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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
January 4, 1960
NFES Mimeo Report 60-4
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE CONTROL OF INSECTS ON SHADE GRO'.!I
TOBACCO FOR THE 1960 SEASON
by William B. Tappan, Assistant Entomologist
The control of insects attacking shade grown tobacco, in the large part,
remains essentially the same as during recent years. However, the appearance of
new insect pests, the availability of safer or more effective materials, and the
development of more efficient and safer methods of control may bring about some
changes in recommendations in the future.
Diluents.--Experiments conducted with Fasco and Niagara diluents the past
six seasons have indicated that these materials are as safe and effective to use as
tobacco diluent. Their use will depend upon grower preference.
Observations in 1957, 1958 and 1959 showed that commercial insecticide
formulations containing any one of the three diluents caused some degree of plant
injury in the field. Greenhouse tests showed that either the diluents alone or in
combination with insecticides would injure the tobacco foliage.
'Additional tests have clarified some of the many problems regarding plant
injury, but further work is necessary for more conclusive answers. Caution: Do not
dust plants when they are wet, and do not hold dust gun so that discharge nozzle is
less than one foot from the plants.
Endrin.--This material as a 2% dust has been highly effective against horn-
worms. Taste tests of cigars prepared from endrin treated wrappers have been
satisfactory in all cases where it has been used at the 2% level or below. It is
also effective on loopers and tudworms (based on six seasons' work) and is reported
as being very effective on grasshoppers elsewhere. The residual effect of endrin
is comparable to DDT and TDE. Any grower who has not been getting satisfactory
results with DDT or TDE may wish to use 1% or 2% endrin as a substitute.
Endrin in combination with parathion forms a very potent insecticide formu-
lation. Should the grower decide to use the combination insecticide (endrin plus
parathion) he should bear in mind that these two materials are highly toxic to warm
blooded animals. All precautions that appear on the label should be read carefully
and followed precisely.
Thiodan.-This insecticide is much less toxic to warm blooded is
either endrin or parathion. Work with the compound for the past fo ars ha
shown it'to be comparable to parathion-for aphid control and endri r', dworm,
hornworm, and looper control. However, thorough coverage of the p is' sentia
to effective control. Cigar taste tests have shown no off-flavor rm thion .
treated wrappers. 4-
PREVENTION OF INFESTATION
A tightly covered plant bed and shade, with close-fitting gates kept closed
as much as possible, is partially effective in preventing insect infestation on
shade tobacco. The location of gardens should be as far removed from tobacco shades
as possible. Green plants (cover crop, weeds, etc.) should be turned under at
least six weeks before transplahting time. Weeds should be destroyed from around
the outside of shades, especially for the control of grasshoppers. Plant beds and
shades should be plowed under as soon as possible after harvesting.
Chemical control of insects in the plant bed and shade is given in the
SDosage per acre
(active ingredient When and where Safety
Insect Insecticide Fornrlation unless otherwise to apply restrictions
IN PLANT BED
On foliage at seven-day
three weeks prior to
transplanting for aphids
or as needed for flea
beetles and vegetable
Cutworms Parathion-DDT 1%-10% D 0.4-0.8 lb. D/100 sq.yd. On foliage as needed.
Parathion-TDE 1%-10% D 0.4-0.8 lb. D/100 sq.yd.
Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 0.4-0.8 lb. D/100 sq.yd.
Thiodan 4% D 0.3-0.5 lb. D/100 sq.yd.
Garden slugs -Parathion-DDT 1%-10% D 0.5-0.8 lb. D/O0 sq.yd. These pests hide under
and pillbugs .Parathion-TDE 1%-10% D 0.5-0.8 lb. D/100 sq.yd. boards wall flaps and
Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 0.5-0.8 lb. D/100 sq.yd. under debris in the
Parathion-Thiodan 1%-3% D 0.4-0.7 lb. D/100 sq.yd. plant bed. Applications
Thiodan 4% D 0.3-0.5 Ib. D/100 sq.yd. should be directed at
hiding places as needed.
0.4-0.8 lb. D/100 sq.yd.
10-20 lbs. D
10-20 Ibs. D
Granular or dust mater-
ials applied to soil and
turned-in to a depth of
4-5 inches, 1-2 days
prior to sowing of seed.
mixture also exert good
To foliage as needed. To
grasslands and fields
adjacent to plant bed.
Do not apply Toxaphene
rint. +tnhan fit -
Do not apply para-
thion within 5 days
Parathion should be
applied only by a
When workers must
handle tobacco with-
in 5 days after
endrin, they should
against skin contact
by wearing rubber
gloves and tightly
Do not feed treated
vegetation to dairy
animals or animals
being finished for
t t-- 1- 4---- +
"-D dust, G Granu'lar ~~~~..---.
SHADE GOWN TOBACCO ..
Dosagte per acre
Where and when
-~ _ I. 1- 1- 1- I
IN FIELD OR SHADE
10-20 lb. D
10-20 Ib. D
10-20 lb. D
18-21 lb. D
15-18 lb. D
On foliage at seven-day inter-
vals beginning immediately fol-
lowing transplanting and con-
tinuing to end of priming sea-
son. If cabbage loopers become
a problem Thiodan or endrin
formulations should be used
instead of DDT or TDE. Direct
dust so as to obtain maximum
coverage of the plant and par-
ticularly the bud for aphid
and tudworm control.
_ __ _------, -4-
5% G or
5% G or
5% G or
5% G or
160 lb. G
80 lb. G
80 lb. G
40 lb. G
Granular materials broadcast to
soil surface and turned-in to a
depth of 4 inches 3-6 weeks prior
to transplanting. Dust formula-
tions may be used with this
method if granular materials are
fertilizer mixtures also give
good control. If soil treatment
is not used apply either of the
three dust formulations mentioned
directly following transplanting.
Flea beetle Parathion-DDT 1%-10% D 10-20 lb. D Flea beetles are endemic and are
Parathion-TDE 1%-10% D 10-20 lb. D not expected to be of any impor-
Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 10-20 lb. D tance-if control-of aphids, bud-
Parathion-Thiodan 1%-3% D 18-21 lb. D worms, hornworms, and cabbage
Thiodan 4%_ 15-18 lb. D loopers is maintained.
D Dust, G Granular
Same as under
SHADE GROWN TOBACCO
Dosage per acre
Insect Insecticide Formulation (Active ingredient Where and when Safety
unless otherwise to apply restrictions
Mole Crickets Chlordane 5% G or D 80-120 lb. G or D Same as for cutworms in the
Heptachlor 5% G or D 60-80 lb. G or D field.
Aldrin 5% G or D 60-80 lb. G or D
Grasshoppers Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 10-20 lb. D Same as for grasshoppers in Same as for
Endrin 2% D 10-20 lb. D the plant bed. grasshoppers
Toxaphene 10% D 10-20 lb. D in the plant
Wireworms Chlordane 5% G or D 80-20 lb. G or D Same as for cutworms in the
Aldrin 5% G or D 60-80 lb. G or D field.
Dieldrin 5% G or D 40-60 lb. G or D If field has been broadcast
Heptachlor 5% G or D 60-80 lb. G or D fumigated it will not be
necessary to treat for
* D Dust, G Granular