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Group Title: Circular / Florida Cooperative Extension Service ; no. 643
Title: Raising a small flock of goats for meat and milk
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072566/00001
 Material Information
Title: Raising a small flock of goats for meat and milk selection, breeding practices and feeding the herd goat
Series Title: Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Physical Description: 13 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: McGowan, Claude H
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1985?
 Subjects
Subject: Goats   ( lcsh )
Goats -- Breeding   ( lcsh )
Goats -- Feeding and feeds   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Claude H. McGowan.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Circular (Florida Cooperative Extension Service) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072566
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 15119142

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Acknowledgement
        Acknowledgements
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Back Cover
        Back cover
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






Circular 643


FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY UN.IVE fLOIDA-

Raising a Small Flo i

Goats for Meat. QlndMilk

Selection, Breeding Practices
and Feeding the Herd Goat
Claude H. McGowan


Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
John T. Woeste, Dean
Lawrence Carter, Administrator, 1890 Program
























































Acknowledgements
This circular was adapted for use in Florida from TI-AS-17-80, a publication by Claude H.
McGowan, formerly Animal Husbandman, Cooperative Extension Program, Tuskeegee Institute,
presently Adjunct Assistant Professor and Extension Animal Science Specialist, Cooperative
Extension Program, Florida A & M University, Tallahassee.
Publication design and illustrations by Darrae Norling.
Appreciation is extended to Penney Condrey, a 4-H volunteer leader and long-time goat
farmer from Marion County for providing models for the artwork in this publication and for
input on Florida conditions which affect goat production.








TABLE OF CONTENTS

Selection and Breeding Practices

Page
Selection of Breeding Anim als ....... ........ ............ ................................ 4
A D o e s ................................................................... .............. 4
B H e rd S ire ............................................... ... .................................................. . . 4
Breed in g M a n a g em en t ...................................................................... 5
A, Signs of Heat or Estrus .................................... ............................ ....... 5
B A g e to Bre e d .......................................................................... 5
C G station Period ................................................................... ......... 5
Breeds of G oats ............................................................. ..... ...... .......... 6
Feeding the Herd Goat.................................... .............................. ........ 8
A Building a Feed Program ................................ ..................... ... ... ....... 8
B. Summer Feeding Program ............. .... .......................... 9
C W inter Feeding Program ..................................................... ........ ............. 10
D. Feeding the Dry Doe .................................... ............................. ....... 10
E Fe e d in g th e Bu ck ......................................................... ........................ 10
F Feeding the Yearling (One Year) ............................ ..... ............................... 11
G Fe e d in g th e K id s ................................................................... 11
H W meaning A ge ............................................................... ...... 12
I. Sa n ita tio n ..........................................................12







SELECTION AND BREEDING
If you already have a small flock of goats on your farm, or if you
plan to start one, you must consider certain factors if you want to
succeed in raising goats. Each goat in your herd should have qualities
for efficient production of meat and/or milk.
You need to learn what to look for in selecting breeding stock. If you
prefer one particular breed of goats, you should also know about
other breeds and how well they would do in your area.
If you are raising goats for milk, you should be concerned with the
milk producing potential of your does. If you are raising goats for
meat, you should be concerned with getting a high percentage kid
crop, and with the kids' ability to gain weight efficiently from the feeds
available. In either case, it is important to know the normal breeding
habits of goats.


-' .

*;






SELECTION OF BREEDING ANIMALS


Meat Type Goats and Dairy Type
Goats
Just as with cattle, there are dif-
ferences between meat and dairy type
goats. Different breeds of cattle have
been developed for meat and for milk:
the Hereford is a meat type and the
Holstein a dairy type.
Unlike cattle, goats in this country
have not been bred for meat long
enough for different breeds to be
developed, but there are body dif-
ferences to look for to see if a goat is
more a dairy or meat type.
A meat goat has shorter, thicker
bones in relation to its amount of flesh.
It looks smoother and less angular
than the dairy type. The udder and
teats may be smaller and higher but
should still be able to produce a lot of
milk, with the teats big enough to milk
by hand if needed.
A dairy type goat will look leaner,
with a longer neck and legs. Even
when well-fed, you can see the bones
under the skin more than in the meat
type. The udder and teats should be
large, but not loose and flabby.
Look for these things in choosing your
does and herd sire:


A. Does
1. Animals should be sleek and
alert, not fat and sluggish.
2. The head should have a lively
expression.
3. Smooth, silky-skinned neck.
4. Deep wide-sprung ribs, the last
rib curving back.
5. A gently sloping rump to support
a heavy udder.
6. The hocks should be sufficiently
straight to avoid brushing the
udder when the goat walks.
7. Strong clean bone in the front
legs.
8. A powerful jaw to match a big
appetite.
9. Hoofs should be natural; not long
and grown out, and the pasterns
should be strong.
10. Udder must show evidence of
having the capacity to produce
milk.
11. The udder should be pliable, not
hard or meaty.


