• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 University of California publi...
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Pottery styles at Nieveria
 Non-pottery collections
 Conclusions: Relation of pottery...
 Stylistic identificaiton of material...
 Explanation of plates and catalogue...
 University of California publications...














Group Title: University of California publications in American archaeology and ethnology ; v. 21, no. 8
Title: The Uhle collections from Nieverâia
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072594/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Uhle collections from Nieverâia
Series Title: University of California publications in American archaeology and ethnology
Physical Description: 305-329 p. : illus., plates. ;
Language: English
Creator: Gayton, A. H ( Anna Hadwick ), 1899-
Uhle, Max, 1856-1944
Publisher: Kraus Reprint Corp.
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1965
 Subjects
Subject: Pottery -- Peru   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Peru   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Title page includes original imprint: Berkeley, University of California press, 1925.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072594
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05179005

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 301
    University of California publications
        Page 302
    Title Page
        Page 303
        Page 304
    Table of Contents
        Page 305
    Introduction
        Page 306
    Pottery styles at Nieveria
        Page 307
        Proto-Lima
            Page 307
            Page 308
            Page 309
            Page 310
            Page 311
        Epigonal, Nazca Y, and Chimu-influenced ware
            Page 312
            Page 313
        Miscellaneous pottery specimens
            Page 314
            Page 315
    Non-pottery collections
        Page 316
        Specimens of grave provenience
            Page 316
        Wooden objects
            Page 316
            Page 317
            Page 318
            Page 319
        Bone objects - ornaments
            Page 320
            Page 321
        Textiles
            Page 322
            Page 323
            Page 324
        Spindle whorls
            Page 325
    Conclusions: Relation of pottery styles at Nieveria
        Page 326
        Page 327
    Stylistic identificaiton of material illustrated by d'Harcourt
        Page 328
    Explanation of plates and catalogue numbers of specimens illustrated
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
    University of California publications (continued)
        Page 338
        Page 339
Full Text









THE UHLE COLLECTIONS

FROM, NIEVERIA



BY
A. H. GAYTON


tlNIVEasITY OP CALIFoaBwrA PUBImoATIONS Ir AMEaIOAN. AMBIHAXOoGT
a, ETHNOLOOY
Volume 21, No. 8,'pI 30533219,,plates 91-97, 11 figures, in text


-/t2.O7


C~~p


UNIVERSITYY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS
BERKELEY,'CALIFORNIA
1927


~h~ir~ O
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t: ':',~:
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u OF FLORI1 '! ,.

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Vol.9. 1. Yana Texts, by Edward Sapir, together with Yana Myths collected by
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2. The Chumash and Costanoan Languages, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 237-271.
November, 1910 -,s .... ._...... .... .. .8S
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VoL 10. 1. Phonetic Constituents of the Native Languages of California, by A. L.
Eroeber. Pp. 1-12. May, 1911 ....... ..... .10
2. The Phonetic Elements of the Northern Palute Language, by T. T. Water-
man. Pp. 13-44, plates 1-5. November, 1911 ... .. ... .45
8. Phonetic Elements of the Mohave Language, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 45-96,
plates 6-20. November, 1911 __. .. ...--....... ....-.. __ .65
4. The Ethnology of the Sallnan Indiana by Alden Mason. Pp. 97-240,
plates 21-37. December, 1912 ...L._ .......___.... .: ._._ 75
5. Papago Verb Stemsa by Juan Dolores. Pp. 241-263. August, 1913 ....M.
6. Notes on the Chblula Indians of Northwestern California by Pliny Earle
Goddard. Pp. 265-288, plates 38-41. April 1914 .... O..
7. OChlula Texts, by Pliny Earle Goddard Pp. 289-379. November, 1914 L00
Index, pp. S81-385.
VoL 11. 1. Elements of the Kato-Language, by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 1-176 plates
1-45. October, 1912 I..... __-- .__ 00
2. Phonetic Elements of the Dieguefio Language, by A. L. Eroeber and .J. P.
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S. Barsi Texts, by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 189-277. February, 1915:- 1.00O
4.' erian, Tequistlatecan, and Hokan, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 279-290. Febru-
ary, 1915 -._.......... .1--. ..0 ..
5. Dichotomous Social Organisation In South Central California, by Edward
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6. The Delineation of the Day-Signs In the Aztec Manuscripts, by T. T. Water-
man. Pp. 297-398. March, 1916 L____ ....-00
7. The Mutsun Dialect of Costanoan Based on the Vocabulary of De la Cuesta,
by 3. Alden Mason. Pp. $99-472.' Mach, 1916 __.. .70
Tndex, pp. 473479.




















THE UHLE COLLECTIONS

FROM NIEVERIA



BYA. H. GAY
A. H. GAYTON





57)o0 7

C-fl

















UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS IN AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY
AND ETHNOLOGY
Volume 21, No. 8, pp. 305-329, plates 91-97, 11 figures in text

Issued February 28, 1927





UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS
BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
LONDON, ENGLAND
















THE UHLE COLLECTIONS FROM NIEVERIA

BY

A. H. GAYTON




CONTENTS PAGE
Introduction ....... .............. .. .. .. .............................. ......................... 306
P lottery styles at N ieveria.............. ........ ............ .... ........... ..... ..... ..... ............ 307
P ro to -L im a ... ....... .... ..... ..... .. ...... ....... .. ... .......................... ... .. ...... 30 7
Epigonal, Nazca Y, Chimu-influenced ware........ .............. ................ 312
M miscellaneous pottery specim ens................ ..... ................. .......... .. 314
N on-pottery collections.................... ................. ....... .. .. .. .. ...... .................... 316
Specim ens of grave provenience......... ...................................... ... ....... ...... 316
W wooden objects........... .. ..................................... .... ... ............. ... .............. 3 316
B on e o b je cts........ ........................................................................... .......... ..... 320
O rn a m en ts....... .... .. ..... ....... .... .. ....... .... ...... ............ .. ................ 3 20
T extile s ......... .... ... ........ ... ...... ...... ........... ..... ................... ......... ................. 3 22
S p in d le w h orls..... ....... ....................... .... .... .. .. .. ............. ........ 325
Conclusions: Relation of pottery styles at Nieveria ........................ ............... 326
Stylistic identification of material illustrated by d'Harcourt............................. 328
Explanation of plates and catalogue numbers of specimens illustrated............. 329


PLATES
Following page 392
91. Proto-Lima A, B, C, D; Epigonal A, B wares.
92. Proto-Lima A; Nazca Y, Chimu-influenced wares.
93. Proto-Lima A, B, C ware.
94. Proto-Lima B; Epigonal A wares.
95. Proto-Lima B; Epigonal, Nazca Y, Chimu-influenced wares.
96. Proto-Lima A, B; Nazca Y, Chimu-influenced; miscellaneous wares.
97. Nieverfa styles of pottery from Pachacamac; University Museum, Phila-
delphia.

FIGURES IN TEXT PAGE
1. M ap of the valley of L im a......... ...................... ..... .......... ................ .......30 307
2. W ooden objects ................ ............................... .. ... ..... .... ....... ......... 317
3 C ra d le ... ........... .. .......... ......... ... ....... ..... ................. ............. .......... 3 18
4. B one im plem ents. .. ....... ... ............. ........ .. .... .... .... ......... ....... 319
5. S h ell objects ... ...... .. .. .. ... ...... ... .... .... .. .. ....... .. .. ..... ... ... .. 320
6 A m u le ts ................ .... ......... .... ... ....... ... ............ ....... .. ...... ...... ................ 3 2 1
7 E a rp lu g s................................ ................ .. ....... ... .. .... ... ..... ..... ....... 3 2 3 2 2
8. S hape of knitted cap......... ..................................... .................. .......... ..... 322
9 U n it of kn itted fabric................................................ ........... ... ...................... 323
10. D etail of fab ric edges.................. ............................... .. ........ .. .................. 324
11. Spin dle w horls........... ... .......... .. .......... ............................ ........ ..... 325









