• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Foreword
 Introduction
 List of localities
 List of species
 Hypothetical list
 Some general conclusions
 Reference
 Index
 Explanation of plates














Group Title: Proceedings of the Boston society of natural history, vol. 39, no. 8
Title: A list of birds recorded from the Bermudas
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072562/00001
 Material Information
Title: A list of birds recorded from the Bermudas
Series Title: Proceedings of the Boston society of natural history
Physical Description: 1 p. l., p. 279-382, pl. 43-45. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bradlee, Thomas S
Mowbray, Louis L. ( jt. au )
Publisher: Printed for the Society
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: 1931
 Subjects
Subject: Birds -- Bermuda Islands   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Bermuda
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Thomas S. Bradlee and Louis L. Mowbray, with additional notes comp. by Warren F. Eaton.
General Note: "Contributions from the Bermuda biological station for research. No. 164."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072562
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 11589540

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page 279
    Foreword
        Page 279
    Introduction
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
    List of localities
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
    List of species
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
    Hypothetical list
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
    Some general conclusions
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
    Reference
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
    Index
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
    Explanation of plates
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
Full Text











Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History.

VOL. 39, No. 8,

p. 279-382, pi. 43-45.











A LIST OF BIRDS RECORDED FROM THE BERMUDAS.







BY THOMAS S. BRADLEE AND Louis L. MOWBRAY, WITH ADDITIONAL NOTES
COMPILED BY WARREN F. EATON.



WITH THREE PLATES.



Contributions from the Bermuda Biological Station for Research. No. 164.










BOSTON:
PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY
FROM THE WILLIAM BREWSTER FUND.
DECEMBER, 1931.


















CONTENTS.
PAGE
Foreword...... .... ............................... ............. 279
Introduction. .................................... ................. 280
List of localities. ................... ................................... 283
List of species ............ .. .. ................... ... ............. 285
Hypothetical list ................... .................................. 361
Some general conclusions ............. ........................... 364
Literature cited ....................................................... 369
Index ........... ...... .................... ...... .............. 376

FOREWORD.
THIS list was completed by Mr. Bradlee, in cooperation with Mr.
Louis L. Mowbray, in April, 1914. It was nearly a dozen years later
when I had some correspondence with Colonel Bradlee with a view to
having the list brought down to date and published as one of the
Contributions from the Bermuda Biological Station-for Research, to
which he assented. Mr. Outram Bangs kindly consented to revise the
list, introducing in some instances more modern names than those of
the A. O. U. List of 1910. However, funds were not immediately
available for the publication, and the matter remained in abeyance
till late in 1929, when I learned that Mr. Warren F. Eaton, a member
of the Linnean Society of New York, who with friends had accumu-
lated in recent years considerable information about Bermuda birds,
was entertaining the idea of making a complete list of them, with a
view to publication. Shortly thereafter I had a conference with Mr.
Eaton, as a result of which it was arranged that the list should be
completed and prepared for publication with editorial assistance by
Mr. John T. Nichols, also a member of the Linnean Society.
It was at first not thought possible to' include the numerous ob-
servations by Mr. Mowbray made since 1914; but fortunately it has
been arranged that these observations, in addition to those cited in
the original list, shall be incorporated. The material furnished by each
of the three contributors is indicated by the letter 'B,' 'E,' or 'M'
appended to the matter for which each is responsible.
E. L. MARK.


















CONTENTS.
PAGE
Foreword...... .... ............................... ............. 279
Introduction. .................................... ................. 280
List of localities. ................... ................................... 283
List of species ............ .. .. ................... ... ............. 285
Hypothetical list ................... .................................. 361
Some general conclusions ............. ........................... 364
Literature cited ....................................................... 369
Index ........... ...... .................... ...... .............. 376

FOREWORD.
THIS list was completed by Mr. Bradlee, in cooperation with Mr.
Louis L. Mowbray, in April, 1914. It was nearly a dozen years later
when I had some correspondence with Colonel Bradlee with a view to
having the list brought down to date and published as one of the
Contributions from the Bermuda Biological Station-for Research, to
which he assented. Mr. Outram Bangs kindly consented to revise the
list, introducing in some instances more modern names than those of
the A. O. U. List of 1910. However, funds were not immediately
available for the publication, and the matter remained in abeyance
till late in 1929, when I learned that Mr. Warren F. Eaton, a member
of the Linnean Society of New York, who with friends had accumu-
lated in recent years considerable information about Bermuda birds,
was entertaining the idea of making a complete list of them, with a
view to publication. Shortly thereafter I had a conference with Mr.
Eaton, as a result of which it was arranged that the list should be
completed and prepared for publication with editorial assistance by
Mr. John T. Nichols, also a member of the Linnean Society.
It was at first not thought possible to' include the numerous ob-
servations by Mr. Mowbray made since 1914; but fortunately it has
been arranged that these observations, in addition to those cited in
the original list, shall be incorporated. The material furnished by each
of the three contributors is indicated by the letter 'B,' 'E,' or 'M'
appended to the matter for which each is responsible.
E. L. MARK.








280 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

INTRODUCTION.
The Bermudas lie between about 320 14' 30" and 320 28' N. latitude
and 640 38' 20" and 640 52' 40" W. longitude, and are about 580 miles
from the nearest point of land on the North American continent. The
islands, reefs and lagoons, forming one archipelago, cover an area of
upwards of 200 square miles, the greater part of which is under water.
The larger islands of the group are much alike, gently rolling hills
and dales, and on the shore in several places the sea has cut into the
limestone of the hills and made fine cliffs. The land was once covered
with large groves of cedars with an occasional palmetto, but the
cedars have been much cut off, and today by far the greater part of
the land is under cultivation, the fields being in many cases protected
from the high winds of winter by hedges of oleanders. The under-
growth on the hills is sagebrush, Lantana involucrata (Linn6), while
in the swamps and around the brackish ponds grow coarse grasses,
reeds, and sedges, and along the edges of the shallow lagoons there is
in many cases a thick growth of mangroves. These, with paw-paws,
a few palms, rubber and fiddle-wood trees, and various shrubs planted
in the gardens about the houses, comprise the greater part of the
vegetation of the islands.
There are no lakes, streams, or even wells of fresh water, the entire
water supply being collected in tanks into which the rain water runs
from the whitewashed roofs of the houses. The climate during the
winter months, in spite of occasional gales, is charming, the thermom-
eter ranging from 500 F. to 700 F., while in summer it rarely goes
above 850 F.
The birds of the Bermudas have been studied by a number of
ornithologists, mostly Englishmen who have been stationed in the
Islands at various times in civil or military capacities.
Among these, Major Wedderburn was in Bermuda from 1840 to
1842. His notes were first published in 1850 by Sir William Jardine
in the latter's Contributions to Ornithology. Wedderburn also wrote
Notes and Observations on Birds of the Bermudas, included
by Mr. John Matthew Jones in his book entitled The Naturalist in
Bermuda published in 1859. In these notes are a few references to
the Rev. H. B. Tristram's collection of bird skins, and many obser-
vations by his friend Mr. Hurdis. Mr. John L. Hurdis, a keen orni-
thologist, whose observations cover the years 1840 to 1855, contrib-
uted to this book Further Notes and Observations, etc. Hurdis'
valuable and most interesting records were afterwards published in










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


full in 1897 by his daughter, under the title, Rough Notes and Memor-
anda Relating to the Natural History of the Bermudas.
Lieutenant Reid, F. Z. S., was stationed in the Islands in 1874-1875,
and his notes, first published in Field in 1875, were printed in The
Zoologist for October and November, 1877. These, together with a
few additions by Lieutenant H. Denison, F. Z. S., were included as
The Birds of Bermuda in Bulletin 25 of the U. S. National Museum
in 1884. This list contains 186 species and is the fullest list of the
birds of the Bermudas that has yet been published.
My own studies include a careful review of all the literature on the
subject that I have been able to find, unfortunately very little, and
observations covering the winter months (November to May) for
the years 1897-1902 and 1907-1914. I have had placed at my disposal
the valuable notes of Mr. Louis L. Mowbray, Curator of the Bermuda
Natural History Museum, which cover the observations of several
years. The articles published in the Royal Gazette by Mr. H. B.
Small during the last few years are also valuable, being those of an
observer contemporaneous with myself.
At present (1914) only eleven species of land birds are resident in the
Islands, and five of these, the European House Sparrow, European
Goldfinch, American Quail, the Mockingbird, and probably the
Crow, have been introduced within recent years. Attempts have
also been made to introduce the Ring-necked Pheasant, but with
little success. Thus the indigenous species of land birds of the Ber-
mudas number only six. They are the Bermuda Ground Dove,
Bermuda White-eyed Vireo, Cardinal, Catbird, Bluebird, and Florida
Gallinule. Now only two species of sea birds breed in the Islands:
Audubon's Shearwater and the Yellow-billed Tropic Bird. Previous
to 1850 both the Common and Roseate Terns annually visited the
Bermudas and bred there in considerable numbers. Four species, the
Great Blue Heron, Belted Kingfisher, Water Thrush, and Black-and-
white Warbler are always present during the winter months, the first
two in considerable numbers.
While a few of the Snipes and Sandpipers seldom fail to appear
during the autumn migration (probably due to the fact that their
line of migration is direct from the northeastern coasts of the American
continent to the West Indies and South America), the greater part
of the recorded species are irregular in their visits, which are generally
due to stress of weather.
One would think that sea birds would be numerous, yet, as Mr.









282 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

Hurdis says (Reid 1884, p. 268), 'There is no part of the world, per-
haps, whose shores are so little frequented by gulls and other sea
birds, as those of the islands of Bermuda.'
A good many ducks visit Bermuda, especially on their southward
migration, and in this connection it is interesting to note that many
have been taken alive, showing that even these strong fliers often
arrive in an exhausted condition after their long flight.-B.
Mr. Eaton wishes to thank Colonel Bradlee and Mr. Mowbray for
the opportunity of appending to their original list and later additions
his own observations and conclusions and the observations turned over
to him by others, and also to thank Mr. John T. Nichols for his co6per-
ation and for frequent advice. Dr. Harry C. Oberholser, of the U. S.
Biological Survey, kindly read a great part of the material and supplied
all information at his command. Dr. William Beebe, head of the Ber-
muda Oceanographic Expedition, turned over his notes on 61 species
observed at Nonsuch Island from March 16 to October 21, 1929, and
May 15 to October 28, 1930, inclusive, and in the summer months of
1931. Dr. John B. May, Mr. Henry W. Abbot, and Mr. Richard
Hinchman, of Massachusetts, have kindly loaned to me the notes at
their command. Nine members of the Linnean Society of New York
were especially helpful by contributing abundant material secured in
their recent visits to the Islands. They include Mr. J. T. Nichols, Dr.
E. R. P. Janvrin, Messrs. John H. Baker, Clifford Pangburn, John F.
Kieran, Laidlaw Williams, and Julius M. Johnson, who, in addition to
myself, made comparatively short trips to Bermuda. Mrs. G. G. Fry,
and Mr. Charles Johnston, also of the Linnsean Society, visited the
locality for longer periods; the former listed 33 species between
November 27, 1926, and March 1, 1927, and the latter some thirty
species between October 27 and November 23, 1929. Mr. L. L.
Mowbray and Dr. George Rankin, of St. George, Bermuda, mentioned
verbally certain notes which have been included in the published
material, in addition to those which Mr. Mowbray contributed to
the original list. I had an opportunity to inspect the specimens in
the collection of the Bermuda Natural History Society in 1928 and a
glimpse of a few minutes duration at the mounted birds at the Crystal
Caves. The latter were said to have been collected locally, but their
origin is unknown to me. Any discrepancies which may exist can be
traced to the distances separating the collaborators rather than to
carelessness, as every effort has been made to trace down any detail,
however small, which seemed of moment. Our object has been











'BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


throughout to group all the material and sources in one paper, in the
hope that further investigation will be stimulated among those who
are fortunate enough to spend time in these bewitching 'summer
islands.'-E.
LIST OF LOCALITIES.1
Admiralty House. .............................18' 00" X 47' 50"
Agar's Island ................ ...............17' 15" X 48' 02"
Angel Cove .................................. 18' 55" X 42' 15"
Argus Bank ......................... 31 57' 00" X 65 35' 30"
Bailey's Bay ...................................20' 32" X 42' 52"
Basden's Pond (Probably in Warwick)
Belmont Manor ...............................16' 10" X 47' 25"
Black Rock (See Gurnet Rock)
Blue Hole ..................................... 20' 40" X 42' 05"
Boaz Island ......... ........................18' 10" X 50' 40"
Boss' Cove ................................... 17' 45" X 48' 05"
Brackish Pond (Devonshire Marsh)
Burchall's Pond (cove) .......................... 19' 47" X 43' 52"
Butterfield's Pond (See Pembroke Marsh)
Castle Island ................................ 20' 02" X 39' 50"

Coney Island. .....21' 05" X 42' 25"
Coney Island .................................. 21' 05" X 42' 25"
Cooper's Island ................................20' 40" X 39' 00"
Coot Pond ....... ............. ............ 22' 55" X 40'08"
Crystal Caves.............. .....................20' 30" X 42' 00"
Daniel's Head. ................. .............. 17' 55" X 52' 20"
Devonshire Marsh ........................ 17' 50" X 45' 15"
Devonshire Swamp ........................... 15 X 41' 35"
East Whale Bay...............................14' 25" X 49' 00"
Elbow Beach ..................................15' 55" X 46' 05"
Evans' Pond. .............. .................15' 15" X 51' 30"
Eve's Pond ................................... 19' 18" X 43' 50"
Fairyland House ................. ............17' 32" X 47' 30"
Ferry Point. ................. ................ 21' 17" X 42' 27"
Ferry Reach .................. ................21'30" X 41'40"
Flatts, The .. .............. ................ 18' 55" X 43' 40"
Fort Catherine .................................23' 00" X 40' 00"
Fort Cunningham ............................ 22' 05" X 39' 00"
'The approximate latitude (which comes first) and longitude (which follows) of
localities are shown in minutes (') and seconds (") of arc; since in all but one case
the latitude is 320 and the longitude 640, these are not printed. In some cases (e. g.,
St. David's Id.) the extreme ends of the locality are given; but usually the approxi-
mate center of the locality. The accompanying maps (P1. 1-3) are based on one
which has been shown to be erroneous (Cole 1908, p. 55-56); to get actual latitude,
about 16" should be added to the latitude given.











284 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

Fort George................... ..............22' 25" X 40' 25"
Fort Victoria .................................. 22' 45" X 40' 00"
Government House ...... .................... 17' 50" X 46' 27"
Governor's Marsh 17'40" X 46'10"
Pembroke Marsh, east ............. ...17' 40" 46' 10"
Gibbet Island ............ ................. 18' 57" X 44' 07"
Gibbs' Hill .................................. 14' 46" X 39' 33"
Grace's Island.................. ..............21' 26" X 39' 50"
Great Sound. ................. .............17' 45" X 50' 15"
Gurnet Rock ...... .............. ..........19'53" X 39' 10"
Hamilton (city) .............................17' 15" X 46' 25"
Hamilton Harbor. .................. ........ 16' 50" X 47' 10"
Hamilton Parish....... ....... ........... {1 09' 00" X 41' 25"
H21' 00" X 44' 05"
Harrington House .......................... 19' 57" X 42' 00"
Harrington Sound ............. ...........19' 35" X 42' 45"
Hungry Bay. ................... ........... 16' 55" X 45'05"
Ireland Island..... ............. ...... 18' 20" X 49'25"
(19' 25" X 50' 30"
Longbird Island ...............................21' 30" X 41' 20"
Mangrove Bay................. ..............18'05" X 51'20"
Mangrove Pond (Lake) .................... ..19' 05" X 42' 00"
M organ's Estate................................15' 37" X 47' 15"
Morgan's Island ................... ...... 16' 50" X 52' 10"
Naval Tanks ................. ...............22' 38" X 39' 50"
Nonsuch Island ............................ 20' 25" X 39' 15"
North Rock .................. ................30' 15" X 45' 30"
Paget.......................................16' 35" X 46' 00"
Paget Marsh .................................. 16' 40" X 46' 04"
Paynter's Vale ....................... .....19' 50" X 41' 45"
Pearl Island ......................... ...... 17' 06" X 49' 43"
Pembroke Marsh ..... .........................17' 35" f46' 10"
47'30"
Pembroke Marsh, east. ........................ 17' 40" X 46' 10"
Pendle Hill....................................21' 46" X 41' 33"
Peniston's Pond (Spittal Pond)
Pitt's Bay .....................................17' 05" X 47' 10"
Point Shares ................................ 17' 15" X 47' 45"
Prospect ............. ........................ 17' 50" X 45' 30"
Prospect Camp.................... ...........17' 50" X 45' 30"
Prospect Hill.......... ..................17' 50" X 45' 30"
Riddle's Bay. .... ............. ... ......... .15' 20" X 49' 05"
Ruth's Bay................. .. ...........21' 15" X 38' 40"
St. David's Head. ................ ........... 21' 43" X 38' 15"
St. David's Island ................... 21' 40" X 38' 20"
S21' 50" X 40'10"
St. David's Light. .......... ................ 21' 25" X 38' 35"
St. David's Marsh. ................... ......... 21' 25" X 39' 40"












BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS. 285

St. George's City .. ............. ............ 22' 35" X 40' 05"
St. George's Harbor .......................... 22' 05" X 40' 10"
Sand Hills.................................. 15' 40" X 46' 40"
Seymour's Pond. ............................. 14' 45" X 50' 27"
Shelly Bay Marsh ........... 19'40" X 43'50"
Shelly Bay Pond J ...........
Sluice Gates.................. ...............17' 35" X 47' 30"
Smith's Marsh (Possibly Spittal Pond)
Smith Parish....... . . . . .. 17' 45" X 41' 20"
18' 55" X 44' 30"
Somerset Island ........................... 17' 20" X 51' 40"
Spanish Point .............................. 17' 55" X 48'30"
Spanish Pond (Probably Spittal Pond)
Spanish Rock ............... ............... 18' 14" X 42' 58"
Spittal Pond .......... ....... ...............18' 35" X 43'00"
Spaulding's Pond (Earlier name for Spurling'sPond). 22' 00" X 41' 10"
Spurling's Pond. ................. ............ 22' 00" X 41' 10"
Stocks Point ................... ............21' 52" X 40' 38"
Stokes' Point. ............................ 21' 55" X 40' 47"
Trott's Pond ... .... .... ..............19' 15" X 41' 40"
Trunk Island ................... ..............19' 35" X 43' 05"
Tucker's (Harry) Pond................ .................. ?
Tucker's Town...............................19' 35" X 41' 10"
Victoria Park. ..................................17' 20" X 36' 45"
Walsingham .............. ................20' 20" X 42' 00"
Warwick Camp ....... ....................15'00" X 48'20"
Warwick Church .............................. 15' 40" X 47' 50"
Warwick Parish ................... . 14' 52" X 46' 45"
(16' 25" X 49' 20"
Warwick Pond ................................15' 40" X 47' 55"
West Whale Bay ............................ 14' 57" X 51' 55"
W hite's M arsh .............. ............ ..............?
Wilson's Pond. ............. .............. ..... ?


LIST OF SPECIES.1
Colymbus auritus Linn&.
HORNED GREBE.
An occasional winter visitor.
Mr. Mowbray has taken one. Reid (1884, p. 277-278) gives the fol-
lowing records: 'One shot by Dr. Cole, on the 24th November 1846,
is now in the Rev. H. B. Tristram's collection. One was killed by
Capt. Tolcher, 56th Regiment, near Spanish Point, on the 1st Febru-

1 In case of doubt as to which subspecies occurs in Bermuda, the specific name
only is given. Trinomials are based upon the examination of skins.










286 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

ary 1855; it was in company with three or four others. Mr. Bartram
has two specimens of different dates.'-B.
Mr. Charles Johnston observed three on Mangrove Pond from
October 30 to November 2, 1929.
There is a specimen among the stuffed birds at the Crystal Caves.-
E.
Colymbus grisegena holboellii (Reinh.).
HOLBOELL'S GREBE.
A sight record on March 16, 1927, by Mrs. G. G. Fry constitutes
the only observation of this species.
Mrs. Fry writes me that it was seen, on the trip from St. George
to Ireland Island, from the army boat Louise. The bird was 'posed
in his peculiar and ungainly position on the iron ledge of a buoy off
the St. George's Coast.' The blackish top of head, the white throat,
cheeks and sides of head, and the long reddish-brown of the neck
graduating off into grayish white underparts indicated summer
plumage.-E.
Podilymbus podiceps podiceps (Linn6).
PIED-BILLED GREBE.
A regular winter visitor.
I have seen one or two pairs every winter in the quiet lagoons,
surrounded by mangroves, where they usually remain, unless dis-
turbed, until spring.
Mr. Mowbray has taken several specimens. Reid (1884, p. 278)
reports them as 'tolerably abundant in the winter of 1874-5, especially
at Trott's and Basden's Ponds.' Nearly all the specimens seen or
taken have been in immature plumage.-B.
Numerous specimens wintering here were seen in Castle Harbor,
Harrington Sound, and Spittal Pond.-M.
Mr. Richard Hinchman observed four on Warwick Pond, January
2 and 3, 1930, Mr. John F. Kieran found one there December 9-15,
1930, and Mr. John T. Nichols counted 15, an unusual number, on
Mangrove Lake, February 11, 1931.-E.

Gavia immer immer (Briinn.).
LOON.
The specimen in the collection of the Bermuda Museum was taken
at Flatts Inlet, in the winter of 1904 by a man named Simons and









BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


was purchased and mounted by Louis L. Mowbray. There are no
published records.-M.

Alle alle (Linn6).
DOVEKIE.
Accidental visitor.
Reid (1884, p. 278-279) reports under Mergulus alle:
'Mr. Hurdis says: "One of these birds was captured alive on the
28th of January, 1850, by a servant of the Rev. J. U. [=N.] Campbell,
at Ireland Island. It was in company with four or five others on a
piece of grassland near that gentleman's house. Unfortunately
this specimen was destroyed by a pig before I had an opportunity
of seeing it."'
Compare also Hurdis (1897, p. 151-153), who adds, under date of
February 12, 'Mr. Campbell says he has little doubt from Wilson's
description of the Little Auk that it was that bird.'-B.
On January 19, 1927, one was reported to Mrs. G. G. Fry.-E.

Stercorarius pomarinus (Temm.).
POMARINE JAEGER.
Accidental visitor.
The only record is one taken alive after a gale, on September 26,
1908, and skinned by Mr. Mowbray.-B.

Stercorarius parasiticus (Linn6).
PARASITIC JAEGER.
Mr. Charles Johnston saw one of this species about thirty miles
northwest of Bermuda on November 23, 1929. Under date of August
18, 1930, he writes:
'On Saturday, November 23, 1929, I sailed from Bermuda on the
Fort Victoria. During four weeks' stay I had been struck by the
absence of gulls, having seen only two immature herring gulls in the
entire time. I therefore kept a look out for gulls on the return journey.
Two hours out from St. George, I saw what at first appeared to be a
gull, directly ahead, coming toward the ship, skimming low over the
waves. As the distance diminished, I saw that it was not a gull, but
a parasitic jaeger, which appeared to be picking up food from the
waves. The bird, flying toward Bermuda, passed close to the ship,
so that, with a strong binocular, I had an excellent view of it. Finally
it dropped out of sight astern.'-E.









288 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

Stercorarius longicaudus Vieill.
LONG-TAILED JAEGER.
Adult birds with the elongated tail feathers of this species were
seen by Dr. William Beebe at Nonsuch Island, on May 8, 1929, and
September 11, 1930.-E.

Rissa tridactyla tridactyla (Linn4).
KITTIWAKE.
A regular winter visitor.
During and after the heavy westerly gales of winter, the Kittiwake
is probably seen more often than any other, gull. I have seen a few
nearly every winter. Reid (1884, p. 267-268) says: 'About a dozen
specimens came under my observation.' Mr. Mowbray took a female
February 16 and a male December 7, 1906.-B.
Two specimens were observed near Blue Hole, Castle Harbor,
January 22, 1931, by Mr. Louis L. Mowbray.-M.
On February 3, 1927, Mrs. G. G. Fry observed this species. There
are two specimens in the collection of the Bermuda Museum.-E.

Larus marinus Linn6.
GREAT BLACK-BACKED GULL.
An occasional visitor in the winter.
Mr. Mowbray has seen several, and Hurdis (1897, p. 244) mentions
an immature example of this gull, which was captured alive in the
Great Sound in December, 1851. Reid (1884, p. 265) adds: 'Mr.
Bartram has a fine specimen, also in immature plumage, shot by
himself near Stocks Point, on the 27th of December, 1862.'-B.
Mr. Louis L. Mowbray obtained two after the heavy gale of 1903,
in St. George's Harbor in February or March.-M.

