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Recommendations for the control of insects on shade grown tobacco for the ... season
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072557/00009
 Material Information
Title: Recommendations for the control of insects on shade grown tobacco for the ... season
Series Title: NFES mimeo rpt
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station.
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Creation Date: 1965
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Tobacco -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
General Note: Description based on: 1954; title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1965.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 76789245
lccn - 2006229112
System ID: UF00072557:00009

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///< -S 3 NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida

January 1, 1965

North Fla. Sta. Mimeo Report NFS 65-3

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE CONTROL OF INSECTS ON SHADE-GROWN
TOBACCO FOR THE 1965 SEASON

By William B. Tappan, Assistant Entomologist


Recommendations for the control of insects attacking shade-grown tobacco remain
essentially the same as during recent years. Several new insecticides, however, have been
added to give a broader choice of effective materials and to strengthen the control program
where needed, e.g., control of resistant wireworm species and tolerant flea beetles. One
old insecticide, endrin, has been withdrawn from use on tobacco due to its high mammalian
toxicity and long residual property.

Old Pests

Cabbage Looper.--This insect was the number-one pest on shade-grown tobacco in
1964. Although control in commercial shades was difficult to obtain, tolerance to recom-
mended chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides was not indicated in control tests. These
tests showed that 5% Zectran at 17 pounds per acre on a weekly schedule gave excellent
control. Two experimental phosphate insecticides, one of which is already available to the
grower, showed considerable promise.

Flea Beetles.--The tobacco and potato flea beetles have become major problems on
shade-grown tobacco for the first time since DDT became available in 1947. A few beetles
wore observed surviving in commercial plant beds and shades treated with DDT in 1961 and
1952. In 1963, their number had increased considerably and caused much concern in several
shades. Tests in 1963 and 1964 indicate that flea beetles in the Quincy area have developed
a tolerance to DDT and other related chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides as evidenced by
poor control. These tests also showed that 5% Zectran at 17 to 20 pounds per acre on a
weekly schedule gave excellent control.

New Pests

Spider Mites.--These mites are new pests of shade-grown tobacco, observed feeding
on the crop the first time in 1962. Spider mites have been known to develop resistance to
parathion quite rapidly in other areas of the United States and it is quite likely that these
pests are resistant in the Quincy area. If mites become a problem and the normal application
of parathion for green peach aphid control is ineffective, it is suggested that a 5% Kelthane
dust be used at 20 pounds per acre. Thorough coverage of the top and bottom of all leaves is
essential for effective control.

Wireworms.--There are several different species of wireworms that occur in the
Quincy area. One species, the Southern potato wireworm, became a problem on shade-grown
tobacco for the first time in 1961. Results of tests from Charleston, South Carolina, and
Hastings, Florida, have shown this species to be resistant to such insecticides as aldrin,
chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor. Based upon results on potatoes at Charleston and
Hastings and results on tobacco at Quincy, Florida, it is suggested that the tobacco grower
use Diazinon or parathion for control of this wireworm. Fumigation with Telone is of no
value in control of the Southern potato wireworm.









-2-


Prevention of Infestation

Construction of the shade and time of placing the cloth on the shade frame are
two of the most important factors in preventing infestations of foliage-feeding worms on
shade-grown tobacco. A tightly covered plant bed and shade, with close-fitting gates and
walls kept closed as much as possible, is effective in preventing adult female moths from
entering the tobacco growing areas and laying eggs. If the egg population can be held to a
minimum, then the worm population will be small and control with insecticides will be much
easier. The shade cloth should be in place prior to transplanting, and at no time should
gates be left open or walls raised at night. All the worm-pest moths fly and lay their eggs
at night. Keep all holes in the cloth patched as the moths will seek out and enter the
tobacco shades through the holes. A hole two to three inches in diameter is sufficient for
moth entry.

The location of gardens should be as far removed from tobacco shades as possible.
Green plants (cover crops, weed, etc.) should be turned under in the fall of the year to
reduce the number of overwintering pupae in the soil. The shades should be plowed under
again six weeks before transplanting, if any green plant cover has developed on the soil
since the fall plowing. A winter harrowing of the soil will help expose overwintering
pupae to the weather and thereby reduce the spring infestations. Weeds should be kept
destroyed from around the outside of shades during the growing season, especially for
control of armyworms and grasshoppers. Plant beds and shades should be plowed under as soon
as possible after harvesting to prevent development of late summer insect populations which
will reduce the succeeding spring infestations.

Chemical control of insects in the plant bed and shade is given in the tables
which follow at the end of the report.