306 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 21


INTRODUCTION

The present paper is similar in method and purpose to previous
monographs1 that have offered an analysis and interpretation of
Peruvian antiquities in the University museum. The collection under
consideration was made by Dr. Max Uhle in 1906 under the patronage
of Mrs. Phoebe A. Hearst. The source is mentioned in the collector's
catalogue as an "excavation in the upper end of the Valley of Lima,
hacienda Nieveria, near the ruins of Cajamarquilla." This site,
though near Cajamarquilla, is not to be confused with the ruins there.
The cemeteries where these collections and others were obtained by
Uhle2 are on the hacienda Nieveria (fig. 1).
The collection of antiquities from Nieveria comprises 191 catalogue
entries, Museum numbers 4-9164 to 4-9355; of these 148 are pottery
objects, the remaining 43, non-pottery specimens. Specimens 4-9164
to 4-9231, which include only 6 non-pottery specimens, are from 34
separate graves, averaging 1.7 specimen per grave. This leaves over
50 per cent of the pottery and practically all the non-pottery collec-
tion without grave provenience. We can at best only assume that the
non-grave material was procured by huaqueros in the same cemetery
at Nieveria. In analyzing the collection the grave lots were kept
intact. Although there resulted no differentiation in style among the
grave lots, a contrast between grave and non-grave material was found
to exist through the absence of Chimu influenced and Nazca Y influ-
enced ware in the graves. All stylistic strains found in the entire
collection are present in the non-grave material.
In this paper the collection has been described primarily from a
stylistic point of view. Since the grave lots do not group stylistically,
it is unnecessary to separately describe their contents. The graves
are listed with the museum numbers and stylistic strains of their
contents in table 2.3 With the exception of the six non-pottery speci-
mens of grave provenience, the pottery and non-pottery collections
will be taken up separately.
1 Present series, xxI: A. L. Kroeber and William Duncan Strong, The Uhle
Collections from Chincha, pp. 1-54, 1924; Max Uhle, Excavations at Chincha,
pp. 55-92, 1924; Kroeber and Strong, The Uhle Pottery Collections from lea,
pp. 94-133, 1924; Strong, The Uhle Pottery Collections from Ancon, pp. 135-190,
1925; Kroeber, The Uhle Pottery Collections from Moche, pp. 191-234, 1925;
Kroeber, The Uhle Pottery Collections from Supe, pp. 235-264, 1925; Kroeber,
The Uhle Pottery Collections from Chancay, pp. 265-304, 1926; xxiv: A. H. Gay-
ton and A. L. Kroeber, The Uhle Pottery Collections from Nazca, pp. 1-46, 1927.
2 Uhle, tber die Friihkulturen in der Umgebung von Lima, Internat. Cong.
Americanists, xvi (Vienna, 1908), pp. 347-371, 1910.
3 The symbols in table 2-A, B, C, D, Epig., A-B, Nazca Y-I, and Chimu I-
indicate the stylistic strains described below.









Gayton: The Uhle Collections from Nieveria


POTTERY STYLES AT NIEVERIA

The potteries in the collection under consideration fall into two
general groups: one comprises ware in Proto-Lima styles, a local style
prevalent in the valley of Lima; the second is of ware showing non-
local influences from Epigonal styles as represented at Pachacamac,
and from Chimu and Nazca Y styles.


Fig. 1. Map of the valley of Lima.


PROTO-LIMA
The Proto-Lima style is essentially one of "red ware." Of the 148
pottery vessels in this collection 137 have been classified as Proto-
Lima, 11 as miscellaneous. Excepting six blackware or bucchero


1927]









Gayton: The Uhle Collections from Nieveria


POTTERY STYLES AT NIEVERIA

The potteries in the collection under consideration fall into two
general groups: one comprises ware in Proto-Lima styles, a local style
prevalent in the valley of Lima; the second is of ware showing non-
local influences from Epigonal styles as represented at Pachacamac,
and from Chimu and Nazca Y styles.


Fig. 1. Map of the valley of Lima.


PROTO-LIMA
The Proto-Lima style is essentially one of "red ware." Of the 148
pottery vessels in this collection 137 have been classified as Proto-
Lima, 11 as miscellaneous. Excepting six blackware or bucchero


1927]









308 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 21

specimens, every piece in this collection has a brick-red or red-orange
background. The paste is a dull brick-red; the surface is occasionally
left unslipped but more often a slip of more intense red or red-orange
is applied and rubbed down. Design areas are small or concentrated,
revealing about three-quarters of the surface area. White and black
are used with a dark red in designs; dark red is sometimes used alone
on the red-orange background but white never appears alone.
Within the general Proto-Lima style four strains or elements are
discernible; these have been designated A, B, C, and D. A and B are
styles including features of texture, shape, and decoration; C is a style
of ornamentation, and D one of shape.
Strain A.-Ware of strain A is made of a coarse, heavy, dull
reddish paste. Though the formation of the vessels is seldom actually
asymmetrical, a faultlessly smooth contour was never attained by the
potter. The shapes of this strain are commonly two: (1) a horizontally
flattened spherical jar with a low, flaring neck, the rim of which on
one side extends into a short ribbon handle curving down to the upper
plane of the body; (2) a spherical bowl having a wide mouth finished
with a low, slightly flaring rim. The decoration of this ware is simple.
If the paste is slipped, it is with its own color or one darker and more
intense. The surface is never polished but is rubbed down until hard.
On this is painted the design: lines or groups of lines radiate from
the neck and extend far down the sides of the vessel; trigrams center
about the neck, their points falling about halfway between neck and
base; less frequently a small area of textile-like or interlocking pattern
(strain C) decorates the upper plane of the body on one or opposite
sides; around the neck a banding of simple, interlocking frets is
frequently used (see pl. 93a-i).
The colors employed, including that of the background, usually
number three or four, never five; red, black, and white, or red and
white, or red and black on the red-orange surface.
Strain A appears in 64 specimens; it is the only or dominant
element in 54, or 40 per cent of the total collection of 137 pottery
vessels in Proto-Lima style. Of these 54, 36 are from graves and 18
are without grave provenience.
Strain B.-Ware of this type, compared with strain A, employs a
paste of finer texture and lighter and brighter red-orange color; the
walls of the vessels are thinner and their contour smoother. The
surface finish is sometimes unslipped, hard, and dull, but when slipped









Gayton: The Uhle Collections from Nieveria


with a deep red-orange paint, which is more frequently the case, is
hard and glossy. Shapes of strain B are two: (1) spherical jars with
a long, slightly converging, perpendicular spout; having a tubular
handle extending from the upper plane of the body to the center of
the spout (pl. 94a, c, j-l). A variation of this shape has a lenticular
body, a high, slightly flaring, perpendicular spout and a ribbon handle;
it is frequently decorated with the textile-like patterns of strain C
(pl. 93j-l; 94 g-i). (2) 'The second shape of strain B is a double-
spout jar of variously formed bodies, ribbon handles, and slender
spouts parallel, or divergent in the Tiahuanacan manner (pl. 91a;
94b, e, f). The coloring of strain B ware is most frequently four-color,
seldom three- or five-color. Though the number of colors used is the
same as in strain A, the use of clear, bright pigments gives it a distinct
'polychrome' effect in comparison with the duller A ware. When, in
strain B, a fifth color is used, it is invariably gray added to the usual
red, orange, black, and white color scheme. White and black are
skilfully used in groups of narrow lines or rows of dots which heighten
the contrast between the design area and the solid red-orange back-
ground. Vessels of the single spout, tubular handle type of strain B
occur at Pachacamac in the Epigone period4 (pl. 97 c-f).
Strain B is present in 64 specimens; it is the only or dominant
strain in 50, or 37 per cent of the total 137 pieces. Of these 50, 14
are from graves and 36 are without grave provenience.
Strain C.-This strain is not like A or B which have characteristic
shapes as well as designs. It is a style of decoration consisting of
interlocking or textile-like patterns which appear on A, B, and D
forms. A few pieces have been classed as pure or predominantly C
because the shapes used were not classifiable as A, B, or D (see
table 2, p. 315).
The interlocking triangular or rectangular frets fill restricted
areas on opposite sides of vessels, and are used as single horizontal
bands around spouts (pl. 93a, e, f, h). On two low dishes, nos. 4-9175
and 4-9254, such bands fill the entire upper zone of the inturned side
(pl. 95a, c). The character and application of these interlocking
patterns are comparable to those of Chancay E2 ware." Sherds with
similar patterns and frets were found by Uhle at Pachacamac in the
soil containing pottery of the Epigone period." On vessel 4-9169 a

4 Uhle, Max, Pachacamac, Univ. of Penn., Philadelphia, 1903, p. 28, figs.
23-25.
s This volume, p. 275.
6 Uhle, Pachacamac, p. 29, figs. 26-28.


1927]








310 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 21

pattern of interlocking fish appears rendered in the 'textile manner';
i.e., oblique lines are broken into offset parts like those resulting from
loom-weaving (pl. 91f). Designs of interlocking fish of the type
occurring frequently on Nazca B7 pottery are entirely lacking in this
collection of Proto-Lima ware.
Textile-like patterns consist of areas filled with small angular
figures geometrically arranged. Their use and effect are the same as
those of interlocking patterns (pl. 93g, 1; pl. 94c, g, i). Both groups
of patterns may be genetically related through designs employed in
textiles of the same period. Although no specimens of cloth were
found with the vessels of grave provenience, fragments 4-9350a (fig.
9) and b, have interlocked borders identical with those on pottery
specimens shown in plates 93f and 94e, respectively, and occurring on
several other vessels in the collection. Cloth specimen 4-9350e is
decorated with a tied and dyed design which, though on a larger scale,
is comparable to that on vessel 4-9279 (pl. 94c). The intricacies of
strain C patterns are emphasized by the employment of two colors
which indicate their opposing or interlocking parts. Black and white
are most frequently combined, red and white or red and black less
frequently.
Strain C occurs in 18 of the total 137 vessels. It has been con-
sidered the dominant strain in 10 specimens; 3 of these are from
graves.
Strain D.-A tendency to fanciful shaping and modeled orna-
mentation of vessels, in Proto-Lima style, has been termed strain D.
Such ware is always of paste of fine texture like that of style B. The
D shapes may be merely an elaboration of B shapes, as the double-
spout jars, nos. 4-9276 (pl. 91a) and 4-9277 (pl. 94e), and the single
spout, handled jar no. 4-9278 (pl. 94a,. The strain B polychrome
and dotted effect is combined with D forms; strain C textile and inter-
locking patterns occur on them with perhaps even greater frequency
to judge by illustrations from other collections.8
Though strain D is present in 19 of the 137 specimens in the col-
lection under consideration there is but one, no. 4-9169 (pl. 91f) that
may be classed as predominantly of that style; other elaborately
modeled shapes are lacking'here.
In summary, then, the Proto-Lima style as represented by the Uhle
collection contains four notable strains: A, a coarse ware of dull color-
7 This series, xxiv, 1-46, 1927.
8 d'Harcourt, Raoul, La C6ramique de Cajamarquilla-Niveria, Jour. Soc.
Ambricanistes Paris, XLV, 1922, pis. III, 1, 3, 7; IV, 7; V, 1, 2, 3; VII, 1, 3, 4, 6.
