Larus argentatus smithsonianus Coues.
AMERICAN HERRING GULL.
A frequent winter visitor.
These gulls are not at all regular in their visits, but sometimes
appear in great numbers, as in the autumn of 1875 and winter of 1903,
when there were hundreds in St. George's Harbor. Louis L. Mow-
bray.-B.
Fourteen specimens were seen in the Ferry Reach on January 21,
1931. There have been a number about the Bermudas since the
middle of December, 1930.










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


Four were seen off Shelly Bay and Harrington Sound on January
22, 1931. Mr. Louis SeptiBme Mowbray observed it on March 15,
1931, in Harrington Sound.-M.
It was recorded by Mrs. G. G. Fry as common from December to
March, 1927. Mr. Charles Johnston saw two immature birds in
Castle Harbor on November 11, 1929. It was also seen by Mr.
John F. Kieran on December 9-15, 1930.-E.

Larus delawarensis Ord.
RING-BILLED GULL.
Accidental visitor.
The only record is one killed by Wedderburn (Reid 1884, p. 266-267)
on January 1, 1849, during a northwesterly gale.-B.

Larus atricilla Linn&.
LAUGHING GULL.
Accidental visitor.
Reid (1884, p. 266-267) makes these statements: 'One seen, flying
close past him, by Major Wedderburn, at Ireland Island. Mr.
Hurdis records that one was taken alive by a fisherman in the winter
of 1851-52.'-B.
Two specimens were seen on the small rocky islands in Ferry
Reach on January 1, 1931.-M.

Larus philadelphia (Ord).
BONAPARTE'S GULL.
A frequent winter visitor.
Some years these birds appear in large numbers, as in the winter
of 1879 when a flock of almost one hundred was seen in St. George's
Harbor. According to Reid (1884, p. 267), Bartram obtained two
specimens in St. George's Harbor in January, 1876.-B.
Wedderburn (1859, p. 54), under the heading 'Bonaparte's Gull
(L. Bonapartii)', says:
'I noticed this little gull in the Great Sound, on the 23rd of January,
1849, and succeeded in shooting it on the 27th of January during a
strong northerly gale. I saw one on the 15th of December, 1849, and
another was killed by some one on the 24th of February, 1850, which
last I did not get till the 27th of the same month, then too far gone
for preservation.'
Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway (1884, 2, p. 265), possibly misled by










290 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

Wedderburn's calling it 'this little gull,' have quoted Wedderburn's
account under L. minutus, as follows:
'According to Major Wedderburn, this species is an occasional
winter visitant in Bermuda, occurring there only in midwinter. Major
Wedderburn procured a specimen on the 22nd [should be 27th] of
January, 1849, during a strong northerly gale, and another one was
killed in the following month [should have read: in February, 1850].'-
E.L.M.
Probably the records on the Little Gull by Forbush (1928-29, 1, p.
92): 'accidental in Bermuda,' and by Chapman (1925, p. 161): 'has
been taken also in Bermuda,' are based on the statement in Baird,
Brewer, and Ridgway.-E.

Xema sabini (J. Sabine).
SABINE'S GULL.
Accidental visitor.
Wedderburn (1859, p. 53) says: 'A single specimen was shot by
Colonel Drummond, near St. George's, but the date I do not recol-
lect.'-B.
Doubtless it was on this record that Saunders (1878, p. 210) based
his statement: 'This species has once occurred in Bermuda.'-E.L.M.

Gelochelidon nilotica aranea (Wilson).
AMERICAN GULL-BILLED TERN.
Accidental visitor.
Reid (1884, p. 268-269) says: 'One only has occurred, taken alive in
the Royal Engineer workshops at Boaz Island, on the 29th of April,
1875. This bird, which proved to be a female, lived only a short time.
It is now in Lieutenant Denison's collection.'-B.

Sterna hirundo hirundo Linnd.
COMMON TERN.
Formerly abundant summer resident, now a regular visitor in
small but increasing numbers.
Captain John Smith (1624; see also Lefroy, 1877-79, 1, p. 330-331,
and Arber, 1895, p. 629-630) says: 'But aboue all these, most deseruing
obseruation and respect are those two sorts of Birds, the one for the
tune of his voice, the other for the effect; called the Cahow, and the
Egge-Bird, [the latter of] which on the first of May, a day constantly
obserued, fall a laying infinite store of Egges neere as big as Hens,










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


vpon certain small sandie babies especially in Couper's Ile; and although
men sit down amongst them when hundreds haue been gathered in a
morning, yet there is hath stayed amongst them till they haue gathered
as many more: they continue this course until Midsummer, and so
tame and fearelesse, you must thrust them off from their Eggs with
your hand. Then they grow so faint with laying, they suffer them to
breed and take infinite numbers of their yong to eat, which are very
excellent meat. The Cahow is a bird of the night, .their
Eggs are as big as Hens, but they are speckled, the other white.'
The destruction of the Terns was so great that a law for their
protection was passed in 1622. I quote from Lefroy (1877-79, 1, p.
203-204): 'The Governour and other officers, shall take care for the
preservation of the breed of Birds, by reserving to them those Ilands
whereunto they resort.'
Wedderburn (1859, p. 53) says: 'I have seen a few of these terns
at Gurnet-Head Rock, but only succeeded in shooting a couple of
them near the entrance to St. George's harbour, on the 17th of June,
1848; the only specimens hitherto obtained. They breed along with
S. dougallii [sic], in Castle Harbour.'
Hurdis (1897, p. 66, 90) saw them frequenting the same localities
in 1848 and, under date of October 27, 1854 (1897, p. 295), says:
'Several of the Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) made their appear-
ance in Hamilton Harbour this morning. During a fourteen years'
residence in Hamilton this is the first and only time this bird has been
seen in its waters by myself, though I have reason to believe that,
during the gale of 22nd instant, a similar visitation occurred.'
Reid (1884, p. 269) says: 'They were sufficiently numerous in 1850;
but there is no record of their having bred since that date. Not a
single one was to be seen in 1874 or 1875.' In October, 1876, however,
he (1883, Appendix, p. 1) reports:
'During a severe N. W. gale in St. George's Harbour, there were
a great number of Terns of various species about. Mr. Bartram is
of the opinion that there must have been at least five different kinds
in the Harbour. He only obtained two, the present species [Hydro-
chelidon nigra = Black Tern] and Sterna fluviatilis (= S. hirundo),
the Common Tern, the reappearance of which after so many years is
interesting, but he killed and lost two large Terns, which may have
been S. caspia or S. regia.'
Mr. Mowbray took a male on September 6, 1899, and Bowditch
(1904, p. 555) says: 'Terns were seen three times off the north shore, in










292 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

each case a single individual, but not once was I near enough to make
a positive identification. They were in all probability S. hirundo.'
Mr. Mowbray reports them as more numerous of late years.-B.
Mrs. G. G. Fry recorded this species on December 23, 1926.-E.

Sterna dougalli dougalli Montag.
ROSEATE TERN.
Formerly abundant summer resident, now a rare visitor.
Reid (1884, p. 269-270) says: 'At one time it used to breed in con-
siderable numbers on Gurnet Head Rock,' but it is 'no longer found,
except, perhaps, as an autumn stragler, in the islands.'
Mr. Mowbray took a specimen, however, in 1905 at Cooper's
Island.-B.
Sterna antillarum antillarum (Less.).
LEAST TERN.
Breeding on some of the more inaccessible islands about Bermuda.
I first found birds of this species in 1928 and have since observed
them in 1929 and 1930. There are about 12 to 15 pairs; both eggs
and young were observed.-M.

Sterna fuscata fuscata LinnE.
SOOTY TERN.
A rare visitor.
Four specimens have been taken at various times. Wedderburn
(1859, p. 53) records two taken, one in 1846 and one in 1848.
Hurdis (1859, p. 91-92; 1897, p. 293) received one from John Darrell
on October 23, 1854, the day following 'a severe gale.' One was
caught and brought to Lieutenant Dennison (Reid 1884, p. 270-271)
September 19, 1875. There is no record in recent years.-B.
A fine male specimen of this species was brought to me by Pilot
Cassidy Fox in the winter of 1907. The bird fell on the deck of the
pilot boat after hitting the rigging.-M.
There is a bird of this species in the collection at the Crystal Caves.-
E.
Chlidonias nigra surinamensis (Gmel.).
BLACK TERN.
An accidental visitor.
According to Reid (1883, Appendix, p. 1) a specimen was obtained
by Mr. Bartram during a severe northwest gale in October, 1876. A










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


great number of terns of various species were seen at the same time
(Reid 1884, p. 271).-B.

Anoiis stolidus stolidus (Linn6).
NODDY.
An accidental visitor.
The only example recorded (Hurdis 1897, p. 295; Reid 1884, p.
271) was killed by Captain Tolcher of the 56th Regiment on September
12, 1854.-B.
Puffinus gravis (O'Reilly).
GREATER SHEARWATER.
An occasional visitor.
Three specimens have been obtained, two by Hurdis (1897, p.
218-219) on June 2, 1851, and one by Mr. Mowbray near the North
Rock in June, 1906.-B.

Puffinus lherminieri Iherminieri Less.
AUDUBON'S SHEARWATER.
Formerly abundant, now rare resident.
I found two pairs breeding on a small rocky island near Cooper's
Island in 1906, but only one pair in 1907, although several were
reported as seen. Mr. Mowbray found four nests in 1905. Reid
(1884, p. 274-277) reports two pairs in 1874, and says:
'Formerly it was plentiful, and even within the last fifteen years,
Mr. Bartram informs me, there were many nests in the isolated rocks,
both on the north and the south shores. On the north side the bird
was formerly called "Pemblyco" or "Pimlico," probably from its call-
note, while on the southern shores the name "Cahow" or "Cowhow"
was applied to it.'-B.
This species is breeding on the small rocky islands on the south
coast, January, 1931.-M.
Dr. E. R. P. Janvrin reports one being'seen from the steamer July
16, 1916, the day before landing on the island.
Mr. W. F. Eaton reports (1928) that, when questioning natives
about the 'Pimlico,' as they term this bird, they stated that it was
found at Bailey's Bay, also on the east shore of Harrington Sound
and on the islands of the southern end of Castle Harbor. One person
had not heard them for years, another had heard them at night the
preceding summer (1927) and Mr. Mowbray reported that they nest
in December, January, and February in holes in the rocks and are









294 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

driven away by the 'Long-tails,' which kill the young. He had found
them still present in December, 1927, about the islands of Castle
Harbor.
In view of the above information, the finding of the nest of this
species at the Bermudas on May 12, 1911, by P. R. Lowe (Bent 1922,
p. 74) under guidance of Mr. Mowbray, is surprisingly late.-E.

Puffinus puffinus (Brinn.).
MANX SHEARWATER.
There seem to be only three records of this species from Bermuda,
two definite and one doubtful, all breeding birds: the first, April,
1864 (Reid 1884, p. 274) as P. anglorum, the second (doubtful)
May 1, 1877 (Reid 1884, p. 276) as P. opisthomelas?, the third, March
10, 1905 (Nichols and Mowbray 1916, p. 195) as P. p. bermudae,
subsp. nov. Presumably very few individuals occur in Bermuda,
and these may be stragglers from those breeding in the Azores and
Madeira. As such Western Island birds are at present considered
identical with those in Iceland and the Faroes (a suspiciously wide
range of latitude for a bird of this group, to be sure) it would be out
of place to recognize a Bermuda form (bermudae) as distinct on the
basis of a single specimen and differences which are at best slight
(Cf. Dwight 1927, p. 243).
If bne may judge from Reid's discussion of these birds, he was a
competent ornithologist, perfectly familiar with both Manx and
Audubon's Shearwaters, the latter of which he also records from
Bermuda, synonymizing it with P. obscurus, as have many recent
ornithologists. There seems no chance of his having confused these
two shearwaters, as has sometimes been suggested. The 1877 speci-
men of P. puffinus? was not seen by him and in provisionally re-
ferring it to P. opisthomelas he says, 'To judge from the size of the
bird and its egg, I should myself be inclined to consider this specimen
a Manx Shearwater (P. anglorum.)'-J.T.N.

Puffinus griseus (Gmel.)
SOOTY SHEARWATER.
This species was apparently overlooked by Bradlee. Reid (1884, p.
273) reports, 'One specimen in Mr. Bartram's collection obtained by
himself.'-E.
I have seen this species on several occasions while fishing on Chal-
lenger or Argus Banks in the winter months of 1907 and 1908.-M.









BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


Pterodroma cahow (Nichols and Mowbray).
CAHOW.
It is doubtless this species which is referred to by Captain John
Smith (1624, quoted by Lefroy 1877-79, 1, p. 330-331) when he says:
'The Cahow is a bird of the night, for all the day she lies hid in
holes in the Rocks, where they and their young are also taken with
as much ease as may be, but in the night if you but whoop and hollow,
they will light vpon you, that with your hands you may chuse the
fat and league the leane; those they haue only in winter.'
And again William Strachey, writing July 15, 1610 (Lefroy 1877-79,
1, p. 35-36), says:
'A kinde of webbe-footed Fowle there is, of the bignesse of an
English greene Plouer, or Sea-Meawe, which all the Summer wee
saw not, and in the darkest nights of Nouember and December (for
in the night they only feed) they would come forth, but not flye
farre from home, and houering in the ayre, and ouer the Sea, made a
strange hollow and harsh howling. Their colour is inclining to Russet,
with white bellies, as are likewise the long Feathers of their wings
Russet and White, these gather themselves together and breed in
those Ilands which are high, and so farre alone into the Sea, that the
Wilde Hogges cannot swimme ouer them, and there in the ground
they haue their Burrowes, like Conyes in a Warren, and so brought in
the loose Mould, though not so deepe: which Birds with a light
bough in a darke night (as in our Lowbelling) wee caught. I haue
been at the taking of three hundred in an houre, and wee might haue
laden our Boates. Our men found a prettie way to take them, which
was by standing on the Rockes or Sands by the Sea side and hollowing,
laughing, and making the strangest out-cry that possibly they could:
with the noyse whereof the Birds would come flocking to that place,
and settle vpon the very armes and head of him that so cryed, and still
creepe neerer and neerer, answering the noyse themselves: by which
our men would weigh them with their hand, and which weighed
heauiest they tooke for the best and let the others alone, and so our
men would take twentie dozen in two hours of the chiefest of them;
and they were a goode and well relished Fowle, fat and full as a
Partridge. In January wee had great store of their Egges, which are
as great as an Hennes Egge, and so fashioned and white shelled, and
haue no difference in yolke nor white from an Hennes Egge. There
are thousands of these Birds, and two or three Ilands full of their
Burrowes, whether at any time (in two hours warning) wee could









296 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

send our Cock-boat, and bring home as many as would serue the
whole Company: which Birds for their blindnesse (for they see weakly
in the day) and for their cry and shooting, wee called the Sea Owle;
they will bite cruelly with their crooked Bills.'
So many of the Cahowes were destroyed that in 1616 the Governor,
Captain Daniel Tucker, had to issue 'a Proclamation against the
spoile of Cahowes, but it came too late for they were most destroyed
before.' (Lefroy 1877-79, 1, p. 137).-B.
The type specimen of this species was taken by Mr. Mowbray,
February 22, 1906, in a rock crevice on Castle Island and was recorded
by Bradlee (1906, p. 217) as Aestrelata gularis. This bird is described
by Nichols and Mowbray (1916, p. 194) as Aestrelata cahow, and is
linked to the supposedly extinct Cahow of history on the basis of the
partially fossilized skulls and other bones found in various caves in
the eastern end of the islands. Mr. Mowbray, in May, 1928, ex-
pressed to Mr. Eaton the opinion that careful field work at the proper
season of the year might yet reveal other specimens of this bird,
about which there has been so much confusion. For a comprehensive
account of the Cahow see Bent (1922, p. 112-117). See also, under
Dusky Shearwater in Reid (1884, p. 274-277).-E.

Oceanodroma leucorhoa leucorhoa (Vieil.).
LEACH'S PETREL.
Accidental visitor.
The only record is of an adult female picked up dead on May 1,
1881, on the south shore near Tucker's Town by Merriam (1884, p.
284), who says: 'The bird is common enough at sea a hundred or
two miles from the Bermudas, but I never saw one near the islands.'-
B.
Mr. Louis L. Mowbray has seen several of these birds at various
times. Two were seen from the tug Racaine on March 19, 1919, off
Gibbs' Light.-M.
Oceanites oceanicus (Kuhl).
WILSON'S PETREL.
Common visitor in summer about the outer reefs.
One was shot some distance from the shore on June 30, 1853, by
Mr. Harford of the 56th Regiment. Wedderburn (1859, p. 55) says:
'I have often seen these birds flying about near the North Rock and
once or twice inside the outer reefs in stormy weather.' (See also
Reid 1884, p. 272.) Bowditch (1904, p. 555) records seeing a 'Mother









BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


Cary's Chicken' about twelve miles off shore on August 1, 1903,
'probably a Wilson's Petrel.'-B.
It is by no means a rare occurrence for those birds to come within
a few feet of the fishing boats off the Islands, especially when chum
is used.-M.
Stone (1889, p. 82) reported a bird of this species seen just off the
Bermuda Islands in July, 1888. W. F. Eaton observed many of
them at sea on May 9, 1928, about 250 miles northwest of the Islands,
and Dr. William Beebe gives a date of May 8, 1929, at Nonsuch
Island.-E.
Phaethon lepturus catesbyi Brandt.
YELLOW-BILLED TROPIC BIRD, BOATSWAIN BIRD, LONG-TAIL.
An abundant summer resident February 2 to December 25 (Reid
1884, p. 263-265).
This attractive and familiar bird on the shores of Bermuda arrives
regularly at the end of February or early March, departing early in
October, although an occasional straggler is sometimes seen in No-
vember. They breed in holes in the cliffs, but make no nest, the egg
being laid on the bare rock. The young bird remains in the hole in
which it has been reared until capable of flight. Two broods" are
usually reared, the first in April and the second about the end of
June. The parent birds remain about the nesting place all the morning,
but about noon they go out to sea returning about dusk. In August,
1874, two old birds were seen by Lieutenant Reid sitting on the
water at least one hundred miles from Bermuda.
In 1911 'several of these birds were banded with numbered copper
bands and the holes in the rocks which they occupied as homes were
also numbered to correspond with the number of the band around its
inmate's leg. This year each bird under observation has returned
to the hole from which it was taken last year to be banded.' This
quotation is from the Royal Gazette in February, 1912, but I have not
the exact date. It was written by Mr. H. B. Small, of St. George.
Buckenham (1894) gives a brief account of his observations on the
habits, nests and eggs of this species.-B.
The important paper by Gross (1912) on this Tropic Bird, while
chiefly concerned with the development of the bird from the time
of its hatching to the adult stage, gives interesting and valuable
information about its habits, food, abundance in Bermuda, etc.
What Gross writes about their nesting is especially significant. De-
scribing the activities of Bermuda birds in the morning hours from









298 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

four to half past six o'clock,-as observed at Morgan's Island of
the Ely Bay region and recorded in his notes,-he says (p. 54-55):
'5:05 A. M. First Tropic-bird leaves the cliff; 5:10 A. M. At some
distance from our hiding place two more Tropic-birds appear; 5:45
A. M. At some distance out at sea an adult bird makes a perpendic-
ular dive into the water from a height of about 50 feet; 6:00 A. M.
Many Tropic-birds are flying about on the sea side of the island. Birds
are constantly leaving or returning to their nests; 6:30 A. M. About
50 Tropic-birds can be seen at one time in the immediate vicinity of
the cliffs and many others are either going out or returning from the
sea.' Gross adds to these notes the following: 'The numbers remained
practically constant until about 8:30 A. M., when there was a uniform,
but rapid decrease, and by 11:00 A. M. there was only an occasional
Tropic-bird to be seen flying about. The birds were again active dur-
ing the few hours before sunset, but the numbers at this time never
equalled those of the morning hours.'
Consult also the account by Bent (1922, p. 181-187).-E.L.M.
The first pair of the season were observed at Ruth's Bay, St. David's
Island, March 15, 1931, by Louis S. Mowbray.-M.
Mr. John H. Baker found them present in numbers as early as
March 2-10, 1925. Mr. W. F. Eaton did not find them to be as
common as formerly, nor as common as expected, the maximum
number seen during any one day (April 30-May 8, 1928) being about
one hundred birds.
Mr. Julius M. Johnson records a case of late breeding, the adult
still being on the nest August 15, 1921. Another nesting bird was
found on Agar's Island about a week before this. He says that the
nest sites are easily accessible to cats, which are, in his opinion,
responsible for great destruction.
Over large parts of the Islands these birds are not common, and
measures to increase the breeding population should be encouraged.-
E.
Sula leucogastra leucogastra (Bodd.).
BooBY.
An occasional visitor in the autumn.
Reid (1884, p. 261) gives the following: 'Wedderburn records the
occurrence of one of these birds, which flew into one of the barrack-
rooms at Fort Catherine on October 3rd, 1847. Another, in Mr.
Bartram's collection was shot by an officer with a revolver, curiously
enough, very near the same fort. [A young bird in my collection was









BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


caught on the rocks near Fort Cunningham on September 26, 1875,
and lived a short time in confinement. H. D.]'-B.
Mr. Mowbray bought a dead male from a colored boy at St. George
in December, 1909. It was picked up floating in the harbor.-M.

Sula bassana (Linn6).
GANNET.
A young male in mature plumage was taken during a northwest gale
at Ferry Point, St. George, on December 12, 1930. The skin is in
Louis L. Mowbray's collection. 'So far as I can ascertain, this is the
first time that this species has been taken in Bermuda.' (From a
letter by L. L. Mowbray dated March 30, 1931.)-M.

Phalacrocorax auritus auritus (Less.).
DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANT.
An occasional winter visitor.
I saw one several times on the rocks near Bailey's Bay in January,
1908. Mr. Mowbray took a male on November 6, 1904. Three
instances of the occurrence of this species are recorded by Wedder-
burn (1859, p. 51), viz., one shot by Captain Orde, at Pitt's Bay, on
October 10, 1847; one by Colonel Wedderburn on Grace's Island, on
February 8, 1848; and (Hurdis 1859, p. 87-88) another seen in Jan-
uary, 1847, but not obtained. Reid (1884, p. 262-263) saw several, but
did not obtain a specimen. However, one was shot by Lieutenant
Tallents in the autumn of 1875, according to Denison.-B.
Six specimens were seen September 18, 1930, on the masts of hulks
in St. George's Harbor by Louis L. Mowbray.
One specimen was seen at the Ferry Reach, January 15, 1931, by
Louis Septieme Mowbray.-M.
This species was recorded frequently by Mrs. Fry during the winter
of 1926-27. This is a species which apparently has become more
common of late years. Mr. Charles Johnston saw two in Castle
Harbor, November 15-22, 1929, and Mr. Mowbray had seen a few
individuals regularly in this region at least up to May 4, 1928, when
one was still present. Dr. William Beebe recorded this species at
Nonsuch Island, April 4 and October 12 (two), 1929.-E.
Pelecanus occidentalis occidentalis Linn6.
BROWN PELICAN.
Accidental visitor.
The only records are those of Wedderburn (1859, p. 51), who says:









300 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

'One of these birds was shot at Hungry Bay, many years ago; and
another was killed near St. Georges in April, 1850, which was given to
me by Colonel Drummond.' (See Reid 1884, p. 262.)-B.
Two specimens spent several days fishing near Fort Catherine, St.
George, March, 1929.
Mr. Mowbray saw one feeding at Shelly Bay, March, 1906.-M.
Fregata magnificens Mathews.
MAN-OF-WAR BIRD.
Occasional visitor in spring and autumn.
According to Reid (1884, p. 263) 'Two were obtained at Ireland
Island, on the 27th and 30th of September, 1848, respectively, by
Colonel Wedderburn. One was shot by Captain Clutterbuck, of
the 56th Regiment, on September 30, 1852, and another by Captain
Tolcher, of the same regiment, on April 2, 1854. Mr. Bartram has
two specimens obtained by himself.'-B.
Mr. Mowbray purchased a male from Norman Simons on December
16, 1927, who had picked it up in Flatts Inlet, floating with its right
wing broken.
One was seen September 18, 1930, in St. George's Harbor by
Louis L. Mowbray. The same specimen was seen by him on several
occasions after the above date, fishing off the south coast.-M.
The occurrence of this species was reported to Mrs. Fry during
her visit in 1927, and Dr. Rankin mentioned that it occasionally
was blown in by storms. Dr. William Beebe gives dates of April 18,
1929, and May 15, 1930, at Nonsuch Island.-E.
Mergus merganser americanus Cass.
AMERICAN MERGANSER.
An occasional visitor in the autumn.
Mr. Mowbray reports that three were taken near Tucker's Town
in November, 1900. None were taken during Lieutenant Reid's
(1884, p. 260) stay, but Wedderburn (1859, p. 56) records having
seen, but not taken, one.
Four have wintered around Harrington Sound, Ferry Reach, and
Castle Harbor, having been seen December 10, 1930, and March 4,
1931.-M.
Mergus serrator Linn6.
RED-BREASTED MERGANSER.
Accidental visitor.
The only record is given by Reid (1884, p. 261), who says: 'Mr.