Precautions in Use of Insecticides

Plant Injury.--Materials recommended in this report have been tested a minimum
of two years. Particular attention has been given to plant injury from both diluents and
insecticides and all have been considered relatively safe. Observations over the past eight
years have shown that commercial insecticde formulations cause some degree of plant injury
in the field. In greenhouse tests, either the diluents alone or in combination with
insecticides have injured tobacco foliage. However, none of the materials should cause
serious injury if used as suggested. To minimize plant injury, dust plants when they are
dry and hold gun so that the discharge nozzle is no closer than one foot from the plant.

Diluents.--Experiments conducted with FASCO and Niagara diluents the past eleven
years indicate these materials are as safe and effective as tobacco diluent. Their use will
depend upon grower preference.

Insecticides.--Relative mammalian toxicity of insecticides recommended herein are
in descending order to toxicity (from most poisonous to least poisonous) as follows:
parathion, endrin, Trithion, aldrin, Zectran, dieldrin, heptachlor, endosulfan, Diazinon,
DDT, chlordane, malathion and TDE.

ALL INSECTICIDES MENTIONED IN THIS REPORT ARE POISONOUS TO HUMANS. CAREFUL
ATTENTION SHOULD BE GIVEN TO ALL INSTRUCTIONS ON THE INSECTICIDE CONTAINER LABELS, AND
STRICT ADHERENCE TO THESE RULES IS NECESSARY FOR SAFETY.

Choosing the Most Effective Insecticides

In choosing the most effective insecticide for a particular insect control
problem, the grower must bear in mind that the several insecticides listed for a single
insect pest are equally effective if used as recommended.














Some pertinent comments on a few selected insecticides are given below.

Diazinon.--As a 4% dust, this material has given excellent control of the green
peach aphid during two years of tests. No off-flavor has been detected in cigars made with
wrappers treated with Diazinon.

Endosulfan.--Work with this material for the past seven years has shown it to be
comparable to parathion for aphid control, and to endrin for budworm, hornworm, and cabbage
looper control. However, thorough coverage of the plant is essential to effect control.

NOTE: ENDRIN IS NO LONGER REGISTERED FOR USE ON TOBACCO. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCE
SHOULD ENDRIN BE APPLIED ON TOBACCO FOLIAGE FOR INSECT CONTROL.

Malathion.--Aphid control with 5% malathion dust has been satisfactory for three
years. Cigars made with malathion-treated wrappers have shown no off-flavor in taste tests.

Trithion.--Two years' results with Trithion have shown it to be an effective
aphicide. No off-flavor has been noted in taste tests with Trithion-treated wrappers.

Zectran.--This is a newly developed carbamate insecticide, which is low in. '
toxicity to humans and other warm-blooded animals. It has shown promise as a control for
budworms and cabbage loopers, and has produced no off-flavor in taste tests.
Caution: Do not apply Zectran within seven days after an application of parathion as plant
injury may result.

























WBT
12/29/64
350 CC











TOBACCO INSECT CONTROL


SHADE-GROWN TOBACCO


Insect
IN PLANT BED
Aphids and
vegetable
weevils


Insecticide
Diazinon
Malathion
Parathion
Endosulfan
Trithion
Parathion-Endosulfan
Parathion-DDT
Parathion-TDE


Formulation*
4% D
5% D
1% D
4% D
3% D
1%-3% D
1%-10% D
I%-l0% D


Dosage per a~cr ur
as otherwise
indpricted


0.3-0.7
0.4-0.8
0.4-0.8
0.3-0.7
0.3-0.7
0.4-0.7
0.4-0.8
0.4-0.8


lb. /100
lb./100
lb./100
lb./100
lb./100
lb./100
lb./100
lb. /100


yd.
yd.
yd.
yd.
yd.
yd.
yd.
yd.


When and where to
apply
On foliage at seven-day
intervals beginning
three weeks prior to
transplanting for aphids
or as needed for
vegetable weevils.


Safety
Restrictions
Do not apply para-
thion within 5 days
before transplanting.
Parathion should be
applied only by a
trained operator.


Flea Beetles Zectran 5% D 0.4-0.8 lb./100 sq. yd. On foliage at seven-day
intervals when beetles
are observed.
Cutworms Parathion-DDT 1%-10% D 0.4-0.8 lb./100 sq. yd. On folliage as needed.
Parathion-TDE 1%-10% D 0.4-0.8 lb./l00 sq. yd.
Endosulfan 4% D 0.3-0.5 lb./100 sq. yd.
Garden Slugs Parathion-DDT 1%-10% D 0.5-0.8 Ib./l00 sq. yd. These pests hide under
and pillbugs Parathion-TDE 1%-10% D 0.5-0.8 lb./100 sq. yd. boards, wall flaps and
Parathion-Endosulfan 1%-3% D 0.4-0.7 lb./100 sq. yd. under debris in the plant
Endosulfan 4% D 0.3-0.5 lb./100 sq. yd. bed. Applications should
be directed at hiding
places as needed.
Mole Crickets Chlordane 5% G or n 16 l h. /lon n vr. 6rniu an u n A-i m=a-1t-i,


Aldrin
Heptachlor


5% G
5% G


1.2 lb./100 sq. yd.
1.2 lb./100 sq. yd.