TABLE 1
'* TABULATION OF SHAPE AND DESIGN AI RIBUTES



0 tb



Shape groups in Dominant strain Design
group or style traits 1 1 I .
100





12 9 7 24 11 5 29 6 10 12 10 1 3 6 1 3 65 18


Jar-low neck, flat handle.... ... ......... 33 A....... ....... 11 4 3 8 5 1 9 1 1
Jar--straight neck, flat handle............. 24 B .......... 1 4 3 11 1 2 5 1 2 4 2
Jar-converging spout, tubular handle. 14 B, Epig ..... .. .. 1 1 1 3 1 1 6 4 1 1 1
Rim m ed bowl...... .... ........... .......... 11 A ............ ....... .. 4 3 4
D double spout jars .......... ................. ..... 9 B Epig.............. 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 3
B ottle...................... .. ... .. .... .. .... B N azca Y Infl..... 1 1 2 3
Flask .. .................. ............ ...... ....... 8 B, Nazca Y Infl.. 2 1 1
Head and spout jar .... 5 D, Chimu Infl.... 3 1 5
Plate with handle and spout .... .. 4 B, Nazca Y Infl. 2 1 1
Low dish.............. ....... ......... .. 1 E pig. B ..... 1 1
Corrugated vase............ ...... ...1.. .. 1 B .......... .. ... 1
Jar with handle and spout ................... 3 B .... .. ........... 1
Mammiform jar. ......... ..... .... 1 A............ 1
Figure vase ................... 7 Chimu Inf.. ..... 1 7
Bucchero jar ........... ......... ...... .. .1 Chim u Inf....... 1
Double jar.... ..... ......... .......... 1 B, D..... ...... 1
Saucer................. .... .. ................. ....... 2 A ...... ... .......
B ulbous vase ....... ...... ............. .... .. .... 1 A .. .. ......... .. plain
Flanged bowl ........... ......... .... ........ .. 1 A ............ .............. plain
Three-legged bowl... ................ .. .. 1 A....... .................... plain
Total .................... 137......... ... __________









312 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 21

ing and simple design; B, a finer ware of brighter coloring and com-
paratively elaborate design; C, ornamentation by interlocking and
textile patterns; and D, a ware of fanciful shapes and modeled orna-
mentation. These elements have been isolated for the purpose of
describing the style; they do not constitute discrete substyles but
occur in varying combinations. The essential homogeneity of Proto-
Lima style and the absorption of foreign traits into the local style are
indicated in table 1. From this table, which itemizes and relates all
important elements of design and shape occurring in this collection
of pottery, it is seen that none of the Proto-Lima design traits are
exclusively characteristic of one strain.

EPIGONAL, NAZCA Y, AND CHIMU-INFLUENCED WARE
Of the collection under consideration 19 pieces, or 13 per cent,
show influences from extraneous coast cultures; namely, those of the
Epigonal period9 at Pachacamac in the neighboring valley of Lurin,
the Nazca Y period'1 from the valley of Nazca to the south, and the
Proto-Chimu period11 on the northern coast. The specimens here
referred to (see table 2) appear to be wares of local manufacture
styled after non-local patterns rather than foreign importations.
The Epigonal element present in the ware from Nieveria takes two
slightly differing forms which have been designated here as A and B,
corresponding respectively to Uhle's Tiahuanaco and Epigone styles.12
Two double-spout jars are in the Epigonal A style; one of these (pl.
91b) is in five colors, black, white, red, yellow, and purple, and bears
two mythological bird-fish-like creatures on each side of the upper
plane. The colorings of these are reversed: the pattern on the side of
the vessel which is not visible in our illustration corresponds with one
in the Museum at Lima.13 The other Epigonal A double-spout jar
is identical in shape but is of undecorated orange-red ware (pl. 94d).
The third piece classed as Epigonal A is a vase of bucchero ware.
A Tiahuanacan strain is evident in its tubular spout ornamented
with a modeled face (pl. 95j). This is the only blackware specimen of
grave provenience; besides this specimen grave 3 contained three other
vessels, one each of Proto-lima styles A, B, and D.
In spite of the fact that this collection contains but three specimens
classifiable as Epigonal A, that style was indubitably a potent factor
conditioning strain B of Proto-Lima style. The jar with tapering
9 Uhle, Pachaeamac, pis. 4, 5. 12 Uhle, Pachacamae, pls. 4, 5.
to This series, xxiv, pls. 12-17. 13 d'Harcourt, op. cit., pl. II, fig. 3.
11 This volume, pls. 53-55.









Gayton: The Uhle Collections from Nieveria


spout and tubular handle shown by Uhle14 is our shape 1 of strain B."
Though Nieverian vessels of this shape entirely lack Tiahuanacan
ornamentation, the addition of gray to their otherwise Proto-Liman
color scheme indicates a further influence from the Lurin valley. It
is possible that the radiating lines and rows of dots decorating many
strain B vessels are modifications of Epigonal patterns which Uhle has
regarded as degenerated bird designs found on vessels of similar shape
at Pachacamac and here reproduced by the courtesy of Director G.
B. Gordon of the University of Pennsylvania Museum (pl. 97c-f).16
Although it is essential for the sake of verity to point out these
Epigonal elements in strain B vessels, their deviation in style is so
strongly toward local ideals that it prevents their being placed in the
Epigonal category.
The Epigonal B vessels are of somewhat heavier paste than the
Epigonal A pieces, and are more crudely painted. There are three
specimens in this group: a drum-shaped, bottle-neck flask with a
Tiahuanacoid-Epigonal design in R, Br2, and B on the shoulders; a
vase with slightly convergent neck, a zone of geometric pattern in
R2, Br, B, and Gy encircling its upper plane (pl. 91d) ; and a small
lenticular lipless bowl with two horizontally placed ribbon handles,
colors R, R2 and W (pl. 95e).17 Of the more typically Epigonal
designs, such as series of overlapping triangular areas, rectangular
faces topped by awkwardly drooping plumes, or conventionalized bird
heads, none are represented in this collection. Seven other specimens
predominantly of Proto-Lima B style show traces of Epigonal B influ-
ences. Two of these, of non-grave source, have Nazca Y constituents
as well.
The Nazca Y element in ware from Lima valley is slight but
unmistakable. It is the dominant characteristic of five specimens (see
table 2) and is present in five others. These specimens are all with-
out grave provenience. Two Nazca Y-influenced pieces are very low
lenticular bowls having a long projecting spout on one side and on the
opposite a conical handle. One is decorated with two Nazcoid double-
headed serpents, colors R, R2, B, W (pl. 95d). On the other (pl. 95f),
four mythological creatures characterized by the tripart element
typical of the late Nazcan Jagged-staff demon design's are disposed in
four opposing panels. The rectangular convention of these creatures
hints at a Tiahuanacan (Pachacamac) influence. It should be noted
14 Pachacamac, pl. 4, no. 4. 17 Compare Pachaeamac, pl. 5, no. 8.
15 See p. 308. 18 This series, xxiv, 28, fig. 10.
16 Pachacamae, 28, figs. 23-25. Uhle shows only the designs, not the vessels.


1927]









314 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 21

that these two specimens, in spite of their Nazcan designs, are of
typical Proto-Liman shape. (Compare pl. 95a, c).
The three remaining Nazcan specimens in this collection have
almost exact counterparts in the collection from Nazca.71 These are
globose-shaped jars with an incipient handle at the base of a bottle-
neck. Flower-like motifs which are a salient element of Nazca Y style
decorate the upper zone of these vessels.
No specific elements of earlier Nazca styles A, B, or X appear in
this collection of Nieverian ware.
Chimu influence, like that of Nazca, is lacking in the Nieverian
pottery with grave provenience; it is present in controlling propor-
tions in eleven non-grave specimens. The vessels having Chimu
ingredients fall into two groups. One is composed of vessels modeled
to represent seated or squatting human beings, some having a tall
spout arising directly from the head (pl. 92a, b) whereas others have a
long spout diverging from a tubular loop handle connected to the
person's head or back (pl. 95g-i). The second group is of five black-
ware specimens (pl. 95j-m; 96c). They are less markedly local in
style than the other modeled vessels. The colored specimens in this
strain are differentiated from their Trujillan analogues by quality of
material and technique and an orange cast in the red pigment.