B. Herd Sire
1. Should be easily
2. Should be fleshy,
frame.


managed.
with a large


Meat Type Goat


Milk Type Goat


"D








BREEDING MANAGEMENT


A. Signs of Heat (Estrus)
Does usually come in heat between
late August and early March, although
Nubian and part-Nubian does may
have a longer season, as long as July
through May. Does stay in heat 1 or 2
days, and if not bred, come back into
heat every 18 to 21 days until they are
bred and conceive or until the end of
the heat season.
Signs of heat are:
1. Unusual restlessness and
bleating.
2. Continuous twitching of the tail.
3. Decreased milk production.
4. Decreased appetite.
5. Redness and swelling around the
vulva.
6. Mucous discharge that wets the
hair around the tail and glistens
around the genital area.
7. Attempts to fight, molest and
annoy other goats.
8. Rubbing against other animals.
9. Mounting other animals or stand-
ing to be mounted.




B. Age to Breed
1. If the virgin does weighs 80 to 90
pounds, she may be bred as
early as 10 to 12 months of age.
2. If the doe is 15 to 18 months old,
she should be bred before she
weighs 80 to 90 pounds.
3. Do not breed smaller animals
even though they may be old
enough. They have kidding
problems and seldom gain their
full adult size when bred as
undersized yearlings.
4. If a doe is not big enough at the
earlier age and she has not been


sick, check the feeding and
management program.


C. Gestation Period
1. The gestation period is about 150
days or 5 months.
2. Does usually give birth to 2 kids,
but may have 3 or even 4 at one
kidding.
3. To aid in determining when your
does will kid, refer to the table
below. Take the day of the month
the doe was bred, and subtract
the number of days in the right
hand column to find the day she
is due to kid.
Month Bred Month Will Kid
January June: Minus 1 day
February July: Same day
March August: Minus 3 days
April September: Minus 3 days
May October: Minus 3 days
June November: Minus 3 days
July December: Minus 3 days
August January: Minus 3 days
September February: Minus 3 days
October March: Minus 1 day
November April: Minus 1 day
December May: Minus 1 day








BREEDS OF GOATS

Alpine
Multicolored coats with no standard
markings, face and legs may have
markings in clear white. Ears are erect
and they have a straight face.
The breed looks very smart; it is a
large rangy animal, very active, likes
extensive grazing or long walks. Needs
a great deal of roughage to do its best.





American La Mancha
This breed is of any color or com-
bination of colors. The hair is short,
fine, and glossy, and can be white,
black, grey, reddish or brown. Their
ears may be very short, called the elf
ear, or they may appear to have no
ears at all. this is called a gopher ear.
The parts of the ear inside the head
are normal and they hear perfectly
well. The gopher ear must be kept
clean to prevent inner ear infections.


Nubian
May be any color or colors, solid or
patterned. Black, grey, cream, white,
shades of tan, brown and rich reddish
brown are common. Markings may in-
clude lighter ears, stripes on the face
and light or dark spots or patches of
any size on the body. They have long
drooping ears, a Roman nose, almond
eyes and a prominent forehead.
The breed is well suited to free range
goat farming on any farmable land.
It is a large but timid animal, and is
easily restrained.


~L---- '"t ~;+r~3~i~ZS;r










.Saanen
The color is pure white or creamy
white. The cream color may vary from
light to dark fawn. Straight nose and
erect ears. Probably the highest milkers
of all breeds. the Saanen is best suited
to goat farming on improved lands.
Adult goats may weigh up to 220
pounds.





Toggenburg
lLight fawn to dark chocolate, with
two white stripes on the face, white on
j the lower legs and the rump. They
have a straight or dished nose, and
-erect ears. Their sturdy legs, high-
geared temperament and big food
capacity suit the breed for free range
on rough grazing.
1 ^,.^ Affectionate small goat about 110
pounds adult weight.









Other Goats
In addition to the breeds described above, there are many goats in Florida that
are called "woods goats" or "scrub goats." These have usually been kept for
meat production. They will cost less to buy than purebreds, and can survive on
very poor, brushy land, but be careful: Like the old-fashioned "range cattle" they
may be too lanky and bony for good meat production and often do not have a
good enough udder to produce much milk. Always judge a goat by deciding if
its characteristics suit your breeding and production plans.