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


Bartram has an undoubted specimen, obtained by him near St.
Georges.'-B.
Five were seen at Ferry Reach by Louis Septieme Mowbray on
March 17, 1931.-M.
Mr. Charles Johnston observed five birds in Ferry Reach on No-
vember 11-22, 1929.
Five mergansers in the brown-headed plumage, probably of this
species, were observed at Castle Harbor, February 12, 1931, by Mr.
John T. Nichols.-E.

Lophodytes cucullatus (Linne).
HOODED MERGANSER.
An occasional visitor in the autumn.
I saw a pair November 2, 1913. Several specimens have been
taken. Reid (1884, p. 261) writes: 'A female was caught near Ireland
Island by one of the crew of H. M. S. Scourge, on the 10th of January,
1849, and one was shot near St. George's on the 23d of December,
1850. A third example was obtained by Mr. Bartram and is now in
his collection.'-B.
Mr. R. S. McCallan, of St. George, gave Mr. Louis L. Mowbray
a male of this species which he had shot at Tucker's Town in the
autumn of 1904.-M.
Mr. John H. Baker observed four females of this species at Sey-
mour's pond, March 8, 1925. One was recorded by Mr. John F.
Kieran at Warwick Pond, December 11-12, 1930.-E.

Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos Linn6.
MALLARD.
A regular autumn visitor.
Mr. Mowbray reports having taken several in different years,
and Reid (1884, p. 253) writes: 'Four-a Mallard and three Ducks-
were observed in Great Sound by Lieutenant Hussey, R. E., on the
23rd of December, 1874.'-B.
A female was shot by Mr. Louis SeptiBme Mowbray at Spittal
Pond in March, 1929.-M.

Anas rubripes Brewst.
BLACK DUCK.
A regular autumn visitor, sometimes remaining well into the
winter.









302 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

I have seen several small flocks; one as late as February remained
for a week in a lagoon near our house in 1913. Reid (1884, p. 253-
254) writes:
'A flock of twenty-five frequented Harrington Sound and Penis-
ton's pond from Christmas, 1871, to February, 1872 (J. M. Jones).
Specimens were obtained by Lieutenant Denison and myself in
January, 1875, when there were a good many about. They are
always very shy, and when disturbed frequently fly a long way out
to sea.'-B.
A flock of sixty or more was seen on several occasions in Ferry
Reach, about one dozen being taken by different sportsmen during
the winter of 1929. One was shot in January, 1930, by W. A. Weber
from a bunch of six. Three females were seen in January, 1931, at
Spittal Pond by Louis SeptiBme Mowbray. Mr. Vivian Zuill saw 30
of this species at Spittal Pond, on March 22, 1931.-M.
Mr. Laidlaw Williams observed one during Christmas week, 1924,
on Trott's Pond. Mr. Charles Johnston observed two on Spittal
Pond November 18, 1929.-E.

Chaulelasmus streperus (Linn6).
GADWALL.
Accidental visitor.
Wedderburn (1859, p. 47) says: 'A female Gadwall was captured
alive in December, 1849, and was in the possession of Mr. Hurdis
till May, 1851, associating with some tame ducks and laying "four
nests of eggs, small in size, and numbering from 12 to 16 each time,"
none of which, however, proved fertile.' This is the only record
(Reid 1884, p. 254-255).-B.

Mareca americana (Gmel.).
BALDPATE.
An occasional visitor in the autumn.
Mr. Mowbray has taken one, and Hurdis (1897, p. 292) writing in
October, 1854, says: 'Met a colored man with a couple of Ducks,
which he had killed. Was surprised to find that they were the Ameri-
can Widgeon of Audubon.' Reid records two shot at Devonshire
Marsh in October, 1874.-B.
One was shot by Mr. Louis SeptiBme Mowbray at Spittal Pond,
December, 1930.-M.









BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


Mr. Richard Hinchman observed a female on Warwick Pond on
January 2 and 3, 1930.-E.

Nettion carolinense (Gmel.).
GREEN-WINGED TEAL.
A regular visitor in the autumn.
Specimens are taken nearly every year and Reid (1884, p. 255)
says: 'four were shot by Lieutenant Tallents, 20th Regiment, in the
autumn of 1875.' Mr. Mowbray has taken several in recent years.-B.
Four were seen at Spittal Pond in March, 1928, and two at Eve's
Pond, February 12, 1930.-M.
Mr. John H. Baker observed a male on Seymour's Pond on March
8, 1925; this species was reported regularly by Mrs. Fry, and Mr.
Charles Johnston observed two on Spittal Pond on November 18,
1929.-E.
Querquedula discors (Linn6).
BLUE-WINGED TEAL.
This is a regular autumn visitor sometimes in considerable numbers,
but is irregular in its visits on the spring migration.
I saw a fine male in Paget Marsh on February 21, 1908.
Very many of these birds were killed during and after a severe
gale in October, 1854, one 'colored sportsman' taking sixteen couples
according to Hurdis (1897, p. 297). Reid (1884, p. 256) says: 'This
man states that he saw at least two hundred of the Duck tribe to-
gether on that occasion. These "Ducks" were the Blue-winged Teal.'
-B.
A specimen was seen in Eve's Pond on December 14, 1928.
Three were seen in Spittal Pond on November 12, 1929, by Louis
L. Mowbray.-M.
On January 20, 1927, one was reported to Mrs. Fry, and on March
8, 1825, Mr. John H. Baker observed a female on Seymour's Pond.-E.

Spatula clypeata (Linn6).
SHOVELLER.
Accidental visitor.
The only record is given by Wedderburn (1859, p. 47): 'A single
female specimen was shot in December, 1844, by Mr. C. B. Fozard'
(See Reid 1884, p. 256).










304 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

Dafila acuta tzitzihoa (Vieill.).
AMERICAN PINTAIL.
An occasional visitor in the autumn and winter.
I saw a fine male on February 21, 1908, in a small brackish pond
in the Paget Marsh; it was in company with a male Blue-winged Teal,
and they were so close together that at times I could see both birds
through my glasses at once. Wedderburn (1859, p. 48) shot two in
Pembroke Marsh, the first on November 4, 1847. Mr. Mowbray has
taken several specimens. Mr. Hurdis (1897, p. 45-46, 48) took one
and reports several others as taken in the winter of 1847-48. There
was a fine male in Mr. Bartram's collection (Reid 1884, p. 254) and
H. D[enison] reports a female shot on October 25, 1875.-B.
One male was taken at Spittal Pond on January 20, 1930, by
Louis Septibme Mowbray.-M.

Aix sponsa (Linn6).
WooD DUCK.
An accidental visitor.
The only record is by Wedderburn (1859, p. 48): 'A female bird
of this species was shot by Dr. Cole (20th regiment) on the 16th of
December, 1846.'
Nyroca americana (Eyt.).
REDHEAD.
An occasional visitor in the autumn.
Mr. Mowbray reports that a few of these ducks are taken by
gunners nearly every autumn in the brackish ponds; he himself has
taken several.-B.
One pair was seen at Spittal Pond in December, 1930.-M.
Mr. Richard Hinchman reported an adult male in Warwick Pond,
January 2 and 3, 1930.-E.

Nyroca valisineria (Wils.).
CANVASBACK.
An occasional autumn visitor in small numbers.
Hurdis (1897, p. 234-235) purchased one from some boys who
had taken it alive in a marsh on October 30, 1851; and on November
23, of the same year, he saw a very fine specimen in White's Marsh.
Mr. Mowbray has taken several.-B.










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


A female was shot at Spittal Pond by Louis Septibme Mowbray
on February 10, 1929.-M.

Nyroca affinis (Eyt.).
LESSER SCAUP DUCK.
An occasional winter visitor.
Mr. Mowbray has taken several specimens. Reid (1884, p. 257)
records 'One killed by Mr. C. Abbott on the 19th Dec., 1846, two
others by Major Wedderburn at Warwick Pond on January 8, 1849.'
He himself took a female at Tucker's Town on February 25, 1875.-B.
There is a specimen. so labeled in the collection of the Bermuda
Museum.-E.
Nyroca collaris (Donov.).
RING-NECKED DUCK.
An occasional visitor.
The only record is of a female taken alive by Hurdis (1897, p. 200)
on November 13, 1850.-B.
There is a specimen in the collection of the Bermuda Museum,
shot at Spittal Pond in November, 1910, by Louis L. Mowbray.-M.

Glaucionetta clangula americana (Bonap.).
AMERICAN GOLDEN-EYE.
A frequent winter visitor in small numbers.
Many specimens have been taken and Reid (1884, p. 258-259)
reports that a flock of seven frequented Shelly Bay Marsh and Great
Sound during the winter of 1874-75. The only spring record is that
of a male shot in Pembroke Marsh on April 10, 1854, by Captain
Bull (Wedderburn 1859, p. 49).-B.
Mr. Louis L. Mowbray observed two in Spittal Pond on February
19, 1928. Two seen at Eve's Pond, March 10, 1928, were no doubt the
same birds.-M.
Charitonetta albeola (Linn6).
BUFFLE-HEAD.
An occasional winter visitor.
I saw one in January, 1901. Mr. Mowbray has taken one and
seen others on several occasions. Reid (1884, p. 259) writes: 'One
was obtained in Pembroke Marsh in December, 1845, and others
have been occasionally observed subsequently. Lieutenant Tallents
of the 20th Regiment, shot a male bird of this species at Peniston's
Pond in November, 1875.'-B.









306 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

Oidemia perspicillata (Linn6).
SURF SCOTER.
An occasional visitor in the autumn and winter.
I saw one in March, 1909.
In Jones (1859, p. 49, 86) are these records: 'One of these sea ducks
was killed with a stick in the harbour of Hamilton on the 8th of
January, 1849,' and 'another was shot in the Pembroke Marshes by
Mr. Fozard, 7th of October, 1854.' Reid (1884, p. 259-260) adds:
'Lieut. Hussey, R. E., shot one (a female) on a small pond [Seymour's?]
near the lighthouse, on the 17th of November, 1874.-B.
Erismatura jamaicensis (Gmel.).
RUDDY DUCK.
Accidental visitor.
According to Hurdis (1897, p. 10) only one specimen has ever been
taken; it was shot by Dr. Cole and examined on November 24, 1846,
by Hurdis.-B.
Chen hyperborea atlantica Kennard.
GREATER SNOW GOOSE.
A rare visitor.
Hurdis (1897, p. 133) says, under date of October 22, 1849:
'Learn from driver of the Somerset Mail that his brother observed,
about ten days since, two wild Geese, of white plumage, come in
from the sea and "pitch" in "the Bay" (Mangrove Bay), where they
remained only for a short time. They flew out to sea, and have not
been seen since. These were doubtless a pair of Snow Geese (Anser
hyperboreus) of Audubon.'
Also on November 8, 1851, Hurdis (1897, p. 237) records four
geese: 'Colour dark grey. May not these wanderers be the young of
the Snow Goose in their immature mantle of bluish-grey?' Compare
with this his (Hurdis 1897, p. 85) records of two 'white geese' ob-
served in Mangrove Bay in October, 1849, and 'four dark grey coloured'
geese seen on the wing near Peniston's pond, on the 10th of March,
1851.' Wedderburn (Reid 1884, p. 252) records two shot on October
19, 1848, by Mr. Hodgson Smith at Riddle's Bay.-B.
Branta canadensis canadensis (Linn6).
CANADA GOOSE.
An occasional visitor in the autumn and winter.
Several specimens have been taken at various times. I saw one










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


which was captured alive in an exhausted condition after a severe
gale in December, 1907. Three were taken in the winter of 1908-
1909. I heard a flock passing over in December, 1913. It is listed by
Wedderburn (1859, p. 56), but without specific records.
Reid (1884, p. 253) says, it was observed three times in 1874-75: 'one
on Peniston's pond in the autumn of 1874, one in the Great Sound
on the 10th January, 1875, . and a third near Daniel's
Head .. early in February, 1875.'-B.
One was taken by Mr. Smith at Paget in the winter of 1929.
One male was shot at Gibbet Island, April 24, 1929, by Louis
Septieme Mowbray.
One male was shot at Shelly Bay in January, 1930, by Mr. Vivian
E. Zuill.-M.
Dr. William Beebe reports two seen March 19, 1929, and four seen
the previous week by Mr. Arthur Tucker; also a single bird on the
unusual date of September 5, 1930, all at Nonsuch Island.-E.

Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieill.).
NORTH AMERICAN FULVOUS TREE-DUCK.
Accidental visitor.
One was taken by Mr. Mowbray in 1900 and is now in the collection
of The Bermuda Natural History Museum. This is the only record.-
B.
This one was taken near Coot Pond, St. George, on October 10,
1900, after a heavy southwest gale.-M.

Dendrocygna autumnalis (Linn6).
BLACK-BELLIED TREE-DUCK.
There is a specimen in the Bermuda Museum, shot by Mr. Louis L.
Mowbray in St. George in November, 1907.-M.

Cygnus columbianus (Ord).
WHISTLING SWAN.
A very rare visitor.
Hurdis (1897, p. 180-181), under date of May 26, 1850, says:
'It has been stated to me by three or four different individuals that a
Wild Swan of a grey colour (Cygnus americanus, American Swan of
Audubon, in plumage of the young [?]) was shot in the vicinity of
Hamilton some fifteen years ago . Mr. White (William)
also tells me he has seen Swans of a pure white in the same Marsh.'










308 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

(Cf. Reid 1884, p. 251.) William Strachey says in his narrative
written in 1610: 'And upon New Yeeres day in the morning, our
Gouvernour being walked foorth with another Gentleman, Master
James Swift, each of them with their Peeces killed a wild Swanne, in
a great Sea-water Bay or Pond in our Iland.' (Purchas: His Pilgrimes
in V. Bookes, etc., London, 1625, p. 1740-1741.) (Lefroy 1877-79, 1,
p. 35.)-B.
Phcenicopterus ruber Linn&.
FLAMINGO.
An accidental visitor.
A young male was taken at Spittal Pond by Mr. Harry Tucker on
October 16, 1909, after a severe gale from the southwest. It is now
in the collection of the Bermuda Museum. Hurdis (1897, p. 122)
reports one having been seen on September 24, 1849 (Reid 1884, p.
250-251).-B.
Plegadis falcinellus falcinellus (Linn6).
GLOSSY IBIS.
Accidental visitor.
One was seen, but not obtained, by Hurdis (1897, p. 147, 312; cf.
Reid 1884, p. 241) and Mr. Mowbray also reports having seen one.-B.
Two days after I first saw this bird, I shot it at Coot Pond, St.
George, on October 20, 1900. The specimen is in the collection of
the Museum.-M.
Botaurus lentiginosus (Montag.).
AMERICAN BITTERN.
Regular visitor during the migrations.
More common in the autumn than in spring. I think a few some-
times remain for the winter. Very numerous in the autumn of 1875.
Hurdis (1859, p. 79) cites one 'shot in the Pembroke Marshes' (Reid
1884, p. 245-246).-B.
This has been a regular visitor in the years 1928-29-30 at various
parts of the island, as at Spittal Pond, Shelly Bay, Eve's Pond, Ferry
Reach.-M.
Ixobrychus exilis exilis (Gmel.).
LEAST BITTERN.
An occasional visitor on both migrations (Reid 1884, p. 246).
Hurdis (1897, p. 143-144) reports two as having been seen by
Wedderburn on December 15, 1849, which leads me to think they









BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


sometimes remain all winter. Hurdis (1859, p. 79) also says that
one 'was captured alive .. on the rocks of St. David's
Head, on the 20th of April, 1853.' Mr. Mowbray has taken two
specimens.-B.
A specimen in fine plumage was caught by a cat near the Bermuda
Aquarium at Flatts in November, 1930.-M.
A bird seen at Mangrove Lake by Mr. John T. Nichols on February
11, 1931, establishes the presence of this species in winter.-E.

Ardea herodias herodias Linn6.
GREAT BLUE HERON.
Common winter resident.
These birds arrive regularly in the autumn and a few remain
throughout the year. In 1903 Bowditch (1904, p. 556) saw Herons
on July 15 and August 8. Wedderburn (1859, p. 38) says: 'In 1846
the nest of this bird, containing two eggs, was found amongst the
mangrove trees at Hungry Bay. The Rev. H. B. Tristram kept
one of these herons alive in his garden, at the parsonage in Ireland
Island, which was once seen to seize a ground dove and swallow it
entire.' Reid (1884, p. 242) could find no other instance of their breed-
ing, nor have I been able to learn of any since his time; but there is no
doubt that herons formerly bred in Bermuda in large numbers, as
Silvanus Jourdan, writing in 1610, says: (Hakluyt's Collection, 1812,
p. 557) 'There are also great store and plenty of Herons, and those
so familiar and tame, that wee beate them down from the trees with
stones and states; but such were young Herons: besides many white
Herons, without so much as a black or grey feather on them; with
other small birds so tame and gentle, that a man walking in the
woods with a sticke, and whistling to them, they wil come and gaze on
you, so neare that you may strike and kill many of them with your
sticke; and with singing and hollowing you may do the like.' (See
also P. Force 1844, no. 3, p. 12; and Lefroy 1877-79, 1, p. 18.)
Kennedy (1914, p. 187) saw this heron several times, once near
Wreck Hill.-B.
Mr. Louis L. Mowbray has observed numerous specimens through-
out the Islands, during the years 1928-31.-M.
Whether this species still continues to breed as it did in 1846 was
a mooted question. Dr. George Rankin claimed that it formerly nested
in rookeries in several places. Heilprin (1889, p. 82) failed to find
the bird in July, 1888. Undoubtedly it is present every month of










310 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

the year during most years, as the following years indicate a measure
of abundance.
Recent records follow: Oct. 28-Nov. 23, 1929, three seen in Castle
Harbor (Johnston); March 7 and 9, 1925, daily maximum 2 (J. H.
Baker); Jan. 19 and 24, and Feb. 3, 1927 (Mrs. Fry); May 2-7, 1928,
maximum 3 (W. F. Eaton), and May 25, 1929, 1 (H. W. Abbot).
Dr. William Beebe recorded this species at Nonsuch Island on
March 16, July 30, and October 10, 1929, and writes that the July
bird was a young one about two thirds grown, establishing, without
doubt, its status as a resident.-E.

Casmerodius albus egretta (Gmel.).
EGRET.
An occasional visitor on both migrations.
Several specimens have been obtained. A pair remained at the
head of Hamilton Harbor for over a month in the autumn of 1913.
According to Wedderburn (1859, p. 39) two were killed at Hungry
Bay in 1840, and several were subsequently seen, but not obtained.
Bartram (Reid 1884, p. 242-243) had one specimen, and Captain
Hussey, of the 20th regiment, shot one on October 6, 1875.-B.
A specimen in full plumage was seen in Spittal Pond on December
20, 1928. I did not shoot it, but could have done so. Another in-
dividual was seen in Wilson's Pond on March 23, 1931, by Louis L.
Mowbray. One was seen at Spittal Pond on March 28, 1931, by Louis
Septieme Mowbray.-M.
Mr. Charles Johnston writes: "White Herons" (probably Ameri-
can egrets) were reliably reported to me on October 29,1929, as being on
Harrington Sound, but I did not see them.' Dr. William Beebe saw
one at Nonsuch Island on October 5, 1930. As this species has been
found during the last four years it deserves to be called a regular
visitor. Apparently its increase on the North American mainland
has been reflected in Bermuda.-E.

Egretta thula thula (Molina).
SNOWY EGRET.
An occasional visitor on both migrations.
Several specimens have been taken. Reid (1884, p. 243) says:
'Two in full plumage shot by Colonel Wedderburn in April, 1850,'
and 'Mr. Bartram has a pair in his collection.'










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


Florida caerulea (Linn6).
LITTLE BLUE HERON.
A frequent visitor on both migrations.
I have seen several, all in adult plumage. Reid (1884, p. 243)
quotes Hurdis thus:
'Of seven specimens of this heron which came under my obser-
vation, four were shot in April and May, and three in September and
October. It may therefore be considered both a vernal and autumnal
visitor to the Bermudas. Three of the spring specimens were beautiful
exemplifications of the change from the white plumage of the young
to the rich vinous purple of the adult bird.-B.
Mr. Louis L. Mowbray records six from Shelly Bay seen on No-
vember 14, 1930. One specimen was seen on the shores about the
Aquarium from October to December, 1930.-M.
Dr. William Beebe recorded one bird on April 4, 1929, and imma-
ture specimens on September 7 and October 5, 1930, at Nonsuch Island.
Mr. John F. Kieran saw 6 in white plumage near Mid-ocean Club
at Tucker's Town on December 9-15, 1930. A white heron, presum-
ably of this species, was seen February 11, 1931, by Mr. D. G. Nichols
and reported to Mr. John T. Nichols.-E.

Butorides virescens virescens (Linn6).
LITTLE GREEN HERON.
A regular visitor on both migrations, sometimes in considerable
numbers in the spring.
Several were brought in for the Bermuda Museum in April, 1907.
Wedderburn (1859, p. 38-39) says: 'During some years not uncommon.'
(Reid 1884, p. 244).-B.
One was seen near the Aquarium at the Flatts in September and
October, 1930, by Louis L. Mowbray.-M.
Stone (1889, p. 82) observed a single individual in the mangroves
of Walsingham in July, 1888. Mr. Richard Hinchman saw one at
Warwick Pond on January 2, 1930, and Mr. John F. Kieran saw one at
the same locality on December 12, 1930.-E.

Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli (Gmel.).
BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT HERON.
Not uncommon winter visitor (Reid 1884, p. 244-245).
All specimens taken have been in immature plumage. Several
were seen in the autumn of 1913.-B.








312 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

There is a specimen in the Bermuda Museum collection which
was shot at Spittal Pond by Mr. Louis L. Mowbray, by whom several
specimens were seen at Eve's Pond and at Ferry Reach in the autumn
of 1929.-M.
Mrs. G. G. Fry saw one on January 14, 1927.-E.

Nyctanassa violacea violacea (Linn6).
YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT HERON.
A regular visitor on both migrations; more common in the autumn.
Wedderburn (1859, p. 40) notes three birds killed, two in April,
1848, and 1850, one in September, 1849.-B.
A number of specimens have been taken, one on August 3 by
Reid (1884, p. 245), who says they occur 'pretty regularly in small
numbers.' Mr. Clifford H. Pangburn observed a single bird during
the first week of October, 1912.-E.
Rallus limicola limicola Vieill.
VIRGINIA RAIL.
A rare visitor (Reid 1884, p. 246-247).
Mr Mowbray has taken one; the date, however, is not recorded.
Hurdis (Wedderburn 1859, p. 46) on November 6, 1851, shot a fine
male. I am inclined to think that these birds visit the islands more or
less regularly every year and are overlooked on account of their
skulking habits. I am still further inclined to this opinion, since the
Sora Rail and both the Purple and Florida Gallinules are regular
visitors, and the other rails have been taken on several occasions. I
am almost certain I heard a Virginia rail on April 2, 1908, in a man-
grove swamp making 'a succession of grunting sounds not unlike
those of a hungry pig,' as described by Mr. William Brewster. I
was unable to see the bird, however.-B.
A fine specimen was brought to me by Miss E. Allen, whose cat
had brought it in at the Flatts on October 15, 1929.-M.

Porzana carolina (Linn6).
SORA, CAROtINA RAIL.
A regular visitor on both migrations, sometimes in considerable
numbers (Reid 1884, p. 247).
It has been taken as early as August 24, and I am inclined to
think that occasionally a few remain through the winter. Hurdis
(1859, p. 83) says: 'During a southwest gale . on the 9th









BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


of October, 1849, thousands of these crakes suddenly appeared in
the marshes' and 'On the 29th of the month not a single crake was
to be found.' The whole immense flock had departed.
One was killed by our cat in April, 1907.-B.
Mr. Charles Johnston believes he heard a rail of this species in
Devonshire Marsh on October 31, 1929. Mr. John F. Kieran re-
corded one at Warwick Pond on December 9-15, 1930.-E.