MISCELLANEOUS POTTERY SPECIMENS
Ten pottery objects of little distinction have been classed as miscel-
laneous (table 2). These will be briefly described. 4-9168a-m con-
sists of thirteen miniature vessels, conceivably toys. One is in the
shape of a pot rest. They are all of light reddish paste, undecorated,
and.crudely made. A ring with concave sides and two small modeled
figures functioning as a handle was probably used as a pot rest
(4-9207, pl. 96b). Two very small red vases of careless technique
have perforations at the neck as if for suspension; one is pear-shaped
and the other globose (4-9211, 4-9220). Three small scoops or spoons
are of fine-textured, red-orange paste (4-9352, 9353, 9354); they are
asymmetrically checkered with black, red, and yellow stripes. Remain-
ing specimens are two double flutes of baked clay (4-9198, 4-9199)
and two small, very crude female figurines (4-9210a, b).
A group of gray spindle whorls properly belonging under this
heading are described with other spindle whorls in the non-pottery
collection.
19 This series, xxIv, 1-46, 1927.











Gayton: The Uhle Collections from Nieveria


TABLE 2

STYLISTIC DESIGNATION BY GRAVE LOTS

Dominant strain given first; other strains, if present, in parentheses.


Grave Cataloguenumber 4-
1 9164, A.
2 9166, C; 9167, A; 9168a-m,
Misc.
3 9172, A; 9171, B; 9169, D (B,
C) ; 9170, Epig. A.
4 9173, 9174, A.
5 9176, 9177, A; 9178, B; 9175,
C.
6 9179 A.
7 9180, 9182, A; 9181, A (C).
8 9183, A.
9 9184, 9185, B.
10 9186, A.
11 9188, 9189, B; 9187, 9190,
Epig. A; 9190a, Epig. B.
12 9191, 9192, 9194, 9195, 9197,
A; 9196, A (B); 9193, B
(A).
13 9198, 9199, 9200ab, Misc.
14 9202, A; 9201, B (C).

Non-grave:
Style Catalogue number 4-


Grave
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34


Catalogue number 4-
9203, A.
9204, 9205, A.
9206, A; 9207, Misc.
9208,B (C).
9209, B (A) ; 9210, Misc.
9211, Misc.
9212, A.
9213, A (B).
9214, A; 9215, B (D).
9216, A.
9217, B (A).
9218, B (C).
9219, A; 9220, Misc.
9222, A.
9224, 9225, A.
9226, 9227, A.
9228, A.
9229, B (A).
9231, A (C).
9232, C (A).


Non-grave:
Style Catalogue number 4-


A: 9252, 9293-9298, 9301, 9310- B (Naz. Y Infl.) : 9247, 9249, 9273.
9312. C (A): 9255-9257, 9261, 9262.
A (B): 9267, 9290, 9292, 9299, C (B): 9254, 9260.
9300. Epig. B: 9265, 9283.
A (Epig. B) 9302. Chimu Infl.: 9234, 9235, 9237-9243,
B: 9248, 9250, 9251, 9253, 9266, 9245.
9268, 9271, 9279-9282, 9284, Chimu Infl. (Epig. B): 9236.
9285, 9288, 9289, 9291, 9304, Naz. Y Intl.: 9303.
9305, 9308, 9309, 9355, Naz. Y Infl. (B) : 9246, 9269.
B (A): 9306. Naz. Y Infl. (B, Epig. B): 9270,
B (C): 9258, 9259. 9272.
B (D):9244, 9276-9278, 9286. Misc.: 9352-9354.
B (Epig. B): 9263, 9264, 9274, Missing: 9287.
9275.
Totals: Strain A, 54; strain B, 50; strain C, 10; strain D, 1; Epigonal A, 3;
Epigonal B, 3; Chimu influenced, 11; Nazca Y influenced, 5.


1927]


315









316 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 21



NON-POTTERY COLLECTION
SPECIMENS OF GRAVE PROVENIENCE
The non-pottery antiquities in the University collections from
Nieveria are not striking in aspect, nor have they valuable cultural
connotations inasmuch as grave data are lacking for their majority.
With the exception of six specimens, all are without grave proven-
ience; further, but three of these were found in conjunction with
pottery vessels. Thus the collection of artifacts cannot be related with
the pottery collection in attempting to make a chronological interpre-
tation for cultures in the valley of Lima. It is classified and described
here as a matter oE record.
The six antiquities found in graves are as follows. In grave 1,
containing one vessel of Proto-Lima strain A style, where the frag-
ments of a silver topu (4-9164a), and three small carved wooden
objects (4-9164b). The latter are of unknown purpose unless,
perhaps, as containers for powders, as one has a tiny plug, also of
wood, fitting into a cavity. This specimen is inlaid with a gilt-like
substance.
From grave 13 are 4-9200a, b; the first a carved bone object
vaguely representing a llama, the second a broken pan's pipe of seven
reeds.
An atlatl or spear-thrower (4-9223) came from grave 28, which
also contained a vessel of Proto-Lima strain A. The weapon is rudely
carved from a single piece of wood; the catch is anvil-shaped, the
grasp a ring hewn perpendicularly to the plane of the staff. Dimen-
sions: 372 mm., total length; 18 mm., greatest width of shaft; 41 mm.,
length of grasp; 31 mm., greatest width of grasp; 23 mm., length of
catch; 24 mm., greatest width of catch (fig. 2e).
With a vessel of Proto-Lima strain B style, in grave 32, was found
an unornamented stiletto of dark wood (4-9230). Dimensions:
246 mm., length; 19 mm., diameter at top.


WOODEN OBJECTS
The wooden objects in this collection are four staves and the head
of a fifth, four implements for pounding or scraping, three tubes, two
spear-throwers, a stiletto, and an infant's cradle. Their workmanship
is of a technique carried little beyond the needs of utility: the orna-
mental carving is simple in the extreme. With the exception of one









316 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 21



NON-POTTERY COLLECTION
SPECIMENS OF GRAVE PROVENIENCE
The non-pottery antiquities in the University collections from
Nieveria are not striking in aspect, nor have they valuable cultural
connotations inasmuch as grave data are lacking for their majority.
With the exception of six specimens, all are without grave proven-
ience; further, but three of these were found in conjunction with
pottery vessels. Thus the collection of artifacts cannot be related with
the pottery collection in attempting to make a chronological interpre-
tation for cultures in the valley of Lima. It is classified and described
here as a matter oE record.
The six antiquities found in graves are as follows. In grave 1,
containing one vessel of Proto-Lima strain A style, where the frag-
ments of a silver topu (4-9164a), and three small carved wooden
objects (4-9164b). The latter are of unknown purpose unless,
perhaps, as containers for powders, as one has a tiny plug, also of
wood, fitting into a cavity. This specimen is inlaid with a gilt-like
substance.
From grave 13 are 4-9200a, b; the first a carved bone object
vaguely representing a llama, the second a broken pan's pipe of seven
reeds.
An atlatl or spear-thrower (4-9223) came from grave 28, which
also contained a vessel of Proto-Lima strain A. The weapon is rudely
carved from a single piece of wood; the catch is anvil-shaped, the
grasp a ring hewn perpendicularly to the plane of the staff. Dimen-
sions: 372 mm., total length; 18 mm., greatest width of shaft; 41 mm.,
length of grasp; 31 mm., greatest width of grasp; 23 mm., length of
catch; 24 mm., greatest width of catch (fig. 2e).
With a vessel of Proto-Lima strain B style, in grave 32, was found
an unornamented stiletto of dark wood (4-9230). Dimensions:
246 mm., length; 19 mm., diameter at top.


WOODEN OBJECTS
The wooden objects in this collection are four staves and the head
of a fifth, four implements for pounding or scraping, three tubes, two
spear-throwers, a stiletto, and an infant's cradle. Their workmanship
is of a technique carried little beyond the needs of utility: the orna-
mental carving is simple in the extreme. With the exception of one









316 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 21



NON-POTTERY COLLECTION
SPECIMENS OF GRAVE PROVENIENCE
The non-pottery antiquities in the University collections from
Nieveria are not striking in aspect, nor have they valuable cultural
connotations inasmuch as grave data are lacking for their majority.
With the exception of six specimens, all are without grave proven-
ience; further, but three of these were found in conjunction with
pottery vessels. Thus the collection of artifacts cannot be related with
the pottery collection in attempting to make a chronological interpre-
tation for cultures in the valley of Lima. It is classified and described
here as a matter oE record.
The six antiquities found in graves are as follows. In grave 1,
containing one vessel of Proto-Lima strain A style, where the frag-
ments of a silver topu (4-9164a), and three small carved wooden
objects (4-9164b). The latter are of unknown purpose unless,
perhaps, as containers for powders, as one has a tiny plug, also of
wood, fitting into a cavity. This specimen is inlaid with a gilt-like
substance.
From grave 13 are 4-9200a, b; the first a carved bone object
vaguely representing a llama, the second a broken pan's pipe of seven
reeds.
An atlatl or spear-thrower (4-9223) came from grave 28, which
also contained a vessel of Proto-Lima strain A. The weapon is rudely
carved from a single piece of wood; the catch is anvil-shaped, the
grasp a ring hewn perpendicularly to the plane of the staff. Dimen-
sions: 372 mm., total length; 18 mm., greatest width of shaft; 41 mm.,
length of grasp; 31 mm., greatest width of grasp; 23 mm., length of
catch; 24 mm., greatest width of catch (fig. 2e).
With a vessel of Proto-Lima strain B style, in grave 32, was found
an unornamented stiletto of dark wood (4-9230). Dimensions:
246 mm., length; 19 mm., diameter at top.