FEEDING THE HERD GOAT


Many people still believe that goats
will eat and do well on anything from
newspapers to rusty tin cans. This is not
true. Like other animals when they are
hungry or not getting the right vitamins
and minerals, goats will chew on
almost anything, but they need and
like good quality hay and grains. If
you give them the right feeds, you can
make a profit raising goats. Improved
pastures and top quality hay should
provide the basic forage diet. Grains
such as corn, oats and barley, plus a
protein source such as soybean meal,
minerals and vitamins should provide
the nutrients needed for good body
condition and milk production. Also,
goats are natural browsers and like to
eat weeds and grasses, leaves on trees
and bushes, and fruit and vegetable
scraps.


A. Building a Feed Program
A planned feed program should be
simple because a variety of forages
give a more naturally complete diet
than relying heavily on grains. A
balanced feed program should con-
tain a mixture of hay and grains.
Points to consider in a balanced feed
program are:
1. Goats are natural browsers and
weed eaters.
2. Goats should be fed quality hay,
pasture grass, and a balanced
grain mixture.
3. A balanced feed program will
result in thriftier animals, that
reproduce better and produce
more milk. Good forages and
grains should provide the basis
for any feeding program.



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L w ,


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Mr

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4. Browse, weeds, parings from fruit
and vegetables and table scraps
should be considered as "extra"
foods.


B. Summer Feeding Program
The summer feeding program should
be the following:
1. Pasture fields that have clover,
bahia grass, and bermuda grass
should make excellent food
sources for all goats.
2. Provide extra hay during the
pasture season in a hay rack in
the pasture. The rack should not
be filled with hay where it can
become weather beaten, soiled
or soggy, nor should it be
allowed to stand empty. On good
pasture, little hay is eaten.
3. Do not rely on brushy areas and
weeds as a sole source of food.
4. A salt lick and water must be
available at all times. Place the
water and salt block near a
shaded area. If natural shade is
not available, build a sun shade.
5. Pasture, hay, weeds, and browse
should be supplemented with
grains. A coarse grain mix should
be selected if you did not grow
any grain. Rolled or crimped
grains are better choices than
ground grains.
6. The protein level in the grain
should vary with the quality and
type of forage. With grass or
mixed grass and legume pastures
or hays, a 14 to 16 percent pro-
tein level is desirable. A heavy
milking doe will need a higher
protein level, 16 to 18 percent.
7. The amount of grain to feed is
determined by the amount of
pasture or hay eaten. Goats full
feeding of good pasture and hay


should not need more than one
to two pounds of grain per day. If
the forage is poor and the goats
are not eating much of it, you
must feed more grain.
8. Let the amount of flesh on the
does be your guide to increasing
or decreasing grain.
9. If they are getting fat, it's a sign
too much energy is being eaten.
If they are thin, it is a sign that
too little energy is being eaten.
10. Make feeding adjustments with
grain. Always feed all the forage
the goat will eat. Feed grain
once a day.
11. Extra forage may be available
such as lettuce, cabbage, turnips
and grass clippings. These may
be cut and fed if the garden or
lawn has not been sprayed with
insect killer. Do not feed wilted or
moldy forage. It can kill a goat
very quickly.








12. Feed all your goats free-choice a
mineral mix and trace mineral
salt. Feed them in a double com-
partment box with a rain shield
over it. Do not mix salt and
minerals together. Salt, being
quite tasty, may encourage the
animals to eat greater amounts
of the mineral mix than is
desirable or needed.

C. Winter Feeding Program
1. Hay feeding is important during
the winter months. The amount of
hay eaten will depend on how
good it is and the manner in
which it is fed.
2. A goat will eat about 3 pounds
of hay per day for every 100
pounds of body weight.
3. A hay rack, or some means of
keeping the hay off the manure
pack is desirable. Wasted hay is
expensive bedding and goats
will not eat soiled hay. Also the
danger of picking up parasites is
increased.
4. Grain feeding in winter reflects
on the forage program.
5. Therefore, it is essential that


winter pastures (legume + grass
mixture) be planted to supple-
ment the grain and hay to be
fed.

D. Feeding the Dry Doe
1. Dry does must be fed all the
forage they will eat.
2. Reduce grain to a minimum, in-
crease the forage, feed corase
hay, and provide extra browse.
3. On good pasture, feed the doe
1/2 to 1 pound of grain per day,
4. About a month before kidding,
start increasing the amount of
grain fed each day about 1 to 2
pounds.
5. About 2 weeks before kidding,
change to feeding forages of the
type the doe prefers.
6. The doe should gain a little
weight, but not get fat during the
dry period. Watch the appetite
closely to avoid overfeeding.

E. Feeding the Buck
1. If the forage is the same as the
does' then feed the same grain
mix.
2. The buck seldom needs as much








grain as the doe. Feed him 1
pound of grain per day. If the
animal is thin, feed 2 pounds of
grain per day.
3. Never allow the buck to get too
fat or breeding performances
suffer.
4. Feed plenty of good quality hay.
With poor quality hay, it may be
necessary to feed grain to get
supplemental vitamins and pro-
tein in the animal.