Coturicops noveboracensis (Gmel.).
YELLOW RAIL.
A very rare visitor.
Two specimens were taken by Wedderburn (1859, p. 45-46) in
October, 1847; of these Hurdis (1897, p. 42) says: 'Mr Wedderburn
showed me another beautiful specimen of the Yellow-breasted Rail,
shot by himself in the Governor's Marsh, near the spot on which he
killed the former one.' (Reid 1884, p. 247-248.)-B.

Creciscus jamaicensis stoddardi Coale.
BLACK RAIL.
An occasional autumn visitor.
Several specimens were obtained by Wedderburn (1859, p. 46) in
1847 and 1848, and by Hurdis (1897, p. 236) on November 8, 1851
(Reid 1884, p. 248). None have been reported in recent years.-B.

Crex crex (Linne).
CORN CRAKE.
This bird is an accidental visitor from Europe.
The only one ever taken was shot by Wedderburn (1859, p. 45),
who says: 'On the 25th of October, 1847, when out shooting in the
dusk of the evening, in Pembroke Marsh, my good old dog "Flora"
pointed, and a well known bird took wing, which I most fortunately
killed, and it proved to be a young male land-rail of the year. .
I sent a notice of the occurrence of this bird to the Zoologist in 1849.'
(Reid 1884, p. 248.)-B.

Ionornis martinicus (Linnd).
PURPLE GALLINULE.
A regular visitor on both migrations, but more common in the
spring.
Many specimens have been taken. I saw one in Paget Marsh on










314 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

April 7, 1908. They may occasionally remain all winter, for Reid
(1884, p. 249-250) says: 'I am almost sure I saw one in Devonshire
Swamp in February, 1875.'-B.
There is a specimen in the Bermuda Museum, shot by Mr. Louis L.
Mowbray in the fall of 1909. Two specimens were seen in Eve's Pond
on November 19, 1930.-M.
Mrs. G. G. Fry saw one March 8, 1927. Dr. Rankin said (1928)
that he had 'one in the flesh this spring, blown in after a storm and
kept alive in a cage for some time.' Mr. H. W. Abbot writes that in
May, 1929, 'One was picked up exhausted, but not wounded, by a
boy and is now alive in captivity.'-E.

Gallinula galeata cachinnans Bangs.
FLORIDA GALLINULE.
Common resident and autumn visitor.
I can do no better than quote Hurdis (1859, p. 84), who says: 'This
is one of the native birds of the Bermudas, rearing its young in pools
and swamps, ... In October this gallinule is more common,
appearing suddenly in marshes and ponds, where for months previously
it has been unknown. This autumnal appearance must arise, either
from the scattering of the native broods, or from an influx of migrant
strangers from the American coast. I am inclined to think the latter
the most likely cause.' (Reid 1884, p. 248-249.)-B.
I made a skin of a male, taken by a cat at Flatts on May 14, 1929.-
M.
On March 8, 1925, Mr. John H. Baker found it common at Sey-
mour's Pond. It was reported on March 8, 1927, by Mrs. Fry. Mr.
W. F. Eaton reports its presence on three ponds on May 4, 1928,
the maximum of ten birds being on Seymour's Pond. Mr. Charles
Johnston saw it on three ponds, maximum of three, on October 27
to November 23, 1929, and Mr. R. Hinchman found six on Warwick
Pond on January 2 and 3, 1930. This proves that the bird winters in
numbers and, curiously enough, on a pond where in 1928 it positively
was not breeding.-E.
Fulica americana americana Gmel.
AMERICAN COOT.
A regular autumn visitor but never in great numbers. Has been
taken several times in the spring.
I saw a fine specimen in a little pond in the Paget Marsh on Febru-










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


ary 21, 1908, and was told that it had been there for some time,
which leads me to think that these birds may pass the winter here,
being seldom noticed on account of the inaccessibility of their haunts.
Mr. Goodwin Gosling says he has seen 'Coot' in the summer and is
convinced that they breed here. One was taken in 1847 as late as
May 28 (Hurdis 1897, p. 24), and Reid (1884, p. 250) saw one on April
27, 1875.-B.
Mr. Louis SeptiBme Mowbray passes Eve's Pond every day and
has been observing these birds, which breed in this Pond. Chicks
have been observed for the past three years, 1928-30.-M.
This species has been noted by various observers in April, May,
November, and December (Bent 1926, p. 367). Mr. Charles Johnston
recorded it on October 30 and 31, and November 2, 1929, at Angel-
Cove. Mr. John H. Baker found them common on March 2-10,
1925. Mrs. G. G. Fry saw one on January 19, 1927. Mr. H. W.
Abbot saw four on March 20, 1929, at Tucker's Town, and Mr. R.
Hinchman found eleven on Warwick Pond on January 2 and 3, 1930.
Mr. John T. Nichols observed one with gallinules in February, 1931.
Apparently this bird is much more common than formerly and it is
just possible that the statement by Wallace (1880, p. 258) that the
Coot is a permanent resident in Bermuda, may have some foundation
in fact, although breeding records in general must be discredited,
due to local confusion with the Florida Gallinule, which also is called
'coot.' Four were seen regularly on December 9-15, 1930, at War-
wick Pond by J. F. Kieran.-E.

Phalaropus fulicarius (Linn6).
RED PHALAROPE.
Mr. Louis L. Mowbray shot one at Fort Catherine on March 12,
1908, and another in Castle Harbor on February 6, 1910.-M.
There are two specimens in the Bermuda Museum collection,
presumably taken by Mr. Mowbray. It is not unexpected that this
bird should occur at times.-E.

Lobipes lobatus (Linn6).
NORTHERN PHALAROPE.
An occasional visitor in the spring.
Several specimens have been taken (Reid 1884, p. 231-232), the
last by Mr. Mowbray on April 7 and 17, 1907, near St. David's
Light.-B.









316 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

Himantopus mexicanus (Miull.).
BLACK-NECKED STILT.
A very rare visitor in the spring.
Mr. Mowbray saw one on May 2, 1904, at Spittal Pond and Hurdis
(1897, p. 268), writing under date of June 3, 1853, says: 'Mr. A.
Hinson sent me a very fine specimen of Himantopus nigricollis, the
Black-necked Stilt of Audubon, which he had shot about an hour
previously in the pond near Warwick Church. This bird had been
noticed for some days past wading about that piece of water, and was
killed, at my particular request, by Mr. Hinson.' (Reid 1884, p. 231.)
-B.
Philohela minor (Gmel.).
AMERICAN WOODCOCK.
An occasional visitor.
Only a few specimens have been taken. 'A single specimen was
shot near Hamilton in October, 1842, and one was supposed to have
been seen (Wedderburn 1859, p. 42-43) at Hungry Bay, a few years
afterwards, by Mr. Fozard.' Mr Mowbray reports having taken
one near Old Ferry, St. George, but has no record of the date. One was
shot in October, 1908, by a Mr. Simons.-B.

Capella gallinago (Linn6).
EUROPEAN SNIPE.
Accidental.
The only records are two (or three) killed by Wedderburn (1859,
p. 43) on December 24 and 29, 1847, in Pembroke Marsh. Hurdis
(1897, p. 55-56) says of one shot by Wedderburn on December 20,
1847, 'the body being shorter, and the bill rather longer than usual.
The tail contained but eleven feathers1 and the lower part of the body
exhibited more white than three other specimens which were com-
pared with it' (Reid 1884, p. 233). The specimens shot on December
24 and 29 had fourteen feathers' in the tail and the bill was shorter.
I presume that it is on these records that Chapman (1916, p. 247)
says the bird is 'accidental in the Bermudas.'-B.

Capella delicate (Ord).
WILSON'S SNIPE.
A regular spring and autumn visitor, formerly in considerable
numbers in the fall.
1 The European Snipe has fourteen feathers in its tail and Wilson's Snipe has
sixteen.










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


It has been seen as early as September 13, and an occasional strag-
gler has been taken as late as January (Reid 1884, p. 232). I saw
one early in January, 1909.-B.
Mrs. Gladys G. Fry saw snipe, presumably of this species on
February 24 and March 8, 1927, suggesting the possibility that this
bird winters in Bermuda.
In the Royal Gazette of January 11, 1929, p. 4, Dr. George Rankin,
df St. George, relates that a Wilson's Snipe was picked up on January
8 on St. David's Island. It was in an emaciated condition and died
shortly after.-E.
Limnodromus griseus griseus (Gmel.).
DOWITCHER.
An occasional autumn visitor.
Several specimens have been taken, but none have been reported
in recent years. Besides three shot in August or September in the
years 1847, 1848, and 1874, 'three were shot at Peniston's Pond,
on the 17th September, 1875 by Lieutenant Festing, of the 20th
Regiment.' (Reid 1884, p. 234.)-B.

Micropalama himantopus (Bonap.).
STILT SANDPIPER.
An occasional visitor on both migrations.
Several specimens have been taken (Reid 1884, p. 234) mostly
in the autumn. Mr. Mowbray has the only spring record, one having
been taken by him on May 2, 1903.-B.

Calidris canutus rufus (Wilson).
AMERICAN KNOT.
An occasional visitor in the autumn.
This bird has been observed only in recent years, probably having
been overlooked in the flocks of sandpipers with which it so often
associates. Bowditch (1904, p. 557) reports seeing, probably, one on
Cooper's Island on July 27, 1903, and Mr. Mowbray shot two in
September, 1911.-B.
Arquatella maritima (Brtnn.).
PURPLE SANDPIPER.
An accidental visitor.
The only record is 'one was seen by Colonel Wedderburn at the
entrance to St. George's Harbor' (Reid 1884, p. 236). The A. 0. U.
Check List of 1910 gives it as 'casual' in Bermuda.-B.









318 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

Pisobia melanotos (Vieil.).
PECTORAL SANDPIPER.
A regular autumn migrant.
Wedderburn (1859, p. 44) says: 'On the 9th of October, 1849, they
appeared suddenly in thousands, particularly at St. George's, after
a heavy gale of wind; the parade ground, at that place was swarming
with them, and I think Colonel Drummond killed some thirty or
forty couple before breakfast; but with the exception of a few strag-
glers, they were all gone by the following day.'-B.
Pisobia fuscicollis (Vieill.).
WHITE-RUMPED SANDPIPER.
A regular autumn visitor.
Many specimens have been taken (Reid 1884, p. 235-236).-B.
Mr. Charles Johnston observed two at Longbird Island on No-
vember 7, 1929.-E.
Pisobia minutilla (Vieill.).
LEAST SANDPIPER.
A regular autumn visitor; but only one spring record.
It arrives in considerable numbers the last of July, and a straggler
has been taken as late as December 23 (Reid 1884, p. 235).-B.
Mr. Louis L. Mowbray shot forty or more in the winter of 1902.
They were in large numbers south of Naval Tanks, St. George, on
grassy ground.-M.
Stone (1889, p. 82) recorded several near Spittal Pond on July 15,
1888, this being the earliest definite record for fall migrants. Dr.
William Beebe collected two at Nonsuch Island on August 4, 1929,
and also recorded eight on October 17, 1930.-E.
Ereunetes pusillus (Linn6).
SEMIPALMATED SANDPIPER.
A common autumn visitor; no spring record.
They arrive the last of July, and from then to the beginning of
November small flocks can be found on most of the sand beaches
along the shore (Reid 1884, p. 234).-B.
Several specimens were seen at Longbird Island in October, 1929,
by Louis L. Mowbray.-M.
Four were collected by Dr. William Beebe on August 4, 1929, at
Nonsuch Island, and small flocks were also recorded on August 14
and October 17, 1930.-E.









BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


Crocethia alba (Pall.).
SANDERLING.
A regular autumn visitor; no spring record.
These are seldom seen in large numbers. One was probably seen on
Cooper's Island on July 27, 1903, by Bowditch (1904, p. 557). Under
the name 'Callidris arenaria, The Sanderling,' Baird, Brewer, and Ridg-
way (1884, 1, p. 253) say: 'Specimens of this bird were taken in
Bermuda by Major Wedderburn [1859, p. 38] from the 4th of Septem-
ber to the 7th of November. According to Hurdis [1859, p. 78] it
is not known to have occurred there later than the 10th of Novem-
ber.'-B.
Mr. Louis L. Mowbray saw numerous specimens at Shelly Bay and
Longbird Island in September and October, 1930.-M.
On December 15, 1930, six were seen at Elbow Beach by Mr.
John F. Kieran, and on February 9, 1931, a flock of about twelve
was seen on the same beach by Mr. John T. Nichols. Dr. William
Beebe reported small flocks at Nonsuch Island on September 8,
1929, and October 17, 1930.-E.

Limosa haemastica (Linn4).
HUDSONIAN GODWIT.
A rare visitor in the autumn.
Several have been seen by Mr. Mowbray, and 'A specimen of this
bird in Mr. Bartram's collection was shot near the Causeway in St.
George's Parish in the autumn of 1875.' (Reid 1884, p. 237.)-B.
Totanus melanoleucus (Gmel.).
GREATER YELLOW-LEGS.
Regular autumn visitor (July 23 to November 10); rare in spring.
Reid (1884, p. 238) says: 'More or less common, arriving early in
August, remaining for a month or so.' Wedderburn (1859, p. 41)
records: 'On the 4th of August, 1848, I observed a good many of
them at Chief Justice Butterfield's pond, in company with a great
many yellow-shanks tattlers [T. flavipes], stints, and semipalmated
sandpipers. They are sometimes met with till the 10th
of November.'
It has been taken twice in its northward migration: 'On the 5th
of June, 1852, a single specimen was killed at Hungry Bay' (Hurdis
1859, p. 80); 'Another was shot by Lieutenant Denison on the 27th
of April, 1875.' (Reid 1884, p. 238.)









320 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

Bowditch (1904, p. 561) reports that one was seen by Leon J.
Cole on July 23, 1903, at St. David's Island.-B.
There were several specimens observed at Shelly Bay Pond on
September 10, 1930.-M.
Mr. Laidlaw Williams saw one during Christmas week, 1924. Mr.
Charles Johnston saw one October 31, 1929, at Angel Cove, and
during the following week at Longbird Island. Dr. William Beebe
reported them at Nonsuch Island on March 16 and July 17, 1929,
and August 27, 1930.-E.
Totanus flavipes (Gmel.).
SUMMER YELLOW-LEGS.
Common autumn visitor; occasional in spring.
'The most conspicuous and noisy of the August arrivals,' says
Reid (1884, p. 238). It has been taken as early as July 5.
Wedderburn (1859, p. 41) states that one was caught on July 13,
1847, that a flock was seen on July 28, 1848, and that on the following
August 4 they were very numerous in Butterfield's Pond. To this
Hurdis (1897, p. 186) adds that three, were seen by Wedderburn to
pass over the town on July 14, 1850, and a single one on the wing
by Captain T. Drummond-Hay.
The only spring record is of one seen on April 26 and two taken
on April 29, 1875, by Reid (1884, p. 238-239)-B.
Numerous specimens were observed on the islands in Ferry Reach
in September, 1930.-M.
Mrs. G. G. Fry saw two Yellow-legs on March 8, 1927, which she
believes were of this species, but the date is so early, one would
suspect them to have been of the larger species, melanoleucus.-E.
Tringa solitaria solitaria Wils.
SOLITARY SANDPIPER.
A regular visitor on both migrations.
Recorded for April 7 (Wedderburn 1859, p. 42) and from July 19
to September 30.
'They generally come with the other species [of Sandpipers] in
August. They soon betake themselves to the wooded swamps,
where they may be found singly or in pairs throughout the autumn.'
(Reid 1884, p. 239.)-B.
It was recorded by Mrs. Fry on December 25, 1926, and by Dr.
William Beebe at Nonsuch Island on July 16 and 17 (six), 1929, and
on the late spring date of June 1, 1930.-E.










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


Catoptrophorus semipalmatus (Gmel.).
WILLET.
A rare visitor.
Mr. Mowbray has observed this bird on several occasions, but the
only specimen ever taken was shot by Wedderburn (1859, p. 41) on
Pearl Island on July 3, 1848.-B.
Three were seen at Nonsuch Island on October 17, 1930, by Dr.
William Beebe.-E.

Bartramia longicauda (Bechst.).
UPLAND PLOVER.
A very rare visitor in the autumn.
Reid (1884, p. 240) says: 'One in my collection was shot by Gibbs at
Peniston's Pond, on September 20, 1874. It was a single bird, and
was in company with a flock of small sandpipers at the time.
Lieutenant Denison . shot a second specimen in a field near
Peniston's Pond on the 18th of September, 1875.'-B.

Actitis macularia (Linn6).
SPOTTED SANDPIPER.
A common visitor on both migrations and winter resident in small
numbers.
'Flocks of young birds appear early in August, followed soon after
by a limited number of adults.' 'The "weet-weet" of this bird, as
it skims over the water . is very familiar to residents
of the islands.' (Reid 1884, p. 239-240.)
Mr. John H. Baker saw the bird twice on March 2 and 10, 1925.
Mr. Julius M. Johnson saw one on August 20, 1921, and another was
seen a few days before. Dr. William Beebe listed this species at
Nonsuch Island on July 18, 1929, and on August 1 and 14, 1930.-E.

Numenius hudsonicus Lath.
HUDSONIAN CURLEW.
An occasional visitor in the autumn, never in large numbers. There
is no spring record.
Several specimens have been taken. Reid (1884, p. 240-241)
attributes to Hurdis the following statement: 'In August and Sep-
tember the loud whistle of this Curlew is sometimes heard on the
shores of Bermuda. It is generally seen alone, and from its wary
habits is difficult to approach. Of the four specimens which I ex-









322 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

amined, one was shot on the 14th of August, and the remainder in
September. During the dark nights of this season of the year flocks
of this Curlew occasionally pass at a low elevation toward the south.'-
B.
Mr. Louis L. Mowbray has taken several specimens in the autumn,
between 1900 and 1904, at Ferry Reach and St. George, but the exact
dates have been mislaid.-M.
Dr. William Beebe had an excellent view of two of these birds at
Nonsuch Island on September 2, 1929.-E.

Numenius borealis (Forst.).
ESKIMO CURLEW.
Formerly an occasional visitor in the autumn.
Reid (1884, p. 241) says: 'commoner and more easy to approach
than the preceding [hudsonicus]. A good number accom-
panied the Golden Plover on their arrival in September, 1874, and
several were killed along the north shore.'-B.
Two were seen at Longbird Island in the winter of 1929-30. One
was recorded at Gibbet Island in the early autumn of 1930.-M.
One example of the Eskimo Curlew was reported in Ireland Island on
January 20, 1913 (Kennedy 1914, p. 187).-E.
Recent sight records need substantiation, as young male Hudson-
ians are all too easily mistaken for the vanished Eskimo Curlew.-
J.T.N.
Squatarola squatarola cynosurae Thayer and Bangs.
BLACK-BELLIED PLOVER.
A regular visitor in the autumn; but no spring record.
Mr. Mowbray has obtained several specimens. Reid (1884, p.
228) says: 'Unlike the next species [Golden Plover] this is by no
means a frequent visitor to the Bermudas.'-B.
Numerous specimens are wintering here to date, at Longbird Island,
March 15, 1931.-M.
Of the birds which have increased in frequency of occurrence in
Bermuda of late years, this and the Ruddy Turnstone may be placed
at the head. Although Bradlee gives no winter or spring records,
Mrs. Fry found them in flocks on December 26, 1926, March 1, 1927,
and a maximum of 38 birds on January 17, 1927. Mr. H. W. Abbot
saw a dozen in winter plumage on February 27, 1929, and Mr. Baker
saw ten at Somerset on March 7, 1925. Mr. Mowbray reported one










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


as late as May 4, 1928, in Castle Harbor, and Dr. Beebe saw one at
Nonsuch Island on June 5, 1930.-E.

Pluvialis dominica dominica (Mull.).
GOLDEN PLOVER.
Formerly an abundant, but now a rare, visitor in the autumn.
March 9, 1852, is the only instance of its being taken in the spring.
Wedderburn (1859, p. 36-37) says: 'During some years large flocks
of these birds pass over the islands in the months of September and
October, but, unless in stormy weather, they do not alight in any
great numbers.' They fly in a south or southeasterly direction.
Hurdis (1897, p. 288) writes: 'The flight of Plover (Charadrius mar-
moratus) which passed over these islands on the night of the 23rd
inst. [August, 1854] was heard at the same hour at Gibb's Hill, War-
wick Parish, Hamilton, Prospect Hill, and the Flatts (a distance of
over seven miles). One of my informants, who was on Prospect Hill,
describes the numbers as immense and flying low. The passage of
these birds occupied about one hour.'-B.
The Golden Plover was still visiting Bermuda on their migration as
late as 1904. Pendle Hill, on the Old Ferry Road, was a favourite
place for them. I took many of them up to that date. No records
were kept, as the birds were used for the table.-M.
Mr. H. W. Abbot writes me 'Golden Plover no longer call at Ber-
muda in large numbers, as they used to forty years ago. It is just
possible that they may still occur more frequently than we suppose,
as in late August and early September, when the flights occur, there
are few if any observers in the islands.' Those seen by Dr. Beebe at
Nonsuch Island were observed on August 21 (two) and October 7,
1929 (one).-E.
Oxyechus vociferus vociferus (Linn6).
KILLDEER.
A regular winter visitor (November 12 to March 4).
This bird (Reid 1884, p. 228-229), among the latest of the autumn
(southward) migrants, arrives regularly about the end of November,
and a few small flocks usually remain all winter, frequenting the
grassy fields on Spanish Point and on the south side.-B.
Two flocks, about fifty in each, were observed by Mr. Louis SeptiBme
Mowbray on January 2, 1931, on the north shore of St. George.-M.
On October 27, 1929, Mr. Charles Johnston saw nine north of St.
George, and on February 27, 1929, Mr. Abbot saw six on their









324 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

northward flight. On December 15, 1930, twelve were seen at Elbow
Beach by Mr. John F. Kieran.-E.
Charadrius semipalmatus Bonap.
SEMIPALMATED PLOVER.
A common autumn visitor, only one spring record.
Reid (1884, p. 230) says: 'Arrives in small numbers early in August
with the annual invading army of Stints and Sandpipers.' A flock
of about twelve, which I saw in the Great Sound in April, 1909, is,
as far as I can find, the only spring record.-B.
There is a record for Longbird Island on September 12, 1930.-M.
Dr. William Beebe reported two at Nonsuch Island on July 27,
1929.-E.
Charadrius melodus Ord.
PIPING PLOVER.
An uncommon autumn visitor.
Wedderburn (1859, p. 37; Reid 1884, p. 230; Hurdis 1859, p. 78)
shot one at Mangrove Bay, Somerset, on September 5, 1848. 'Mr.
Bartram has one specimen.' These are the only ones that have been
taken.-B.
Stone (1889, p. 82) records one, which followed the steamer for
the better part of a day, late in July, 1888. Dr. William Beebe
reports that three specimens were seen at Nonsuch Island on August
14, 1930, and one on August 29, 1929.-E.
Arenaria interpres morinella (Linn6).
RUDDY TURNSTONE.
A regular autumn migrant in small numbers.
It has been seen as early as July 27, and one was shot on August
3, 1849 (Wedderburn 1859, p. 37-38). Reid (1884, p. 230) shot two
as late as December 23, 1874. It is said to remain all winter, but I
have never seen one.-B.
This is the most common of the winter Plovers throughout the
Islands, from Cooper's Island to the Islands in the Great Sound.
Some fifty or more were observed in the winter of 1931, by Louis L..
Mowbray.-M.
This species can now be classed as an abundant migrant and winter
visitant, thanks to the enforcement of the United States migratory
bird laws. Mr. Harold D. W. Smith found them near Tucker's
Town in the spring of 1927, and Mr. H. W. Abbot saw them as late










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


as May 20, 1929, when two, in breeding plumage, were found on
Spanish Point. Mrs. Fry recorded flocks on the outer beaches from
December 26, 1926 (eight) to March 1, 1927 (twelve), with a maxi-
mum (twenty-four) on February 8 and 17. Dr. Beebe found them in
August and September.-E.

