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Recommendations for the control of insects on shade grown tobacco for the ... season
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072557/00008
 Material Information
Title: Recommendations for the control of insects on shade grown tobacco for the ... season
Series Title: NFES mimeo rpt
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station.
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Creation Date: 1963
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Tobacco -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
General Note: Description based on: 1954; title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1965.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 76789245
lccn - 2006229112
System ID: UF00072557:00008

Full Text



NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida

January 2, 1963
NFES MIMEO REPORT 63-4

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE CONTROL OF INSECTS ON SHADE-GROWN TOBACCO FOR
THE 1963 SEASON

by William B. Tappan, Assistant Entomologist


Recommendations for the control of insects attacking shade-grown tobacco remain
essentially the same as during recent years. Several new insecticides have been added
to give a broader choice of effective materials and strengthen the control program where
needed, e.g., control of resistant wireworm species.

New Pests

Spider Mites.--These mites are new pests of shade-grown tobacco, observed
feeding on the crop the first time in 1962. Spider mites have been known to develop
resistance to parathion quite rapidly in other areas of the United States and it is
quite likely that these pests are resistant in the Quincy area. If mites become a
problem and the normal application of parathion for green peach aphid control is in-
effective, it is suggested that a 5% Kelthane dust be used at 20 pounds per acre.
Thorough coverage of the top and bottom of all leaves is essential for effective control.

Wireworms.--There are several different species of wireworms that occur in the
Quincy area. One species, the Southern potato wireworm, became a problem on shade-
grown tobacco for the first time in 1961. Results of tests from Charleston, South
Carolina, and Hastings, Florida, have sho-m that this species was resistant to such
materials as aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor. Based upon results on
potatoes at Charleston and Hastings and first year results on tobacco at Quincy, Florida,
it is suggested that the tobacco grc.er use Diazinon or parathion for control of this
wireworm. Fumigation with Telone apparently is of no value in control of the Southern
potato wireworm.

Prevention of Infcstation / '

A tightly covered plant bed and shade, with close-fittng s Se d
as much as possible, is partially effective in preventing insect i station on/s ade
tobacco. The location of gardens should be as far removed from tobacco shades a
possible. Green plants (cover crops, weeds, etc.) should be turned under e st six
weeks before transplanting time. Weeds should be destroyed from ar thi ide of
shades, especially for the control of grasshoppers. Plant beds and she's should be
plowed under as soon as possible after harvesting.

Chemical control of insects in the plant bed and shade is given in the tables
which follow at the end of the report.

Precautions in Use of Insecticides

Plant Injury.--Materials recommended in this report have been tested a minimum
of two years. Particular attention has been given to plant injury from both diluents
and insecticides and all have been considered relatively safe. Observations over the
past six years have shown that commercial insecticide formulations cause some degree







-2-


of plant injury in the field. In greenhouse tests, either the diluents alone or in
combination with insecticides have injured tobacco foliage. However, none of the
materials should cause serious injury if used as suggested. To minimize plant injury,
dust plants when they are dry and hold gun so that the discharge nozzle is no closer
than one foot from the plant.

Diluents.--Experiments conducted with FASCO and Niagara diluents the past nine
years indicate these materials are as safe and effective as tobacco diluent. Their use
will depend upon grower preference.

Insecticides.--Relative mammalian toxicity of insecticides recommended herein
are in descending order of toxicity (from most poisonous to least poisonous) as follows.
parathion, endrin, Trithion, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, Thiodan, Diazinon, DDT,
chlordane, malathion and TDE.

ALL INSECTICIDES MENTIONED IN THIS REPORT ARE POISONOUS TO HUMANS. CAREFUL
ATTENTION SHOULD BE GIVEN ALL INSTRUCTIONS ON THE INSECTICIDE CONTAINER LABELS, AND
STRICT ADHERENCE TO THESE RULES IS NECESSARY FOR SAFETY.

Choosing the Most Effective Insecticides

In choosing the most effective insecticide for a particular insect control
problem, the grower must bear in mind that the several insecticides listed for a single
insect pest are equally effective if used as recommended.

Some pertinent comments on a few selected insecticides are given below.

