WORKS ISSUED BY
E t aka&Iugt ,oricty.
SIR FRANCIS DRAKE
SIR RODERICK IMPEY MURCHISON, G.C.St.S., F.R.S.,
Corr. Mem. Inst. Fr., Hon. Mem. Imp. Acad. Sc. St. Petersburg, &c., &c.
VICE-ADMIRAL SIR CHARLES MALCOLM, KT. I THE REV. H. H. MILMAN, M.A.
CHARLES T. BEKE, ESQ., Phil. D.,F.S.A. JOHN WINTER JONES, ESQ.
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WILLIAM DESBOROUGH COOLEY, F.R.G.S.
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THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY, which is established for the purpose
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THE OBSERVATIONS OF SIR RICHARD HAWKINS, KIT.
In his Voyage into the South Sea in 1593. Reprinted from the edition of
1622, and edited by Capt. C. R. DRINKWATER BETHUNE, R.N., C.B.
SELECT LETTERS OF COLUMBUS,
With Original Documents relating to the DISCOVERY of the NEw WORLD.
Translated and Edited by R. H. MAJon, EsQ.
THE DISCOVERIES OF THE EMPIRE OF GUIANA,
By SIR WALTER RALEGII, KNT. Edited, with Copious Explanatory Notes,
and a Biographical Memoir, by SIR ROBERT H. SCHIOM1BURK, Phil. D., &c.
SIR FRANCIS DRAKE HIS VOYAGE, 1595,
By THOMAS MAYNARDE, together with the Spanish Account of Drake's
Attack on Puerto Rico, edited from the Original MSS.
by W. D. COOLEY.
B3ortks iln rogrcs.
Narratives of Voyages made for the Discovery of a Passage by the
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Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii. The earliest Account of Russia,
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The East India Voyage of Sir Henry Middleton, in 1604-5. From the
rare edition of 1606, edited by BOLTON CORNEY, Esq.
El8orfts suggesteb to the Qouncil for Sutbication.
TRADESCANT TRE ELDER IN RussIA, 1618.-A Review of the early
Voyages in the North, and of the origin of the Commercial
Intercourse between England and Russia, by DR. J. HAMEL, 1847,
to be translated from the German.
CAaPINI AND RunBoQuzs.-The Travels of John de Plano Carpini, and of
Guillaume de Rubruquis, to the Great Khan of Tartary, in 1245
and 1253 respectively. Translated from the text published by the
Soci6t6 de Geographie of Paris.
FREsCOBALDI.-The Travels of Frescobaldi in Egypt and Syria, in 1384.
Translated from the Italian text as edited by Manzi.
BETIIENCOURT.-A History of the Discovery and Conquest of the Canary
Islands, made by Jean de B6thencourt, in 1402-25. From the
French Narrative of his Chaplains, Pierre Bontier and Jean le
CA DA MosTO.-The Voyages of Ca da Mosto along the Western Coast of
Africa, in 1454. Translated from the Italian text of 1507.
VARTHEMA.-The Travels of Ludovico de Varthema, in Egypt, Syria, Arabia,
Persia, India, and Ethiopia, in 1503-8. Translated from the Italian
text of 1510.
DRAKE.-The world encompassed by Sir Francis Drake, 1577-80. Written
by Francis Fletcher, preacher, &c. Collated with a MS.
HAKLaYT.-Divers Voyages touching the Discovery of America and the
Islands adjacent to the same. From the rare edition of 1582.
VIRGINIA.-Virginia in the years 1584-1600; comprising the Narratives
of Arthur Barlowe, Ralf Lane, Thomas Harriot, &c.
RUssIA.-Of the Russe Commonwealth. By Giles Fletcher, D.C.L. From
the suppressed edition of 1591.
CADIz.-A Brief and True Report of the Honourable Voyage to Cadiz,
1596. From the suppressed edition of 1598, with additions.
TRESWELL.-The journey of the Earl of Nottingham to Spain, in 1604.
By R. Treswell, Somerset Herald, with additions.
SoF'AAH.-The History of Eastern Ethiopia, by J. dos Santos, 1607.
Translated, with Notes.
CoLONIzATION.-Pamphlets on Colonization. By Sir William Alexander
(afterwards Earl of Sterline), and James Hagthorpe.
ital~ of tce RamItutt iociet).
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RICHARDS, PRINTER, 100, ST. MARTIN'S LANE.
SIR FRANCIS DRAKE
TOGETHER WITH THE
SPANISH ACCOUNT OF DRAKE'S ATTACK ON PUERTO RICO.
EDITED, FROM TIE ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPTS,
W. D. COOLEY.
PRINTED FOR THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY.
RICHIARDS, 103, Sr. MARTIN S .ANE.
THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY.
SIR RODERICK IMPEY MURCHISON, G.C.St.S., F.R.S., Corr. Mem. Inst. Fr.;
Hon. Mem. Imp. Acad. Sc. St. Petersburg, &c. &c., PRESIDENT.
VICE.ADMIRAL SIR CHARLES MALCOLM, KT. VI-PESIDENTS.
THE REV. H. H. MILMAN, M.A.
CHARLES T. BEKE, ESQ., PHIL. D., F.S.A.
CAPTAIN C. R. DRINKWATER BETHUNE, R.N., C.B.
CAPTAIN F. P. BLACKWOOD, R.N.
MAJOR-GENERAL J. BRIGGS, F.R.S.
BOLTON CORNEY, ESQ., M.R.S.L.
SIR HENRY ELLIS, K H., F.R.S.
JOHN FORSTER, ESQ.
J. E. GRAY, ESQ., F.R.S.
JOHN WINTER JONES, ESQ.
R. H. MAJOR, ESQ.
R. MONCKTON MILNES, ESQ., M.P.
CHARLES NEWTON, ESQ.
REVEREND G. C. RENOUARD.
W. G. RYE, ESQ.
SIR ROBERT SCHOMBURGK.
ANDREW SMITH, ESQ., M.D.
SIR GEORGE T. STAUNTON, BART., M.P., F.R.S.
WILLIAM DESBOROUGH COOLEY, EsQ., F.R.G.S., SECRETARY.
THE name of SIR FRANCIS DRAKE is one of the
brightest ornaments of HAKLUYT'S collection; and a
Society, which undertakes to continue and complete
the labours of the latter, cannot certainly be better
employed than in publishing documents illustrating
the life and achievements of that distinguished
In conformity with this view, the two original
pieces which follow have been selected for pub-
lication ; both brief but full of life, and the first of
them, in particular, very racy and characteristic.
The value of Maynarde's paper (additional MSS.,
No. 5209, in the library of the British Museum),
lies in the writer's intimacy with Sir Francis Drake,
whom he accompanied in the unfortunate expedition
which is the subject of the following narrative, and
in the shrewdness of his remarks, clothed occasionally
in the quaintest language. It cannot be denied that
it tends to dispel much of the romance which has
hitherto coloured so brilliantly the history of the
naval hero. But truth is thereby a gainer. Romance
elevates the hero at the expense of human nature,
and sacrifices the many for the glory of one. It
may not be without advantage to learn, from the
example of one so justly celebrated as Drake, what
sordid motives may be cloaked under the pretence
of national glory, and how mistrustfully we ought
to listen to the professedly generous instigators of
war and rapine.
The Spanish paper, Relacion de lo Sucedido, etc.,
(additional MSS. No. 13,964, British Museum), which
has the form of an official report, or dispatch, is
extremely interesting, inasmuch as it allows us to
see, in immediate juxtaposition and direct contrast,
the accounts of the affair at Puerto Rico, as given
by the two belligerent parties.
These papers are here reproduced from the ori-
ginals without change or emendation ; so that their
defects, whether attributable to negligence or igno-
rance, may be taken into consideration in estimating
their intrinsic worth.
The superficial inaccuracies of Maynarde's paper
are not a few; his constant misspelling of proper
names, as Corasaw for Curagoa, St. Tomarta for Sta.
Martha, would seem to prove him illiterate. It is
still more important, that, through oversight and
omission, he states the number of the forces, who
marched from Nombre de Dios to attack Panama,
to be fifty, instead of seven hundred and fifty.
It is amusing to observe the variance between the
Spanish and English accounts of the same action,
both written in good faith. The Spaniards had but
seventy guns, and yet the English reckoned 5160
pieces of artillery playing on them. This tremendous
fire would appear from the English account to have
done no great harm, while the Spaniards allege
that they killed four hundred of the enemy, besides
wounding many more.
But this is not the place for a critical examination
of the following pages. The conflicting statements
and opinions respecting the closing scene of Drake's
eventful life, are amply detailed in Mr. Barrow's
justly popular volume. Here it will be sufficient
to observe that Maynarde's keen and natural com-
ments on his commanders, proceed from one who,
in regard to Drake, certainly writes in a friendly
spirit, and from whom the truth was wrung by
the circumstances of his situation.
W. D. C.
DE LO SUCEDIDO
EN SAN JUAN DE PUERTO RICO DE LAS YNDIAS,
CON LA ARMADA YNGLESA
DEL CARGO DE
FRANCIS DRAQUE Y JUAN AQUINES,
A LOS 23RD DE NOVIEMBRE DE
RELACION DE LO SUCEDIDO, ETC.
