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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
January 3, 1961
NFES Mimeo Report 61-2
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE CONTROL OF INSECTS ON SHADE GROWN
TOBACCO FOR THE 1961 SEASON
by Williat BM Tappan, Assistant Entomologijs
The control of insects attacking shade grown tobacco, in the large part,
remains essentially the same as during recent years. However, the appearance of
new insect pests, the availability of safer or more effective materials, and the
development of more efficient and safer methods of control may bring about some
changes in recommendations in the future.
Diluents.--Experiments conducted with Fasco and Niagara diluents the past
seven seasons have indicated that these materials are as safe and effective to
use as tobacco diluent. Their use will depend upon grower preference.
Observations in 1957, 1958, 1959 and 1960 showed that commercial
insecticide formulations containing any one of the three diluents caused some
degree of plant injury in the field. Greenhouse tests showed that either the
diluents alone or in combination with insecticides would injure the tobacco
Additional tests have clarified some of the many problems regarding plant
injury, but further work is necessary for more conclusive answers. Caution:
Do not dust plants when they are wet, and do not hold dust gun so that discharge
nozzle is less than one foot from the plants.
Endrin.--This material as a 2% dust has been highly effective against
hornworms. Taste tests of cigars prepared from endrin treated wrappers have been
satisfactory in all cases where it has been used at the 2% level or below. It is
also effective on loopers and budworms (based on seven seasons' work) and is
reported as being very effective on grasshoppers elsewhere. The residual effect
of endrin is comparable to DDT and TDE. Any grower who has not been getting
satisfactory results with DDT or TDE may wish to use 1% or 2% endrin as a
Endrin in combination with parathion forms a -very potent'insecticide
formulation. Should the grower decide to use the combination insecticide
(endrin plus parathion) he should bear in mind that' Yhbse two materials are
highly toxic to warm blooded animals. All precautions 'that appear. oh the label
should be read carefully and followed precisely. -,
Thiodan.--This insecticide is much less toxic'to warm blooded animals
than is either endrin or parathion. Work with the compound for the past five
years has shown it to be comparable to parathion for aphid-control and endrin
for budworm, hornworm, and looper control. However, thorough coverage of the
plant is essential to effect control. Cigar taste tests have shown no off-flavor
from thiodan treated wrappers.
PREVENTION OF INFESTATION
A tightly covered plant bed and shade, with close-fitting gates kept
closed as much as possible, is partially effective in preventing insect
infestation on shade tobacco. The location of gardens should be as far removed
frcm tobacco shades as possible. Green plants (cover crops, weeds, etc.) should
be turned under at least six weeks before transplanting time. Weeds should be
destroyed from around the outside of shades, especially for the control of
grasshoppers. Plant beds and shades should be plowed under as soon as possible
Chemical control of insects in the plant bed and shade is given in the
Dosage per acre
Insect Insecticide Formulation unless otherwise When and where Safety
_indicated) to apply restrictions
IN PLANT BED
0.4-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. yd.
On foliage at seven day
three weeks prior to
transplanting for aphids
or as needed for flea
beetles and vegetable
Cutworms Parathion-DDT 1%-l0% D 0.4-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. yd. On foliage as needed.
Parathion-TDE 1%-10% D 0.4-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. yd.
Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 0.4-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. yd.
Thiodan 4% D 0.3-0.5 lb. D/100 sq. yd.
Garden slugs Parathion-DDT 1%-10% D 0.5-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. yd. These pests hide under
and pillbugs Parathion-TDE I%-l10% D 0.5-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. yd. boards wall flaps and
Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 0.5-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. yd. under debris in the
Parathion-Thiodan 1%-3% D 0.4-0.7 lb. D/100 sq. yd. plant bed. Applications
Thiodan 4% D 0.3-0.5 lb. D/100 sq. yd. should be directed at
hiding places as needed.
1.6 lb. G or D/100 sq.yd.