Colinus virginianus virginianus (Linn6).
BOB-WHITE, QUAIL.
Resident. Not common.
As none of the early writers mentions any bird like a quail, it is
almost certain that this bird was first imported to Bermuda from the
American continent. At one time it was abundant, but became
extinct before 1840, none being heard of by Mr. Hurdis during fourteen
years' residence. In 1858 several pairs were imported and turned
loose by Mr. Richard Darrell. These increased rapidly and Reid
(1875, p. 211 and 1884, p. 226-227) reports them as common in 1875.
Today, owing to the increase of land under cultivation, and more
houses having been built, I doubt whether there are more than twenty
coveys in the islands. A covey frequents my place every winter and
at times comes very close to the house in search of food.-B.
Mr. W. F. Eaton, in May, 1928, did not find them common; a
maximum of five singing males on May 5. Mr. H. W. Abbot writes
(1929), 'I heard one Bob-white call' and Mr. Johnston reported one
covey of 6 to 8 birds in October and November, 1929. Mr. Hinchman
did not find any. Apparently they are in danger of being extirpated
once more.
There is a specimen in the Bermuda Museum collection.-E.

Phasianus colchicus torquatus Gmel.
RING-NECKED PHEASANT.
As mentioned by Mr. Bradlee in the introduction to this paper,
some of the introduced birds have escaped and become feral on the
islands. On May 1, 1928, Mr. W. F. Eaton reported a cock crowing
from the hillside a mile or two from the Morgan estate, where they
were originally introduced.-E.
Columba livia Gmel.
ROCK DOVE, DOMESTIC PIGEON.
Reid (1884, p. 224-225) writes 'My friend, Mr. J. M. Jones, was
informed by Mr. J. H. Trott that previous to 1831, small parties of









326 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

these birds [Passenger Pigeons] were resident in the islands, breeding
in the caves at Walsingham and along the south shore; but I am
inclined to think, with all deference to the authority given, that
these must have been escaped Blue Rocks [Columbia livia] from
dovecotes on the island.'-B.
Mr. W. F. Eaton notes on May 2, 1928, while looking for 'Long
Tails' on the north shore near Admiralty house, that he heard birds
cooing in caves in the cliffs and it was not until a dove flew out that
he realized they were reverting to their wild instincts and apparently
nesting there.-E.

Ectopistes migratorius (Linne).
PASSENGER PIGEON.
Formerly an accidental visitor.
Reid (1884, p. 224-225) says: 'Wedderburn records that one was
seen by Dr. Cole; but no date is given. Mr. Bartram shot one as he
lay on a sofa in his museum with "broken-bone" fever on October 24th,
1863. It was sitting on a tree close to his house.'-B.

Zenaidura macroura carolinensis (Linn6).
MOURNING DOVE.
An occasional visitor on both migrations.
Mr. Mowbray reports having taken two. Reid (1884, p. 225) says:
'One was shot by Captain Harvey on March 20, 1850; and another
was taken alive at Spanish Point on October 30, 1854. I saw one
on the Sand Hills on November 5, 1874. A small flock frequented
the hills near Whale Bay all through the winter of 1874-5, and speci-
mens were obtained, one by Lieutenant Hussey, R. E., on February
11, 1875. I hear from Lieutenant Denison that two were seen as late
as June 20, 1875. Can they have remained to breed?'-B.
Mr. Charles Johnston found two at St. George October 28, 1929,
and Dr. William Beebe one at Nonsuch Island on September 20,
1929.-E.

Columbigallina passerina bermudiana (Bangs and Bradlee).
BERMUDA GROUND DOVE.
Abundant resident. (Reid 1884, p. 225-226.)
Throughout the autumn and early winter it is found in small flocks










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


of from six to fifteen, but in the early part of January they begin to
pair, and the first brood is hatched early in April, the second the last
part of June. The nest is usually built in cedar trees, seldom more
than twelve feet from the ground. It is a flimsy structure of twigs
and cedar bark. When driven from its nest the parent bird flops
along the ground as if wounded and does all it can to attract one
away from its nest.-B.
Mr. Richard Hinchman reported a maximum of forty on the links
of the Belmont Manor Golf course on January 3, 1930. Messrs.
Eaton and Baker found them common and Mr. Johnston found
them abundant.-E.

Cathartes aura septentrionalis Wied.
TURKEY VULTURE.
Accidental visitor.
One was shot by Dr. Munro in December, 1853, the year of the
great yellow fever epidemic, and examined by Hurdis (1897, p. 280-
281). Captain John Smith, writing of the fatal famine of the winter
of 1614-1615 says (Lefroy 1877-79, 1, p. 76; Arber 1895, p. 647):
'About this time or immediately before, came in a company of Rauens,
which continued amongst them all the time of this mortality and then
departed, which for any thing known, neither before nor since, were
euer seene or heard of.'-B.

Circus hudsonius (Linn6).
MARSH HAWK.
A more or less regular winter visitor, sometimes remaining for
quite a time. I saw one several times during the winter of 1907-1908
near Devonshire Marsh. Numerous specimens have been taken.
(Reid 1884, p. 217.)-B.
Mr. John H. Baker saw one on March 8, 1925, and Dr. William
Beebe reports one on October 18, 1930, at Nonsuch Island.-E.

Accipiter velox velox (Wils.).
SHARP-SHINNED HAWK.
An occasional winter visitor.
Several specimens have been taken, the last by Mr. Mowbray on
February 10, 1904. Reid (1884, p. 218) says: 'Colonel Wedderburn
has a specimen in his collection, shot near Peniston's Pond on the









328 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

23rd of February, 1853, and Mr. Bartram has another, shot by himself
near Stocks Point.'-B.

Astur gentilis atricapillus (Wils.).
GOSHAWK.
An accidental visitor.
The only records are two specimens in the Bartram collection,
which were examined by Reid (1884, p. 219).-B.
There is a specimen marked 'young male' in the Bermuda Museum
collection, taken by Mr. Louis L. Mowbray at Agar's Island on
March 10, 1908.-M.

Buteo borealis borealis (Gmel.).
RED-TAILED HAWK.
A frequent visitor, usually in winter.
'A nest of this buzzard containing young is said to have been found
in the cliffs of Harrington Sound' about 1862 (Reid 1884, p. 220-221).
William Strachey (1610, see Lefroy 1877-79, 1, p. 35) in his narrative
speaks of 'Hawkes, of which in March wee found diuers Ayres,' which
may refer to this bird. I saw two fine specimens, a pair, which were
caught in a trap in January, 1908. Bowditch (1904, p. 561) reports a
hawk, probably Buteo, as seen by several persons in July, 1903.-B.
There is a female specimen in the Bermuda Museum collection
which was shot by Mr. Louis L. Mowbray on Cooper's Island on
February 14, 1909.-M.
Dr. William Beebe saw one at Nonsuch Island on March 16, 1929.-
E.
Buteo lineatus lineatus (Gmel.).
RED-SHOULDERED HAWK.
An occasional visitor.
I saw one in November, 1913, and there is a skin in the Public
Library at Hamilton which was identified by Mr. A. H. Verrill (1901a,
p. 85; 1901b, p. 64) as being of this species.-B.

Buteo lagopus sancti-johannis (Gmel.).
ROUGH-LEGGED HAWK.
The only record is: 'A dingy old specimen in Mr. Bartram's pos-
session .. appears to belong here. Its measurements and
fully feathered tarsi are, I think, unmistakable.' (Reid 1884, p. 221.)-











BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


Haliaitus leucocephalus (Linnd).
BALD EAGLE.
Occasional visitor.
It has been seen on several occasions. The dates given by Reid
(1884, p. 223) are in the months of March, May, June, and October.
A young bird of this species was taken at St. George in April, 1908,
by F. B. Spurling, Jr.-B.

Falco peregrinus anatum Bonap.
DUCK HAWK.
A rare visitor.
Several specimens have been taken, but none in recent years.
Reid (1884, p. 219) says: 'I never saw this grand bird alive .
but I examined a specimen in Mr. Bartram's collection, and another,
in the flesh, shot . at Peniston's Pond on the 10th of
October, 1874.'-B.
A specimen was seen for several days at Spittal Pond in March, 1930,
but could not be approached within gunshot.-M.

Falco columbarius columbarius Linn6.
PIGEON HAWK.
A regular winter visitor, but never in large numbers.
It has been taken in May. I have seen one or two every winter.
Reid (1884, p. 219-220) says: 'Hardly a year passes without a few
stragglers appearing. I saw one flying over Devonshire Swamp on
the 2nd of November, and obtained a beautiful male from the same
place on the 3rd December, 1874.'-B.
A male, taken by Mr. Ross Cooper at Spittal Pond on January 10,
1931, was presented to Mr. Louis L. Mowbray, and is now in his
collection.-M.
This species is recorded by Mr. Baker on March 4, 1925, and by
Mr. Johnston on October 30 and 31, 1929, at Angel Cove. Dr.
William Beebe reported it at Nonsuch Island on April 11, 1929.-E.

Falco sparverius sparverius Linne.
AMERICAN SPARROW HAWK.
Rare visitor in winter.
There are only two records: one was brought to Hurdis (1897, p.
280) by Mr. Walker of the hill overlooking the sluice gates, near










330 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

Spanish Point, on December 19,' 1853; the other was shot by Mr.
Mowbray on February 24, 1904.-B.
One was shot by Mr. Weber in February, 1930, at Spittal Pond.
One, shot by Mr. Ross Cooper on January 20, 1931, at Shelly Bay,
is in Mr. Louis L. Mowbray's collection.-M.
There is a specimen in the Bermuda Museum, and Dr. William
Beebe has reported one at Nonsuch Island October 14, 1930.-E.

Pandion haliaetus carolinensis (Gmel.).
AMERICAN OSPREY.
Occasional winter visitor.
A number of specimens have been taken, but it is by no means
regular in its visits. One remained almost a month near a small
bay at Point Shares in the winter of 1901. Reid (1884, p. 222) indi-
cates that it is often seen in April and May, and he saw one or two
specimens in the autumn.-B.
Mr. Louis L. Mowbray observed one at Cooper's Island in Decem-
ber, 1929, and one at Longbird Island on March 15, 1931.-M.
Dr. William Beebe gives dates of March 20 and October 14, 1929,
at Nonsuch Island.-E.

Tyto alba pratincola (Bonap.).
BARN OWL.
Dr. William Beebe observed two owls of this species in a cave off
and on from June 7 to Sept. 5, 1931, on Nonsuch Island.-E.

Asio wilsonianus (Less.).
LONG-EARED OWL.
Frequent, but irregular, winter visitor.
In the winter of 1846-1847 three specimens were taken at Gibbs'
Hill. Wedderburn (1859, p. 25) says: 'Hurdis mentions three of
these birds as having been killed at Gibbs Hill in 1846, 1847, and
1849.' See also Reid (1884, p. 214).-B.
Single birds were seen at Nonsuch Island on September 2, 1929,
and on August 2, 1930, by Dr. William Beebe.-E.

1 Unless Miss Hurdis, in editing her father's notes, made a mistake, the date given
by Wedderburn (1859, p. 24-25) and by Reid (1884, p. 220) as December 9, is
apparently wrong, for Hurdis (1897, p. 280) gives the date as December 19.-
E. L.M.










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


Asio flammeus flammeus (Pontoppidan).
SHORT-EARED OWL.
Occasional winter visitor.
Several specimens have been obtained, usually on the south shore
near Gibbs' Hill. Reid (1884, p. 214) says: 'The attraction presented
by that part of the islands would appear to consist of a plentiful
supply of mice, which inhabit the sandy scrub-covered hills near the
shore.'-B.
Strix varia Barton
BARRED OWL.
Accidental visitor.
No specimens have ever been taken, but two were seen by Hurdis
(1859, p. 57) on April 2, 1851, and (Hurdis 1897, p. 289) on September
13, 1854.-B.
The night watchman at the Aquarium, Flatts, heard one hit the
telephone wire and saw it fall into the water. He dipped it up and
gave it to Mr. Louis L. Mowbray on March 28, 1930.-M.

Cryptoglaux acadica acadica (Gmel.).
SAW-WHET OWL.
An accidental visitor.
The only record is given by Wedderburn (1859, p. 25-26), who says:
'Only one specimen, found January 12th, 1849, sitting inside the muzzle
of one of the guns at Ireland Island, by an artillery man. It is to be
hoped that the said gunner has more nerve when working a gun, than
he displayed on finding the little bird, being afraid to catch it, as he
said "it glow'rd at him." It was caught by a man of the 42d, and
lived .in my room for several days, getting quite tame.' (Reid 1884,
p. 215-16.)-B.
Dr. George Rankin of St. George showed Mr. Eaton a mounted
bird taken at St. Catherine's head in 1927.-E.

Nyctea nyctea (Linn6).
SNOWY OWL.
An occasional visitor.
Several specimens have been taken in the autumn and winter,
the latest recorded by Mr. Mowbray in January, 1914. Denison
(Reid 1884, p. 216) reports that 'two frequented the islands in the
autumn of 1875. One of these was shot by Lieutenant Tallents,
20th Regiment; the other escaped, though it remained two months or










332 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

more.' Wedderburn (1859, p. 25) says that two specimens were shot
at Boss's Cove in the autumn of 1843, and another at Ireland Island
on November 29, 1853.-B.
Mr. Louis L. Mowbray shot a male in almost white plumage on
January 26, 1907, and a female, a little more mottled, on February 6,
1907. He saw a fine specimen in light plumage on December 28, 1930,
on a telephone pole near the Aquarium, Flatts, and another on Janu-
ary 28, 1931, on Government House, Pembroke. This specimen was
reported from Pembroke Marsh on several occasions in February
and March, 1931.-M.

Suria ulula caparoch (Mill.).
HAWK OWL.
Rare visitor.
Mr. W. Outerbridge shot a fine male at St. George in the autumn
of 1905. 'A single specimen (Wedderburn 1859, p. 55) was seen by
Col. Drummond at St. George's, quite close to him on a Sunday
afternoon, otherwise it would have been shot.'-B.

Coccyzus americanus americanus (Linn6).
YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO.
A regular visitor on both migrations.
Hurdis (1897, p. 132) reports an extraordinary flight of these
birds which reached Bermuda on October 9, 1849; he says:
'Captain H. M. Drummond . visited the coast along
St. David's Island. Here he found the Yellow-billed Cuckoo in
thousands-"absolutely in thousands"-every cedar tree along the
shore having five or six of these birds in its upper branches,' and again
(p. 133) from a point twenty miles distant: 'Mr. J. D. Anderson
(Civil Engineer, in charge of the Works at Ireland Island) tells me
that on the morning of the 9th instant, "numbers of Yellow-billed
Cuckoos" were observed by him among the cedar trees inside the
keep. On asking him to explain how far he meant the word "numbers"
to extend, he replied that he saw at least four hundred of these birds
there; and at Somerset, on the evening of the same day, the trees
were full of them.'
Reid (1884, p. 212) says: 'They were "numerous" from the 12th
to the 15th of October, 1874,' and Mr. Mowbray reports them as
'common' in October, 1903, and September, 1904, 1907, and 1908. A











BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


very large flight also occurred in October, 1913, of which I saw two
stragglers when I arrived late in the month.--B.
Mr. Louis L. Mowbray saw numerous specimens and a number of
others were reported by other persons in September and October,
1930.-M.
One was reported to Mrs. Fry while she was there in 1927, and on
August 16, 1929, three were seen by Dr. Beebe at Nonsuch Island.-E.

Coccyzus erythrophthalmus (Wils.).
BLACK-BILLED CUCKOO.
An occasional visitor on both migrations.
Several specimens have been taken. Reid (1884, p. 211) says:
'I imagine this species has occurred more frequently than the records
tend to show, not having been distinguished from its larger-billed
congener.'-B.
This species was seen by Dr. William Beebe at Nonsuch Island on
September 24, 1930, and among the birds found dead at St. David's
light on October 8-11, 1929, were cuckoos probably of both species.-E.

Megaceryle alcyon alcyon (LinnE).
BELTED KINGFISHER.
Common winter resident in small numbers. Records are from
September 7 to June 2.
Wedderburn (1859, p. 33-34) says: 'These birds arrive regularly
about the middle of September and are to be found in all the mangrove
swamps, creeks, and ponds in the islands.'
From observations made on April 20, 1913, Kennedy (1914, p. 188)
infers that 'some of these birds may breed in the Bermudas,' and notes
'that this Kingfisher was more often observed fishing in salt- than in
fresh-water.' I can find no record of this species being seen during
the summer.-B.
Numerous specimens were seen on the shore of Harrington Sound,
and at the Flatts, throughout the winter of 1931.-M.
This bird seems to be common as a migrant and winter resident.
Mr. Baker found it common; Mr. Hinchman recorded one on January
3, 1930, in Warwick; and Mr. Abbot found one regularly in Paget
West, from February to May, 1929. Mr. Charles Johnston saw two
regularly in Castle Harbor on October 27, 1929, and later. Mr.
John F. Kieran recorded it regularly from December 9-15, 1930, and
Dr. Beebe reported it on April 23 and September 20, 1929.










334 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

There is a specimen in the Bermuda Museum collection, and
another at the Crystal Caves.-E.
Dryobates pubescens (Linn6).
DOWNY WOODPECKER.
Dr. William Beebe observed one on Nonsuch Island, Sept. 24, 1931,
which was feeding on wasps which it was catching under the porch.-E.
Sphyrapicus various various (Linn6).
YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER.
Regular winter resident in small numbers.
Many of the palmetto trees show the borings by this bird, one or
two of which I have seen every winter. Wedderburn (1859, p. 33)
says: 'In general not very common. I first saw it in December, 1847,
again in November, 1848; and in April, 1850, a great number suddenly
appeared, several of which I shot. Many of the palmetto trees are
bored by this bird. It breeds in Mr. Ballinghall's garden every year,
and I should think that a few also breed in holes in the large trees at
Brackish Pond; and in some of the other large swamps.' Reid (1884,
p. 212-213) adds: 'Three examples occurred during my stay, but I
could not ascertain whether they bred or not in 1875. I don't think
they did so in Brackish Pond, where I kept a careful watch for them.'
Mr. Mowbray has not been able to find any evidence of their breeding.
-B.
Mr. Louis Septieme Mowbray reported one on the Aquarium
grounds, Flatts, in February, 1931.
Mr. Ross Cooper reported to Mr. Louis L. Mowbray having seen
one near his house at Shelly Bay in March, 1931.-M.
This species was seen by Mrs. Fry on January 11 and February 2,
1927. One was seen on December 14, 1930, at Belmont Manor by
Mr. John F. Kieran.-E.
Colaptes auratus (Linn6).
FLICKER.
A very rare visitor.
Reid (1884, p. 213) says: 'The only specimens ever obtained were
shot by officers of the 61st Regiment in Devonshire Marsh, as my
friend Mr. J. M. Jones informed me. One or two were shot, in 1871
I think, but no others are on record.'-B.
Mr. Louis L. Mowbray took a fine male on December 4, 1904, in
the Public Gardens, St. George.-M.











BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Linn6).
RED-HEADED WOODPECKER.
One fine male was taken by Mr. Louis L. Mowbray in the Public
Gardens, St. George, on November 17, 1904.
Chordeiles minor minor (Forst.).
NIGHTHAWK.
Regular spring and autumn visitor, sometimes in considerable
numbers. Wedderburn (1859, p. 35-36) gives an interesting account
of the habits of this hawk, in part as follows:
'These curious birds are sometimes very common in April, and also
in September and October, on their migration north and south. The
marsh below Government House was their great resort, when, just
as it was getting dusk, they would appear one by one, and soon be
skimming about in all directions, uttering every now and then a
sharp, whirring sort of cry. They must create great
havoc among the mosquitoes (hence its name, mosquito hawk), and
other small insects.'
Hurdis (1859, p. 69-70) says: 'When this bird visits .
Bermuda from the north, it invariably appears between the 20th
of September and the 11th of October, and on its vernal flight from
the south, arrives with wonderful precision between the 23rd and
30th of April.'
Reid (1884, p. 208-209) adds: 'Individuals of this species were
observed by officers of Prospect Garrison on February 20 and 28,
1875. It would almost seem probable that these wintered in Bermuda;
but the question requires further investigation.' This is the only
record, outside of the usual migration visits, that I can find, and I
have never seen a Nighthawk during the winter months in the ob-
servations of several years.-B.
About a dozen specimens were seen on three successive evenings
over St. George during early November, 1930.-M.
Dr. William Beebe saw two specimens on September 20, 1929, and
one on April 18, 1929, at Nonsuch Island.-E.
Chaetura pelagica (Linn6).
CHIMNEY SWIFr.
Occasional visitor in the autumn.
Several specimens have been taken. Hurdis (1897, p. 118, 121)
reports having shot one on September 13, and having seen a few left










336 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

after the great flight of swallows which visited Bermuda on September
22, 1849. See also Reid (1884, p. 209).-B.

Archilochus colubris (Linn6).
RUBY-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD.
Occasional visitor.
There is a specimen in Mr. Bartram's collection (Reid 1884, p.
209-210) and two others were seen when this one was obtained.
Bowditch (1904, p. 557) reports birds, probably of this species, having
been seen near the Flatts on July 15 and 20, 1903.-B.
Dr. William Beebe saw this bird, a male, on May 5, 1929, and an-
other specimen on August 31, 1929, at Nonsuch Island.-E.

Tyrannus tyrannus (Linnd).
KINGBIRD.
Regular'spring visitor; rare in the autumn.
It was recorded as very numerous in the spring of 1850, and Reid
(1884, p. 205-206) says: 'A considerable number appeared in April,
1875,' to which Denison adds: 'Several were seen by me at Hungry
Bay on the 22nd of September, 1875,' this being the only autumn
record. I have seen single birds several times.-B.
Mr. Julius M. Johnson saw one on a wire in Warwick Parish on
August 21, 1921, and Dr. William Beebe saw one on October 8, 1930,
at Nonsuch Island.-E.

Tyrannus dominicensis (Gmel.).
GRAY KINGBIRD.
'Occasional visitor in the spring.
'Only three specimens are on record, viz., one obtained by Major
Wedderburn (1859, p. 26) in Mr. Hurdis' garden on March 30, 1850,
and two others on St. David's Island on April 15, 1850.' (Reid
1884, p. 206.)-B.
Muscivora tyrannus (Linnd).
FORK-TAILED FLYCATCHER.
Chapman (1916, p. 340) records this species from Bermuda and
Forbush (1925-1929, 2, p. 324) also lists it from there. This is a
South American species, which has occurred only half a dozen times
north of the West Indies.1-E.
1 Dr. Oberholser, of the U. S. Biological Survey, writes that this note was based on
the reference by Hurdis in Jardine's Contributions to Ornithology, 1850, p. 13. This
entry is as follows: 'Milvulus tyrannus.-Two examples have been obtained; one in
March, 1847, the other in September, 1849,' E. L. M.









BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


Sayornis phoebe (Lath.).
PHOEBE.
Dr. William Beebe observed a bird of this species to advantage on
Nonsuch Island, Sept. 15, 1931.-E.

Nuttallornis mesoleucus (Lichtenstein).
OLIVE-SIDED FLYCATCHER.
Accidental visitor.
The only record is of one in the Bartram collection, shot by Bart-
ram on his farm and reported by Reid (1884, p. 206-207).-B.

Myiochanes virens (Linn6).
WOOD PEWEE.
Accidental visitor.
Reid (1884, p. 207) says: 'A single example was obtained by Mr.
Hurdis [1897, p. 253] on April 30th, 1852.' This is the only case
ever recorded.-B.
Empidonax trailli trailli (Aud.).
TRAILL'S FLYCATCHER.
Accidental visitor.
The only specimen recorded is in the Bartram collection, shot
at Stocks Point (Reid 1884, p. 207).-B.

Alauda arvensis arvensis Linn6.
SKYLARK.
Occasional visitor.
Three specimens have been taken, the first by Hurdis (1859, p.
60-62; 1897, p. 182-183) on June 12, 1850; this for years was the only
Bermuda record, but Mr. Mowbray took birds of this species near
the Naval Tanks, St. George, November 10, 1902; and one bird on
November 30, 1904.-B.

Chionophilos alpestris alpestris (Linn6).
HORNED LARK.
A frequent visitor in the autumn and winter; there is no spring
record.
Several specimens have been obtained. I saw a flock of six on
January 10, 1912.-B.
Seven specimens were seen near Fort George in December, 1929,
by Mr. Louis L. Mowbray.-M.









338 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

Cyanocitta cristata (Linn6).
BLUE JAY.
There is a skin of this bird in the collection of the Bermuda Museum,
with no data attached. This skin was formerly in the Public Library
in Hamilton.-E.
This specimen is supposed to have been shot at Somerset by a Naval
Officer, skinned and presented by him to the. Public Library, Hamilton.
The label as to date was destroyed by insects.-M.

Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm.
CROW.
Resident. Not common.
The largest flock I have seen (1911) numbered fourteen. When
Bermuda was first settled, crows were evidently quite numerous in
the islands, for Captain John Smith, who was Governor of the islands,
as well as of Virginia and New England, writing in 1623 (Lefroy 1877-
1879, p. 330), says: 'Neither hath the Aire for her part been wanting
with due supplies of many sorts of Fowles, as uery many
Crowes, which since this Plantation are kild, the rest fled or seldome
seene except in the most vninhabited places, from whence they are
obserued to take their flight about sun set, directing their course
towards the North-west, which makes many coniecture there are
some more Ilands not far off that way.'
Wedderburn (1859, p. 32-33) says: 'A few of these birds are generally
to be seen between the lighthouse and Hamilton .a few
young crows were observed near Warwick Church, during the first
week of April, 1849. It is supposed they were introduced from Nova
Scotia some few years ago.' Hurdis (1859, p. 65-66) reports that
'in August, 1854, eleven were seen associating together at Gibbs'
Hill, by the late Col. Oakley.' He adds, 'This was double the number
which had hitherto frequented those parts, and arose, doubtless, from
the young of that season.' Reid (1884, p. 204) writing in 1874, says:
'They are numerous now; so much so that a price has been set on their
devoted heads by a recent enactment. That this is a
wise and necessary measure is universally conceded, as they do
much damage in the breeding season, by destroying young poultry,
and the eggs and young of resident birds. I have seen
as many as sixteen in one flock in June.' Today I do not think there
are fifty crows in the islands. I took a nest with five eggs on April 8,









BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


1908. These eggs average slightly smaller than those of birds on
the continent, as do also a set taken by Mr. Mowbray. The nest was
in a cedar tree about eight feet from the ground.
Judging from all the above records, it would appear that the crow,
whether or not introduced by man, has been in the Bermudas a
much longer period of time than supposed by Prentiss (1896, p. 237),
who gave the date of introduction as some twenty years prior to
1896.-B.
One Rodrigers, a Spaniard, recorded finding them on the islands in
1603, stating that they were quite tame. Three were seen at Spittal
Pond during the whole winter of 1929-30. Four were seen at Spittal
Pond from December, 1930, to April, 1931, by Louis Septieme Mow-
bray.-M.
Apparently the Crow has become very rare in Bermuda, so much
so that Mr. Charles Johnston failed to find any between October 27
and November 23, 1929; but Mr. Richard Hinchman found three
in Paget on December 28, 1929, and Mr. John F. Kieran saw one on
the South shore on December 15, 1930. In May, 1928 (W. F. Eaton),
the maximum seen in one day was four, about Castle Harbor, and
the maximum flock recorded by Dr. Rankin the winter before was
seven. Mr. Julius M. Johnson did not record any during August,
1921. Heilprin (1889, p. 82) says: 'We observed but three crows
during our sojourn.' On May 7, 1928, three of the crows seen were
going through the customary mating antics, but they were very
wild at all times, probably because of their persecution by the natives.
It is doubtless only a question of time before they will be extirpated
unless protected. Dr. Beebe reported them from Nonsuch Island
in March, 1929.
There is a specimen in the Bermuda Museum.-E.

Sturus vulgaris Linn&.
EUROPEAN STARLING.
The Bulletin issued by Dr. John B. May, State Ornithologist of
Massachusetts, for March, 1929, contains the following information
on the species. 'Some years since, a steamer arrived at Bermuda
from New York and, as she passed around the channel, a number of
starlings flew from her to the shore. They were seen for several
days afterwards but finally disappeared.'
On March 3, 1929, Mr. John S. Paynter found a dying Starling
at St. George. Whether this bird came from Europe or North










340 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

America is problematical, but as might be suggested by the above
note, it was probably the latter.-E.

Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linn6).
BOBOLINK.
A frequent autumn visitor; no spring record.
According to Hurdis (1859, p. 62-63) this species is found nearly
every autumn in small flocks, and on one occasion he observed it in
considerable numbers. Reid (1884, p. 202) quotes from Wedderburn
this: 'During some years this bird is not uncommon, but always
found in winter plumage. They are so extremely fat that it is almost
impossible to preserve them.' Reid adds: 'They did not visit the
Bermudas in the autumn of 1874,' but H. Denison follows with this
note: 'In September, 1875, they were numerous.'-B.
Mr. Mowbray reports them in the autumn of 1905 and 1906. He
also reports four lots of three or four of them together in December
and January, 1929-30, at Fort George and Naval Tanks.-M.

Molothrus ater ater (Bodd.).
COWBIRD.
A rare visitor.
Only two specimens have been taken; one at Stocks Point by Mr.
Bartram (Reid 1884, p. 203), and the other, shot by Mr. Mowbray
on April 11, 1906, at Par-la-ville grounds, Hamilton, and now in the
Bermuda Museum.-B.

Icterus galbula (Linn6).
BALTIMORE ORIOLE.
A rare spring, but frequent autumn, visitor.
Mr. Mowbray took specimens on September 16 and October 12,
1904. Wedderburn (1859, p. 27-28) says: 'Capt. Tolcher (56th
Regiment) shot one of these birds early in October, 1854, at Somerset.
Hurdis (1897, p. 296) found it amongst his [Tolcher's] collection of
skins on the 20th of the same month, when Captain Tolcher assured
him that Mr. Harford, of his Regiment, had killed another specimen
about the same time, which, from being very much mutilated, he
had unfortunately thrown away.' Reid (1884, p. 203) 'shot a male
in splendid plumage . near Hungry Bay, on April 28,
1875.' This is the only spring record.-B.










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


Dr. William Beebe observed one on May 5, 1929, at Nonsuch
Island.-E.
Pinicola enucleator leucura (Mill.).
PINE GROSBEAK.
Accidental visitor.
The only record is a specimen (a female) taken on December 14,
1906, by a colored boy, who brought it in to the Bermuda Museum,
where I saw it in the flesh. A gale from the north had been blowing
for two days before the bird was taken.-B.

Passer domesticus (Linn6).
HOUSE SPARROW.
Abundant resident.
Imported in the seventies, these pests have increased, as usual, and
I think will in time drive all other birds away, as they have already
from the immediate vicinity of Hamilton, where they are most abun-
dant.-B.
Despite the expenditure of eight hundred pounds sterling in bounties
this species still remains enormously abundant, as many as all the
other species together.-E.

Loxia curvirostra pusilla Gloger.
AMERICAN CROSSBILL.
A frequent autumn and winter visitor, sometimes remaining until
spring.
Numerous specimens have been taken, the last one recorded having
been taken by Mr. R. Sylvester, of St. George, in the autumn of
1904. Wedderburn (1859, p. 32) says: 'I shot three specimens near
Mr. Ewing's house, April 5th, 1850, and saw a small flock on several
occasions, near Pitt's Bay, but they were so shy I could not get near
them. They disappeared early in May.-B.
One male was shot by Mr. Louis L. Mowbray in the Public Gardens,
St. George, on December 20, 1904.-M.

Loxia leucoptera Gmel.
WHITE-WINGED CROSSBILL.
Occasional visitor.
Several specimens have been taken, all in the spring. None have
been reported in recent years; but Wedderburn (1859, p. 32) states









342 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

that Hurdis (1897, p. 255) received a beautiful male specimen, in
mottled plumage of carmine and black, killed on May 11, 1852, from
a boy who had in his possession another bird in gray plumage. Hurdis
also examined a female specimen which had been shot at Somerset by
an officer of the 56th Regiment in March, 1852. Compare Reid (1884,
p. 194), who adds: 'Mr. Bartram has obtained a pair, male and female.'
-B.
Acanthis linaria linaria (Linn6).
REDPOLL.
A frequent visitor in the autumn and winter.
I have seen small flocks in January and February. Reid (1884,
p. 195) says: 'A goodly number visited the islands in small flocks in
January, 1875' and (1883, Appendix, p. 2) 'Thousands appeared in
December, 1878. Mr. Bartram caught between sixty and seventy
near his house.'-B.

Astragalinus tristis tristis (Linn6).
GOLDFINCH.
Accidental visitor.
Reid does not give it in his list, but Hurdis (1897, p. 164), under
date of March 21, 1850, says: 'Mr. W. Joel, who resides on the margin
of the Devonshire Marsh or Cedar Swamp, informs me that several
'yellow birds,' so termed in the United States, recently visited that
neighborhood. He described them as small birds of a bright yellow
colour with black wings. These were probably the American Gold-
finch (Carduelis tristis of Audubon).'
Mr. A. H. Verrill (1901a, p. 85; 1901b, p. 64) says: 'Introduced
about four years ago near Hungry Bay and now not uncommon in
various parts of the islands.' However, in the observation of ten
years I have never seen or heard of any until this winter (1914),
when Mr. Irving Huntington, who knows the birds in the United
States, told me he had seen several.-B.

Spinus pinus pinus (Wils.).
PINE SISKIN.
Accidental visitor.
'Two specimens in Mr. Bartram's collection are the only ones on
record. They were obtained near Stocks Point' (Reid 1884, p. 145).-
B.










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS. 343

Carduelis carduelis (Linn6).1
EUROPEAN GOLDFINCH.
Abundant resident.
Reid (1883, p. 17) says: 'I observed a single specimen of the Euro-
pean Goldfinch near Harrington Sound, in April, 1875; it was very
wild and I could not get near it, but I imagine it must have been
an escaped prisoner.' I am told that several pairs are supposed to
have escaped from a steamer at St. George in 1890. In 1895, when
I first visited Bermuda, one saw an occasional flock, very wild and
hard to approach. Today (1914) the European Goldfinch is the
most common bird in Bermuda, excepting the English Sparrow, and,
from not having been molested, has changed its habits and become
quite tame. They rear two broods in Bermuda, the first about the
middle of April (I found a nest with eggs hard set on April 6, 1908),
and the second in June.-B.
There is a specimen in the Bermuda Museum, collected by Mr.
Louis L. Mowbray.-M.
In contrast to Mr. Bradlee's statement (1914), Mr. Johnston
estimates that the European Goldfinch is about one fourth as common
as the Bluebird. Mr. Eaton (1928) did not find it as numerous as
the Catbird, Cardinal, or Bluebird, but it was still common. Mr.
Baker (1925) reported it as very common in flocks.-E.

Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis (Linn6).
SNOW BUNTING.
A regular winter visitor.
After nearly every westerly and northerly gale in the winter, these
birds appear in small flocks. Hurdis (1897, p. 203-204) reports
flocks of several hundred on December 5, 1850. The earliest recorded
date is October 29, 1903, when Mr. Mowbray saw a flock.-B.
Several specimens were seen near Burchall's Pond in early Novem-
ber, 1930, by Louis SeptiBme Mowbray.-M.
Mr. Charles Johnston found one on the Causeway between Ferry
Reach and Castle Harbor on November 7, 1929. Dr. William Beebe
writes that on October 28, 1930, he approached to within four feet
of a pair at Nonsuch Island.-E..

The form introduced into Bermuda was Carduelis carduelis britannica Hartert,
a much darker bird than the continental goldfinch, with smaller whitish nuchal
spot. The Bermuda bird later was named Carduelis carduelis bermudiana Kennedy
(1913, p. 33).-0. Bangs.









344 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

Calcarius lapponicus lapponicus (Linn6).
LAPLAND LONGSPUR.
Mr. Louis L. Mowbray took several specimens at Fort Victoria,
St. George, on December 1, 1904.-M.

Pooecetes gramineus gramineus (Gmel.).
VESPER SPARROW.
Occasional visitor.
Only two specimens have been recorded. Reid (1884, p. 197) says:
'One shot by Capt. M'Leod at St. George's on October 25th, 1849' to
which Denison adds: 'I saw several and shot one of them at [East?]
Whale Bay, September 9th, 1876.' None have been recorded in recent
years.-B.
Passerculus sandwichensis (Gmel.).
SAVANNAH SPARROW.
An occasional visitor.
One was taken by Kennedy (1913, p. 190) at Boaz Island on March
8, 1913; it was feeding with a flock of House Sparrows in a field. The
only other records are: one killed by Wedderburn in Pembroke
Marsh, April 11, 1850, and one by Reid (1884, p. 197) at Shelly Bay
Marsh on January 29, 1875.-B.
On October 28, 1929, two were seen at St. George by Mr. Charles
Johnston.-E.
Passerherbulus henslowi susurrans Brewst.
HENSLOW'S SPARROW.
Accidental visitor.
Wedderburn (1859, p. 30-31) writes: 'Mr. Hurdis shot one speci-
men out. of a small flock of these birds, in Pembroke Marsh, on the
2nd of December, 1850. They had frequented the dense reeds and
rushes for a fortnight previously.' (See also Hurdis 1897, p. 202-203.)
-B.
Spizella arborea arborea (Wils.).
TREE SPARROW.
Accidental visitor.
A. H. Verrill (1901a, p. 85) has-this record, as follows: 'A small
flock of these birds was seen on several occasions near Hungry Bay,
during the latter part of March.'-B.
Dr. William Beebe observed two birds within four feet, one very
lame, at Nonsuch Island, March 20, 1929.-E.









BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


Spizella passerina passerina (Bech.).
CHIPPING SPARROW.
One bird of this species was carefully noted in winter plumage
at the Flatts village, February 16, 1931, by Mr. J. T. Nichols, and
Dr. William Beebe saw three on April 23, 1929, at Nonsuch Island.-E.

Junco hyemalis hyemalis (Linn6).
SLATE-COLORED JUNCO.
A rare visitor.
I saw a fine male on February 22, 1909. The only other record is:
'Two in the collection of Mr. Bartram, were shot by him at Stocks
Point' (Reid 1884, p. 198).-B.

Melospiza melodia (Wils.).
SONG SPARROW.
Accidental visitor.
The only record is that of Merriam (1884, p. 283) who says: 'Walter
H. Merriam and myself found a dead Song Sparrow near Hungry
Bay, Bermuda, April 18, 1881. This was after a heavy gale from the
southwest, and the date would bring it about the close of the period
of northward migration for this species along our coast. Although
the weather was warm and the atmosphere laden with moisture, the
bird was perfectly fresh and could not have been dead long. It was
doubtless lost at sea during the storm and carried exhausted to the
Bermudas, where it perished from the effects of the tempest. This
species has not heretofore been recorded from the Bermudas.'-B.
On October 21, 1929, at Nonsuch Island, Dr. William Beebe ob-
served the only live Song Sparrow of which we have record.-E.

Melospiza georgiana (Lath.).
SWAMP SPARROW.
Occasional visitor.
The only captured specimen was taken by Hurdis (1897, p. 141-142)
on December 3, 1849, but it has been seen several times.-B.

Passerella iliaca iliaca (Merr.).
Fox SPARROW.
Accidental visitor.
Reid (1884, p. 188-189) says: 'Only one yet obtained; shot by
Mr. Bartram in a bush near his house a few years since.'-B.









346 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

Richmondena cardinalis cardinalis (Linn6).1
CARDINAL.
Abundant resident.
This bird, well known to all visitors in Bermuda, is everywhere
conspicuous by its brilliant plumage and its loud and cheerful song,
especially in the spring. The 'Red-bird' breeds twice in Bermuda.
Reid (1884, p. 201) says: 'Fresh eggs have been found as early as the
1st, April, and . I saw young birds just able to fly on the
19th, but . as a rule the two clutches of eggs are deposited
about April 10th, and May 30th, respectively. The nest
is bulky, built of twigs and roots, being lined with dry grasses.'-B.
Reported as abundant by both Baker and Eaton; there'are probably
more Cardinals than either Bluebirds or Catbirds. An interesting
note was received by Reid (1884, p. 202) from Bartram, as follows:
'Captain Tupper .. put in here in distress on a voyage
from Brunswick, Ga., on or about the 12th of this month [April, 1878].
He tells me that one of our Red Birds came on board his ship and was
caught 350 miles to the westward of Bermuda; the wind had been
eastward for some days.'
There is a specimen in the collection of the Bermuda Museum.-E.

Hedymeles ludovicianus (Linn6).
ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK.
A frequent visitor on both migrations.
Numerous specimens have been taken, among others a fine male
by Mr. Mowbray in May, 1903, and Reid (1884, p. 199) says: 'A
female bird of this species was shot by Colonel Drummond on the 9th
October, 1849, near St. George's, and a fine male by Mr. Hurdis on the
15th April, 1850. Mr. Bartram has four specimens, one of which is
a male in immature plumage.'-B.

Passerina cyanea (Linn4).
INDIGO BUNTING.
A frequent visitor in the spring.
Reid (1884, p. 199-200) shot a female on January 14, 1875, and says:
'In March following I examined an immature male, shot by Mr.
SThe Bermuda Cardinal was named Cardinalis bermudianus by Bangs and Brad-
lee (1901, p. 256) and Cardinalis cardinalis somersii by A. H. Verrill (1901b, p. 65),
the two descriptions appearing, I believe, on the same day. The former has not been
generally allowed, but still may be valid.











BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


Bartram on the 1st of that month, . I obtained a female
in Devonshire Marsh on the 8th, a young male on the 11th, and
another on the 22nd of March, and one or two others were subse-
quently procured in the same locality. There appeared to have been
a regular "entrada" of them. .. I saw many others, and
watched the changes of plumage of the male birds with great inter-
est. .Lieutenant Tallents, of the Twentieth Regiment, shot
a splendid specimen on April 29. This was the last we saw, and I
imagine they all departed shortly afterwards.'
I am inclined to think, from the early date on which the first one
was shot, that these birds arrived in Bermuda on the autumn mi-
gration and wintered there, escaping observation in the winter on
account of their subdued coloration. I have seen Indigo Buntings
nearly every April that I have been in Bermuda.-B.

Passerina ciris (Linn6).
PAINTED BUNTING, NONPAREIL.
A fine male flew into Mr. Clifford's store, St. George, during a hail
storm in March, 1903. Mr. Clifford gave the specimen to Mr. Louis
L. Mowbray, who was in the store at the time. It is the only record
that is known.-M.
Piranga erythromelas Vieill.
SCARLET TANAGER.
A frequent visitor in the spring.
Several specimens have been obtained. Reid (1884, p. 187) says:
'There is no recorded instance of the occurrence of this species on its
southward journey. Capt. Rooke . and I saw what we
took to be a female Scarlet Tanager on October 17th, 1874, near Bas-
den's Pond; but we could not get a shot to confirm our suspicions.'-B.

Piranga rubra rubra (Linn6).
SUMMER TANAGER.
A frequent visitor in the spring.
Birds of this species were especially numerous in April, 1850,
when several specimens were obtained, the first as early as the 9th.
Reid (1884, p. 187-188) says: 'On the 29th of April, 1875, I shot a
fine female in Smith's Marsh; it was in wonderful condition, the body
being literally coated with layers of orange-coloured fat. The stomach
was full of the remains of the Bermuda wasp, a most unpalatable









348 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

looking morsel, I should have thought. Wilson alludes to the in-
sectivorous habits of this species.'-B.

Progne subis subis (Linn6).
PURPLE MARTIN.
An occasional visitor.
It was numerous in the great flight of swallows of September,
1849. Mr. Mowbray saw two and took one on August 25, 1904, and
Bowditch (1904, p. 559-560) reports seeing two Martins, presumably
of this species, on August 14, 1903.-B.
One was shot on the Aquarium grounds, Flatts, by Louis Septieme
Mowbray on March 28, 1930.-M.

Petrochelidon albifrons albifrons (Raf.).
CLIFF SWALLOW.
The only record for the islands is that of Dr. William Beebe, who
writes that he saw one perfectly on May 8, 1929, at Nonsuch Island.-
E.
Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Bodd.
BARN SWALLOW.
A frequent visitor on both migrations.
Wedderburn (1859, p. 54) says: 'This species was very numerous
in the great flight of swallows, in September, 1849.' Reid (1884,
p. 188-189) says: 'A few swallows, probably of this species, appeared
in August, 1874, but I was away at the time. From April 30 to May
11, 1875, there were not a few visitors, and several specimens were
obtained. Five of these birds frequented the grassy slopes in the
vicinity of Warwick Camp, while I was going through the annual
course of musketry there with my company. They disappeared on
May 11, without my having been able to procure a specimen.'
As an illustration of the uncertain appearance of swallows on the
Islands, Hurdis (1859, p. 68-69), who was an intelligent and careful
observer, says: 'I can with safety affirm that from October, 1840, to
September, 1846, not a swallow of any description came under my
observation, though I believe they were sufficiently common in
Bermuda in September of the former year.'-B.
In the autumn of 1928 about 50 birds rested for two weeks on the
wires, etc., about the Flatts Inlet. Louis SeptiBme Mowbray.-M.
Mr. Charles Johnston found four at St. George on November 7
and two on the North Shore on November 21, 1929. Dr. Beebe's










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


records are: a pair on April 23 and August 17, 1929, and one on Sep-
tember 5, 1930.-E.
Iridoprocne bicolor (Vieill.).
TREE SWALLOW.
Occasional visitor.
Wedderburn (1859, p. 34) says: 'A great flight of swallows appeared
on the 22nd September, 1849, when this species [White-bellied Swallow
(H. bicolor) ] was numerous, although never previously observed.'
See also Hurdis (1897, p. 120, 122), who says: 'Mr. Orde, who [on
September 22, 1849] had been out to Peniston's Ponds, re-
turned with twelve or thirteen Swallows, among which were two
species new to Bermuda, viz., the Purple Martin and the
White-bellied Swallow (Hirundo bicolor) of Audubon.'
Reid (1884, p. 189) says: 'This Swallow visited the Bermudas in the
great flight of September 1846 [1849?], when it appeared in consider-
able numbers. Lieutenant Denison obtained one, shot at St. George's
in September, 1875.'
Riparia riparia riparia (Linnd).
BANK SWALLOW.
Occasional visitor.
'Two specimens were shot by Capt. Lye, in September, 1846, and
a few were seen near Hamilton on August 8th, 1847.' (Reid 1884, p.
189.)-B.
Bombycilla cedrorum Vieill.
CEDAR WAXWING.
A frequent visitor on both migrations; sometimes numerous in the
autumn and winter.
Mr. Mowbray and I took specimens from a small flock on April 6,
1906. Reid (1884, p. 190) says: 'Three were shot out of a flock of
about thirty, near Hungry Bay, on October 10th, 1847; four on Decem-
ber 17th following, one of which had a few of the brilliant wax-like
tips to the secondaries; two out of a flock of twelve in December, 1849;
one seen on January 5th, 1850; one shot on the 6th and another on the
10th April, 1850; one on December 2nd, 1851. In addition to these
Mr. Bartram has three specimens, obtained at different dates. I did
not myself meet with the species, or hear of its occurrence, during my
stay. [Two were shot out of a flock of five on the 11th, and a third on
the 22nd September, 1875, in Devonshire Swamp, by Lieut. Festing,
20th Regiment. A male bird of this species was obtained near Pros-









350 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

pect, on November 24th, 1875].' The part of this quotation in
brackets is apparently a record by Denison.-B.
There is a specimen in the Bermuda Museum, shot off the Rubber
Tree at Par-la-ville, Hamilton, by Louis L. Mowbray. Three speci-
mens were seen by Mr. Louis L. Mowbray at Paynter's Vale on April
10, 1929.-M.
Lanius borealis borealis Vieill.
NORTHERN SHRIKE.
An occasional visitor on both migrations.
Eight specimens in all have been taken. As Reid (1884, p. 193)
says: 'It is strange that the other North American species, C[ollurio]
ludovicianus, of more southerly distribution on the continent than C.
borealis, should not have been observed in Bermuda.'-B.

Vireosylva olivacea (Linn6).
RED-EYED VIREO.
An occasional visitor on both migrations.
Several specimens have been taken. Reid (1884, p. 192) reports
one 'captured in the officers' quarters at Prospect Camp on October
14th, 1874.' He identified three in Bartram's collection, shot near
Stocks Point, and adds: 'Mr. Bartram informs me that he shot one
on the 13th October, 1878.'-B.
Mr. Charles Johnston observed one at St. George on October 28,
1929.-E.
Lanivireo flavifrons (Vieill.).
YELLOW-THROATED VIREO.
A fine male was picked up dead by Mr. Roy Taylor, of the Aqua-
rium staff, on the Aquarium grounds, Flatts, March 24, 1931. The
skin is in Mr. Louis L. Mowbray's collection.-M.