AVIENDO salido de la Avana para Espana el general
Sancho Pardo y Osorio a los 10 de Margo deste afio, con
la capitana de la flota de tierra firme de su cargo, en con-
serva de la armada de don Frano. Coloma, y aviendose
allado' en la tormenta que corrio desembocada de la canal a
los 15 del dho mes en altura de 28 grades y medio, sin arbol
mayor, rompido el timon, y la nao haciendo much agua,
apartada de las demas, imposibilitada de seguir su viage,
para salvar las vidas de 300 personas que en ella venian y
dos millones de oro y plata de su Magestad y particulares,
con acuerdo y parecer del vehedor Martin Vomero de
Caamaiio y de los pilots y demas personas platicas que alli
se allaron, aribo a Puerto rico a donde bien milagrosamente
llego a los 9 de April, y alli desembarco y puso la Plata en
la fortale9a de la ciudad. Luego el dho general despacho a
su Magestad primero y secundo aviso haciendoles saver su
ariba, para que mandase lo que hubiese de hager, y parece
que la divina [providencia] permitio por secrets suyos que
la orden, pudiendo ser antes, llegare a tiempo que no solo
aseguro la Plata sino esta tierra y seria possible todas las
Yndias, por lo que adelante se vera, aquien se pueden dar
Pocos dias despues de aver despachado los dhos avisos, los
tuvo de su Magestad el governador desta ysla Pedro Suares
1 For hallado, as Avana (above) for Havana, an (lower down) for han,
avito for habito, &c.
RELACION DE LO SUCEDIDO
Coronel en que le aviso en que en Yngalaterra so aprestava una
gruesa armada para venir aganar esta ysla en tiempo de em-
bierno, por pareger que entonges estaria menos apercevida.
Entendidos por el general y el dho veedor los dhos avisos se
juntaron con el governador y con Frano. Cid, capitan de la
ynfanteria deste presidio, y tratado y conferido las preven-
tiones que se debian hager para seguridad de la tierra y Plata
de su Magestad para que en caso que el enemigo viniese no
se apoderase de todo ello, fueron todos juntos a reconecer
los sitios y baraderos por donde el enemigo podia acometer y
echar gente en tierra, y que en las parties que al general le
parecio, mando plantar part de la artilleria de su capitana y
atravesar la nao en la canal del puerto, para que quando
viniese el enemigo, se echase a fondo y sele gegase la entrada,
pareciendo que por alli avia de acometer y lo demas riesgo,
y contender la gente en buena guarida; se estubo en espera de
la orden de su Magestad para hacer su viage.
A los 13th de Nobiembre deste afio Ilego a este puerto
Don Pedro Tello de Guzman, con las cincas fragatas de su
Magestad para que el general Sancho Pardo embarcase en
ella la plata de su Magestad y se fuese la buelta de espafia,
haciendo officio de su Almirante el dho Pedro Tello, el qual
despues de aver entregado sus despachos, le dijo al dho
general como viniendo en seguimiento de su viage, avian
encontrado dos navios yngleses en la ysla de Guadalupe, que
se avian apartado de la armada ynglesa y que su almirante
Gon9alo Mendez de Cano9 avia rendido y echado a fondo el
uno, despues de aver le sacado os yngleses prisiones y que
yendo el dho Don Pedro en seguimiento del otro navio des-
cubrio nueve velas de la armada del enemigo, y desque las
vio viro la otra buelta siguiendo su viage; y que los dhos
yngleses prisioneros avian declarado que cerca de alli en la
misma ysla de Guadalupe a la banda del sur, estava surta la
armada de la reyna de yngalaterra, y aprestando lanchas con
veinte y cinco navios, los seis de los galeones do la reyna de 800
EN SAN JUAN DE PUERTO RICO.
toneladas y otros dos del mesmo porte de particulars, y todos
en dos esquadras, y por generals Frano. Draque y Juan Aqui-
nes, governando la derota y cosas de tierra Frano. Draque y su
lugarteniente en tierra Don Thomas Vasquezarfil; y que traia
la armada 302 infants y 10,500 mariners bien artillados, y
quevenian derechos a Puerto rico, como parecia por la ynstruc-
cion que se le tomo al capitan del dho navio yngles en la qual se
le ordeno en caso que por alguno forgoso se apartase, viniese
a Puerto rico, donde le aguardarian 10 dias, y que alli se
dexarian orden adonde avian de yr despues, sin declarar otro
disegno; y que conforme a esto el dho Don Pedro venia
temeroso que no ubiese venido delante y estubiese ganada la
tierra, y que puesto no avia sido, tenia por cierto que aes otro
dia estaria sobre el puerto, y que conforme a esto el general
ordenase su partida como mas pareciese combenir.
Visto el general Sancho Pardo la relacion del dho Don
Pedro Tello y su Almirante Gongalo Mendez y que esta
nueba le allava en la cama y indispuesto de enfermidad,
de algunos dias avia estava con ella, higo avisar a Obispo y
al governador, pidiendoles se viesen con el y los capitanes
de fragatas Marco Antonio Becerra, cabo de la compania de
Arcabugeros, y Pedro de Guia del avito de San Juan,
y Domingo de Ynsaurraga, Frano. Gomez, capitan deste
presidio, y el veedor Martin Vomero de Caamafio, Juan de la
Vera, contador de las fragatas; y todos juntos en su posada
y aviendo tratado y propuesto el dho general la relacion que
tenia del enemigo y los medios mas combenientes que avia
por la seguridad de la tierra y plata; supuesto que la armada
enemiga era tanta y esperarse tan breve, y que las fragatas
precisamente tenian necesidad de aderegarse y meter agua y
lefia y embarcarse la plata en que se avian de detener ocho
dias por lo menos, y considerando que el enemigo quando
estuviese con esta ocupacion, y quando no por el aviso que le
2 This ought, probably, to be 3000.
RELACION DE LO SUCEDIDO
pudo dar el otro navio que sc vio, quo estas fragatas venian
por la plata,que ya savia que estava aqui, la podia espcrar al
paso, oque de la tierra se podia apoderar y fortificarse en ella
para conquistar a todas las Yndias, en que a su Magestad
leseguia gran perjucio y daio de su reputation.
Todos de unanime conformes acordaron que la tierra so
fortificase con la artilleria y gente, y que la nao capitana de
tierra firme y otro de Pedro Milanes se echason a fondo en
la canal del puerto para 9egar la entrada, y que la plata no se
mudase de la fortale9a asta ver como las cosas se ponian,
pareciendo estara alli mas segura y en part donde quando
per nuestros pecados se lo ordenava, se pudiera char al a mar
paraque no la gogase el enemigo, y con esta resolution sean
ydo poniendo en execution con much pricsa y diligencia
de noche y.de dia todas prevengiones posibles.
El general Sancho Pardo como persona de tanta expcrientia
y que tenia visto y reconogido los sitios y puertos de la tierra,
aseguro al dho Don Pedro Tello y a los que con el venian,
que era caso ymposible perderse la tierra quiriendo los
nuestros pelear y hager el deber, y que solo avia tener
cuidado del puerto, que la armada no se metiese de golpe, y
que par eso era bien se echasen a fondo las dos naos que
estava acordado, y en sus espaldas las fragatas con las proas
a la mar par resistir la entrada, y que con eso estava segura
la tierra y plata de su Magestad, de que seria muy servido,
en cuyo nombre les pedio acudiesen a sus obligacionos; y para
esto Don Pedro Tello tomo a su cargo la defense del puerto.
El Obispo offregio de de9ir el otro dia una misa y una
platica ala gente, como lo higo, christianamente encargandole
el servigio de Dios y de su rey, y siempre continue este officio
de noche y de dia visitando los puestos donde la gentle estava,
puniendo en cada uno un sagerdote y animandolos con
Este dia el governador y general despacharon un barco
con aviso a sancto Domingo para que se pusieson y cstu-
EN SAN JUAN DE PUERTO RICO.
biesen a la mira por si el enemigo yba alla como se entiende
y se le escrivio al Presidente, que luego avisase lo mismo a
Cartagena y a Sancta Maria.
Luego se higo muestra de toda la gente de la tierra, y
parte de la que avia en las fragatas se desembarco por ser
necesario para la tierra; allose en todo a 10,300 personas y
en estos 700 de pelea y los 800 de fragatas y capitana de
tierra firme, y las demas del presidio y forasteros, en los
quales avia 50 de a cavallo con lan9a y adarga, que todo se
repartieron en la forma siguiente :
En la caleta del morillo el Capitan Pedro
de Guia del avito de San Juan, con ciento
cinquenta soldados 150
En la caleta del cabron, Alonso de Vargas
con cien soldados 100
En la puente y boqueron, Pedro Vazquez
Alferez con ciento y cinquenta soldados 150
En las fragatas, trecientas personas a orden
de Don Pedro Tello .. 300
En el voca de vayamon, el capitan Otega con
cinquenta soldados 50
Toda la demas gente esta en el morro y en la plaga de
Armas a cargo del capitan Marco Antonio Vegerra y la de a
cavallo al del governador, para acudir los dos cada uno con la
de su cargo, a la parte mas combiniente y que mas negesidas
tubiese de socorro.
En el morro, veinte y siete piegas de bronze
muy buenas 27
En la plata forma del otro morro, ginco piegas 5
En sancta elena, quatro piegas 4
En la caleta de los frayles junto a la fortalega,
tres piegas 3
RELACION DE LO SUCEDIDO
En la caleta de sancta catalina, 9inco pie9as 5
En el tejar, nuebe piegas 9
En la boca de vayamon, dos piegas 2
En la puente y en un navio que alla se puso,
seis pie9as. 6
En el boqueron, quatro piegas 4
En la caleta de cabron, dos pie9as 2
En la caleta del morillo, tres pie9as 3
y las fragatas bien artilladas; sin las quales avia las dhas
setenta piegas de artilleria plantadas y buenos artilleros en
cada puesto y por sobreestante de los fuertes del morro y
morillo de sancta Elena, el Almirante Gon9alo Mendez de
A los 15 del dho llego'aviso dal governador de Canaria
despachado al de aqui, para que supiese como la armada
enemiga avia pasado por alli y aviendo echado alguna gente
en tierra para hacer agua, le avian echo retirar con daio de
veinte y cinco personas, y que venia la buelta de las yndias; y
el dho aviso dijo como al pasar por la ysla de san Martin avia
visto surta la armada con veinte y ginco velas.
Luego el dho dia el General Sancho Pardo despacho el
mismo al governador de la Avana y le escrivio avisase a
nueva Espaia al general Pedro Melendez que estava alla con
su flota. Estando echas todas estas preventiones toda la
gente deseosa de verse con el enemigo, entraron en consejo
el dho general y Don Pedro Tello, y el Almirante Gon9alo
Mendez y los capitanes Marco Antonio Vegerra, Pedro de
Guia, Domingo de Ynsaurraga, el vehedor Martin Vomero
de Caamafio, y aviendo tratado si seria bien embarcar la
plata en dos fragatas, para que en caso que el enemigo se
pusiese sobre el puerto, como mas lijeras se pudiesen escapar
de noche, siguiendoles las otras tres en reta guardia, para que
si se ofre9iese quedasen peleando y las dos siguiesen su viage;
EN SAN JUAN DE PUERTO RICO.
los mas Votos conformaronse enque no se mudase la plata
de donde estava, porque seria desanimar la gente de la tierra
que estava con animo de defenderla peleando, y viendo que
los desemparavan sedesanimarian y su Magestad perderia la
tierra y su reputation, enque le iba a de9ir much mas de lo
que le importava la plata; que lo que conbenio era ha9er
rostro al enemigo confiando en Dios que nos daria victoria;
y visto por el general la mayor parte de los pareceres, ordeno
a Don Pedro Tello que con diligencia aprestase las fragatas,
para quando lo estubiese y combiniese embarcar la plata se
higiese, en el entretanto que el enemigo daria muestras de si
por si estubiese esperando al passo, mando fuese una carabela
la buelta de la mar 50 leguas a descubrir; y ansi se higo y la
plata se estubo queda que fue bien agertado.
Miercoles 22 del dho mes de Nobiembre al amane9er se
descubrio la armada enemiga a la vista de tierra con 23 velas
y una carabela latina, las 6 galeones de la reyna de 800 tone-
ladas, y dos naos del mismo porte y los demas navios de 300,
y de 150, y de ayavajo y 40 lanchas venian navegando bien
recogidas. Luego se toco a arma y cada qual acudio a su puesto
con much alegria y buen animo de pelear. El viento era
poco y asi venia con espacio asta que entro la briga. Venia
delante la' carabela latina y algunas lanchas soldando la
costa con vanderas blancas en senal, y llegandose una enfrente
del boqueron, le tiraron de alli con una piega que la hicieron
retirar a la mar y luego pusieron otras vanderas coloradas; y
pasando delante despues del medio dia, dio fondo toda la
armada enfrente de la caleta del cabron donde jamas se vio
surgir ningun navio por ser costa y donde no se savia que
se podia dar fondo asta despues de ser ydo el enemigo, que
embio el general a sondar la parte donde estubo y se allo de
20 a 30 bra9as en limpio, y segun lo que se entendio era su
fin echar alli gente de vajo de su artilleria, pareciendole
allarnos desapercevidos y que no ubiese ninguna muestra
que se le resistiese el paso, y allose engafiado.
REACTION DE LO SICEDIDO
Estando junta la dha Armada en la parte que digo, los
nuestros le tiraron muchas piegas de artilleria del morrillo y
de la caleta del cabron, tanto que algunas valas le hiqieron
dano por lo que despues que se supo que le mataron a Juan
Aquines, general de la una esquadra y a dos caballeros de los
principles que con el venian y otra gente, y que a Fran0.
Draque le llevaron la mesa en que estava comiendo y la bala
dio a un personage que con el venia que se supo no escapara.
Viendo el enemigo el dano que de tierra se le hacia, embio
la carabela latina con un piloto ysleno de nation mulato que
dicen es muy platico en estas parties, llevando consigo cinco
lanchas la buelta del puerto a reconegerle y a sondar junto
la boca del ysloto que laman ysla de Cabras, que esta a la
vanda del oeste, y despues de aver fondado volvio la una
lancha a dar aviso a la armada, la qual se desalojo luego de
alli a las cinco de la tarde, sin aver tirado piega ni un solo
mosquete en todo el tiempo que alli estubo, y se fue buelta
de la mar, y de una y otra se andubo aquella noche asta
Juebes siguiente a las ocho de la mafiana fue a surgir toda
la armada al socayre del yslote que el dia antes avian soldado
junto al puerto, que fue otro nuebo surgidero no conocido
asta entonges por ser fondo de 60 bracas sobre bajos subjeto
a que con qualquiera tiempo de braveya se pudiera perder en
la costa. Ali estubo siendole el tiempo favorable, sin poder la
alcangar nuestra artilleria, y aquella tarde embio dos lanchas a
asondar la playa de vayamon asta la estacada del carivelo y a
reconeqer aquellos vajos para ver si por alli podria echar gente
en tierra, y en la una lancha bein entoldada fue Frano.
Draque por lo que despues se supo.
Visto por Don Pedro Tello, a cuyo cargo estava el puerto,
las diligencias que el enemigo hacia, y pareciendole que avia
de acometer por la estacada del carivelo rompiendola aquella
noche con lanchas para echar gente en tierra, acudio al
general a dar le quenta dello, y a pedirle gente para que
EN SAN JUAN DE PUEIRTO RICO.
fuesen a defender a quel paso, y el general ordeno que
aquella tarde estubiese alli el capitan Agustin de Candecho
con 30 soldados y que a la noche fuesen 50 soldados a cargo
del vehedor Martin Vomero de Caamafio, con orden de que
si la fuerga del enemigo fuese superior, se retirase con la
gente en los barcos a las fragatas para hagerse fuertes en ellas.
El dicho jueves 23 dia de San Clemente a las 10 de la
noche con la obscuridad acometio el enemigo al puerto con
25 lanchas y en cada una de 50 a 60 personas bien armadas
con fin de quemar las fragatas segun lo que se vio, y todas
entraron arrimadas a la plata forma del morro, metiendose de
vajo de la artilleria, y segun lo que despues se supo, Frano
Draque vino en la una asta la boca del puerto, a meter las
demas, y aunque hacia obscure se vieron las lanchas y luego
comen9o a jugar la artilleria del morro y del fuerte de sancta
elena y las fragatas muy a priesa, y las mas de las lanchas
embistieron con la fragata texeda Capitana poniendole fuego
por la proa, echandole dentro muchas alcangias, bombs de
fuego, y los nuestros con much diligencia lo apagaron sin
daio ninguno, peleando con artilleria, mosqueteria, piedras,
y al mismo tiempo pusieron fuego a la fragata sancta ysabel
y a la fragata Magdalena y a sancta clara, el qual se apago;
y la tercera vez que se encendio en la fragata magdalena de
que era capitan Domingo de Ynsaurraga, no se pudo apagar,
por averse encendido por popa con much furia, y todo lo
que dio lugar a poder estar en ella y pelear lo higo el dho
capitan y la gente que con el se allo, astaque estava ya casi
quemada y muertas 12 personas de la mosqueteria del
enemigo, y otras tantas que se quemaron; y el dho capitan se
escape a nado por medio de las lanchas, y se fue a la fragata
sancta Ysabel que estava a cargo del capitan Juan Flores de
Rabanal en lugar del capitan Pedro de Guia que tenia un
sitio de tierra a su cargo, y alli ayudo a todo lo que se ofregio.
Duro el pelear una hora la mas refiida que sea visto, y
con el fuego de la fragata que se quemo, aclaro todo el
RELACION DE LO SUCEDIDO
puerto de manera que fue bien para las demas que se
veian para asentar nra artilleria y la de los fuertes, con la
quel y con la mosqueteria y piedras que de las fragatas se
tiraron, les hicieron tanto dafio que se retiraron acabo de
una ora que como digo se peleava, con perdida de 9 o 10
lanchas y mas de 400 personas sin otros muchos que fueron
heridos; no aviendo de nuestra parte mas de la perdida de
la fragata y quarenta personas muertas y quemadas, de la
mosqueteria algunos heridos. Fue muy de ver lo bien que
las fragatas pelearon y quan bien les acudio el artilleria de
los fuertes particularmente el de sancta elena que estava
mas amano para ofender las lanchas.
Viernes 24, considerando que el enemigo avia de asegundar
aquella noche y que avia de echar gente en tierra, dende
que amanegio no cesaron prevenCiones por nuestra parte,
plantando artilleria en algunos puertos de tierra como fue en
todo el tejar, que estava a cargo del governador y del Capitan
Marco Antonio con la gente del cuerpo de guardia; en la
caleta de sancta Catalina se paso el capitan Guia que antes
estava en el morrillo con 50 arcabujeros, y en la caleta de los
frayles junto a la fortalega otros dos pieqas y 30 soldados a
cargo del vehedor Martin Vomero, y en todas parties se
higieron muchas trincheras y fortificaciones trabajando cada
qual con el agadon en la mano, sin que hubiese negro que a
ello ayudase, porque todos los veCinos los embiaron al monte
con sus aciendas y mugeres luego que asomo el enemigo.
Toda via como a las 8 de la maiiana con el terral se levo
la armada enemiga buelta a la mar procurando ponerse a
barlobento del puerto, y ansi andubo asta la tarde y pare-
9iendole a Don Pedro Tello que esto era para entrarse de
golpe en el puerto, fue a tierra a degirle al general que le
pare9ia que el enemigo se venia derecho al puerto, y que con
los dos naos que se avian echado a fondo, no estava del todo
9errado la canal y que combenia echar dos fragatas en la
parte que estava libre para que del todo se ympidiese la en-
EN SAN JUAN DE PUERTO RICO.
trada, pues era de tanta importancia a segurar el puerto que
las dos fragatas por muchas considerations y bien del
servigio de su Magestad.
El general Sancho Pardo hico luego junta del governador
y de mas ministros, y luego acordaron que se hechase una
fragata a fondo en la canal a caso que no bastase un navio de
Pedro Sedefio que estava cargado de mercadurias y otro de
menos porte, los quales se echasen luego como estavan, pues
el brebedad del tiempo no daba lugar a la descarga, y que la
fragata se echase quando el dho Don Pedro le paregiese
A las 4 de la tarde venia el enemigo con la briga caminando
agia el puerto y creyendo Don Pedro Tello que venia derecho a
el, echo a fondo los dos navios de Sedefio y Juan Diaz de
Sancta Ana, y la fragata tejeda, sin que la brebedad del tiempo
diese lugar a sacarle todos los bastimentos y artilleria, aunque
alguna parte se saco, y con esto se cerro toda la entrada de la
canal, y el enemigo a la oragion surgio entire el morro y la
ysla de cabras donde estubo surto la noche antes.
Visto que la armada estava surta y mas cerca de la
entrada del puerto, se volvio a confirmar la sospecha que se
tenia de que aquella noche avia de procurar acabar de
quemar las fragatas y echar gente en tierra: Don Pedro Tello
con acuerdo del general hico retirar las tres fragatas el
puerto adentro, y las metieron en el tejar con gente de
guardia por asegurarlas y no temiendo que echasen gente en
tierra, viendo quan bien dispuestos estavan los animos de los
nuestros y todos los sitios y desembarcaderos atrincherados y
fuertes; y el retirar las fragatas fue ya de noche quando el
enemigo no lo pudo ver, y ansi el otro dia por la mariana en-
tendio que todas las avia echado a fondo aquella noche, se
estubo sosegado sin hager ninguna demostragion por nuestra
parte si bien estubimos a la mira.
Sabado 25 luego de maiiana embio el enemigo siete o ocho
lanchas a reconoger el puerto y toda la costa asta el boqueron,
RELACION DE LO SUCEDIDO
desbiandose de tierra porque nuestra artilleria no los ofen-
diese y a las 10 de la mafiana volvieron a recojerse a la
armada que estava junta en la parte dicha.
Este dia a las dos de la tarde asomo nuestra carabela que
avia ydo ocho dias antes a descubrir el enemigo, y como por
los nuestros fue vista le tiraron una pie9a del boqueron para
que se recojiese sin yr al puerto, y de la armada le siguieron
algunas lanchas asta la playa de cangrejos donde baro y parte
de la cavalleria acudio a socorrer la gente, y Frano. Gonqalez
que venia por piloto y capitan de la dha carabela le saco un
rumbo porque el enemigo no la llevase y ansi las lanchas se
alargaron y se bolvieron sin acer press.
El dho sabado en la noche se higo a la bela toda la armada
sin ser vista y se fue a la mar, y viendo los nuestros a la
maiiana que no parecia, se embio luego personas por tierra pro-
longando la costa del oeste, para que viesen si pare9ia o avia
pasado por alli, como se entendia, y yba a Sancto Domingo.
Lunes volvio un aviso del Arracivo catorge leguas deste
puerto, digiendo que la armada avia pasado por alli su camino
adelante. Este dia despacho el governador otro aviso a San
German, el qual bolvio dentro de seis dias con nueba de que
la armada estava en el butiro de la acucar la otra vanda de
San German, y que avia echado en tierra cinco compaiiias de
piqueros y mosqueteros que estavan agiendo came, agua y
lefia, y quatro lanchas los quales hi9o en quatro dias por traer
lo mas echo.
Aviendo el general visto estos avisos y paregiendole que
podria ser odio del enemigo, y que de alli podria ponerse al
monte en espera de las dhas fragatas, o qucrer que fuesen
ydas para volver sobre puerto rico por allarle sin fuerga para
apoderarse del y executar el designio que traya de fortificarse
en el, toco a cuerdo de lo que se aria, y se resolvio que no se
saliesen del puerto asta saver de cierto que el enemigo hubiese
pasado adelante de la punta de la Aguada, y que fuese el
Capitan Juan Flores de Rabanal con un pataje 70 v 80 leguas
EN SAN JUAN DE PUERTO RICO.
la buelta del norte a descubrir, y que se embarcase la plata en
el entretanto, el qual volvio a cabo de ocho dias sin aver visto
A nueve de diciembre vino aviso de San German que la
armada enemiga era yda la buelta del Sur.
A once del dho llego asta giudad Lope Sanchez contra-
maestre de la fragata Magdalena y quatro mariners della,
que la noche del yncendio de las fragatas los prendieron en
el agua las lanchas del enemigo. A los quales echo en tierra
en el butrio de la azucar con una carta de Frano Draque
para el governador de aqui, cuya copia es la que sigue;
CARTA de FRANo DRAQUE A PEDRO SUAREZ COLONEL,
governador de Puerto rico;
Entendiendo ser Vsa Cavallero principal y soldado escrivo
esta breve dando a entender como siempre en todas las oca-
siones que semean offregido con la nacionEspaiiola,la e tratado
con much honora y clemen9ia, dando libertad a sus personas
no apocos mas a muchos, ansi que al tiempo que nuestra gente
puso fuego a las fragatas se salvaron ciertos Espafioles en la
furia del fuego no ha9iendo le agravio despues de vengidos
sin muy buena guerra.
Por ellos e savido como la capitana de Don Pedro Tello
prendio un navichuelo de nuestra armada adonde avia 25
Yngleses, o mas haciendo con ellos buen tratamiento y guerra
limpia. Quedo en el propio ser que solia, mas aviendo otra
cosa, forgosamente chase lo que jamas en mi cupo; mas como ay
en esa ciudad soldados y cavalleros no dudo del buen sugeso
de nuestra gente, dandoles libertad por virtud de buena
guerra, lo qual espero y ansi are lo propio; en todo quedo al
servigio de Vs", salvo la causa que ay de por medio de la capi-
tana de la sacra Mag' de la Reyna de Yngalaterra mis': a 23
Nobiembre de 1595 estilo de Yngalaterra.
Por relation que el dho contramaestre y demas mariners
RELACION DE LO SUCEDIDO
que ocho dias andubieron con el enemigo, se supo que salie-
ron de alli la buelta del sur o del susudueste, y que yban a
Sancto Domingo y de alli a Panama, porque deyian que yban
adonde avia much oro y plata, y ansi se deja entender por
las muchas lanchas que levaron pertrechos de guerra. Estos
gertificaron la muerte de Juan Aquines y el sentimiento que
por el se higo y el much daiio que los enemigos reyivieron,
tanto que pasandolos un dia de la capitana a otro galeon,
allaron casi la gente del toda herida y maltratada, y que se
quejaban del dafo que las piedras que les tiraron de las fra-
gatas les higo, y que fue tanto el mal que el otro dia de la
pelea Frano Draque higo consejo sobre si segundaria, no hall
ninguno que fuese de su pareger, y mas por averles dhos estes
hombres que era much la fuerga que teniamos mas de la
que a sido; y que el Draque se quedo esbentado quando supo
la poca gente que se hallo en las fragatas la noche del fuego,
y se tiraba de las barbas por no aver torado la plata y la
tierra, no se dejando ver aquellos dos dias, quejandose de Juan
Aquines que no quiso que vineran tras las fragatas de la ysla
de Guadalupe luego que supo que le avian cojido el navio y
venian a puerto rico, dando a entender que no tubieramos
lugar de fortificarmos como se higo en los ocho dias que se
tardaron en aprestar sus lanchas y en hager agua. Todo lo a
ordenado Dios a quien se debe dar muchas graqias, pues me-
diante su labor de mas de aver alcan9ado una victoria tel, con
tan poca gente como de nuestra parte hubo resistiendo la
fuerga de una armada tan poderosa, defendiendo la tierra y
dos millones de plata, a su Magestad selea seguido notables
servigios y a los particulares bien general.
Lo primero, que por lo que sea entendido el enemigo traya
fin de sustentar esta fuer9a y fuera le facil con poca costa,
porque los cosarios que andan en esto de todas nagiones se-
acojieran a ella y ellos ayudara a defenderla, y fuera menester
armar muy de proposito para bolverse la a ganar, por ser el
servigio del puerto fuerte y de donde mas daiio pueden hager
a yslotas y costas que todo lo tiene a sotavento.
EN SAN JUAN DE PUERTO RICO.
Lo segundo, que a este enemigo, que asta oy nadie lea echo
resistengia en la mar, aqui se le rompio la cave9a, pues como
esta dho, una de las dos que governaban murio y 400 per-
sonas y hubo muchos heridos.
Lo 3, que se escaparon dos millones de plata y oro y
granas con que la Reyna podia armar y entretenerse por mas
Lo 4, que con averse entretenido en estas yslas asta los 3
de Diciembre, dio tiempo a que sepuedan aver prevenido los
lugares sospechosos con los avisos que esta dho sedespacharon
a Sancto Domingo y a la avana, y destos los avian tenido en
Cartagena y nueba espana con que podemos esperar seguridad.
Lo ultimo, y no demenos consideration es el animo y re-
putagion que los nuestros an cobrado, reconociendo el poco
valor de los enemigos, y por el contrario la opinion que ellos
an perdido, en que consiste much parte de los buenos o ma-
los sub9esos, y pues desta se siguen tantos vines, su Magestad
debe hager merced a los que en el se allaron para que los que
estan a la mira se animen a servirle en semeyantes ocasiones.
Pasada esta como esta dho, y aviendo el general tenido
aviso que el enemigo yba adelante, y que los vastimentos eran
pocos por averse gastado muchos en esta occasion, y ser la
miseria desta ysla tal que no se podian proveer otros, y que
combenia abreviar la partida de sudespacho, y ordeno que
con suma prestega se recojiese el artilleria de los puestos de
tierra y se embarcase la plata en los fragatas, y con ellas y
con un navio y un patache en que se embarco parte de la
gente y artilleria de las dos fragatas perdidas y de la capitana
de tierra firme, partio de puerto rico con buen tiempo a los
20 de Diciembre de 1595.
RELACION DE LO SUCEDIDO
INSTRUCCION que dio Frano. Draque, al capitan del navio
Fran9es, uno de los de su armada que se le tomo en la ysla
La instruction y orden que a de tener toda la armada que
sale del puerto de Plemua desde 29 de Agosto de 1595 aiios.
1. Primeramente es para servir a Dios y tener esta orden
dos veges aldia y sino fuese alguna occasion no poder mas.
2. Lo segundo aveis de tener gran cuidado de tener com-
pania y venir a hablar a vuestro Almirante dos veges aldia, y
quando no pudieredes mas de una vez, lo haged cada dia y
tened gran cuidado de la orden que vos sera dada de guar-
darla y tener siempre estar en compania como el tiempo
3. Y si fuese algun navio o patache per tempestad de tiempo
o per otra occasion que hubiese y se apartase de la com-
pania anos de allar primeramente en la ysla de Bayona de
Galicia y alli estara la armada aguardando asta que el tiempo
provea otra cosa y nos allareis, y de alli sino nos allaredes,
yreis a Puerto Sancto y nos aguardareis alli tries dias, y sino
fueremos alli, tomareis el camino para la ysla de Guadalupe,
una ysla pequena de la vanda del nordeste gerca de la Domi-
nica, en la qual estaremos tres dias y dejaremos alguna sinal
para que sepais donde nosotros fueremos el qual sera para
puerto rico; alli estaremos diez dias.
4. Si en este camino tubieremos algun viento contrario
e tempestad de noche, aveis de amaynar todas los belas asta la
mariana, sino vieredes que una almiranta aga bela y ansi
areis vosotros lo mismo.
5. Y si el tiempo volviese de noche alguna contrariedad de
vento contrario, vuestra almiranta pondra dos lanternas, una
de vajo de otra de statura de un hombre, para que os vais re-
giendo por ellas.
6. Y si todos nosotros amaynasemos de noche por alguna
occasion de tempestad y fuese nesesario hager vela esa noche,
EN SAN JUAN DE PUERTO RICO.
aveis de engender antes que nosotros echemos vela una sola
lantern con lumbre en popa y otra en la gavia del trinquete.
7. No tendreis ninguna lumbre en ningun navio sino sola-
mentc la lumbre que estubiese en la aguia, y este con gran
cuydado que no paregia, fuera de la Almiranta y por los oca-
siones que pueden venir del fuego, no aveis de traer ninguna
candela ni lumbre entorno del navio sino fuese con lanterna,
y ni mas ni menos aveis de tener gran cuidado con el fuego
de la cogina.
8. Ningun navio baral ni patache no vaya delante de la
Almirante de noche y particularmente en tiempo de fortune
de tempestad ni se ponga de vajo de los navios grandes pa-
sando de una parte a otra.
9. Y si algun navio de la flota por desgragia perdiese algun
arbol mayor o verga o alguna bomba o otro aparejo alguno
de importancia, tiraran una v dos piecas conforme a la ne-
cesitad que tubiese para que los otros navios le socorran con
brevedad, y que ningun navio se aparte della asta que se
socorra, conforme a la necesitad que se tubiese.
10. Y si algun navio de la flota perdiese su curso y topase
con otro algun navio, la serial sera que icaran y amaynaran la
vela de gavia tres veges y ansi ara la otra para que se conosca.
11. No aveis de consentir jugar en el navio naypos ni
dados por muchas ocasiones que suelen suceder de pendencias.
12. Aveis de tener grandissimo cuydado de conservar los
bastimentos, conforme a vuestra discretion asta que regivais
otra orden de lo que aveis de hager.
13. Lo ultimo para que agais mejor compaiiia, vereis una
lumbre en la popa Almiranta una o dos veqes.
AN ACCOUNT OF WHAT TOOK PLACE AT SAN JUAN DE
PUERTO RICO, IN THE INDIES, WITH THE ENGLISH
FLEET UNDER THE COMMAND OF FRANCIS DRAKE
AND JOHN HAWKINS, ON THE 23BD NOVEMBER 1595.
(The Translation of the preceding document.)
GENERAL Sancho Pardo y Osorio having taken his departure
from the Havana for Spain on the 10th March of this year,
in command of the Capitana of the main-land fleet, under
convoy of the armed fleet of Don Francisco de Coloma, and
having, in the course of the gale which blew in the chops of
the Channel on the 15th of the same month, in latitude
230 30', found himself without a main-mast, and with'tiller
broken, while the ship, leaking much, and separated from the
others, was no longer in a condition to prosecute the voyage,
for the purpose of saving the lives of the three hundred people
who were on board, as well as two millions of gold and silver
belonging to His Majesty and to private individuals; with
the advice and consent of the supercargo, Martin Vomero de
Caamaiio, and of the pilots and other persons of most experi-
ence on board, made for Puerto Rico, where he arrived, by a
miracle, on the 9th April, and there he landed the bullion,
and deposited it in the fortress of the town. The aforesaid
general despatched immediately first and second advices to
His Majesty, making known his arrival, in order that in-
structions might be sent to him as to what he should do.
And it appears that Divine Providence (to whom many
thanks are due), for its secret ends, permitted the orders,
which might have come beforehand, to arrive just at the time
ACCOUNT OF THE PROCEEDINGS, ETC.
to save not only the bullion, but the island itself, and per-
haps all the Indies, as will be seen further on.
A few days after the aforesaid letters were despatched,
the governor of this island, Colonel Pedro Suares, received
those of His Majesty, whereby he was informed that a great
fleet was fitting out in England for the purpose of seizing on
this island in the course of the winter, as it was thought that
at that season the inhabitants would be less upon their guard.
When the general and the aforesaid supercargo learned the
contents of these despatches, they joined in consultation
with the governor and Francisco Cid, captain of the infantry
of this garrison; and having taken into consideration and
discussed. the precautionary measures which ought to be
adopted for the safety of the place and of His Majesty's
treasure, in order that, if the enemy should come, it might
be out of his power to make himself master of the whole,
they all agreed on reconnoitering the positions and accessible
points from which the enemy might approach, so as to throw
people ashore; and also that the general should give orders
for planting some of the guns of his ship in the positions
which he judged best, and for laying the vessel athwart the
channel of the port, so that she might be sunk on the arrival
of the enemy, and thus bar the entrance; as this was the
quarter where there seemed most likelihood of attack and
most risk, and where it was necessary to keep the people
well on the watch. These arrangements being made, the
general remained in expectation of His Majesty's order to
proceed on his voyage.