* D Dust, G Granular


applied to soil and turned
in to a depth of 4-5 inches,
1-2 days prior to sowing of
seed. Insecticide-fertiliz-
er mixture also exert good
control


indicated


--


-


control.








TOBACCO INSECT CONTROL


SHADE-GROWN TOBACCO


uosage per acre
or as otherwise
SAi a l il


Insect
IN PLANT BED
Grasshoppers


IN FIELD OR
SHADE
Aphids


Budworms, Horn-
worms,and
cabbage loopers


Insecticide
Parathion-Endrin
Endrin
Toxaphene


Diazinon
Malathion
Parathion
Endosulfan
Trithion
Parathion-DDT
Parathion-TDE
Parathion-Endosulfan
Endosulfan
Zectran


Formulat on 4n


Jl.-Zt U
2% D
10% D


4% D
5% D
1% D
4% D
3% D
1%-10% D
1%-10% D
1%-3% D
4% D
5% D


.LV-CU J.
10-20 lb.
10-20 lb.


10-20
10-20
10-20
15-18
15-20
10-20
10-20
18-21
15-18
10-20


11.


When and Where to
apply
To grasslands and fields
adjacent to plant beds.
Do not apply toxaphene or
endrin dusts on tobacco
foliage.


D
t
t
a
a
f
s


On foliage at seven-day S
intervals beginning immed- a
lately following trans- b
planting and continuing to
end of priming season. If
cabbage loopers become a
problem, endosulfan and
Zectran formulations should
be used instead of DDT or TDE.
Direct dust so as to obtain
maximum coverage of the plant
and particularly the bud for
aphid and budworm control.


Safety
Restrictions
o not feed
created vegeta-
ion to dairy
animals or
animals being
finished for
laughter.
ame as under
phids in plant
ed.


Cutworms Chlordane 5% G or D 160 lb. Granular materials broadcast to
Heptachlor 5% G or D 80 lb. soil surface and turned in to a
Aldrin 5% G or D 80 lb. depth of 4 inches 3-6 weeks prior
Dieldrin 5% G or D 40 lb. to transplanting. Dust formula-
Parathion-Endosulfan 1%-3% D 18-21 lb. tions may be used with this
Endosulfan 4% D 15-18 lb. method if granular materials are
unavailable. Insecticide-Fertiliz-
er mixtures also give good control.
If soil treatment is not used apply
either of the latter two dust
formulations mentioned directly
following transplanting.
Flea Beetles Zectran 5% D 10-20 Ib. On foliage at seven-day intervals
beginning immediately following
transplanting and continuing to end
of priming season.


* D Dust, G Granular


~_~_ __I____


<-__--.. ^. _


"~"


'1k


I


11











TOBACCO INSECT CONTROL


SHADE-GROWN TOBACCO
Dosage per acre or
as otherwise Where and When Safety
Insect Insecticide Formulation* indicated to apply Restrictions
IN FIELD OR SHADE
Mole Crickets Chlordane 5% G or D 80-120 lb. Same as for cutworms in the
Heptachlor 5% G or D 60- 80 lb. field.
Aldrin 5% G or D 60- 80 lb.
Grasshoppers Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 10- 20 lb. Same as for grasshoppers in
Endrin 2% D 10- 20 lb. the plant bed.
Toxaphene 10% D 10- 20 lb.
Wireworms Chlordane 5% G or D 80-120 lb. Granular materials broadcast to
Aldrin 5% G or D 60- 80 lb. soil surface and turned in to a
Dieldrin 5% G or D 40- 60 lb. depth of 4-6 inches 3-6 weeks
Heptachlor 5% G or D 60- 80 lb. prior to transplanting. Dust
**Diazinon 5% G 40 lb. formulations may be used with
**Diazinon 10% G 20 lb. this method if granular materials
**Parathion 5% G 40 lb. are unavailable.
**Parathion 10% G 20 lb.
Spider Mites Kelthane 5% D 10- 20 lb. On foliage as needed.

* D Dust, G Granular

* Use either one of these four insecticide formulations for control of the Southern potato wireworm.