Endrin.--This material as a 2% dust has been very effective against hornworms.
It is also effective on loopers and budworms, and is reported elsewhere as being very
effective on grasshoppers. Residual effect of endrin is comparable to DDT and TDE.
Any grower not getting satisfactory results with DDT or TDE may wish to use 1l% or 2%
endrin as a substitute. Cigars made from endrin-treated tobacco had no objectionable
off-flavor when the material was used at the 2% level or below.

Endrin in combination with parathion forms a very potent insecticide formulation.
These two materials are highly toxic to warm blooded animals, however. All precautions
on the label should be read carefully and followed precisely.

Diazinon.--As a 4% dust, this material has given excellent control of the green
peach aphid during two years of tests. No off-flavor has been detected in cigars made
with wrappers treated with Diazinon.

Malathion.--Aphid control with 5% malathion dust has been satisfactory for three
years. Cigars made with malathion-treated wrappers have shown no off-flavor in taste
tests.

Thioden.--Work with this material for the past seven years has shown it to be
comparable to parathion for aphid control, and to endrin for budworm, hornworin, and
cabbage looper control. However, thorough coverage of the plant is essential to effect
control. Cigar taste tests have shown no off-flavor from Thiodan-treated wrappers.

Trithion.--Two years' results with Trithion have shown it to be an effective
aphicide. No off-flavor has been noted in taste tests with Trithion-treated wrappers.










TOBACCO INSECT CONTROL


SHADE-GROWN TOBACCO
Dosage per acre
(active ingredient When and where to Safety
Insect Insecticide Formulation* unless otherwise apply Restrictions
indicated)_


IN PLANT BED.
Aphids, flea
beetles and
vegetable
weevils


Diazinon
Malathion
Parathion
Thiodan
Trithion
Parathion-Thiodan
Parathion-DDT
Parathion-Endrin
Parathion-TDE


4% D
5% D
1% D
4% D
3% D
1%-3% D
1%-10% D
1%-2% D
1%-10% D


0.3-0.7
0.4-0.8
0.4-0.8
0.3-0.7
0.3-0.7
0.4-0.7
0.4-0.8
0.4-0.8
0.4-0.8


D/100
D/100
D/100
D/100
D/100
D/100
D/100
D/100
D/100


On foliage at seven day
intervals beginning
three weeks prior to
transplanting for aphids
or as needed for flea
beetles and vegetable
weevils.


Cutworms Parathion-DDT 1%-100 D 0.4-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. yd. On foliage as needed.
Parathion-TDE 1%-10% D 0.4-0.8 lb, D/100 sq. yd.
Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 0.4-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. yd.
Thiodan 4% D 0.3-0.5 lb. D/100 sq. yd.
Garden slugs Parathion-DDT 1%-10% D 0.5-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. yd. These pests hide under
and pillbugs Parathion-TDE 1%-10% D 0.5-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. yd. boards, wall flaps and
Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 0.5-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. yd. under debris in the
Parathion-Thiodan 1%-3% D 0.4-0.7 lb. D/100 sq. yd. plant bed. Applications
Thiodan 4% D 0.3-0.5 lb. D/100 sq. yd. should be directed at
hiding places as needed.
Mole Crickets Chlordane 5% G or D 1 6 lb G or n//lDnn n ,n rn,,"I ... i,,A- _+ +'


Aldrin
Heptachlor


Endrin
Toxaphene


5% G or D
5% G or D


A-
2% D
10% D


1.2 lb.
1.2 lb.


G or
G or


D/100
D/100


sq. yd.
sq. yd.
sq. yd.


0.4-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. yd.
10-20 lb. D
10-20 lb. D


vj.uftjIU j. tV UU 1" juC-i i C L CaLO
applied to soil and
turned-in to a depth of
4-5 inches, 1-2 days prior
to sowing of seed.
Insecticide-fertilizer
mixtures also exert good
control.
To foliage as needed. To
grasslands and fields
adjacent to plant beds.
Do not apply toxaphene
dust to tobacco foliage.