Vireo griseus bermudianus Bangs and Bradlee.
BERMUDA WHITE-EYED VIREO.
Abundant resident.
This cheery little bird, locally called the 'Chick-of-the-village,' or
'Chick-choo-willie,' familiar to all through its sprightly ways, is one
of the commonest of the resident birds.
The small pensile nest is usually placed in a cedar tree from three
to four feet from the ground, and the eggs are laid about the middle
of April; a second brood is sometimes reared. Reid (1884, p. 190-192)










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


says: 'It is on record that the newly-fledged young of this species have
been found entangled in the meshes of the web of the "silk" spider,
Epiera clavipes. These webs are of great size and strength, extending
for many feet between adjoining cedars, and the number of them
among the woods in summer and autumn is almost incredible.'-B.
This species is still very common as formerly. Reid describes their
habits to perfection. There is a specimen in the Bermuda Museum.-
E.
Mniotilta varia (Linn6).
BLACK AND WHITE WARBLER.
Regular winter resident, and visitor on both migrations.
Numbers of these birds appear every autumn, and quite a few re-
main all winter. In the winter of 1906-1907 I saw, or heard, one or
two every day near our house until well into April. Reid (1884, p. 179)
says: 'I found them quite common in the autumn of 1874, and
winter succeeding it.'-B.
There is a specimen in the Bermuda Museum, taken by Mr. Louis
L. Mowbray at Fairylands, Pembroke, April 10, 1909.-M.
If lack of recent records is any indication, this species is less common
than formerly.-E.
Protonotaria citrea (Bodd.).
PROTHONOTARY WARBLER.
Accidental visitor.
Reid (1884, p. 180) says: 'I had the pleasure of examining and
identifying a specimen of this handsome warbler, the only one yet
obtained, in Mr. Bartram's collection. It was presented to him by
Mr. Hyland, Jr., of St. George's who shot it, near that town, out of a
small flock of the species, in the autumn of 1874.' Since then, Mr.
Mowbray took a fine male at Spurling's Pond, St. George, in Novem-
ber, 1903. These are the only records.-B.
Helmitheros vermivorus (Gmel.).
WORM-EATING WARBLER.
Accidental visitor.
The only one recorded was taken by Mr. Mowbray on October 4,
1899.-B.
Vermivora ruficapilla ruficapilla (Wils.).
NASHVILLE WARBLER.
Accidental visitor.
The only record is of one taken after a gale on September 16, 1907,
by Mr. Mowbray.-B.









352 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

Vermivora peregrina (Wils.).
TENNESEE WARBLER.
Accidental visitor.
On March 2, 1914, after an exceptionally severe gale from the
southwest, I heard the well-known song of this species from the top
of a cedar tree, and after waiting a short time saw the bird at close
range through my glasses. The bird remained in the same locality for
over six weeks, being seen or heard nearly every day. This is the only
record of the Tennessee Warbler from Bermuda.-B.

Compsothlypis americana pusilla (Wils.).
NORTHERN PARULA WARBLER.
An occasional visitor on both migrations.
On April 2, 1913, I saw a fine male in our garden in company with
a Black and White Warbler; this bird remained until the 18th, when
it was shot by Mr. J. N. Kennedy, R. N., and the skin is now among
the Bermuda collection in the South Kensington Natural History
Museum, London. Reid (1884, p. 179-180) records four other speci-
mens: 'one shot.by Canon Tristram at Ireland Island, on April 21st,
1849; one found by Mr. Hurdis in 1853, in a collection of Bermuda
skins sent to him for examination; and two others seen by myself, one
being shot near Devonshire Swamp on October 19th, 1874. My bird
proved to be a male in brilliant plumage; the other, probably a female,
escaped. The two were fluttering and creeping about at the extreme
end of a large cedar branch, like a veritable Parus.'-B.
On October 14, 1929, Dr. William Beebe reported one at Nonsuch
Island.-E.
Dendroica tigrina (Gmel.).
CAPE MAY WARBLER.
Accidental visitor.
On April 3, 1909, I saw a strange warbler among the top branches
of a cedar tree. I was much puzzled and could not determine what it
was until I shot it, when I was very much surprised to find it was a
Cape May Warbler, the second I had ever seen and the only one
recorded from Bermuda.-B.

Dendroica aestiva aestiva (Gmel.).
YELLOW WARBLER.
Occasional visitor.
Five specimens have been taken, all in the autumn. Mr. Mowbray










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


has one, which was killed by flying against Gibbs' Hill Light on
October 14, 1903. There are two in the Bartram collection, and two
were taken by Denison (Reid 1884, p. 180-181), on November 23,
1875.-B.
Dendroica caerulescens caerulescens (Gmel.).
BLACK-THROATED BLUE WARBLER.

Very occasional visitor.
Mr. Mowbray took one on October 2, 1902, and there are 'two
specimens of this striking-looking Warbler in the Bartram collection,
shot by Mr. Bartram in a field of arrowroot on his farm, not many
years since.' (Reid 1884, p. 181-182.)-B.

Dendroica coronata (Linnd).
MYRTLE WARBLER.

A frequent visitor on both migrations.
I have seen several of these birds during the winter months. Wed-
derburn (1859, p. 28) says: 'I killed two in Pembroke Marsh, and
Hurdis shot one at Hungry Bay, January 24th, 1850.'
Hurdis (1859, p. 59) adds: 'Another specimen was obtained on the
5th of April, 1885,' and in Capt. Tolcher's collections were three
skins of birds shot in Somerset from a flock of over one hundred.
Reid (1884, p. 182) says: 'It was the commonest species I met with in
November and December, 1874.'-B.
Dr. William Beebe saw two on October 18, 1930, at Nonsuch Island.
-E.
Dendroica magnolia (Wils.).'
MAGNOLIA WARBLER.
Accidental visitor.
Mr. Bartram shot on May 7, 1878, the only specimen ever re-
corded from Bermuda (Reid 1883, Appendix, p. 1).-B.

Dendroica castanea (Wils.).
BAY-BREASTED WARBLER.
Accidental visitor.
'A young bird in the Bartram collection is the sole representative
of the species. It is in obscure plumage, but shows the buffy tint on
the sides of the body so characteristic of the species.' (Reid 1884, p.
182.)










354 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

Dendroica striata (Forst.).
BLACK-POLL WARBLER.
Accidental visitor.
A. H. Verrill (1901a, p. 85) states that he saw one among a flock of
warblers in Victoria Park, Hamilton, March 12-15, 1901.-B.
The above record is confirmed by Dr. William Beebe, who observed
six of this species on October 12, 1929, and one on October 21, 1929,
at Nonsuch Island.-E.

Dendroica virens virens (Gmel.).
BLACK-THROATED GREEN WARBLER.
A rare visitor.
Reid (1884, p. 181), examining Bartram's collection in 1874, reports:
'three examples, one in the obscure plumage of youth, the others in
the "fall" or female plumage of the adult,' and also quotes from
Bartram's letter: 'On the 7th of May (1878) I shot a black-throated
green warbler showing a triangular jet-black patch under the chin and
throat.'-B.
In February, 1927, one was seen in Hamilton Parish by Mr. Amory
Skerry. On May 1, 1928, Mr. W. F. Eaton observed a singing male in
Paget.-E.
Dendroica pinus pinus (Wils.).
PINE WARBLER.
A frequent visitor in considerable numbers in the autumn; only one
spring record.
I have seen them on several occasions, and Mr. Mowbray reports
them as the most common warbler found visiting Bermuda. Reid's
(1884, p. 183-184) account is: 'A good many occurred on September
27, 1849, departing again in a few days. Several were captured out-
side the lantern of the lighthouse in the dark and rainy night of the
5th of September, 1850. On October 15th, 1850, Colonel Drummond
obtained [three] specimens from a large flock, which he observed
coming in from the sea and settling on some trees within the keep at
Ireland Island. Mr. Bartram has two specimens, one of which (a
male in spring plumage) was shot near his house and brought to him
while I was paying him a visit on March 16, 1875.'-B.
Numerous specimens were seen about the cedars and sage in the
central parts of the Island in October, 1929, and on October 4, 1930.
-M.










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


Dendroica palmarum hypochrysea Ridgw.
YELLOW PALM WARBLER.
A frequent visitor in the autumn.
Mr. Mowbray took two males on September 4, 1899, one on October
3, 1902, and a female on November 14, 1903. Reid (1884, p. 183)
records: 'two shot by Colonel Wedderburn in Pembroke Marsh, on
December 17, 1847 and December 3, 1848, respectively.' There is
no spring record.-B.
Dendroica discolor (Vieill.).
PRAIRIE WARBLER.
Accidental visitor.
'Only one, obtained by Major Wedderburn at the Dockyard, Ireland
Island, on October 3, 1848,' according to Reid (1884, p. 183).-B.

Seiurus aurocapillus (Linnd).
OVENBIRD.
Occasional visitor during the autumn migration.
Several specimens have been obtained. Reid (1884, p. 184-185)
says: 'The species was numerous in the autumn of 1874, in and near
Devonshire swamp, and I procured specimens on the 24th October
and on the 12th and 16th December.'-B.

Seiurus noveboracensis noveboracensis (Gmel.).
WATERTHRUSH.
A regular winter resident in small numbers.
I have seen this bird every winter in the mangrove swamps, which
are especially to its liking, but it is very shy and hard to find. Reid
(1884, p. 185) says: 'It appears regularly in October, and a few remain
all winter. Throughout October and November there is hardly a man-
grove swamp, great or small, whence its sharp but musical "chip"
may not be heard at any time during the day.'-B.
There is a specimen in the Bermuda Museum, taken at Fairylands
in November, 1909, by Mr. Louis L. Mowbray.-M.
One was seen on February 12, 1931, at Mangrove Lake by Mr.
John T. Nichols.-E.
Seiurus motacilla (Vieill.).
LOUISIANA WATERTHRUSH.
Occasional visitor in the autumn.
Three specimens have been taken, all by Mr. Mowbray, on Septem-










356 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

ber 4, 1899, and December 10 and 15, 1908. Wedderburn (1859, p. 27)
says: 'Several times at Riddle's Bay, I have noticed, seemingly, a
larger species of this bird (Seiurus noveboracensis), but never succeeded
in killing any of them.'-B.
One was shot in mangroves at Shelly Bay in January, 1930, by Mr.
Louis SeptiBme Mowbray.-M.

Geothlypis trichas (Linn6).
MARYLAND YELLOW-THROAT.
A frequent visitor in the autumn.
Mr. Mowbray has taken several specimens, all in September or
October. The only spring record is of one seen by an officer in April,
1850. Reid (1884, p. 186) states that only two specimens are known.
The first was shot by Mr. Hurdis in a bushy swamp near the sluice-
gates on the 18th October, 1853; the second is in Mr. Bartram's
museum, obtained near Stocks Point.'-B.

Wilsonia citrina (Bodd.).
HOODED WARBLER.
Accidental visitor.
The only record is 'A male shot at Ireland Island by Mr. Abbott,
20th Regiment, on March 30, 1847. A female was seen, but not ob-
tained.' (Reid 1884, p. 186.)-B.

Setophaga ruticilla (Linnd).
REDSTART.
Accidental visitor.
Reid (1884, p. 186-187) says: 'Two in Mr. Bartram's possession,
shot by him near his house some few years since. No others are on
record.'-B.
Anthus spinoletta rubescens (Tunstall).
AMERICAN PIPIT.
Occasional visitor.
Hurdis (1897, p. 92) reports one shot by Mr. Fozard on November
26, 1848; and there are two others in the Bartram collection.-B.

Mimus polyglottos polyglottos (Linn6).
MOCKINGBIRD.
Introduced resident; not common.
Six pairs were liberated at St. George in 1893 by Captain Meyer,
the German Consul. They do not seem to have increased as rapidly









BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


as was hoped for, but A. H. Verrill (1901a, p. 85) reports two seen in
1901, one on March 20 and the other on April 6. A boy brought to
Mr. Mowbray in 1903 one that he had knocked down with a stick in
St. David's Marsh; this was a young bird. I saw one several times
during the winter of 1909-10 on our place ('Soncy'), which is over
twelve miles from St. George. One was reported feeding on the ripe
mulberries in 1913. I also heard of one being seen in March, 1914, and
I have no doubt that there are quite a number of these birds in the
islands today (1914); but, as there are very few people here who are
interested in birds, they are not reported.-B.
So far as available records show, there have been no recent observa-
tions of this species, which apparently was naturalized in small num-
bers from 1893 on.-E.
Dumetella carolinensis (Linn6).1
CATBIRD.
Resident and abundant..
Locally called 'Blackbird,' the Catbird of Bermuda varies but little
in its habits and notes from that of the United States. It may be a
bit tamer, as are all the birds in Bermuda, and its nest is a more bulky
affair, usually placed in a cedar branch from three to ten feet from the
ground, and very often ornamented externally with rags, bits of paper,
skeleton leaves, etc. Two broods are reared during the season, the
first about the middle of April, and the second at the end of May.-B.
This species comes next to the Cardinal in abundance. Individuals
are sometimes found white or partially albino. There are two speci-
mens in the Bermuda Museum.-E.
Toxostoma rufum (Linnd).
BROWN THRASHER.
A skin, formerly in the Public Library in Hamilton, is the only
claim this species has to the Bermuda list.-B.
Certhia familiaris americana Bonap.
BROWN CREEPER.
Accidental visitor.
Mr. H. B. Small reports having seen two, and H. Denison is au-
thority for the following: 'A male bird of this species was shot by
1 The Bermuda Catbird was named Galeoscoptes bermudianus Bangs and Bradlee
(1901, p. 253). The form has, however, been considered not sufficiently different
to be recognized by name.










358 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

Bendall, an old soldier of the 53rd Regiment, out of three or four seen
in Devonshire Swamp, on November 24, 1876.' (Reid 1883, p. 9;
1884, p. 176.)-B.
Sitta carolinensis carolinensis Lath.
WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCH.
Accidental visitor.
There is a record of one reported by A. H. Verrill (1901a, p. 85)
who says: 'One seen repeatedly in the cedar trees in the front yard
at Harrington House, April 15th to 30th.'-B.
It is difficult, in view of several known inaccuracies in Verrill's
list, to evaluate these records properly. Undoubtedly future observa-
tions will confirm most of them.
Dr. William Beebe found one dead on South Beach, Nonsuch Island,
Sept. 18, 1931.-E.
Sitta canadensis Linn6.
RED-BREASTED NUTHATCH.
Accidental visitor.
'One specimen only, in Mr. Bartram's collection, shot by himself
near his house at Stocks Point.' (Reid 1884, p. 176.)-B.

Regulus satrapa satrapa Licht.
GOLDEN-CROWNED KINGLET.
Accidental visitor.
The only record is of one shot by Mr. Bartram in the spring of 1883.
A considerable number were seen at the east end of the Islands at the
same time.-B.
Corthylio calendula calendula (Linnd).
RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET.
Accidental visitor.
I saw one at close range through my glasses on April 13, 1909, and
again on the 24th. This is the only record.-B.

Hylocichla mustelina (Gmel.).
WOOD THRUSH.
Occasional visitor in the autumn.
Two specimens were secured in the autumn of 1849, one by Wedder-
burn (1859, p. 26) from Colonel H. M. Drummond, found near St.
George, in 1849, and one by Hurdis (1859, p. 58; 1897, p. 129) from
Mr. Trimingham, October, 1849.-B.










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni (Tschudi).
OLIVE-BACKED THRUSH.
A frequent visitor in the autumn; one spring record.
Mr. Mowbray has taken two, September 1 and 3, 1899. Hurdis
(1859, p. 59; 1897, p. 133-134) examined one shot by Mr. McLeod on
October 9, 1849. Reid (1884, p. 171) shot a fine male on April 20,
1875; another (a male) was received by Denison on September 22,
1875; still another was taken on February 19, 1876, in Devonshire
Swamp.-B.
Hylocichla guttata faxoni Bangs and Penard.
HERMIT THRUSH.
An occasional visitor.
Mr. Mowbray took one on December 15, 1908, and one on December
2, 1910. I saw one several times very near our ('Soncy') house in the
winter of 1909-10.-B.

Turdus migratorius (Linn6).
ROBIN.
A frequent visitor on both migrations.
I saw several in January, 1910. Mr. Mowbray took one on Decem-
ber 15, 1908. Reid (1884, p. 170-171) saw 'one near Hungry Bay on
October 29, 1874' and Mr. 'Bartram obtained one at Stocks Point
about the same time.' Reid (1883, Appendix, p. 1) adds: 'Great num-
bers appeared in the winter of 1879-80. They were seen in flocks of
twenty to thirty all over the islands.'-B.
Mrs. Fry observed one on February 3, 1927, and one was recorded
February 11, 1931, by Mr. D. G. Nichols at the Flatts.-E.

(Enanthe cenanthe leucorhoa (Gmel.).
GREENLAND WHEATEAR.
Accidental.
Hurdis (1897, p. 7) records under notes of October 11, 1846, the
only specimen ever taken in Bermuda, as follows: 'On the same day
[Oct. 11, 1846] received a beautiful male specimen of the European
Wheatear (Saxicola cenanthe), shot by Lieutenant Wood, 20th Regi-
nrent. There is no mistake as to the identity of the bird, which
agrees perfectly with Bewick's description of it.' Again (1897, p.
164-165) on March 23, 1850, he says: 'Mr. Wedderburn tells
me he was out yesterday with Captain Drummond, and vainly at-









360 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

tempted to shoot the 'Wheatear' that for some time past has frequented
the vicinity of the naval tanks. Mr. Wedderburn says there is no
mistaking the bird, which is a female.'
These records were all made by Englishmen well acquainted with
the bird in England.-B.
To quote from A. H. Verrill (1901a, p. 85) 'The wheatear has
been introduced within the last three years, near St. George's, and is
apparently doing well. A small flock was often seen on the barren
hillsides of Coney Island. Another flock of about the same number of
individuals was observed on the neighboring shores of St. George's
Island.'-E.
Sialia sialis sialis (Linne).,
BLUEBIRD.
Abundant resident.
This beautiful bird in the bright, clear Bermuda sunshine is a sight,
once seen never forgotten; brilliant plumage, vivacious manners, and
pleasant song, render it an object of interest to all; while its confiding
and fearless nature in the breeding season, and the number of insects
it destroys, caused it to be strictly protected. It breeds twice, the
first brood, as a rule, early in April, and the second, late in May;
however, on March 28, 1911, I saw a young bird, just able to fly,
being fed by the parent bird; and fresh eggs have been found as late as
June 19. In March, 1914, I saw two males fighting, and on passing
the spot an hour after found them both lying dead on the grass. (Reid
1884, p. 173-176.)-B.
This species is common as a breeder, but probably is not a valid
race, as there are occasional accessions from the mainland. Mrs. Fry
reports that on November 28, 1926, a large flight arrived from the
northwest. Wedderburn and Hurdis advance observations, quoted
in Reid (1884, p. 174), to bear out the contention that there are flights
of Bluebirds both to and from the Islands. Unquestionably, however,
the native birds appear more brilliant than our own; but this field
characteristic is probably largely an ocular illusion, due to the clear
atmosphere and the contrasting color of the evergreens.
There are two specimens in the Bermuda Museum.-E.

The Bermuda Bluebird was named Sialia sialis bermudensis by A. H. Verril]
(1901a, p. 84). The island bird is not currently accepted as constituting a valid race.
It may, however, some day be recognized.










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


HYPOTHETICAL LIST.
The following species are placed in this list, at least for the time
being, owing to lack of sufficient corroborative evidence.

Larus hyperboreus Gunn.
GLAUCOUS GULL.
A rare visitor.
The third edition of the A. O. U. Check List says: 'Casually to
Bermuda,' and A. H. Verrill (1901a, p. 85) records seeing this bird.-B.
Verrill, without question, confused this species with immature
Herring Gulls, and it may be that it was listed in the A. O. U. Check
List on the strength of this inaccurate datum. The species may,
however, at some time wander as far south as Bermuda.-E.

Larus minutus Pallas.
LITTLE GULL.
(See the record under Larus philadelphia, Bonaparte's Gull, p. 290.)
The only reason for including this species, even in the hypothetical
list, is the possibility that the gull which Wedderburn (1859, p. 54)
mentioned as 'this little gull' was, after all, L. minutus, as Baird,
Brewer, and Ridgway evidently believed, and not L. philadelphia.-
E. L. M.
However, the occurrence of this species in Bermuda will undoubtedly
be substantiated at some future date, since it occasionally crosses the
Atlantic in company with Bonaparte's Gull, as three occurrences about
New York City and New Jersey in 1929 attest.-E.

Phaithon ethereus Linn&.
RED-BILLED TROPIC-BIRD.
Accidental visitor.
The only record is that of A. H. Verrill (1901a, p. 84-85), who says:
'Two or three individuals of this fine species were repeatedly observed
on Harrington Sound, notably in the vicinity of Trunk Island. Al-
though seen within a few yards of the boat, no specimens were obtained
The "zigzag" markings on back were readily distinguishable,
however, and there is no doubt as to their identity.'-B.
It seems best to consider this record hypothetical until corroborated,
in view of the plumage of the young Yellow-bill.-E.











362 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

Nyroca marila (Linn6).
GREATER SCAUP DUCK.
Rare visitor.
Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway (1884, 2, p. 20) say: 'It is also occasional
during winter in Bermuda.' This is the only record I can find.-B.
As the records given by Reid (1884, p. 257) for 'afinis' are all
during the winter, it is quite possible that the above note should be
applied to the Lesser Scaup. At any rate, we have no positive evidence
that marila does occur, although, quite likely, it may.-E.

Limosa fedoa (Linn6).
MARBLED GODWIT.
Forbush (1925, 1, p. 428) refers to this species as 'accidental in
Alaska and probably Bermuda.'-E.

Tryngites subruficollis (Vieill.).
BUFF-BREASTED SANDPIPER.
A very rare visitor.
The third edition of the A. O. U. Check List says: 'stragglers to
Bermuda.' I can find no other record.-B.

Cryptoglaux funerea richardsoni (Bonaparte).
RICHARDSON'S OWL.
Forbush (1927, 2, p. 209) gives a record as 'casual in Bermuda?'
Hurdis records it as seen by Captain Drummond in 1850 (Jardine
1849-52, p. 37).-E.

Conuropsis carolinensis carolinensis (Linn6).
CAROLINA PAROQUET.
It is very doubtful if this species can properly have a place among
the birds of Bermuda, its only claim being based on a letter written
in 1632 by Governor Roger Wood (Lefroy 1877-79, 1, p. 533) in which
he says: 'My wife hath sent 4 Parrats in a cage vnto my Lady, to bee
either kept for your Honor's pleasure to looke vpon, or to giue vnto
who your Honor please who takes delight in keeping of them. The
parrat is a finne bird and yellow vpon the head and necke-she desyres
my Lady to accept it in as good part as she in all loue and duty doth
tender the same.'-B.










BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


Centurus carolinus (Linnd).
RED-BELLIED WOODPECKER.
Accidental visitor.
The only record is that of A. H. Verrill (1901a, p. 85) who says:
'April 8th. One adult male was seen boring diligently in a Pride-of-
India tree near the causeway, within a few feet of the road.'-B.

Corvus corax principalis Ridg.
RAVEN.
*Dr. George Rankin, of St. George, stated to Mr. W. F. Eaton
that he had found this bird at least once. This observation is recorded
in the Royal Gazette, Hamilton, December 28, 1918.-E.

Icterus spurius (Linn6).
ORCHARD ORIOLE.
Of doubtful occurrence.
A skin and also a nest of this bird was found in the Public Library
at Hamilton and identified by A. H. Verrill (1901a, p. 85).-B.
Probably these were taken elsewhere than in Bermuda.-E.

Passer montanus montanus (Linn6).
EUROPEAN TREE SPARROW.
This bird is supposed to have been introduced at the same time as
the English Sparrow, according to A. H. Verrill (1901a, p. 85), who
writes: 'Common in certain portions of Paget Parish, notably on the
high land between St. Paul's Church and Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse.'-E.

Dendroica pensylvanica (Linn6).
CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER.
Accidental visitor.
The only record is of one seen by A. H. Verrill (1901a, p. 85) among
a flock of migrants in Victoria Park, Hamilton, in the middle (12-15)
of March, 1901.-B.

Dendroica fusca (Miill.).
BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER.
Accidental visitor.
The only record is of one seen by A. H. Verrill (1901a, p. 85) among
a flock of warblers in Victoria Park, Hamilton, March 12-15, 1901.-B.










