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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
RIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
January 2, 1964 7
i. Sta. Mimeo Report NFS 64-5 i .
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE CONTROL OF INSECTS ON SHADE-GROWN ACCO rfo ;
THE 1964 SEASON,
by William B. Tappan, Assistant Entomologist '
Recommendations for the control of insects attacking shade-grown tobacco remain
essentiallyy the same as during recent years. Several new insecticides have been added
co give a broader choice of effective materials and strengthen the control program where
needed, e.g., control of resistant wireworm species.
Flea Beetles.--The tobacco and potato flea beetle have become a major problem on
Thade-grown tobacco for the first time since DDT became available in 1947. A few beetles
rer- observed surviving in commercial plant beds and shades treated with DDT in 1961 and
In 1953, their number had increased considerably and caused much concern in
,al shades. Tests in 1963 indicated that flea beetles in the Quincy area had
"<.ently developed a tolerance to DDT and other related chlorinated hydrocarbon insec-
les as evidenced by poor control. These tests also showed that 5% Zectran at 20
per acre on a weekly schedule gave excellent control.
Spider Mites.--These mites are new posts of shade-grown tobacco, observed feeding
crop the first time in 1962. Spider mites have been known to develop resistance
rathion quite rapidly in other areas of the United States and it is quite likely
These pests are resistant in the Quincy area. If mites become a problem and the
.ormal application of parathion for green peach aphid control is ineffective, it is
"iggested that a 5% Kelthane dust be used at 20 pounds per acre. Thorough coverage of
.he top and bottom of all leaves is essential for effective control.
Wireworms.--There are several different species of wireworms that occur in the
-' area. One species, the Southern potato wirewo-m, became a problem on shade-grown
".bacco for the first time in 1961. Results of tests from Charleston, South Carolina,
Hastings, Florida, have shown that this species was resistant to such materials as
aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, and h.ptachlor. Based upon results on potatoes at
---ston and Hastings and results on tobacco at Quincy, Florida, it is suggested that
tobacco grower use Diazinon or parathion for control of this wireworm. Fumigation
STelone apparently is of no value in control of the Southern potato wireworm.
Prevention of Infestation
A tightly covered plant bed and shade, with close-fitting gates kept closed as much
possible, is partially effective in preventing insect infestation on shade tobacco.
location of gardens should be as far removed from tobacco shades as possible. Green
(cover crops, weeds, etc.) should be turned under at least six weeks before
planting time. Weeds should be destroyed from around the outside of shades, especially
the control of grasshoppers. Plant beds and shades should be plowed under as soon as
possible after harvesting.
Chemical control of insects in the plant bed and shade is given in the tables
which follow at the end of the report.
Precautions in Use of Insecticides
Plant Injury.--Materials recommended in this report have been tested a minimum
of two years. Particular attention has been given to plant injury from both diluents and
insecticides and all have been considered relatively safe. Observations over the past
seven years have shown that commercial insecticide formulations cause some degree of plant
injury in the field. In greenhouse tests, either the diluents alone or in combination
with insecticides have injured tobacco foliage. However, none of the materials should
serious injury if used as suggested. To minimize plant injury, dust plants when
are dry and hold gun so that the discharge nozzle is no closer than one foot from
Diluents.--Experiments conducted with FASCO and Niagara diluents the past ten years
-te these materials are as safe and effective as tobacco diluent. Their use will
upon grower preference.
Insecticides.--Relative mammalian toxicity of insecticides recommended herein are
descending order to toxicity (from most poisonous to least poisonous) as follows.
ion, endrin, Trithion, aldrin, Zectran, dieldrin, heptachlor, endosulfan, Diazinon,
chlordane, malathion and TDE.
ALL INSECTICIDES MENTIONED IN THIS REPORT ARE POISONOUS TO HUMANS. CAREFUL
EON SHOULD BE GIVEN ALL INSTRUCTIONS ON THE INSECTICIDE CONTAINER LABELS, AND STRICT
ICE TO THESE RULES IS NECESSARY FOR SAFETY.
Choosing the Most Effective Insecticides
In choosing the most effective insecticide for a particular insect control problem,
grower must bear in mind that the several insecticides listed for a single insect pest
equally effective if used as recommended.
Some pertinent comments on a few selected insecticides are given below.
Diazinon.--As a 4% dust, this material has given excellent control of the green
aphid during two years of tests. No off-flavor has been detected in cigars made
wrappers treated with Diazinon.
Endosulfan.--Work with this material for the past seven years has shown it to be
Lble to parathion for aphid control, and to endrin for budworm, hornworm, and cabbage
Control. However, thorough coverage of the plant is essential to effect control.
Endrin.--This material as a 2% dust has been very effective against hornworms.
is also effective on loopers and budworms, and is reported elsewhere as being very
.ve on grasshoppers. Residual effect of endrin is comparable to DDT and TDE. Any
Snot getting satisfactory results with DDT or TDE may wish to us 1 1/2% or 2% endrin
a substitute. Cigars made from endrin-treated tobacco had no objectionable off-flavor
the material was used at the 2% level or below.
Endrin in combination with parathion forms a very potent insecticide formulation.
two materials are highly toxic to warm blooded animals. All precautions on the label
be read carefully and followed precisely.
Malathion.--Aphid control with 5% malathion dust has been satisfactory for three
years. Ciagrs made with malathion-treated wrappers have shown no off-flavor in taste
Trithion.--Two years' results with Trithion have shown it to be an effective
aphicide. No off-flavor has been noted in taste tests with Trithion-treated wrappers.
Zectran.--This is a newly developed carbamate insecticide, which is low in
toxicity to humans and other warm-blooded animals. It has shown promise as a control for
ms and cabbage loopers, and has produced no off-flavor in taste tests.