WOODEN OBJECTS
The wooden objects in this collection are four staves and the head
of a fifth, four implements for pounding or scraping, three tubes, two
spear-throwers, a stiletto, and an infant's cradle. Their workmanship
is of a technique carried little beyond the needs of utility: the orna-
mental carving is simple in the extreme. With the exception of one











Gayton: The Uhle Collections from Nieveria


inlaid tube, no extra decoration such as painting, inlay, or polish is
used. An analytical description of the specimens follows.
Staves or clubs: 4-9314, 123.3 cm. present length, base end broken off; carved
head 119 mm. long, 62 mm. at widest point, 35 mm. at narrowest. The head
is carved in a diamond pattern so deeply cut that a 'pineapple' effect results
(fig. 2h). The wood is unpolished, and light in color.






b


C




d








f











Fig. 2. Wooden objects: a, inlaid tube; b, g, h, staves; c, d, use unknown;
e, f, spear throwers.

4-9315, 684 mm. long including a carved head 90 mm. long; 53 mm., width
at top of head, 33 mm. at bottom; 25 mm., width at base tip of club. The
head is simply carved with a diamond pattern. The wood is heavy, hard, and
dark (fig. 2g).
4-9320, total length, 370 mm.; 11 mm., width at base tip; head, 117 mm.
long; 33 mm. and 20 mm., maximum and minimum widths. The head is cut on
quadrilateral planes without any decorative carving (fig. 2b), material like
4-9315.
4-9321, total length, 477 mm.; 14 mm., width at base tip; head, 140 mm.
long; 33 mm. and 22 mm., maximum and minimum width. Head pointed and
cut on round. No decorative carving. Wood light in weight and color.
4-9223, a club head similar to 4-9314, broken from staff. 130 mm. long,
68 mm., greatest width. Wood light brown.


1927]









318 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 21


Implements: Three objects used perhaps for pounding or scraping are 'double-
headed,' having a center handle with a scoop, blade, or knob on each end.
4-9317, a double paddle implement, 460 mm., total length; handle about
10 mm. long, 45 mm. thick; paddles, about 120 mm. long, 100 mm. wide, 30 mm.
thick at top. One paddle is slightly hollowed out, suggesting a scoop or spoon
shape.


Fig. 3. Cradle of canes with coiled binding.

4-9318, object with a central handle, a flat, paddle-like tool on one end and
a knobby pounder on the other (fig. 2d). Total length, 501 mm.; handle, 23 mm.
long, 36 mm. thick; flat end, 103 mm. long, 96 mm. wide, 30 mm. thick across
upper edge; pounder, 167 mm. long, 115 mm. wide at top, 81 mm. thick near
base.
4-9319, double implement with scrapers or knives on each end (fig. 2c).
Total length, 367 mm.; handle, 45 mm. long, 24 mm. wide; blades, about 160 mm.
long, 50-60 mm. greatest thickness.
4-9325, a small pounder; the base is so discolored that it appears to have
been soaked in a dark pigment. Total length, 146 mm.; handle, 104 mm. long,
about 21 mm. wide; pounder, 42 mm. long, 49 mm., width at base.
Tubes: Three tubular objects of wood are of unknown use. They are not
whistles. 4-9322 is the most elaborate; it is slightly concave with convergence
toward a mouth-end (?) (fig. 2a). A flat handle carved in a step-block pattern











Gayton: The Uhle Collections from Nieveria


and perforated as for suspension extends from the center of the tube. Two
encircling bands of inlaid mother of pearl decorate the fore portion of the
object. The wood is dark brown and has been slightly polished. Dimensions:
length, 264 mm.; width, 40 mm. at large end and 31 mm. at smaller, 23 mm. at
narrowest point; diameter of perforation in mouth end, 6 mm., diameter at
opposite end, 31 mm.
4-9323 is of heavy, dark wood with no ornamentation. It is 505 mm. in
length; 28 mm., diameter; 11 mm., diameter of perforation.
A band 17 mm. wide of fabric or finely twisted fibers encircles one end of
4-9324, a tube of mediumly light wood. Dimensions: 174 mm., length; 26 mm.,
diameter; 8 mm., diameter of perforation.

























b

e d c a
Fig. 4. Bone implements: a-d, awls; e, weave dagger.

Weapons: Of the three weapons in this collection, two, an atlatl and a
stiletto from graves, have already been described. The third, another spear-
thrower (4-9316), 504 mm. in length, 13-15 mm., diameter, is of technique
superior to the other specimen (fig. 2f). The hand grasp is of bone carved in
the shape of a cat's head and neck; the eyes are inlaid with a black mineral.
This and the spear-catch, which is also of bone cut in an anvil shape, are
fastened to the wooden rod with fibre string and gum.
Cradle: This specimen, 4-9326, is made of wood and cane (fig. 3). Two out-
side, parallel beams 505 mm. long, and five cross-braces 339 mm. long of wood
form a framework on each side of which are bound segments of cane or some
endogenous plant. The binding is of two-ply fiber string. A coiled stitch is
used. Within the space between the cane layers, and seemingly placed there
deliberately, are a number of grains of corn. Provided that the object is a
cradle as assumed, their presence is perhaps explicable on the basis of their
having some magical potency.


1927]










320 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 21



BONE OBJECTS

Awls: Two awls (4-9328, 4-9329 [broken]), 190 mm. and 160 mm. long,
respectively, are made of tibiae. The joint is left intact for grasping, and the
shaft shaped and ground down to a point. Incised dots and dot-circles in
geometric arrangement ornament the handles (fig. 4a, b).
4-9327, 167 mm. long, is perhaps a large rib-bone split through its breadth
at the joint and ground down to a point. It is decorated with an incised dot-
circle design. 4-9330, 190 mm. long, is similar to the preceding but is undecorated
(fig. 4c, d).
Weave daggers: 4-9331, 168 mm. length, 21 mm. greatest width; and 4-9332,
163 mm. length, 17 mm. greatest width, are of fiat, split (rib?) bone. The
blades are ground down to dull, rounded points. They are unornamented, and
evidently intended for fine work (fig. 4e).









a b c d e















f g h

Fig. 5. Shell objects: a-e, spondylus shell beads; f-h, incised ornaments
of nacreous shell.


ORNAMENTS

Pendants: In the non-pottery collection are a considerable number of beads
or objects with perforations for suspension or interlacings. 4-9334 consists of
(a) eight rectangular pieces of spondylus shell (fig. 5a), one of which has bits
of three-ply string remaining in its holes; (b) three small pendants cut from a
thick white shell (fig. 5c); (c) two cylindrical beads 25-30 mm. long, 5-8 mm.
thick of chalky shell (fig. 5e) ; (d) a cruciform piece probably cut from shapes
under (a) (fig. 5b); (e) a rectangular bead of shell (fig. 5d); and (f) a shell
pendant with two diagonal perforations as if for sewing on cloth.











Gayton: The Uhle Collections from Nieveria


Four shell ornaments cut in naturalistic forms are entered under 4-9337.
One is a pendant of white and hard shell simply but carefully cut and engraved
to represent a frog. It is 32 mm. long, with 28 mm. as greatest width (fig. 5f).
Of iridescent shell is a pendant 40 mm. long and 23 mm. wide, cut and incised in
the conventionalized shape of a fish. Two other pendants of nacreous shell
probably intended to represent bird forms are 40-48 mm. long and 23 mm. wide
(fig. 5f-h).
4-9344 consists ofltwo segments of spondylus shell 80-85 mm. in length. Ten
discs or rectangles cut from clamshell constitute 4-9340.
Amulets: A group of six very small clay and stone objects which are con-
ceivably amulets comprise 4-9336, a-d. Four of these are crude little figures of
clay, two (female) with sketchy faces with incised features (fig. 6a, b); and
two, the body portions of which are broken, with bird or beak-like heads
and large, round, raised eyes (fig. 6c, d). The two remaining objects are an
amorphous pebble with incised ornamentation and a perforation (fig. 6e), and
a bottle-shaped pebble with a diagonal perforation through the 'neck.'











a b c d e

Fig. 6. Amulets: a-d, small pottery female figures; e, incised and
perforated pebble. (All actual size.)