364 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

SOME GENERAL CONCLUSIONS.
The mass of available data on Bermuda birds included both in the
annotated list and in the material already published, covers so many
years that one may safely draw from it certain general information.
I have tried to analyze this constructively and find that the actual
number of regular visitants is astonishingly small. Of the total 246
species recorded, I find that 59 have been observed only once, 33 twice,
18 three times, 15 four times, and 13 five times, a total of 138 species.
All these may be classed as occasional or accidental visitants. Of the
balance we may say: though some are rare, none are unexpected.
Besides the extinct Cahow, and the very rare Manx Shearwater,
twenty-two additional species have been known to breed or to be
resident in the Islands. Of these, several have been introduced and
only three sea birds (summer visitants) and ten permanent residents
are now regularly found nesting. Of the 84 species which might have
been called regular visitants, two, the Passenger Pigeon and probably
the Eskimo Curlew are now extinct. This means that the usual
annual list of birds for the Islands is about one hundred species,
although it is doubtful if even the most energetic field ornithologist
could see that number in a year. The proportion of common regular
migrants to the total list is very small indeed, or, looked at conversely,
the number of casuals (138) is enormous. Mr. Charles Johnston has
wisely said that eventually we may expect in Bermuda all the birds
of the A. O. U. Check List for Eastern North America and many
additional accidental from the West Indies and Europe. Excluding
the hypothetical list, the total number of species recorded has been
increased since Reid's publication (1884) by 45, and it will be only a
question of years before several of the hypothetical species may be
credited to the regular list, together with such other birds as the Palm
Warbler, the Red-backed and Western Sandpipers, the European
Widgeon and the European Teal, which we should expect to find if
any more careful collecting is done. Additions to the breeding list
may also be expected, as in recent years the Least Tern has established
itself, and the young of the Great Blue Heron, which apparently had
not nested for many years, was recorded by Dr. Beebe.
The first question a visitor might ask is: When is the best time of
the year to observe the rarer species, or the time when transients are
at their maximun of abundance? The following table, answering this
question, shows the number of species observed each month of the
year. It is based on all available records that give specific dates.













BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.

TABLE 1.
Number of species of birds observed each month of the year in Bermuda.
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov.
Casual: 11 11 28 21 11 5 5 6 28 35 16
Common: 53 52 49 46 33 24 30 32 48 58 52

Total 64 63 77 67 44 29 35 38 76 93 68


Dec.
19
63

82


The significance of these numbers is quickly grasped by inspection
of the accompanying graph (Fig. 1).
The peaks of the casual migration come in March to April and in
September to October and December. The months in which the


JAN.
100-


TO

COMi


CASU


FEB. MAR. APR. MAY. JUN. JUL. AUG. SEP. OCT. NOV.


DEC. JAN


70 -- -
TAL
60
AON




30

20 -
AL,
10

0 __ __ __ ___-----------------------------------


FIG. 1. Distribution of birds in Bermuda for each month of the year.'

greatest variety of species is recorded are also March, October, and
December. The fall migrations start in July, reach their peak in
October, decline in November, and reach a second peak in December
due to the accession of northern visitants. The lesser (vernal) peak
comes in March with a rapid decline in May, reaching the low in June.
Some of the data are necessarily incomplete, as dates are frequently
not given for the more common species. I should expect that Septem-
ber would be a better month than the table shows, because there are
fewer observers present then, than in November and December,
which rank quite high.
1 Discrepancies are due to additions in Table 1 after completion of the graph.


90 /\--

- I i I 'I z










366 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

A second obvious question would be: Where is the best locality for
observing birds in the islands? The many localities mentioned in the
text show clearly that the eastern end of Bermuda is the best. St.
George, Nonsuch Island, Stocks Point,' all in the east, have been
favorite places. The earlier collectors frequented Devonshire and Pem-
broke Marshes, Hungry Bay and Spanish Point; but, unfortunately
for the student of birds, both Devonshire and Pembroke Marshes
have been very much drained and cultivated, so that they are not
nearly as favorable spots for transient birds as they were. Spittal,
Seymour's and Warwick Ponds have yielded a very good list of ducks
and other water birds in recent years, and Victoria Park, in Hamilton,
has been alive with land birds on more than one occasion. Other
choice regions are Castle Harbor and Great Sound for sea birds; the
Flatts and Gibbs' Hill for certain land birds. The preeminence of
Prospect and Warwick camps as bird localities is probably due less to
their natural attractiveness than to the fact that the British officers
who made collections in the past were stationed there.
Several species are recorded as seen more often at Elbow Beach and
the adjacent Sand Hills than elsewhere, and the more detached islets,
such as North and Gurnet rocks, have been the scene of exciting dis-
coveries. In general there is hardly a spot in the archipelago where
in the proper season one may not make an unusual observation, for
often the storms simply flood the islands with birds.
In glancing over the list of species which include such contrasts as
Pine Grosbeak, Corn Crake, and Frigate-bird, I infer that heavy
winds cause these species to be blown far from their normal courses.
I have been led to compare the prevailing wind directions with the
supposed originating locality of the particularly startling visitors.
Table 2 (Bell 1911, p. 64) shows the direction of the wind for four
TABLE 2.
Wind direction in Bermuda for four years, 1893-1896.
South 464 Southwest 508
North 280 Northeast 255
East 163 Northwest 240
West 152 Southeast 178

years (1893-1896, inclusive). The direction was measured twice
daily, at 8:41 a. m. and 8:41 p. m., throughout the year.
In reality, then, the wind blows chiefly from the south and south-
'Where Bartram lived and collected.












BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


west, less often from the north, northeast, and northwest, and rather
rarely from the southeast, east and west. I should therefore expect
that accidental from the south and southwest would be most com-
mon, from the north less, and from the east and west least. In general
this is borne out by the observed facts, especially as regards the east-
west occurrences.
Species of distinctly southern (21), northern (18), and European (6),
origin are listed below (Table 3).
TABLE 3
Southern, northern, and European species of birds recorded in Bermuda.
SOUTHERN NORTHERN EUROPEAN
Sooty Tern Dovekie Little Gull
American Gull-billed Tern Sabine's Gull Manx Shearwater
Noddy Tern Kittiwake Corn Crake
Booby American Golden-eye European Snipe
Brown Pelican Buffle-head Skylark
Frigate-bird Purple Sandpiper Greenland Wheatear
Fulvous Tree Duck Goshawk
Black-bellied Tree Duck Hawk Owl
Flamingo Snowy Owl
Glossy Ibis Saw-whet Owl
Egret Pine Grosbeak
Snowy Heron Red Crossbill
Little Blue Heron White-winged Crossbill
Yellow-crowned Night Heron Redpoll
Purple Gallinule Pine Siskin
Red-bellied Woodpecker Lapland Longspur
Fork-tailed Flycatcher Snow Bunting
Gray Kingbird Northern Shrike
Nonpareil
Summer Tanager
Prothonotary Warbler
As regards the west, it is difficult to say what proportion is blown
in directly, as practically all the north-south migrants, which compose
the bulk of the transients, seem to be those which regularly pass along
the Atlantic seaboard. However, among the noticeably missing
species, or those recorded very rarely, are the following:
Broad-winged Hawk Migrant, or Loggerhead Shrike
Hairy Woodpecker Rough-winged Swallow
Downy Woodpecker Blue-winged Warbler
Red-headed Woodpecker Yellow-breasted Chat
Blue Jay Brown Thrasher
Crow Blackbird Tufted Titmouse
Meadowlark Carolina Wren
Song, Field, and Chipping Sparrows Wood Thrush









368 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

These birds are all commonly distributed in the United States
west of the Bermuda Islands. Such evidence is negative, but under
the circumstances interesting. The relative abundance of shore birds
during the autumnal migration would be the direct result of their being
blown out to sea by the southwest winds, whereas in the spring, when
the migration routes in general are more westerly, they are less com-
mon. The whole subject of the effects of storms could be investigated
more successfully were one on the ground throughout the year, but
a few quotations from Reid (1884) may be of interest.
Golden Plover (p. 229). 'Numbers appeared in September 1874
during the continuance of a three days' revolving gale.'
'Unless in stormy weather, they do not alight in any great numbers.'
(Wedderburn 1859, p. 36.)
Baldpate, American Widgeon (p. 255). 'After a revolving gale in
October, 1854, several of these birds were shot and brought for ex-
amination to Mr. Hurdis. .' (Wedderburn 1859, p. 49.)
Frigate Bird (p. 263). 'The latest of these he [Bartram] shot in
October, 1876, when there was a very strong gale from the northwest
lasting some days, and a great influx of Terns, Frigate-birds, Ospreys,
etc.' (Wedderburn 1859, p. 51-52; Hurdis 1859, p. 88.)
Sooty Tern (p. 270). 'Mr. Hurdis records that "a third example
was found in an exhausted state in Devonshire parish, on the 23d
October, 1854, after a severe gale the previous day."' (Wedder-
burn 1859, p. 53; Hurdis 1859, p. 88.)
Wilson's Petrel (p. 272). Quoting from a letter by Bartram, 'At
another time it was blowing a strong gale from the northwest, and I
saw four so close-up to the north shore that the boys threw stones at
them.' (Wedderburn 1859, p. 55; Hurdis 1859, p. 92.)
This study of the birds of Bermuda has been sufficient to indicate
to a visitor what birds have been recorded, what birds are rare and
what are common, also where and when they may be expected, and
that the variation in bird fauna is chiefly caused by the prevailing
winds. There is a great opportunity for additional study, since Ber-
muda is one of those ideal places where a bird can almost at once be
classed as a resident or a transient, and where one can often tell whence
it came and why it came. The possibility of adding to the local list
is still considerable, but we have yet to learn why, for example, the
Brown Thrasher has been found only once, whereas the Catbird is
an abundant resident; or why the Bluebird is native and the Robin is
not. Bird trapping and banding for scientific purposes might deter-











BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


mine positively whether or not the Cardinal, Catbird, and Crow in-
terchange with continental birds and they might also throw some light
on the question whether or not the regular appearance of the Euro-
pean Goldfinch about New York and in New England can be traced to
wind-blown stragglers from the Bermuda Islands. The interesting
records of the Cahow and the two Shearwaters offer a tempting field
for speculation and more complete study. The presence of the Great
Blue Heron throughout the year has hitherto failed to prove whether
or not the species still nests in Bermuda.
These suggestions, I hope, will stimulate future study by the many
bird enthusiasts who visit Bermuda casually with the feeling that the
limited fauna is hardly worth investigating. To my mind, Bermuda
should be studied assiduously in the hope that it may yield results
commensurate with those obtained, for example, at Helgoland, off
the coast of Europe. The greater distance of Bermuda from conti-
nental land makes the questions more complex and therefore more
unusual and interesting. Few North American areas have such a
long and complete recorded ornithological history.-E.

LITERATURE CITED.'
ARBER, EDWARD, EDITOR.
1895. Capt. John Smith. Works. 1608-1631. Pt. 1, cxxxvi + 382 p.; pt. 2, p.
383-984. Westminster: Archibald Constable and Co.
1910. Travels and works of Captain John Smith. ... 1580-1631. Pt.1, cxxxvi +
xix*-xxx* + 382 p.; pt. 2, 383-984. A. G. Bradley, ed. Edinburgh: John
Grant.
BAIRD, S. F., T. M. BREWER, AND ROBERT RIDGWAY.
1884. The water birds of North America. 1, xi + 537 p.; 2, v + 552 p.
BANGS, OUTRAM.
1915. The Bermuda Crow. Auk 32: 229-230.
BANGS, OUTRAM, AND T. S. BRADLEE.
1901. The resident land birds of Bermuda. Auk 18: 249-257.
BARTRAM, J. T.
[1875.] Catalogue of birds and shells found in Bermuda, now in the collection of
John T. Bartram, Stocks Point, St. George's. ii + 9 + [1] + 3 p. [St. George's]
Bermuda.
BEEBE, WILLIAM.
1931. Notes on the birds of Nonsuch Island, Bermuda. Aviculture (2), 3: 86-88.
BELL, E. Y.
1911. Beautiful Bermuda. 216 p., 1 pl., 1 map.
Revised and verified by Dr. Harry C. Oberholser of the Bureau of Biological
Survey, assisted by Miss Ruth Richards, with additions by E. L. Mark.











370 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

BENT, A. C.
1922. Life histories of North American petrels and pelicans and their allies. Bull.
U. S. Nat. Mus. 121. xii + 343 p. Pl. 1-69.
1926. Life histories of North American marsh birds. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 135.
xii + 490 p. Pl. 1-98.
[BERMUDA: GOVERNOR, LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL, .AND ASSEMBLY.]
1902.. The wild birds protection act, 1902. Acts of 1902, no. 22, p. 81-83 [Septem-
ber 2, 1902]. 'This act consolidates the wild birds protection acts of 1881,
1892, and 1894.'
BLAND, E. L.
1859. List of birds of Bermuda. Ann. Rep. Smithsonian Inst. for 1858: 286-289.
1861. Migratory and native birds of the Bermudas. By an officer of the Royal
Engineers. Leisure Hour 10: 773-775. London.
BOWDITCH, HAROLD.
1904. A list of Bermudian birds seen during July and August, 1903. Amer. Nat.
38: 555-563.
BRADLEE, T. S.
1901. See Bangs and Bradlee.
1906. Audubon's shearwater and Peale's petrel breeding in Bermuda. Auk 33:
217.
BREWER, T. M.
1884. See Baird, S. F., Brewer, and Ridgway.
BUCKENHAM, B.
1894. The nesting habits of the yellow-billed tropic bird. Museum 1: 15-16.
[BUTLER, NATHANIEL.]
1619-22. 'The history of the Bermudaes or Summer Islands. Ed. by J. H.
Lefroy. London: printed for the Hakluyt Society, 1882. Vol. 65, [viii] +
xii + 327 p. (See also Lefroy 1877-79, 1: 149-260.)
CHAPMAN, F. M.
1916. Handbook of birds of eastern North America. 6th ed., xiv + 431 p. New
York: D. Appleton and Company.
COLE, G. W.
1907. 'Bermuda in periodical literature. A bibliography. Printed for the author.
ix + iii + 275 p.
COLE, J. F.
1808. Magnetic declination and latitude observations in the Bermudas. Terr.
Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity 13 (2): 49-56. 1 chart.

SThe earlier part, from internal evidence, was written in 1619; the last parts,
perhaps as late as 1624 or 1625 this work was left unfinished at his death.
A. E. Verrill 1902a, p. 552.
2 Cole's bibliography is accompanied in the case of many titles by valuable notes
on the contents of the article.











BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


DENISON, H.
1876. 'Birds of Bermuda. Bermuda pocket almanac. 115 p. Reprinted 1877,
97 p.; 1878, 108 p.; 1879, 109 p.; 1881,127 p.
DRUMMOND-HAY, H. M.
1877-1878. 20n migration. Scotch Naturalist 4: 85-89, 133-144, 229-241, 283-
292.
DWIGHT, JONATHAN.
1927. The 'new' Bermuda shearwater proves to be Puffinus puffinus puffinus.
Auk 44: 243.
FISHER, A. K.
1901. [A review of] 'Notes on the birds of the Bermudas, with descriptions of two
new subspecies, etc.' by A. H. Verrill. Bird-Lore 3: 178.
FORBUSH, E. H.
1925-1929. Birds of Massachusetts and other New England states. 3 vol. Bos-
ton: Mass. Dept. of Agriculture. Pt. 1, xxxi + 429 p., 1925; pt. 2, 1+ 461 p.,
1927; pt. 3, xlviii + 466 p., 1929.
FORCE, PETER.
1844. Tracts and other papers, relating principally to the origin, settlement, and
progress of the colonies in North America. Vol. 3, no. 3. 24 p. [Being] 'A
Plaine Description of the Barmvdas, now called Sommer Ilands. With the
manner of their discouerie Anno 1609, etc. London, printed by W. Stansby
for W. Welby. 1613.' Washington.
GODET, T. L.
1860. Bermuda: its history, geology, climate, products, agriculture, commerce,
and government, etc. xv + 271 p. London: Smith, Elder and Co.
GRoss, A. O.
1912. Observations on the yellow-billed tropic bird (Phaethon americanus Grant)
at the Bermuda Islands. Auk 29: 49-71. P1. 3-11.
HEILPRIN, ANGELO.
1866. 3The geographical and geological distribution of animals. International
scientific series. Vol. 57. xiii + 425 p. New York: D. Appleton and Co.
1889. The Bermuda Islands, etc. vi + 231 p., 17 pl. Philadelphia: Binder and
Kelly.
HUGHES, LEWIS.
1615. 4A Letter, Sent into England from the Summer Ilands. 13 p. London:
by 1. B. for William Welby,. .1615. (See Lefroy 1877-1879, 2:577-580.)

SA list of 173 species, of which 117 are said to be in the collection of John T.
Bartram.
2 For Bermuda birds see p. 232-239.
3 Bermuda birds, p. 48-51.
4A facsimilie of the title page of this 'tract' faces p. 42 of 'Lewis Hughes, the
militant minister of the Bermudas, and his printed works,' by George Watson Cole.
(Proc. Amer. Antiquarian Soc. for October, 1927.) Reprinted and published by the
Society in 1928. 67 p. Worcester, Mass.











372 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

HURDIS, J. L.
1851. 'Birds of Bermuda. Bermuda pocket almanac for 1851: 65-68.
1859. In Jones, J. M., 1859, p. 56-97.
1897. Rough notes and memoranda relating to the natural history of the Bermu-
das. Edited by his daughter, H. J. Hurdis. viii + 408 p. London: R. H.
Porter.
JARDINE, WILLIAM.
1848-1852. Ornithology of the Bermudas in 'Contributions to ornithology, 1848-
1852.' 1849: 76-87; 1850: 5-14, 35-38, 67.
JOHNSON, J. M.
1924. Notes on Bermuda birds. Abstr. Proc. Linnaean Soc. New York, 1920-
1924, no. 33-36: 66-68.
JONEs, J. M. (assisted by Maj. J. W. Wedderburn and J. L. Hurdis).
1859. The naturalist in Bermuda; etc. xii + 200 p. 1 map. London: Reeves
and Turner.
1876. 3The visitor's guide to Bermuda. London, Halifax: Reeves and Turner.
JOURDAN, SIL[VESTER].
1610. A discovery of the Barmvdas, otherwise called the Ile of Divels: by Sir
Thomas Gates, Sir George Sommers, and Captayne Newport, with Diuers
others, etc., London, 1610: In Hakluyt's [Richard] collection of the early
voyages, travels, and discoveries of the English Nation. 5 (1812): 551-558.
London. (See Lefroy 1877-1879, 1: 14-21.)
KENNEDY, J. N.
1913. A description of a new subspecies of goldfinch from Bermuda. Bull. Brit.
Ornith. Club 33: 33-34.
1914. Notes on birds observed in the Bermuda Islands during the winter of 1912-
1913. Ibis (10) 2: 185-191.
LEFROY, J. H.
1877-1879. Memorials of the discovery and early settlement of the Bermudas or
Somers Islands 1515-1685. Compiled from the Colonial Records and other
original sources. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. 1 (1515-1652), 36
+ 2 + 772 p., 1 map, 1877. 2 (1650-1687), xix + 2 + 760 p., map and
facsimile of MS., 1879.
1882. See Butler, Nathaniel.

1 'A list of 124 species, with 11 others regarded as doubtful (Published without the
name of the author, but as it agrees with the list in "Rough Notes," p. 303-304, it
was doubtless Hurdis.)' A. E. Verrill 1902a, p. 725.
S'Jardine gives lists of birds furnished by Lieut.-Col. J. W. Wedderburn and Rev.
H. B. Tristram, supplemented by the observations of Col. H. M. Drummond-Hay
and Mr. J. L. Hurdis. He says (p. 77) "Mr. Tristram (who lived in Bermuda three
years) printed a list in the islands, of all the birds that had occurred to his notice in
1847." In 1849 twenty species were added, and one in 1850.' A. E. Verrill 1902a,
p. 725.
3 Records of birds, p. 123-131.











BRADLEE, MOWBRAY, EATON: BERMUDA BIRDS.


MARTENS, EDUARD VON.
1859. Die Vogel der Bermuda-inseln, nach Wedderburn und Hurdis. Jour. fiir
Ornith., Jahrg. 7: 211-226.
MERRIAM, C. H.
1884. On a bird new to the Bermudas, with notes upon several species of rare or
accidental occurrence. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 25: 281-284.
MOORE, GOVERNOR RICHARD.
1612. [First report on the Bermudas.] See Lefroy' 1877-1879, 1, p. 56-104.
MOSELEY, H. N.
1879. Notes by a naturalist. An account of observations made during the voyage
of H. M. S. Challenger, etc. xvi + 599 p. London: Macmillan and Co.
1892. Revised ed. with map, portrait, and woodcuts, and a brief memoir of the
author. xxiv + 540 p.
MOWBRAY, L. L.
1916. See Nichols and Mowbray.
NICHOLS, J. T., AND L. L. MOWBRAY.
1916. Two new forms of petrels from the Bermudas. Auk 33: 194-195.
PLATH, KARL.
1913. The tropic-birds of Bermuda. Bird-Lore 15: 345-349.
1914. With the tropic-birds in Bermuda. Ibis (10) 2: 552-559. P1. 21-24.
PRENTISS, D. W.
1896. Notes on the birds of Bermuda. Auk 13: 237-240.
REID, S. G.
1875. Notes on the ornithology of the Bermudas. Field 46: 33, 62, 114-115, 120,
148, 179, 211-212, 257, 296, 351.
1877. The birds of the Bermudas. Zoologist (3) 1: 393-424, 473-493. ('Reprinted
with corrections and numerous additions by Lieut, H. Denison.')
1883. The birds of the Bermudas. Reprinted from The Zoologist, with an Appen-
dix: 43 + 2. Hamilton, Royal Gazette Office.
1884. 2The birds of Bermuda. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 25:163-279.
REIN, J. G.
1862. [Briefliche Nachricht aus den Bermuda-Inseln.] Zool. Garten, Jahrg. 3:
141-143.
RIDGWAY, ROBERT.
1884. See Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway.

Lefroy (1877-1879, 1, p. 65) says: 'The writer was one of the companions of Gov-
ernor Moore', but A. E. Verrill (1902a, p. 547) contends that the writer was Governor
Moore himself.
2 'In this paper the previous lists are revised and some additions made, while many
references to the literature are included. The observations of Hurdis are also mostly
included in this paper, for the author had the use of his (Hurdis's) original MSS.
notes. Lieut. (later Capt.) Reid was stationed at Bermuda from March 30, 1874, to
June 3, 1875.' A. E. Verrill 1902a, p. 725.











374 PROCEEDINGS: BOSTON SOCIETY NATURAL HISTORY.

SAUNDERS, HOWARD.
1878. On the LarinHe or gulls. Proc. Zool. Soc. London for 1878: 155-212.
SHUFELDT, R. W.
1916. The birds caves of the Bermudas and their former inhabitants. Ibis (10)
4: 623-635. P1. 20.
1922. A comparative study of some subfossil remains of birds from Bermuda,
including the 'Cahow.' Ann. Carnegie Mus. 13 (1918-1922): 333-418. P1.
16-31.
SMITH, JOHN.
1624. 'The general historic of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Iles.
London, 1624. Also editions of 1626, 1627, 1632. See Arber 1895: 625-688.
STONE, WITMER.
1889. [Bermuda Birds]: in Heilprin (1889, p. 82).
STRACHEY, WILLIAM.
1610. A true repertory of the wracke, and redemption of Sir Thomas Gates,
Knight, vpon and from the Ilands of the Bermudas, etc., written in 1610.
Printed by Pvrchas, His Pilgrimes in V Bookes, etc., vol. 4, London, 1625.
The ninth book. Chap. 6. See Lefroy 1877-79, 1, 22-54.
THOMSON, C. W.
1877. 'The Voyage of the 'Challenger.' The Atlantic. A Preliminary account of
the general results of the exploring voyage of H. M. S. 'Challenger' during the
year 1873 and the early part of the year 1876. 2 vol. 1, xxxiii + ii + 424 p.;
2, xiv + ii + 396 p. London.
TOWNSEND, C. W.
1922. See A. C. Bent 1922, p. 71-76.
TRISTRAM, H. B.
1902. The 'Cahowe' of the Bermudas. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 9: 447-448.
VERRILL, A. E.
1901a. The story of the cahow. The mysterious extinct bird of the Bermudas.
Pop. Sci. Monthly 60: 22-30.
1901b. 'Note on the nomenclature of Bermuda birds. Amer. Jour. Sci. (4) 12:
470-471.
1902a. The Bermuda Islands. An account of the scenery, climate, productions,
physiography, natural history and geology, with sketches of their discovery
and early history, and the changes in their flora and fauna due to man.
x + 499 p. 38 pl. NewHaven, Conn. 'Reprinted from the Trans. Connecticut
Acad. Sci. 11, with some changes.'
1902b. The 'Cahow' of the Bermudas, an extinct bird. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.
(7) 9: 26-31.

S'Captain Smith was never at Bermuda. This part of the Generall Historie there-
fore is clearly a compilation.' Quoted from p. 624 in Capt. John Smith. Works.
1608-1631, edited by Edward Arber. 1895.
2 Birds mentioned, 1, p. 299, 324, 345-346.
3 This was also printed in Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts Sci. 11: 58; and likewise, as a
letter to the editors, in The Osprey 5: 174.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs