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NORTH..FLORIDA EXPERIMENT-STATION "'
Quincy, Florida .
February 9, 1956
N. F. E. S. Mimeo Rpt. 56-5
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE CONTROL OF INSECTS ON SHADE GRO ie
TOBACCO FOR THE 1956 SEASON
by W. C. Rhoades, Entomologist-in-charge and
William B. Tappan, Assistant Entomologist
The control of insects attacking shade grown tobacco remains essentially
the same as during the past few seasons. However, the appearance of new insect
pests, and the availability of safer or more effective materials may bring about
some change in control recommendations in the future.
Diluents-- Experiments conducted with Fasco and Niagara diluents the past
three seasons have indicated that these materials are as safe and effective to
use as tobacco diluent. Although more data will have to be collected before the
experiment station can definitely recommend these diluents, they appear to be as
satisfactory as tobacco dust in comparative tests, and their use will depend on
Malathion-- This material is chemically similar to parathion but is much less
toxic to humans. A 5% malathion dust gives as effective control on aphids as does
1% parathion. Any grower who is concerned about the safety of parathion should
give malathion serious thought as a substitute aphicide. Malathion will be
somewhat more expensive to use than parathion.
Endrin-- This is a relatively new material which is extremely effective
against hornworms. Taste tests of cigars prepared from endrin treated wrappers
have been satisfactory in all cases where it has been used at the 2% level or
below. It is also effective on loopers and budworms (based on two season's work)
and is reported as being very effective on grasshoppers elsewhere. The residual
effect of endrin is comparable to DDT and TDE. Any grower who has not been getting
satisfactory results with DDT or TDE may wish to use 1l% or 2% endrin in place of
these materials. Present trends indicate that endrin will be substituted for DDT
in the near future, thus avoiding the necessity of making separate applications
for grasshopper and hornworm control.
PREVENTION OF INFESTATION
A tightly covered plant bed and shade, with close-fitting gates kept closed
as much as possible, is partially effective in preventing insect infestations on
shade tobacco. The location of gardens should be as far removed from tobacco
shades as possible. Plant beds and shades should be plowed as soon as possible
after harvesting. Weeds should be destroyed from around the outside of shades,
especially for the control of grasshoppers.
Aphids-- Weekly applications of 10-20 pounds of 1% parathion or 5% malathion
dusts should be made beginning 3 weeks before transplanting whether or not aphids
are observed, and should definitely be made within one week of transplanting.
Cutworms-.Applications of-lO-20 pounds of 10% DDT dust should be made if
cutworm damage is noticed. A bait containing 5% toxaphene or l1% chlordane
applied at 4-5 pounds per 100 sq. yd. along walkways, margins of bed, and in open
spaces where plants are missing will also give good results. Do not apply baits
directly on plants. Best results will be obtained if baits are applied late in
Mole cWets-- Applications of 2 pounds of actual aldrin or 4 pounds of
actual chlordane per acre in the fertilizer will give control of mole crickets.
These applications should be made so as to overlap the beds for several yards or
some marginal damage will occur. If mole crickets appear after seeds have ger-
minated, a 5% toxaphene bait or 1l% chlordane bait is recommended as for cutworms,
Vegetable weevils a fd fle beetles-- Applications of 1% parathion or 10% DDT
dusts will give satisfactory control of these insects. These dusts should be
applied at the rate of -- to 3/4 lbs. per 100 sq. yards of bed space.
Aphids, budorr_ cutworms and flea beetles-- Within one week after trans-
planting, a dust mixture containing l ~paathion or 5% malathion and 10% DDT
should be applied and followed by weekly applications until the end of the season.
The first application should cs at heo rate of 7-8 pounds per acre and gradually
increased to 15-20 pounds per acre as the plants increase in size.
Hornworm-- If hornworms are observed, 10% TDE (PC"D Rhothane) or 1 % to 2%
endrin dust should be substituted for DDT in the regular weekly dust application.
Looprs-- Two years data indicate that 1l% or 2% endrin dust will give good
Grasehopers-- If grasshoppers occur, 1I or 2% endrin dusts may be sub-
stituted for DDT or TDE in the regular weekly dusting program.
F: r'-;orms-- Apply 4 ounces of 50% chlordane wettable powder or 4 ounces of
.C,^ chlordane emulsion or 24 ounces of 72% chlordane e.nlsion per 50 gallons of
transplanting water, or apply 4 ounces of 25% aldrin wettable powder or 4 ounces
of 25% aldrin emulsion per 50 gallons of transplanting water. In those cases
whore transplanting water is not used, it is recommended that 4-6 pounds of actual
chlordane or 2-3 pounds of actual aldrin be applied per acre (40-60 pounds of 10%
chlordane or 5% aldrin dusts per acre) with a dust gun to the soil surface 2-3
weeks before transplanting and immediately plowed in. It will not be necessary to
treat for wireworms if the shade has been broadcast fumigated for the season's crop
Mole crickets- Four to six pounds of actual chlordane or 2-3 pounds of
actual aldrin per acre should give effective control of mole crickets if applied
2-3 weeks before transplanting. If mole crickets become a problem after trans-
planting 5% chlordane or 24 aldrin dust ray be used at the rate of 10-15 pounds
per acre. The poisoned baits mentioned for role cricket control in seed beds are
also effective. CAC .Di: Thest -. baits should no-t be a-plied directly
to plants but only in snjc, between tho rows anr. plants.
WARNING: TO AVOID INJURY TO THE OPRATC:2, OBSERVE MANUFACTURERtS PRECAUTIONS AS
GIVEN ON CONTAINERS OF ALL INSECTICIDES.