On the 13th November of this year, there arrived at this
port, Don Pedro Tello de Guzman, with the five frigates of
His Majesty, in order that General Sancho Pardo should
embark in them His Majesty's bullion, and so proceed to
Spain, the post of Admiral of his fleet being filled by the
aforesaid Pedro Tello, who, after having delivered his des-
patches, related to the aforesaid general, how, coming here in
ACCOUNT OF THE PROCEEDINGS
the course of his voyage, they had fallen in with two English
ships at the island of Guadaloupe, which had parted company
from the English fleet; and how his Admiral, Gonzalo Men-
dez de Cango, had captured one of them and sunk her, after
taking the Englishmen out of her; and that he, the aforesaid
Don Pedro, going in pursuit of the other vessel, discovered
nine sail of the enemy's fleet, and as soon as he described
them he tacked about and continued his voyage: and that
the aforesaid English prisoners had stated that thereabouts,
on the southern side of the island of Guadaloupe, the Queen
of England's fleet was lying at anchor and preparing launches;
that it consisted of five-and-twenty ships, six of them
Queen's galleons of eight hundred tons burden, and two
more of the same size belonging to private parties, the whole
being divided into two squadrons, having for generals,
Francis Drake and John Hawkins; the former, with his
lieutenant in command on shore, Sir Thomas Baskerville,
directing the course to be taken, and the proceedings on
land; and that the armament amounted to three thousand
infantry and ten thousand five hundred seamen well supplied
with guns; and that they were coming direct to Puerto Rico,
as appeared also from the instructions which were taken
from the captain of the aforesaid English ship, in which he
was ordered, in case he should part company from the fleet
by any mischance, to proceed to Puerto Rico, where they
would wait for him ten days, and after that, would leave
orders for him where he was to go, without further revealing
their intentions; and that in consequence of all this, the
aforesaid Don Pedro came, fearing that the enemy might
have preceded him and already got possession of the island;
and-since they had not yet come, he held it for certain that
they would be down upon the port the next day; and ac-
cordingly it lay with the general to order his departure as it
might seem expedient.
When the general, Sancho Pardo, heard the statement
AT PUERTO RICO.
made by the aforesaid Don Pedro Tello and his admiral,
Gonzalo Mendez; and inasmuch as that news reached him
when he was confined to his bed by an illness under which he
had been suffering some days, he sent word to the Bishop
and to the Governor, requesting them to come to him to
meet the captains of the frigates,-Marco Antonio Becerra,
head of the company of fusileers; and Pedro de Guia, of the
order of St. John; and Domingo de Ynsaurraga; Francisco
Gomez, captain of this garrison; the supercargo, Martin
Vomero de Caamafio, and Juan de la Vera, purser of the
frigates. These having all met together in his house, the
general laid before them and submitted for their consider-
ation the account which he had of the enemy, and the best
means that offered for the security of the island and the
bullion, supposing that the enemy's fleet was as great, and
to be expected as soon as was said; and that the frigates
absolutely required to have their rigging repaired and to
take in wood and water, which, with embarking the bullion,
would cause a delay of eight days at the least; and consider-
ing that, whether they were so occupied or not, the enemy by
reason of the information which that other ship that was seen
could give him, that these frigates were coming for the trea-
sure, which was now known to be here, might hope to seize
it on the passage, or to make himself master of the country
and to fortify himself in it, with a view to the conquest of all
the Indies, whence would ensue to His Majesty great injury
and loss of reputation.
All were of one mind in thinking that the place ought to
be strengthened with the guns and crews of the ships, and that
the Capitana de Tierra Firme and another ship belonging to
Pedro Milanes, should be sunk in the channel of the port, to
shut the entrance, and that the bullion should not be moved
from the fort until it was seen what turn affairs would take,
as it appeared to be safer there, and in a position also,
whence (if, for our sins, it should be so ordered) it might be
ACCOUNT OF THE PROCEEDINGS
more easily thrown into the sea, so that the enemy should
not get it; and having thus resolved, they proceeded to carry
into execution with great alacrity and zeal, night and dry,
every possible measure of defence.
General Sancho Pardo, as a person of great experience,
and who had seen and examined the position and approaches
of the place, assured Don Pedro Tello and the others who
came with him, that the loss of the place was out of the
question if our people were only willing to fight and do their
duty, and that it was only necessary to take good care of the
port, so as to prevent the enemy's fleet running into it at
once; and that, for that purpose, it were as well to sink the
two ships which had been agreed on, and on top of them, the
frigates with their bows towards the sea to bar the entrance,
and that with this precaution the place was quite safe and
also the treasure of His Majesty, who, herein, would be well
served, and in whose name he called on them to attend to
their several duties; and accordingly Don Pedro Tello took
under his own charge the defence of the port.
The Bishop offered to say mass the next day, and to
preach a sermon to the people, as he did in fact, exhorting
them, in a Christian manner, to the service of God and of
their king; and he persevered in the performance of this
office night and day, visiting the posts where the people
were stationed, placing a priest at each of them, and ani-
mating his hearers with much zeal.
The same day, the governor and general despatched a
barque with advices to St. Domingo, that the inhabitants of
that island might set and keep themselves on the watch; so
that if the enemy were to go there, as was heard and was
written to the President, the information might be immedi-
ately forwarded to Cartagena and Sancta Maria.
All the people of the island were immediately mustered,
and some of those belonging to the frigates were landed,
being thought necessary for the defence of the posts. The
AT PUERTO RICO.
whole amounted to ten thousand three hundred souls, of
whom seven hundred were fighting men, besides the eight
hundred belonging to the frigates and the Capitana of the
mainland, and the rest of the garrison, and foreigners, in-
cluding, also, fifty on horseback with lance and buckler; the
whole of whom were distributed in the following manner:
In the curtain of the Morillo [battery], Cap-
tain Pedro de Guia, of the order of St.
John, with a hundred and fifty soldiers 150
In the curtain of the Cabron, Alonso de
Vargas with a hundred soldiers 100
At the bridge and Boqueron, Ensign Pedro
Vazquez with a hundred and fifty soldiers 150
In the frigates, three hundred men under
the command of Don Pedro Tello 300
At the mouth of the river Bayamon, Cap-
tain Otega with fifty soldiers 50
The rest of the people occupied the Morro and the esplanade,
under the command of Captain Marco Antonio de Vegerra
and the governor, who led the cavalry; each of them to ad-
vance with his party to whatever point seemed to require his
presence, or to stand in need of succour.
On the Morro [rock battery], twenty-seven
very good brass guns 27
On the platform of the other Morro, five
In St. Helena, four pieces 4
In the curtain of the Friars, close to the
fortress, three pieces 3
In the curtain of St. Catharine, five pieces 5
In the Tejar [tile field], nine pieces 9
At the mouth of the river, two pieces 2
ACCOUNT OF THE PROCEEDINGS
On the bridge and in a ship which was placed
there, six pieces 6
On the Boqueron, four pieces 4
On the Cabron curtain, two pieces 2
On the curtain of the Morillo, three pieces 3
Besides the frigates well armed, without which there were the
aforesaid seventy pieces of cannon planted with good gunners
at each post, and for chief commander of the forts of the
Morro and the Morillo de Sta. Helena, the Admiral, Gongalo
Mendez de Can9o.
On the 15th of the same month intelligence arrived from
the governor of Canary, despatched to the governor of this
island, to make it known that the enemy's fleet had passed
by the former place, and having landed some people for the
purpose of watering, they had been forced to retreat with the
loss of five-and-twenty men, and had gone off towards the
Indies; and the same messenger stated, that in passing by the
island of St. Martin, he had seen the armada, of five-and-
twenty sail, lying at anchor.
Immediately, on the same day, the general, Sancho Pardo,
sent the same despatch to the governor of the Havana, and
wrote to him to forward the information to New Spain to
General Pedro Melendez, who was on that coast with his
fleet. These precautionary steps having been taken, and
the people being all eager to combat the enemy, the general
held a council, at which were present, Don Pedro Tello; the
admiral, Gon9alo Mendez; and the captains, Marco Antonio
Vegerra, Pedro de Guia, and Domingo de Ynsaurraga, with
the supercargo Martin Vomero de Caamaiio; and having
taken into consideration whether it were expedient to em-
bark the bullion in two of the frigates, so that if the enemy
should place himself before the port, these being lighter,
might effect their escape by night, the other three following
AT PUERTO RICO. 0
them in the rear, in order that, if any attempt were made
upon them, they might stay behind fighting while the two
continued their voyage; it was decided by the majority of
votes, that the bullion should not be removed from the place
where it was lying, because the removal of it would tend to
dispirit the people, who were fired with the thought of de-
fending it: seeing their expectations foiled, they would be
dispirited, and His Majesty would lose the place and his
reputation, which was to be valued much more highly than the
bullion: and what it behoved them to do, was to- face the
enemy, trusting in God for the victory. When the general
saw how the majority inclined, he gave orders to Don Pedro
Tello to get the frigates ready with all convenient despatch,
that the bullion might be embarked whenever it was found
expedient to do so; the enemy, it was supposed, would afford
indications of his intentions, if he had such, of watching for
it outside; and he directed that a caravel should cruise on
the look out, about fifty leagues off the land. This was
done accordingly, and the bullion remained as it was, which
was the prudent course.
Wednesday the 22nd of the same month (November), at
break of day, the enemy's fleet was described on the horizon,
with twenty-three sail and a pinnace. The six queen's
galleons of eight hundred tons, and two ships of the same
size, and the rest, vessels of three hundred tons and of one
hundred and fifty and less, and forty launches, came sailing
in close order. Immediately every one snatched up his arms
and ran to his post with great alacrity, and well disposed for
combat. There was but little wind, and so the fleet advanced
but slowly till it entered the breeze. The pinnace came first
and some boats with white signal-flags sounding the coast.