1.2 Ib.G or D/100 sq. yd.
1.2 lb.G or D/100 sq. yd.
Granular or dust mater-
ials applied to soil and
turned-in to a depth of
4.5 inches, 1-2 days
prior to sowing of seed.
mixture also exert good
Do not apply parathion
within 5 days before
thion should be applied
only by a trained
When workers must
handle tobacco within
5 days after applica-
tion of endrin, they
should be protected
against skin contact
by wearing rubber
gloves and tightly
Grasshoppers Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 0.4-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. yd. To foliage as needed. To Do not feed treated
Endrin e D 10-20 Ibs. D grasslands and fields vegetation to dairy
Toxaphene 10% D 10-20 lbs. D adjacent to plant bed, animals or animals
Do Not apply Toxaphene being finished for
dust to tobacco foliage, slaughter
D dust, Granular
SHADE GROWN TOBACCO
Dosage per acre
(active ingredient Where and when Safety
Insect Insecticide Formulation* unless otherwise to apply restrictions
IN FIELD OR SHADE Parathion-DDT 1%-10% D 10-20 lb. D On foliage at seven-day inter- Same as under
Aphids, budworms Parathion-TDE 1%-=10% D 10-20 lb. D vals beginning immediately fol- aphids in
hornworms, and Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 10-20 lb. D lowing transplanting and con- plant bed
cabbage loopers Parathion-Thioc 1%-3% D 18-21 lb. D tinuing to end of priming sea-
Thiodan 4% D 15-18 lb. D son. If cabbage loopers become
a problem Thiodan or endrin
formulations should be used
instead of DDT or TDE. Direct
dust so as to obtain maximum
coverage of the plant and par-
ticularly the bud for aphid
and budworm control.
Cutworms Chlordane 5% G or D 160 lb. G or D Granular materials broadcast to
Heptachlor 5% G or D 80 lb. G or D soil surface and turned-in to a
Aldrin 5% G or D 90 lb. G or D depth of 4 inches 3-6 weeks
Dieldrin 5% G or D 40 lb. G or D prior to transplanting. Dust
Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 10-20 lb. D formulations may be used with
Parathion-Thiodan 1-3% D 18-21 lb. D this method if granular mater-
Thiodan 4% D 15-18 lb. D ials are unavailable. Insecti-
cide fertilizer mixtures also
give good control. If soil
treatment is not used apply
either of the latter three dust
formulations mentioned directly
Flea beetle Parathion-DDT I%-10% D 10-20 lb. D Flea beetles are'endemic and are
Parathion-TDE 1%-10% D 10-20 lb. D not expected to be of any impor-
Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 10-20 lb. D tance if control of aphids, bud-
Parathion-Thiodan 1%-3% D 18-21 lb. D worms, hornworms, and cabbage
Thiodan 4% 15-18 lb. D loopers is maintained.
D Dust, G Granular
SHADE GROWN TOBACCO
Dosage per acre
Insect Insecticide Formulation* unless otherwise Where and when Safety
indicated) to apply restrictions
IN FIELD OR SHADE
Mole crickets Chlordane 5% G or D 80-120 lb. G or D Same as for cutworms in the
Heptachlor 5% G or D 60-80 lb. G or D field.
Aldrin 5% G or D 60-80 lb. G or D.
Grasshoppers Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 10-20 lb. D Same as for grasshoppers in Same as for
Endrin 2% D 10-20 lb. D the plant bed. grasshoppers
Toxaphene 10% D 10-20 lb. D in the plant
Wireworms Chlordane 5% G or D 80-20 lb. G or D Same as for cutworms in the
Aldrin 5% G or D 60-80 lb. G or D field.
Dieldrin 5% G or D 40-60 lb. G or D If field has been broadcast
Heptachlor 5% G or D 60-80 lb. G or D fumigated it will not be
necessary to treat for
* D Dust, G Granular