Do not apply par
within 5 days before
transplanting. Para-
thion should be applie
only by a trained
operator.
When workers must
handle tobacco within
5 days after appli-
tion of endrin, they
should be protected
against skin contact
by wearing rubber
gloves and tightly
woven clothing.














Do not feed tree
vegetation to dairy
animals or animals
being finished for
slaughter.


Grasshoppers Parathio
D


......r'&-----







TOBACCO INSECT CONTROL (4)
SHADLGROWN TOBACCO
Dosage per acre
(active ingredient Where and When Safety
Insect Insecticide Formulation* unless otherwise to apply Restrictions
indicated)

IN FIELD OR SHADE Diazinon 4% D 10-20 lb. D On folliage at seven-day inter- Same as unde
Aphids Malathion 5% D 10-20 lb. D vals beginning immediately fol- aphids in
Parathion 1% D 10-20 lb. D lowing transplanting and con- plant bed
Thiodan 4% D 15-18 lb. D tinuing to end of priming season.
Trithion 3% D 15-20 lb. D If cabbage loopers become a
Budworms, hornworms Parathion-DDT 1%-10% D 10-20 lb. D problem, Thiodan or endrin formu-
and cabbage loopers Parathion-TDE 1%-10% D 10-20 lb. D lations should be used instead of
Parathion-Endrin 1;-21 D 10-20 lb. D DDT or TDE. Direct dust so as to
Parathion-Thiodan 1%-3% D 18-21 lb. D obtain maximum coverage of the
Thiodan 4% D 15-18 lb. D plant and particularly the bud
for aphid and budworm control.
Cutworms Chlordane 5% G or D 160 lb. G or D Granular materials broadcast to
Heptachlor 5% G or D 80 lb. G or D soil durface and turned-in to a
Aldrin 5% G or D 80 lb. G or D depth of 4 inches 3-6 weeks prior
Dieldrin 5% G or D 40 lb. G or D to transplanting. Dust formula-
Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 10-20 lb. D tions may be used with this method
Parathion-Thiodan l%-3% D 18-21 lb. D if granular materials are unavail-
Thiodan 4% D 15-18 lb. D able. Insecticide-Fertilizer mix-
tures also give good control. If
soil treatment is not used apply
either of the latter three dust
formulations mentioned directly
following transplanting.
Flea Beetle Parathion-DDT 1%-10% D 10-20 lb. D Flea beetle are endemic and are
Parathion-TDE 1%-10% D 10-20 lb. D not expected to be of any impor-
Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 10-20 lb. D tance if control of aphids, bud-
Parathion-Thiodan 1%-3% D 18-21 lb. D worms, hornworms, and cabbage
Thiodan 4% 15-18 lb. D loopers is maintained
* D Dust, G Granular








TOBACCO INSECT CONTROL
SHADE-GROWN TOBACCO
Dosage per acre
(active ingredient Where and When Safety
Insect Insecticide Formulation* unless otherwise to apply Restrictions
indicated)
IN FIELD OR SHADE
Mole Crickets Chlordane 5% G or D 80-120 lb. G or D Same as for cutworms in the
Heptachlor 5% G or D 60- 80 lb. G or D field.
Aldrin 5% G or D 60- 80 lb. G or D


Grasshoppers Parathion-Endrin 1. -2 D 10- 20 lb. D Same as for grasshoppers in
Endrin 2% D 10- 20 lb. D the plant bed.
Toxaphene 10% D 10- 20 lb. D


Wireworms Chlordane 5% G or D 80-120 lb. G or D Granular materials broadcast to
Aldrin 5% G or D 60- 80 lb. G or D soil surface and turned into a
Dieldrin 5% G or D 40- 60 lb. G or D depth of 4-6 inches 3-6 weeks
Heptachlor 5% G or D 60- 80 lb. G or D prior to transplanting. Dust
,8 Diazinon 5% G 40 lb. G formulations may be used with
*- Diazinon 10% G 20 lb. G this method if granular materials
-- Parathion 5% G 40 lb. G are unavailable.
-s Parathion 10% G 20 lb. G


D Dust, G Granular
-X* Use either one of these four insecticide formulations for control of the Southern potato wireworm.


WBT
1/2/63
350 cc