TOBACCO INSECT CONTROL
j>. f ^t *t/Tl mrnnT A f f'lA
DAHS E-GROWN TOBACCO
IN PLANT BED
uosage per acre or
When and where to
On foliage at seven-day
three weeks prior to
transplanting for aphids
or as needed for
Plea Beetles Zectran 5% D 0.4-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. yd. On foliage at seven-day
intervals when beetles
Cutworms Parathion-DDT 1%-10% D 0.4-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. yd. On foliage as needed.
Parathion-TDE 1%-10% D 0.4-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. yd.
Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 0.4-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. yd.
Endosulfan 4% D 0.3-0.5 lb. D/100 sq. yd.
Garden Slugs Parathion-DDT 1%-10% D 0.5-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. yd. These pests hide under
and pillbugs Parathion-TDE 1%-10% D 0.5-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. yd. boards, wall flaps and
Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 0.5-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. yd. under debris in the plant
Parathion-Endosulfan 1%-3% D 0.4-0.7 lb. D/100 sq. yd. bed. Applications should
Endosulfan 4% D 0.3-0.5 lb. D/100 sq. yd. be directed at hiding
places as needed.
Mole Crickets Chlordane 5% G or D 1.6 lb. G or D/100 sq.yd. Granular or dust materials
5% G or D
5% G or D
Do not apply para-
thion within 5 days
should be applied
only by a trained
When workers must
within 5 days after
endrin, they should
be protected against
skin contact by
gloves and tightly
1.2 lb. G or D/100 sq.yd..applied to soil and turned
1.2 lb. G or D/100 sq.yd. in to a depth of 4-5 inches,
1-2 days prior to sowing of
er mixtures also exert good
* D Dust, G Granular
TOBACCO INSECT CONTROL
DAHS E-GROWN TOBAC O
Dosage per acre or
as otherwise When and where to Safety
Insect Insecticide Formulation* indicated apply Restrictions
IN PLANT BED Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 0.4-0.8 lb. D/100 sq. vd. To foliage as needed. To Do not feed
Grasshoppers Endrin 2" D 10-20 lb. D grasslands and fields treated vegeta-
Toxaphene 10% D 10-20 lb. D adjacent to plant beds. tion to dairy
Do not apply toxaphene animals or
dust to tobacco foliage, animals being
IN FIELD OR Diazinon 4% D 10-20 lb. D On foliage at seven-day inter- Same as under
SHADE Malathion 5% D 10-20 lb. D vals beginning immediately aphids in plant
ApThis Parathion 1% D 10-20 lb. D following transplanting and bed.
Endosulfan 4% D 15-18 lb. D continuing to end of priming
Trithion.". 3% D 15-20 lb. D season. If cabbage loopers
Budworms, horn- Parathion-DDT 1%-10o D 10-20 lb. D become a problem, endosulfan
worms and Parathion-TDE 1%-10% D 10-20 lb. D or endrin formulations should
cabbage loopers Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 10-20 lb. D be used instead of DDT or TDE.
Parathion-Endosulfan 1%-3% D 18-21 lb. D Direct dust so as to obtain
Endosulfan 4% D 15-18 lb. D maximum coverage of the plant
and particularly the bud for
aphid and budworm control.
Cutworms Chlordane 5% G or D 160 lb. G or D Granular materials broadcast to
Heptachlor 5% G or D 80 lb. G or D soil surface and turned in to a
Aldrin 5% G or D 80 lb. G or D depth of 4 inches 3-6 weeks prior
Dieldrin 5% G or D 40 lb. G or D to transolanting. Dust formula-
Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 10-20 lb. D tions may be used with this
Parathion-Endosulfan 1%-3% D 18-21 lb. D method if granular materials are
Endosulfan 4% D 15-18 lb. D unavailable. Insecticide-Fertiliz-
er mixtures also give good control.
If soil treatment is not used apply
either of the latter three dust
formulations mentioned directly
Flea Beetles Zectran 5% D 10-20 lb. D On foliage at seven-day intervals
beginning immediately following
transplanting and continuing to
*-------- DustG a end of priming season.
* D Dust, G Granular
TOBACCO INSECT CONTROL
SHADE GROWN TOBACCO
Dosage per acre or
as otherwise There and Then Safety
Insect Insecticide Formulation- indicated to apolv Restrictions
IN FIELD OR SHADE
Mole Crickets Chlordane 5% G or D 80-120 lb. G or D Same as for cutworms in the
Heptachlor 5% G or D 60- 80 lb. G or D field.
Aldrin 5% G or D 60- 80 lb. G or D
Grasshoppers Parathion-Endrin 1%-2% D 10- 20 lb. D Sane as for grasshoppers in
Endrin 2% D 10- 20 lb. D the plant bed.
Toxaphene 10% D 10- 20 lb. D
Wireworms Chlordane 5% G or D 80-120 lb. G or D Granular materials broadcast to
Aldrin 5% G or D 60- 80 lb. G or D soil surface and turned in to a
Dieldrin 5% G or D 40- 60 lb. G or D deDth of 4-6 inches 3-6 weeks
Heptachlor 5% G or D 60- 80 lb. G or D orior to transplanting. Dust
'*Diazinon 5% G 40 lb. G formulations may be used with
**Diazinon 10"' G 20 lb. G this method if granular materials
**Parathion 5% G 40 lb. G are unavailable.
'*Parathion 10% G 20 lb. G
Spider Mites Kelthane 5% D 10-20 lb. D On foliage as needed.
: D Dust, G Granular
SUse either one of these four insecticide formulations for control of the Southern potato wireworm.