Earplugs: 4-9345 and 4-9346 are a pair of wooden earplugs with mosaic
decoration of good workmanship (fig. 7c, f). Dimensions: 62 mm., total length;
48 mm., length of stem; 23 mm., diameter of stem; 41 mm., diameter of disc.
The discs are inlaid in the design of a bird with pieces of shell in opaque color-
ings of violet, pink, blue, flesh, and white. The adhesive seems to be a resinous
substance.
4-9335, a piece of soft white shell inlaid with shell or stone flakes in a
llama's head design is probably an unfinished earplug disc. It is about 43 mm.
by 48 mm. in size (fig. 7g).
An earplug of chonta-wood, 4-9347, has a total length of 44 mm., 31 mm.,
length of stem, 21 mm., diameter of stem, 34 mm., diameter of disc. The disc
is cut for an inlaid four-scroll design; the inlaid material has disappeared
(fig. 7b, e).
4-9343, an earplug of light wood, the disc of which had a circular inlay, has
a total length of 37 mm.; 24 mm., length of stem, 5 mm., diameter of stem,
32 mm., diameter of disc (fig. 7a, d).
Miscellaneous: An ovoid bead (4-9341) 22 mm. high, 13 mm. wide, is of blue,
white-veined stone.
A collection of small univalve shells (4-9338) and three small fluted bivalves
(4-9339) have perforations as for pendants.


1927]









322 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 21

Specimen 4-9349 is a stone disc 11 mm. thick and 39 mm. in diameter. One
surface is faced with eight glistening iron pyrites set in a cement or adhesive
substance. Fine threads encircle the side of the disc; they appear to have been
.glued on. On opposing sides two oblique perforations penetrate the stone from
side to back surface.






a b c






d







8

Fig. 7. Earplugs: a-f, types of earplugs and discs with inlay of shell and
mineral; g, piece of shell with inlaid design, probably for earplug disc. (Dark
hatching, dislodged inlay; light hatching, lavender; cross-hatching, green; broken
hatching, gray; stippling, pink.)


TEXTILES
The district about Lima, including Ancon, Surco, Lurin, and
Pachacamac, is said to have been the most advanced in the manufac-
ture of textiles.20 A variety of decorative techniques is represented
in the present collection from Nieveria though it comprises but one
complete and five extremely fragmentary specimens.










Fig. 8. Knitted cap. (Shape only; design in five colors.)

20 Crawford, M. D. C., Peruvian Fabrics, A. M. N. H. Anthro. Papers, 12,
p. 178, 1916.











Gayton: The Uhle Collections from Nieveria


4-9350 is a rectangular cap with an upright finger-like projection at each
corner (fig. 8). The thread is of wool, of medium coarseness and hard. The
fabric is not loom-woven but is made of a single thread by a knitting or crochet
technique. The stitch resembles 'German knitting' and is unpurled. Crumbling
condition of the thread prevents a positive determination of the technique.21
According to Crawford22 knitting was common in Peru, especially for making
caps and bags. The decorative design is geometric. The colors have faded
unevenly and attained considerable neutrality; those identifiable are black, yellow,
brown, green, and red. An intermediate shade between yellow and brown is a
doubtful sixth color.






























''X



Fig. 9. Unit of knitted fabric. (Dark hatching, red; light oblique hatching,
yellow; horizontal hatching, blue; cross-hatching, violet; white, light yellow;
black, brown.)

4-9350a is another single-thread fabric, extremely fine and of intricate
technique. The thread is hard, fine, and of wool. The fabric is double-face
with patterns and colors in identical position. Both sides are in purled knitting
with the stitches interlocking at the back to form a single layer of fabric. The
specimen is about 525 mm. long, and shows three of the design panels in com-
plete length, but their width is indeterminate as the greatest present width of

21 For the determination of materials and techniques of specimens 4-9350,
4-9350a, we are indebted to Miss Agnes Nelson, Department of Household Art,
University of Calfornia.
22 Op cit., 163.


1927]










324 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 21

the specimen is but 104 mm. The design, which is shown in figure 9, is of a
fish-like creature similar to those on canteen jars of period El at Chancay.23
The bands of interlocking frets are similar to designs on Proto-Lima and
Chancay El pottery. The six colors employed have retained much of their
original brightness; they are red, violet, blue, brown, yellow, and light yellow.
4-9350b is a fragment of tapestry fabric about 22 cm. by 25 cm. The weft
thread is of medium fineness and the warps about double the thickness. An
angular scroll design done in red, red-orange, and blue bears a Nazea Y-
Tiahuanacoid aspect. Adjoining wefts of different color areas are interlocked.











I I




a b c d

Fig. 10. Detail of fabric edges. a, loop fringe formed from alternate weft
threads (4-9350e) ; b, extra thread carried along outside warp and twisted to form
extra warps at regular intervals; c, extra warps with wefts in place (all about
twice actual size); d, actual appearance of 'stepped' edge (4-9350d).

4-9350c, a piece of fringed banding about 40 mm. wide, is woven in an open-
slit tapestry technique. The pattern is of small geometric figures, portions of
which are outlined by a wrapped warp. The fringe is formed by uncut loops
of weft elements; perhaps these passed around extra warps which were later
removed (fig. 10a). The colors used are red, pink, yellow, and white.
4-9350d is composed of a border about 30 mm. wide crudely sewed down
parallel to a fragment of cloth. The cloth is a fine tapestry showing three
stripes, blue, brown, tan. The border is in slit tapestry weave but has a special
interest in its 'stepped' edge (fig. 10d). The extra warps needed for this are
obtained by adding one free warp at the edge; at the desired intervals a long
loop of this warp is taken up and turned upon itself three times, forming four
short warp strands (fig. 10b). The weft elements at that point are carried out
into these (fig. 10c). The colors used are black, red, yellow, pink, and light
yellow.
4-9350e is a fragment of mediumly coarse cloth in simple tapestry weave.
Tied-and-dyed technique of decoration shows the original yellow color of the
cloth in large hollow diamonds on a red background.

23 This volume, pp. 279-282, pl. 88a, b, f; pl. 90d.










Gayton: The Uhle Collections from Nieveria


SPINDLE WHORLS

A collection of 76 spindle whorls is comprised under 4-9342. An analysis
of their materials showed their composition to be as follows: artificial, i.e., pottery
(fired at low temperature, i.e., not exceeding 1000 F.), 14; steatite, 45; shell, 5;
fine crystalline limestone (marble), 4; bone, 1; clear brown calcite, 1; undeter-
mined, probably natural ferruginouss shale?), 1; undetermined but positively
natural, 1.24








a Ob o6c
d e f g




h i

Fig. 11. Spindle whorls: a, b, low shapes; c, pear shape; d, g, bottle-neck
shapes; e, f, lozenge shapes; h-j, steatite whorls with incised ornamentation.

There is no relation between shapes of the whorls and their materials.
The group of artificial whorls is the only one in which there is any homogeneity
of shape: they are spherical or slightly lenticular. The shapes are mainly
three: (1) low, round or, lenticular sides, about 5-7 mm. high, 10-15 mm. wide,
7 mm., diameter of perforation; (2) pear-shaped, 10-15 mm. high, 12-16 mm.
wide, 6 mm., diameter of perforation; (3) lozenge, lenticular or ovoid, 12-20 mm.
high, 12-18 mm. wide, 6 mm., diameter of perforation. A bottle-neck shape
occurs in the bone, shell, and steatite groups. (See figure 11a-g.) With the
exception of one shell whorl only those of steatite are ornamented. Thirteen soap-
stone whorls of both pear and low ring shapes have dot-circle and scar-incising
(fig. 11h-j).
Whorls of soapstone, bone, and shell similar to those just described were found
in the Epigone period at Pachacamac by Uhle. The pottery whorls occurring
there in the same period are not only ornamented but are of a different shape
from those at Nieveria.25

24 For the analysis of the spindle whorls we are indebted to Professor George
F. Louderback, Department of Geological Sciences, University of California.
25 Pachacamac, p. 34, figs. 38-48.


1927]








326 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 21


CONCLUSIONS

RELATION OF POTTERY STYLES AT NIEVERIA
The present collection of pottery from Nieveria represents two
styles of ware. One is a local type characteristic of the valley of
Lima; it is called Proto-Lima style and is characterized by four intra-
stylistic strains designated in this paper as A, B, C, and D. The
other is a pottery of local manufacture reflecting influences from
three extraneous coast styles, namely, Epigonal styles at Pachacamac
in the neighboring Lurin valley, plastic Proto-Chimu style from the
north, and Nazca Y style from the south.
Available source data make possible a primary segregation between
vessels from graves, which are of Proto-Lima and Epigonal styles only,
and those of non-grave source, which show Proto-Chimu and Nazca Y
styles as well. Lacking further information a determination of the
temporal relations of the styles is not readily nor reliably definable.
In the absence of extraneous proof we offer this tentative stylistic
sequence (reading upward):

Strain D fine ware
Epigonaloid strain B f
(Later) Proto-Lima S n B Epigonal A and B
Strain B
SStrain A poor ware
(Earlier) Nazca Y-Proto-Chimu influences

This arrangement is supported by the following facts. There is no
evidence of temporal independence among the four trends in Proto-
Lima style. A, B, and D have characteristic shapes and designs, yet
constitute the general Proto-Lima style by virtue of those features
which they have in common; namely, color of paste, color of back-
ground, three-four color scheme, and arrangement of design areas.
There is, as well, an overlapping of the characteristic attributes of
the trends. Strain C is itself a unifying element in Proto-Lima style
because of its occurrence with Strains A, B, and D.
The rare occurrence of strains A and D in the same grave does not
signify a time difference between modes. That graves at one site yield
objects of the same genre but of different quality, suggests that such
graves represent burial offerings of two economically varying social
strata rather than two disparate stylistic periods.