F. Feeding the Yearling
(One Year)
1. Young growing animals require
more protein than mature
animals. However, after six
months of age, the same grain
may be fed to all ages of
animals, providing a similar
quality and type of forage are
available to all.
2. Limit grain to the amount that
keeps the animals growing, but
does not allow them to get fat.
3. Feed lots of good hay and 1/2
pound of grain per day.
4. If only poor hay is available,
feed 1 to 11/2 pounds of grain
per day.

G. Feeding the Kids
1. The first rule of thumb in feeding
a kid is to get 2 to 4 ounces of
colostrum (first milk) into the kid
as quickly as it will nurse. This
can be done in two ways.
(a) Allow it to nurse for 1 to 3
days then teach it to drink
from a pan or nipple bottle,
(b) Remove it from the doe soon
after birth and feed it from a
pan or nipple bottle.
2. Always wash the udder and teats
before the kid nurses,
3. It is easier to protect the kid from


scours or other infection if you
wash the doe's udder and teats
or you may fill nipple bottles with
the doe's milk and feed it to the
kid.
4. A heavy milking doe with a full,
hard udder should be protected
from the kid.
5. By 3 days of age the kid will
nearly raise the mother off the
ground with its butting as it
nurses.
6. Kids should be fed 4 ounces of
milk per feeding as often as
every 3 hours during the first 3
days of life. Then increase the
amount to 6 to 10 ounces per
feeding. The kids need to be fed
every 4 hours, day and night un-
til they are a week or 10 days
old. Never feed more than 16
ounces at a feeding. These fre-
quent, small feedings are impor-
tant to prevent scours.
7. The temperature of the milk
should be about 1000F.
8. After 10 days of age, the kids
should not need to be fed during
the night.
9. If you want to let the doe nurse
the kids herself, but still get some
milk from her for other uses, you








can pen the kids away from her
at night after they are a week
old and milk her in the morning
before you let the kids in with
her.

H. Weaning Age
1. The kid may be a better guide to
the right weaning time than you
or any textbook.
2. Many kids drink a small amount
of water, in addition to milk at
an early age. Kids, only a few
days old, may start licking and
nibbling leafy hdy.
3. In feeding kids, follow these
guidelines.
(a) Place some fine stemmed
leafy hay before them at
one or two weeks.
(b) At three or four weeks of
age, offer them a calf-starter,
perhaps out of your hand,
immediately following the
milk feeding. Also place
some in a pan.
(c) Do not place fresh water
before them for at least a
half-hour after milk feeding.
The urge to drink may lead
them to fill up on water
becoming so full they don't
want to lick at the hay or
grain.
(d) If the kids show interest in
eating both hay and grain,
try reducing the amount of
milk fed.
(e) As soon as the kid is eating
1/2 pound of grain per day
plus some hay, and is drink-
ing water from a bucket, you
can assume it is ready for
weaning. It is getting enough
energy from dry feeds to
keep the body gaining in
weight.


4. If the kids are nursing on the doe
instead of being bottle or pan
fed, you can make a creep
feeder for them to eat grain from.
Make the openings large enough
for their heads but too small for
them to crawl into. Make sure the
does can't reach into the creep
feeder.

I. Sanitation
1. Be particularly clean with all
feeding utensils. Wash them daily
before the next feeding.
2. Place grain in a pan to prevent
animal waste contaminating it.
Soiled grain will not be eaten
readily, if at all, and should not
be eaten because of parasite
problems.
3. Feed hay in racks, placed a little
higher than head level so the
animal has to reach for it. Do not
feed more than will be eaten in
an 8-hour period.
4. Give each animal its own
feeding area if possible.











rump -*j----- back -- Ishoulder blade

-- loin -'I- chine ---

1 withers
S rib I

hin i\ crop L


S "dewlap

Point of shoulder

--- heart girth

Sbrisket

Point of elbow
chest floor

barrel


PARTS OF A GOAT


(Courtesy of the National Nubian Club)


nnstril


ligament


hock


pastern


of udder


dewclaw






































































This publication was promulgated at a cost of $2,251.65, or 56 cents per copy, to provide Florida small-scale farmers
with information on economical goat production. 8-4M-85


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL
SCIENCES K. R. Tafertiller. director, In cooperalton with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this Infor-
mation to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and Is authorized to provide research, educe-
tional Information and other services only to Individuals and Institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or
national origin. Single copies of Extenson publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are available free to Florida
residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers Is available from
C. M. Hinton, Publicatons Distrbution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida. Galnewllle, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this
oublicatlon, editors should contact this address to determine availability.




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