-opt individuals into the committees in view of their expert know-
ledge.
All the reports could not be reviewed and the organizing officers promised to in-
corporate all in the comprehensive reports to be circulated to all the delegates later.
14. At 12.00 noon there was a break for dinner. The delegates reassembled at 1.00
p.m. for a talk on "Social changes occurring in Nigeria and their effects on society" by Dr
Akiwowo of Sociology Department. The lecturer was introduced by Chief O. A. Nsisuk
of Calabar zone. Dr Akiwowo spoke brilliantly and impressively on the topic.
15. At 2.00 p.m., the delegates were assigned to workshops to discuss and develop
the functions, duties and plans of action for the various committees existing in the
Councils of Social Service. There were six workshops in session on six set out committees.
In each workshop a chairman was elected and a staff attached to the group acted as secre-
tary. Each workshop prepared its report.
16. There was a break at 4.00 p.m. for tea and coffee.
17. When the conference resumed at 4.30 p.m. the various workshops reported back
to the session. The chairman designate of the session, Dr W. C. Eze of Onitsha, was
absent. Mr V. I. Onwubuya, chairman, Njikoka C.O.S.S. in Onitsha zone, deputized for
him. Each workshop made a number of recommendations with a view to improving
social welfare work in the Region.








COUNCILS OF SOCIAL SERVICE


During those reports Dr Kalunta (a psychiatrist) and Dr Okechukwu (an eye
specialist) contributed much, especially when the reports on mental health and blind
welfare workshops were read.
18. After some announcements at 6.30 p.m. the official activities for the day came
to an end. The delegates had their dinner. After dinner, some went to film shows
and others visited some places of attraction in the campus like the Catholic chapel. Some
others retired to their quarters to relax.
Sunday, February 21
19. That last day of the conference being Sunday, the (. Ii.t ,.11n among the delegates
got up earlier than usual in order to attend church services. That was followed immed-
iately by breakfast.
20. The conference entered its last session at 9.00 a.m., when the principal organizer,
Mr E. Unaka, made some necessary announcements. At 9.15 a.m. one of the Port
Harcourt delegates deputizing for their chairman introduced the Chief Social \Wclf.ir
Officer to the house. The conference reached the climax when the officer mounted the
rostrum to deliver his talk on "The Formation of Divisional Zonal and Regional Councils
of Social Service", which was one of the principal needs that precipitated the holding of
the conference.
The talk was so well planned and delivered that all the delegates were sort of spell-
bound as it was being delivered. Despite the fact that every delegate had, so to say, one
foot in the University campus and the other on the way home, none got bored, the
length of the talk notwithstanding. Its conformation was a conglomeration of History,
Civics and Sociology well blended. The theme of the talk pinpointed at cultural
unions/organizations-how they started, their aims and objects, what they had achieved
and what they were sure to achieve more if their negative aspects were to be entirely
suppressed. The officer compared our cultural unions with Town Corporations,
Merchant and Craft Gilds of 9th Century England, which saved English community
from the tyranny of Lords of the Manors. He made it very clear why the Social Welfare
Policy of Eastern Nigeria has it to the effect that the voluntary social workers in the
Councils of Social Service would be representatives of cultural unions/organizations.
The talk was highly acclaimed by all and sundry.
21. During questions and discussion period that followed the talk, the house
resolved that the membership of each C.O.S.S. should be strictly based on cultural unions/
organizations. That individuals might be co-opted into committees. On a motion
moved by a member of Aba delegation it was unanimously decided also that Divisional
Zonal and Regional Councils of Social Services be formed. That priority should be
given to the Regional Council of Social Service. That a steering committee comprising
two representatives from each zone be set up forthwith to plan the formation of the
Regional C.O.S.S. At thatjuncture each zone was asked to select its representatives when
the delegates would retire to evaluate the conference on zonal basis. Onitsha zone
nominated DrW. C. Eze, chairman, Onitsha C.O.S.S. and Mr V. I. Onwubuya, chairman,
Njikoka C.O.S.S. to serve in the steering committee.
22. At 10.45 a.m. the delegates of each zone went into the room allocated to them for
the evaluation of the conference stating their likes and dislikes, proposals for changes and
how soon they would like to meet again, if they do wish to meet again. Each zone
compiled its statements on the conference and handed in to the organizing:l, o .i .








CID IN F LRI F, N CF R E eP oR T


23. During the period 11.15--11.30 a.m., one of the organizing officers, Mr E. Unaka
made brief closing remarks. Ile thanked the delegates and pr.:- -.:.l his appreciation
of their co-operation. He promised that they would make all the reports and other
relevant papers available to the delegates through their Social Welfare Officers.
24. These remarks were followed by the last dinner and last meal which brought
the conference to an end. After dinner the delegates returned keys and name tags to
the registration officer. Before 12.30 a.m. every delegate was on his or her way home.
GENERAL
25. The conference was a big success in its entirety. It was enjoyed by every
delegate of any degree or social standard. Accommodation provided was superb and
meals excellent. 1 II general I.. i..g was that such a conference ought to continue.
Attendance was very i, .,i r i fact that the delegates came from all works of
life-doctors, ministers of religion, nuns, lawyers, i i,,..i..1. .. 11 educationists,
farmers, housewives ;i--- ,. I to its grandeur. But I regret to say that despite the
efforts made by the Social Welfare Officer in charge of Onitsha and her I .! to organize
and arrange for the members of the zone to attend the conference, Onitsha zone made
the poorest attendance. The "'. .... ., who was sick at that material time, defied
the danger of driving to a long distance under the condition she was,to attend tie opening
session. She left after that session. The chairman of the delegation attended only the
first session also. The zone owes a lot to the only five delegates out of thirteen that were
expected to attend, who represented the zone from start to finish. They were Mrs A.
Adogu and l, P. Onukwuli from Onitsha Urban, Messrs V. I. Onwubuya and P. Uwa
from Awka Division and Mr T. A. Uzoukwu from Orlu Division. Apart from the
divisional social worker for Okigwi, who was ordered to attend as a ; .,i, CI1,; ; Division
was out of the show entirely. This was very discouraging. \,e were very much humi-
liated by that apparent indifferent attitude of members of Onitsha zone.
Furthermore, showers of praise and congratulations should go to Catholic church
and Anglican church authorities in Onitsha who sent three representatives (two from
Catholic and one from Anglican) to the conference. These ministers of religion were
present at all sessions or to be more accurate, remained till the end of the conference.
26. In conclusion, I have to congratulate the Ministry of Internal Affairs in general
and Messrs E. Unaka, L. J. Wceber and other members of the staff of Social Welfare
Division in particular, on the able ways in which the conference was organized and
conducted.
P.S.---It escaped me to mention that in the arrangement of the conference hall a
section was .ii." :- : to observers, who were more than ten in number.




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