One of them having come in front of the Boqueron battery,
a gun was fired at it which made it stand off to sea, and they
immediately hoisted other coloured flags and passed out; and
in the afternoon the whole fleet came and cast anchor in front
ACCOUNT OF THE PROCEEDINGS
of the curtain of the Cabron, where no one had ever seen a
ship ride before, nor was it known that there was good an-
chorage till after the departure of the enemy, when the
general sent to have the place sounded, and from twenty to
thirty fathoms clear water were found there. From what
was learned, it appears to have been his intention to land a
force under the fire of his artillery, imagining that he should
find us unprepared, and seeing no reason to believe that
such a step would meet with resistance; wherein he was
The fleet having arrived in the place above-mentioned, our
people fired at it several pieces of artillery from the Morrillo
and the curtain of the Cabron, so that some of the shot took
effect on them, for it was known afterwards, that they killed
John Hawkins, the general of one of the squadrons, and two
of the principal gentlemen who accompanied him, besides
other people; and that they carried away the table at which
Francis Drake was eating, the ball striking a gentleman who
was with him, and who, it is known, will not escape.
The enemy perceiving how much loss he sustained from
the shore, sent the pinnace with a pilot, a native of the islands
and a mulatto by race, who is said to be practically well
acquainted with these coasts, with five boats to the port, to
reconnoitre it and to sound close to the mouth formed by the
islet, which is called Goat Island, which lies towards the
west; and when it was sounded, one of the boats returned
with information to the fleet, which immediately weighed
anchor, at five o'clock in the evening, without having fired a
cannon or even a musket during all the whole time that it
was there, and ran out to sea, where it stood off and on that
night till the following day.
Thursday following, at eight o'clock in the morning, the
whole fleet came and anchored on the windward side of the
small island where they had been sounding the day before,
close to the port; and this was another new anchorage not
AT PUERTO RICO.
known hitherto, and having six fathoms over shoals, where a
vessel might be easily lost in any bad weather. There the
fleet anchored, the weather being favourable, and beyond the
reach of our artillery; and the same evening two boats were
sent to sound the shore by the river Bayamon as far as the
Carivelo stockade, and to examine these shoals in order to
see if it were possible to land a force in that quarter; and in
one of the boats, which was covered closely with an awning,
was Francis Drake, as was subsequently learned.
When Don Pedro Tello, who had charge of the port, saw
the pains the enemy was taking, and perceived that an attack
was about to be made that very night on the stockade of
the Carivelo, by forcing it with boats, so as to land a body of
men, he sent to the general to acquaint him with what was
going on, and to ask for a reinforcement to resist such an
attempt; and the general ordered that in the evening Cap-
tain Augustin de Candecho should proceed thither with
thirty soldiers, and that at night there should be fifty soldiers
under the command of the supercargo, Martin Vomero de
Caamaiio, with orders that if the enemy's force should prove
superior, he should retreat with his men in boats to the
frigates, in which their forces were to be concentrated.
The same Thursday, 23rd, St. Clement's day, at ten o'clock
at night, when it was quite dark, the enemy commenced an
attack on the port with twenty-five boats, each carrying fifty
or sixty men well armed, with the view of burning the fri-
gates, as was afterwards seen, and they all entered close up
to the platform of the Rock [battery], ranging themselves
under the fire of the artillery; and from what was learned
afterwards, it appears that Francis Drake came in one of
them to the mouth of the port to place the rest. Dark as it
was, the boats were seen, and instantly the guns from the
Rock and from the fort of Sta. Helena began to play as
briskly as possible. Most of the boats attacked the Capitana,
the Texcda frigate, setting fire to her at the bow, and throw-
ACCOUNT OF THE PROCEEDINGS
ing into her a quantity of fire-pots and shells, while ours
succeeded in extinguishing the flames before they had done
any damage, the fight being carried on with cannon, mus-
quetry, and stones.
At the same time they set fire to the Sta. Ysabel and
Magdalena frigates, and to the Sancta Clara, which was
extinguished; but the third time that the Magdalena frigate,
of which Domingo de Ynsaurraga was captain, took fire, it
was impossible to extinguish the flames, as the ship took fire
at the stern and burned furiously; and all that could be
done to maintain a footing on board, was done by the afore-
said captain and the people with him, until the ship was just
burnt down and twelve men were killed by the enemy's
musquetry, besides as many more burnt. And the aforesaid
captain made his escape by swimming through the midst of
the boats and reached the frigate Sancta Ysabel, which was
under the command of Captain Juan Flores de Rabanal in
place of Captain Pedro de Guia, who had charge of a post
on land, and there he lent his assistance in every manner
possible. The battle lasted for an hour, the most obstinately
contested that was ever seen, and the whole port was illu-
mined by the burning frigate in a manner favourable for the
rest, who could thus see to point our artillery and that of the
forts, with which, and with the musquetry and the stones
thrown from the frigate, they did such effect, that the enemy,
after about an hour, during which the combat lasted, as I
have said, retreated with the loss of nine or ten boats and
more than four hundred men, besides many more wounded;
while on our side, the only loss was that of the frigate and
forty men killed or burnt, besides a few wounded by the
musquetry. It was a fine sight to see how the frigates fought,
and how capitally they were backed by the artillery of the
forts, particularly that of Sta. Helena, which was in an ad-
vantageous position for playing on the boats.
Friday 24th. Considering that the enemy would assuredly
AT PUERTO RICO.
repeat his attack at night, and endeavour to land his forces,
the people on our side never ceased, from the dawn of day,
to prepare for resistance, planting cannon at some passes on
land, as was done, for example, in the whole of the Tejar,
where the governor commanded, with Captain Marco Anto-
nio and the people forming the company of guards. Captain
Guia, who previously kept guard in the Morrillo, now took
his station in the curtain of Sancta Catalina with fifty
arquebusseers; in the curtain of the Friars, close to the for-
tress, were two other pieces with thirty soldiers, under the
command of the supercargo, Martin Vomero, and on every
side numerous trenches were dug and defences constructed,
every one working spade in hand, and not a single negro to
assist, for the people round about had sent off all their slaves
to the mountain, with their effects and women, as soon as the
However, about eight o'clock in the morning, as soon as
the land breeze sprang up, the enemy's fleet weighed and
stood to sea, endeavouring to get to windward of the port, and
continued on this course till evening; and Don Pedro Tello
perceiving that the object was to run at once into the port,
went ashore to explain to the general his apprehension that
the enemy was about to bear down directly on the place:
that the two ships which had been already sunk did not com-
pletely close up the entrance to it, and that it was expedient
to sink two frigates in the part that still remained open,
inasmuch as the complete barring of the entrance and the
security of the port were quite as important as the two
frigates, for many reasons, and for the good of His Majesty's
General Sancho Pardo immediately held a council with
the governor and other officers, and they decided that one
frigate should be sunk in the channel, in case that a ship
belonging to Pedro Sedefio, which was lying there laden
with merchandise, and another of less size, should prove
ACCOUNT OF THE PROCEEDINGS
insufficient; that these should be sunk immediately, just as
they were, as there was not time to unload them, and that
the frigate should be sunk whenever Don Pedro thought
At four o'clock in the afternoon the enemy came running
down with the breeze towards the port, and Don Pedro Tello,
believing that he was making directly for it, sank the two
vessels of Sedeio and Juan Diaz de Sancta Aiia, and also the
Texeda frigate, without being able, owing to the short time
allowed, to take out of them all the provisions and guns,
although a part was saved; and thus the entrance of the
channel was completely closed, and about vesper time the
enemy came to anchor between the Rock and Goat island,
where he had lain at anchor the night before.
The circumstance that the fleet anchored, and nearer than
before to the port, tended to confirm the suspicion that the
enemy meant to attempt that very night to finish the burn-
ing of the frigates, and to land people. Don Pedro Tello,
therefore, with the consent of the governor, had the three
frigates brought back to the interior of the port, and they
were placed in the Tejar with a guard to secure them; but
he had no fears about the landing of a force, seeing the spirit
which animated our people, and that all the posts and land-
ing-places were well entrenched and strengthened. The re-
moval of the frigates took place at night, when the enemy
could see nothing, and consequently the next morning he
concluded that they had been all sunk. The night passed
off quietly, without any effort on our part to shew that we
were well on the watch.
Saturday the 25th, as soon as daylight appeared, the
enemy sent seven or eight boats to reconnoitre the port, and
all the shore as far as the Boqueron. These kept at a dis-
tance from land, beyond the reach of our guns; and about
ten o'clock they returned to the fleet, which remained at
anchor in the place above-mentioned.
AT PUERTO RICO.
The same day, about two o'clock in the afternoon, our
caravel, which had gone to look out for the enemy eight days
before, came in sight, and as soon as it was seen by our
people, they fired a gun from the Boqueron to warn it to
bear up without approaching the port; and some boats from
the fleet followed it as far as the Playa de Cangrejos (crab
ground), where it ran ashore, and part of the cavalry hastened
forward to assist the crew; and Francisco Goncalez, who was
the pilot and captain of the caravel, scuttled her, to prevent
the enemy's carrying her off; and so the boats went away,
and returned to the fleet without making a prize.
The same Saturday, at night, the whole fleet made sail
without being seen, and stood out to sea; and when we
found in the morning that it had disappeared, people were
sent by land westwards along the coast to ascertain whether
it was seen or had passed that way, as was supposed, and
was going to St. Domingo.