Gayton: The Uhle Collections from Nieveria


In discussing Proto-Lima style attention was called to its analogies
with the interlocking style at Chancay. Similarities as represented by
the present collection are found in textile and interlocking designs of
strain C, which occur on all Proto-Lima forms. Vessel shapes common
to Lima and Chancay which Uhle mentions in his discussion of
stylistic relations between the two localities26 are lacking in the
present collection.
The occurrence of Epigonal influenced ware in the graves with
strain B together with the fact that it is a marked ingredient of many
strain B vessels places the Proto-Lima period in the valley of Lima as
about contemporaneous with the Epigonal period at Pachacamac in
the neighboring Lurin valley. This brings us to the much discussed
problem of the priority of Epigonal styles to that of Tiahuanaco.
The nature of the Epigonal elements in the ware from Nieveria offers
no determinative evidence. Nieveria Epigonal is neither immediately
aberrant Tiahuanacan as in Middle Ancon II27 nor decadent Epigonal
as in Early Ica I ;2 it is self-contained yet displays palpable Tiahu-
anacan resemblances.
The priority at Nieveria of Chimu and Nazca influenced styles to
Proto-Lima is postulated entirely upon the relation of all three styles
to the style of Tiahuanaco. At Nieveria Epigonal ware is not only
of the same grave provenience as Proto-Lima but is an ingredient of
strain B. Hence, Proto-Lima cannot be far removed from a period
of Tiahuanacan style regardless of whether Epigonal style is a pre-
or post-Tiahuanacan development. Local styles of Chimu and Nazca
are believed to have reached their apogee previous to the invasion of
Tiahuanacan culture into the coast region. Such of their elements as
reached the valley of Lima probably became an integral part of the
prevailing style at that locality in pre-Tiahuanacan times. It is not
fanciful to regard plastic strain D of Proto-Lima as a local interpre-
tation of earlier Proto-Chimu influences.
26 Uhle, Friihkulturen, pp. 359-371.
27 This volume, pp. 135-190, pls. 41-49, 11 figs. in text.
25 This volume, pp. 95-133, p1s. 25-40, 17 figs. in text.


1927]










328 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 21




STYLISTIC IDENTIFICATION OF MATERIAL ILLUSTRATED BY
D'HARCOURT29


Plate Number
II 1
2
3
4
5
6

III 1
2
3
4
5
6
7

IV 1
2
3
4
5
6
7


Style
A
Naz. Y Infl.
Epig. A
D
Epig. A
Epig. B

D (C)
B
D (C)
B?
B ? (C)
D
D

B (D)
A
B
D
Epig. A
Epig. A? (B?)
D (B)


Plate Number
V 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
VI 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
VII 1
2
3
4
5
6
7


Style
D (C)
D
D (C)
D
D
D
D (B)
B (D)
Nazcoid ?
B
B

B?
BT
B (D)
D (C, B)
Naz. Y Infl.
D (C, B)
D (Naz. Y Infl.?)
B (Epig. A?)
D (C, B)
Chim. Infl. (B)


29 d'Hareourt, Raoul, La C6ramique de Cajamarquilla-Niveria, Jour. Soc.
Am. Paris, n.s., xiv, pls. 2-7, 1922.









Gayton: The Uhle Collections from Nieveria


EXPLANATION OF PLATES AND CATALOGUE NUMBERS OF
SPECIMENS ILLUSTRATED

Grave number appears in parentheses.

Plate 91. Various styles: a, 4-9276, strain B; b, 4-9187 (11), Epigonal A;
c, 4-9260, strain C; d, 4-9265, Epigonal B; e, 4-9197 (6), strain A; f, 4-9169 (3),
strain D.
Plate 92. Various styles: a, 4-9236, b, 4-9234, Chimu influenced; c, 4-9272,
d, 4-9269, Nazea Y influenced; e, 4-9312, f, 4-9311, strain A.
Plate 93. Proto-Lima strains, A, B, C: a, 4-9213 (22), b, 4-9173 (4), c,
4-9231 (33), d, 4-9219 (27), e, 4-9167 (2), f, 4-9299, i, 4-9252, strain A; g,
4-9208 (18), j, 4-9271 k, 4--9309, 1, 4-9304, strain B; I, 4-9232 (34), strain C.
Plate 94. Proto-Lima strain B, Epigonal A: a, 4-9278, I, 4-9217, c, 4-9279,
e, 4-9277, f, 4-9247, g, 4-9305, h, 4-9249, i, 4-9285, j, 4-9181, k, 4-9251, 1, 4-9281,
strain B; d, 4-9190, Epigonal A.
Plate 95. Various styles: a, 4-9254, c, 4-9175, i, 4-9166, strain C; b, 4-9308,
d, 4-9250, strain B; e, 4-9283, Epigonal B; f, 4-9246, Nazca Y influenced; g,
4-9238, h, 4-9237, k, 4-9242, 1, 4-9243, m, 4-9241, Chimu influenced; j, 4-9170.
Epigonal A.
Plate 96. Various styles: a, 4-9197 (12), e, 4-9164 (1), k, 4-9172 (3), strain
A; b, 4-9207 (17), miscellaneous; c, 4-9245, Chimu influenced; d, 4-9209 (19),
f, 4-9171 (3), g, 4-9291, h, 4-9244, i, 4-9248, 1, 4-9273, strain B; j, 4-9303,
Nazea Y influenced.
Plate 97. Nieveria styles of pottery from Pachacamac; University Museum,
Philadelphia: a, b, 26753 (1188), Nazca Y Chimu influenced; c, 26769 (998), (d,
26754 (808), e, 26765 (803), f, 26762 (957), strain B.
Figure 2. Wooden objects: a, 4-9322; b, 4-9320; c, 4-9319; d, 4-9318; e,
4-9223; f, 4-9316; g, 4-9315; h, 4-9314.
Figure 3. Cradle: 4-9326.
Figure 4. Bone implements: a, 4-9328; b, 4-9329; c, 4-9327; d, 4-9330;
e, 4-9331.
Figure 5. Shell ornaments: a, 4-9334a; b, 4-9334d; c, 4-9334b; d, 4-9334e;
e, 4-9334b; f, 4-9337a; g, 4-9337c; h, 4-9337d.
Figure 6. Amulets: a, b, 4-9336a; c, d, 4-9336b; e, 49336c.
Figure 7. Earplugs: a, 4-9343; b, 4-9347; c, 4-9345; d, 4-9335.
Figure 8. Knitted cap: 4-9350a.
Figure 9. Knitted fabric: 4-9350e.
Figure 10. Detail of fabric edges: a, 4-9350c; 0, c, 4-9350d.
Figure 11. Spindle whorls: 4-9342.


1927]







UNIV. CALIF. PUBL. AM. ARCH. & ETHN. VOL. 21


L/o*U Ai


PROTO-LIMA A, B, C, D; EPIGONAL A, B, WARES


[GAYTONJ PLATE 91

eo* A














UNIV. CALIF. PUBL. AM. ARCH. & ETHN. VOL. 21


PRO'(O-LIMA A; NAZCA Y, CHIMU INFLUENCED, WARES


[GAYTON] PLATE 92














UNIV. CALIF. PUBL. AM. ARCH. & ETHN. VOL. 21


PROTO-LIMA A. B, C, WARES


[GAYTON] PLATE 93












UNIV. CALIF. PUBL. AM. ARCH. & ETHN. VOL. 21


N 4


K


PROTO-LIMA 1; EP1GONAL A WA4RES


[GAYTON] PLATE 94






UNIV. CALIF. PUBL. AM. ARCH. & ETHN. VOL. 21


iP I
PROTO-LIMA B; EPIGONAL, NAZCA Y, CHIMU INFLUENCED, WARES


[GAYTONI PLATE 95





UNIV. CALIF. PUBL. AM. ARCH. & ETHN. VOL. 21 [GAYTON] PLATE 96





* f

U fif






PROTO-LIMA A, B NAZCA Y, CHIU INFLUENCED, ES

PROTO-LIMA A, B; NAZCA Y, CHIMU INFLUENCED, WARES














UNIV. CALIF. PUBL. AM. ARCH. & ETHN. VOL. 21


NIEVERIA STYLES OF POTTERY FROM PACHACAMAC
UNIVERSITY MUSEUM, PHILADELPHIA


[GAYTONJ PLATE 97







v / I



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS-(Continued)
VoL 12. 1. Composition of California Shellmounds, by Edward Winslow Gifford. Pp.
1-29. February, 1916 ....... ........... ..___....__... 30
2. California Place Names of Indian Origin, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 31-69.
June, 1916 .. ............. ... ...-... ............. ... .. .. .40
3. Arapaho Dialects, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 71-138. June, 1916 .............- .70
4. Miwok Moieties, by Edward Winslow Gifford. Pp. 139-194. June, 1916_ .55
5. On Plotting the Inflections of the Voice, by Cornelius B. Bradley. PI 195-
218, plates 1-5. October, 1916 .-.................-..........--........................ -.
6. Tltbatulabal and Kawaiisu Kinship Terms, by Edward Winslow Gifford.
Pp. 219-248. February, 1917 .... ..........-... .. _........................_... .30
7. Bandelier's Contribution to the Study of Ancient Mexican Social Organiza-
tion, by T. T. Waterman. Pp. 249-282. February, 1917 ....................... .35
8. Miwok Myths, by Edward Winslow Gifford. Pp. 283-338, plate 6. May,
1917 ............................ ......... ........ .55
9. California Kinship Systems, A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 339-396. May, 1917 ...... .60
10. Ceremonies of the Pomo Indians, by S. A. Barrett. Pp. 397-441, 8 text
figures. July, 1917 .......... ........................... .......... ......... ............ ..... ...._ .4
11. Pomo Bear Doctors, by S. A. Barrett. Pp. 443-465, plate 7. July, 1917...... .25
Index, pp. 467-473.
VoL 13. 1. The Position of Yana in the Hokan Stock, by B. Sapir. Pp. 1-34. July,
1917 ..........-. ...........-..... ................ ... ...........----.....---........ ...... 35
2. The Yana Indians, by T. T. Waterman. Pp. 35-102, plates 1-20. February,
1918 ...-.. ........................................................ ....... .......-.. ................ .75
3. Yahi Archery, by Saxton T. Pope. Pp. 103-152, plates 21-37. March, 1918 .75
4. Yana Terms of Relationship, by Edward Sapir. Pp. 153-173. March, 1918 .25
5. The Medical History of Ishi, by Saxton T. Pope. Pp. 175-213, plates 38-44,
8 figures in text. May, 1920 -. ---.. ... .45
6. The Fundamental Elements of Northern Yana, by Edward Sapir. Pp. 215-
234. April, 1922 ............................. .... ......................................- ..................- .30
7. Functional Families of the Patwin, by W. C. McKern. Pp. 235-258. April,
1922 ..........- ....... .. .... ....... ..... ...........--.................. .35
8. Elements of Culture in Native California, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 259-328,
with 4 maps. November, 1922 ............-............... ...._.................................. 1.00
9. A Study of Bows and Arrows, by Saxton T. Pope. Pp. 329-414, plates 45-
64. August, 1923 .......... ................................ ....... ........... ................ 1.75
Index, pp. 415-420.
Vol. 14. 1. The Language of the Salinan Indians, by J. Alden Mason. Pp. 1-154.
January, 1918 ..................... ... .................. ... .. ................ 1.75
2. Clans and Moieties in Southern California, by Edward Winslow Gifford.
Pp. 155-219, 1 figure in text. March, 1918 ---...................................... .75
3. Ethnogeography and Archaeology of the Wiyot Territory, by Llewellyn L.
Loud. Pp. 221-436, plates 1-21, 15 text figures. December, 1918 ........... 2.50
4. The Wintun Hesi Ceremony, by S. A. Barrett. Pp. 437-488, plates 22-23,
3 figures in text. M arch, 1919 ................................. .......... .... .................... .7
5. The Genetic Relationship of the North American Indian Languages, by
Paul Radin. Pp. 489-502. May, 1919 ............ ......... .... .15
Index, pp. 503-506.
VoL 15. 1. Ifugao Law, by R. F. Barton. Pp. 1-186, plates 1-33. February, 1919 ....... 1.00
2. Nabaloi Songs, by 0. R. Moss and A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 187-206. May, 1919 .20
3. Nabaloi Law and Ritual, by C. E. Moss. Pp. 207-342, plates 34-37. October,
1920 ... ......................................................................... ........... .... ..................... 1.75
4. Kankanay Ceremonies, by 0. B. Moss. Pp. 343-384. October, 1920 .... .65
5. Ifugao Economics, by R. F. Barton. Pp. 385-446, plates 38-45. April, 1922 1.00
Index, pp. 447-453.
VoL 15. 1. Myths of the Southern Sierra Miwok, by S. A. Barrett. Pp. 1-28. March,
1919 .................................................................... ...... ... ... .................. .......... .80
2. The Matrilineal Complex, by Robert H. Lowie. Pp. 29-45. March, 1919... .15
3. The Linguistic Families of California, by Roland B. Dixon and A. L.
Kroeber. Pp. 47-118, map 1, 1 figure in text. September, 1919 ........ .75
4. Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico, by Leona Cope. Pp. 119-176,
with 3 maps. November, 1919 ........................................................................... .75
5. Yurok Geography, by T. T. Waterman. Pp. 177-314, plates 1-16, 1 text
figure, 34 maps. May, 1920 .. ................................... ............... .00
6. The Cahuilla Indians, by Lucile Hooper. Pp. $15-380. April, 1920 ...........- .75
7. The Autobiography of a Winnebago Indian, by Paul Radin. Pp. 381-473.
April, 1920 ......................................................---. .... ...................... 1.00
8. Yuman Tribes of the Lower Colorado, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 475-485.
August, 1920 ......... ... .5 a
Index, pp. 487-49L











UNIVERSITY OF CALI'ORNIA PUBLICATIONS-(Continued)
Vo. 17. 1. The Sources and Authenticity of the History of the Ancient Mexicans, by
Paul Radin. Pp. 1-160, :7 plates. June, 1920 ................ 1.75
L California Culture Provinces, by A. Y.. Rroeber. Pp. 151-169, 2 maps.
September, 1920 ....................... ___.
8. Winter and Bummer Dance Series in Zufli in 1918, by B~ia Clews Parsons
Pp. 171-216, 2 figure in text. August, 192 .7
4. Habitat of the Pitch Indians, a Wallaki Dividon, by Pliny Earle Goddar.
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5. Nabaloi Tales, by 0. R. Mes. Pp. 227-858. September, 1924 .. 1.7
6. The Stege Mounds at Richmond, California, by Llewellyn L. Loud. Pp.
355-372, plates 18, 19, 1 figure In text September, 1924 .......................
7. Archaic Culture Horizons in the Valley of Mexico, by A. L. Kroeber.
Pp. 373-408, plate 20, 182 figure In text. November, 1925 -..... ..45
Index in preparation.
Vol 18. 1. Californian Kinship Terminologies, by Edward Winslow Gifford. Pp, 1-285,
with 29 maps. December, 19?2 ... 4.00
SClear Lake Pomo Society, by Edward Winslow Gifford, Pp. 287-390.
March, 1926 ....................-....-........-......... ... ... ......... LS5
3. Miwok Cults, by Edward Winslow Gifford. Pp. 391-408. May, 1926.... ... .25
Index, pp. 409-411.
VoL 19. 1 Wappo Texts, First Seriee, by Paul Badin. Pp. 1-147. February, 1924.... 175
2. Pomo Folkways, by Edwin M. Loeb. Pp. 149-405, plates 1-3. September,
1926 ............... .. ........ ............... ... ....... 25
Index, pp. 407-409.
VoL 20. The Phoebe Apperson Hearst Memorial Volume. xvi + 389 pp, 2 plates,
22 figures In text. December, 1923 .. ...... ......... .00
VoL 21. 1. The Uhle Collections from Chincha, by A. Kroeber and William Duncan
Strong. Pp. 1-64, plates 1-24, 27 figures In text.
2. Explorations at Chincha, by Max UhIe. Pp. 55-94, 1 figure in text.
Nos. 1 and 2 in one, cover. September, 1924 .-....._. ................. 1.60
3. The Uhle Pottery Collections from Ica, by A. L. Eroeber and William
Duncan Strong; with Three Appendices by Max Uhle. Pp. 95-133, plates
25-40, 17 figures in text. December, 1924 ..................._____. .85
4. The Uhle Pottery Collections from Ancon, by William Duncan Strong.
Pp. 135-190, plate 41-49, 11 figures in text. September, 1925............... 90
5. The Uhle Pottery Collections from Moche, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 191-234,
plates 50-69, 5 figure in text.
6. The Uhle Pottery Collections from Supe, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 235-264,
plates 70-79.
Nos 5 and 6 In one cover. December, 1925.............................. .- 1.25.
7. The Uhle Pottery Collctions from Chancay, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 265-
304, plates 80-90, 26 figures in text. May, 1926......................... ............. .60
8. The Uhle Pottery Collections from Nieveria, by A. H. Gayton. Pp. 305-
329, pls. 91-97, 11 flgs. intext. February, 1927,-...._............................... .35
VoL 22. 1. Wyot Grammar and Texts, by Gladys A. Eeichard. Pp. 1-215, plate .
June, 1925 .................. .... .... .............. ..... ... ....... 2.75
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2. Historic Aboriginal Groups of the California Delta Region, by W. Egbert
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3. The Emeryville Shellmound (Final Report), by W. Egbert Schenck. Pp.
147-282, plates 35-54, 8 figures in text, 1 map. November, 1926......... 175
Vo. 24. 1. The Uhle Pottery C)llections from Nazca, by A. H. Gayton and A. L.
Kroeber. Pp. 1-46, plates 1-21, 12 figures in text. February, 1927.......... 60

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