On Monday news arrived from Arracibo, fourteen leagues
from this port, that the fleet had passed by on its course.
The same day the general despatched another messenger to
San German, who returned within six days with the infor-
mation that the enemy's fleet was, lying in the Butiro de la
Azucar on the other side of San German, and that they had
landed five companies of pikemen and musqueteers, who were
collecting supplies of meat, wood, and water, and made four
boats in as many days to carry their supplies.
The general having received this intelligence, and think-
ing it likely that there might be some artifice in the enemy's
movements, who perhaps might be lying in wait hoping to
catch the two frigates, or intending to return upon Puerto Rico
when they should be gone and the place weakened, in order
that he might seize it, and execute his design of fortifying
himself in it, seriously deliberated as to what should be done,
and determined that the frigates should not quit the port till
it was known for certain that the enemy had passed Point de
ACCOUNT OF THE PROCEEDINGS
la Aguada; and that Captain Juan Flores de Rabanal should
go seventy or eighty leagues to the north with a patache to
look out, while the bullion was in the meantime embarking.
In eight days he returned, without having seen anything.
The 9th of December intelligence was brought from San
German that the enemy's fleet had gone away southwards.
On the llth of the same month there arrived at this place
Lope Sanchez, boatswain of the Magdalena frigate, and four
seamen of the same, who had been taken in the water by the
enemy's boats, the night the frigates were set on fire. These
men had been put on shore in the Butiro de la Azucar, with
a letter of Francis Drake to the governor here, of which the
following is a copy:-
Letter of FRANCIS DRAKE to Colonel PEDRO SUAREZ,
Governor of Puerto Rico.
"Understanding that your lordship is a gentleman of rank
and a soldier, I write this letter to give you to understand
that whenever I have had an opportunity of dealing with the
Spanish nation, I have treated it with much honour and
clemency, liberating the individuals belonging to it, not a
few, but many in number. So, at the time when our people
set fire to the frigates, certain Spaniards were saved from the
fury of the flames, who, as conquered enemies, experienced
from us no ill-treatment, but the usage of honourable war.
From them it has been learned that the capitana of Don
Pedro Tello took a small vessel of our fleet, having on board
twenty-five Englishmen, or more, treating them well, and as
might be expected in fair war. I myself still cherish my
former sentiments; but having another affair, strong deeds
are done, which never entered my mind. But as there are
in this place soldiers and gentlemen, I have no doubt that
my people will fare well, and will obtain their liberty for the
sake of honourable war: this I hope, and shall do the like
myself. I remain at your lordship's service in all things,
AT PUERTO RICO.
bating the cause which is to be maintained as that of the
flag of her sacred Majesty the queen of England.
"The 23d November 1595, English style."
From the information given by the aforesaid boatswain
and the other seamen, who had gone with the enemy for
eight days, it was ascertained that the latter had departed
thence towards the S. or S.S.W., and that they were going to
St. Domingo and thence to Panama, for they said that they
were going where there was a quantity of gold and silver;
and the same thing might also be inferred from the number
of boats they took with them for an armament.
These men confirmed also the death of John Hawkins, and
testified as to the regret occasioned thereby, as well as to the
heavy loss which the enemysustained. Thus, as a boat was pass-
ing one day from the flag-ship to one of the other galleons, it
was struck, and nearly every man in it was wounded. They
stated that the enemy complained much of the damage done
by the stones thrown from the frigates; and that the loss was
so great, that when Francis Drake held a council the day after
the battle, to determine whether they should renew the attack,
there was not one who agreed with him in favour of that pro-
position, especially as these men had told them that our force
was much greater than it used to be; and that Drake was
amazed when he learned how few people were on board of the
frigates the night of the fire, and plucked his beard [with vexa-
tion] for not having taken the treasure and the place, not let-
ting himself be seen those two days; complaining of John
Hawkins, who did not allow them to pursue the three frigates
from the island of Guadaloupe, as soon as it was known that
they had taken the vessel and were making for Puerto Rico;
intimating that in that case we should not have had the oppor-
tunity of fortifying the place, as was done in the eight days
which they spent in the delay of preparing boats, and watering.
ACCOUNT OF THE PROCEEDINGS
All this has been so ordered by God, to whom we owe
many thanks, since by His means, besides obtaining such a
victory, with so small a force as that which on our side re-
sisted the efforts of so powerful an armament, in defence of
the place and two millions of treasure, important services
have resulted to his Majesty, and a general gain to private
In the first place, as far as can be learned, it was the
enemy's intention to maintain this force, which he might
easily do at small cost, for the pirates of all nations who fre-
quent these seas, would gather about him, and would aid
him in defending the position; and it would then be neces-
sary to fit out an expedition expressly to retake the place,
since the port has a decided advantage, and from thence
much injury may be easily done to the islands and coasts
which are to leeward.
In the second place, this enemy, who up to this time has
never met with any resistance at sea, has here had his head
broken; since, as has been related, one of the two leaders
died, with four hundred of his followers, and a great many
Thirdly, we have thus saved two millions worth of gold,
silver, and cochineal, with which the queen might equip and
maintain a force to give us further trouble.
Fourthly, the delaying of the enemy in these islands till
the 3rd December, allowed time for warning those places for
the safety of which fears might be entertained, by means of
the despatches which were sent, as has been stated, to St.
Domingo and the Havana, whence others were forwarded to
Carthagena and New Spain, so that we may now hope that
all is safe.
The last, and not the least consideration, is, the spirit
which our people have shewn, and the renown which they
have won, proving the inferiority of the enemy; and, on the
other hand, the hold on opinion which the latter have lost,
AT PUERTO RICO.
and in which consists to a great extent the secret of good or
ill-success. And since the beneficial results of this affair are
so many, his Majesty ought to return thanks to those who
took part in it, in order that the lookers-on may be encou-
raged to serve him on like occasions.
This affair having passed over as here related, and the
general having received information that the enemy was gone
on, and that provisions were scarce, a quantity of them
having been lost on this occasion, and the poverty of the
island being such that the deficiency could not be made good,
and that it was necessary for him to abridge his delay as
much as possible, gave orders to collect the guns with the
utmost despatch from the several posts on land, and to em-
bark the treasure in the frigates; and with these, one ship,
and a patache, in which were embarked part of the crews and
artillery of the two lost frigates, he left Puerto Rico with
good weather on the 20th December 1595.
The INSTRUCTIONS given by P. Drake to the captain of the
Francis, one of the vessels of his fleet, which was taken at
the island of Guadaloupe.
The Instruction and Order to be observed by the whole
fleet, which departs from the port of Plymouth on the 29th
1. In the first place, omit not divine worship, and let this
order be observed twice a-day, unless no opportunity offers.
2. Secondly, great care must be taken to keep company
and to come to speak with your admiral twice a-day; and if
you cannot do it more than once, yet let it be done every
day; and take great care to observe every order given you,
and to be always in company, as the weather shall allow.
ACCOUNT OF THE PROCEEDINGS
3. And should it happen that any ship or small vessel,
through stress of weather or other cause that may be, parts
company, they must look for us first of all in the island of
Bayona, on the coast of Galicia, and the fleet will wait till it
is time to proceed and you shall have found us; and thence,
if you should not find us, you shall go to Puerto Sancto, and
there you shall wait for us three days; and should we not be
there, you shall make for the island of Guadaloupe (a small
island near Dominica towards the north-east), where we will
stay three days, and will leave some signal that you may
know what course we shall have taken, which shall be for
Puerto Rico; there we will stay ten days.
4. If in the course of this voyage you meet with any foul
wind or bad weather, you must take in all sail at night till
morning, unless you see that one of your admirals carries
sail, in which case you shall do the same.
5. And if foul wind or bad weather should come on at
night, your admiral will hang out two lanterns, one above
the other, and the height of a man asunder, that you may
steer by them.
6. And if we should all shorten sail over night on account
of the weather, and it be necessary to make sail the same
night, you must show, before we make sail, a single lantern
with a light at the bow, and another at the fore-top.
7. You shall keep no light in any of the ships, but only
the light in the binocle, and this with the greatest care that
it be not seen, excepting the admirals ship; and to avoid the
danger of fire, you must not bear about any candle or light
in the ship, unless in a lantern; and neither more nor less,
you must take the greatest care with the fire in the galley.
8. No vessel, square or cutter-rigged, should go a-head
of the admiral at night, particularly in rough weather; or
get under the lee of large vessels, in tacking from side to
AT PUERTO RICO.
9. And if any vessel of the fleet should lose, through mis-
chance, a mainmast, or yard, or any of the water vessels, or
anything else of importance, they shall fire one or two shots,
according to the necessity of the case, that the other vessels
may afford them speedy assistance; and take care that no
vessel quit that which is in distress till the required succour
10. Should any vessel of the fleet lose her course, and fall
in with another of the fleet, the signal shall be to hoist and
lower topsails three times; and the other vessel shall do the
same for recognition.
11. You must not permit any gambling in the ship, with
cards or dice, by reason of the numerous quarrels usually
resulting from that practice.
12. You must take the greatest care to save the provisions,
following your own discretion in this matter till you receive
another order for your guidance.
13. Finally, in order that you may be better able to keep
company, you shall see a light at the admiral's stern once or
c FRANCIS DRAKE.
100, ST. -ARTIN'S LANT.