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Group Title: Circular - Florida Cooperative Extension Service ; 242-D
Title: Land judging in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072527/00001
 Material Information
Title: Land judging in Florida
Series Title: Circular (Florida Cooperative Extension Service)
Physical Description: 22 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Herbert, John H
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1974
 Subjects
Subject: Soils   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by J.H. Herbert, Jr..
General Note: "May 1974."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072527
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 51238399

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Foreword
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.





Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





VAY 1974 CIRCULAR 242-D
3!

'LAND JUDGING

IN FLORIDA


4U GI7 A 19974

... :- ,. of Florida

da Cooperative Extension Service Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville







FOREWORD


Land Appreciation Schools and Judging Contests are
designed to promote a better understanding of soils and
their best use. These activities can spark interest and
provide incentive to study this important area of science.
An understanding of soil characteristics provides the
most logical basis for determining proper land use. It
helps select the management practices necessary for the
most efficient long-time operation whether it be a farm,
recreational site, subdivision or an industrial complex.

It takes years of training and experience to become
a soil scientist. It does not take an expert, however, to
identify and appreciate major soil problems and learn
to manage soils better. To cover all of the details of land
classification is not the intent of this booklet. Students
of land judging will find it sufficiently comprehensive to
demonstrate soil differences, but simple enough to be
practical in classifying land for agricultural purposes.

Anyone dealing with land, buying, renting or manag-
ing it, will profit by knowing something about soil. Few
people will buy a car without some investigation such as
kicking the tires, honking the horn or lifting the hood.
"Lifting the hood" of the soil will reveal much more
than the number of cylinders. A guided peek under-
ground will show why soils respond differently even
though treated similarly.






LAND JUDGING IN FLORIDA

by J. H. HERBERT, JR.
Extension Conservationist,
Cooperative Extension Service,
Gainesville, Florida


Soils always have been a basic resource! They will continue
to be a most important item in our individual and national
economy.
Soils differ one from another. Because of these differences
land capabilities vary from place to place. A knowledge of soil
characteristics will help to determine the capability of land, the
proper use of land and the conservation practices necessary.
These differences in soil characteristics can be described in
rather definite terms. Once we have learned the proper terms,
we can discuss soil differences with anyone else who "speaks
the language".

First we must know several things about our soils. From
this knowledge, we can determine just what our land is capable
of and just how we will have to treat it. We will need to know
about soil texture, organic matter, thickness of rooting zone,
permeability, slope, erosion and drainage. Soils with certain
combinations of these characteristics are called soil types. Groups
of similar soil types may be suited to similar agricultural uses.
We arrange these groups into land capability classes. Under-
standing capability classification makes it easier to plan for con-
servation farming, ranching or grove management.



DEFINITIONS OF LAND CHARACTERISTICS


TEXTURE
Texture is a soil property that is related to the proportion of
sand, silt and clay that a soil contains. The soil should be moist
to determine its texture by sense of touch. When soil is rubbed
between the fingers: (a) sand is gritty, (b) silt is smooth and (c)
clay is slick and sticky. Fine textured soils contain mostly silt
and clay. Medium textured soils contain mostly clay and sand.
Coarse textured soils contain mostly sand.





COARSE
Feels and sounds
gritty. Ball
usually breaks in
your hand.


Almost
no ribbon.


MEDIUM
Usually smooth.
Ball shows some
finger marks and
holds its shape.


Has short
thick
ribbon.


FINE
Feels smooth and
sticky. Ball
shows finger marks.
Holds shape.


Long thin
ribbon.


ORGANIC MATTER


This is the residue of plant and animal material in various
stages of decomposition. It helps hold both water and fertilizer
in the plant root zone and upon decomposition becomes plant
food. Organic matter of the surface soil is determined by ex-
amining the darkness of color of an air dry sample. Usually
the darker the color of the surface soil, the higher the organic
matter content. It is generally agreed that where the soil or-
ganic matter is between zero and two percent it is low, be-
tween two and five percent it is medium and where it is over
five percent it is high.


0 I






















THICKNESS OF ROOTING ZONE

This is the total thickness of surface and s u b s o layers
readily penetrated by plant roots. Dense hardpan, clay pan, rock
or a permanently high water table limits rooting zone.


Thin
Thick
Very Thick


0-20 inches
20-40 inches
40 inches or more


PERMEABILITY
Movement of air and water in the soil is limited by the soil
layer through which they move the slowest. Permeability can
be estimated from texture, compaction and arrangement of
soil particles (structure).





Rapid

Soils which are coarse-textured throughout the profile or finer
textured soils with visible cracks or channels made by dead
roots and/or soil particles favorably arranged.

Moderate

Medium textured soils with visible water channels made by dead
roots and soil particles arranged into groups favoring free
movement of water and air.

Slow

Fine textured soils with no definite arrangement of particles, no
visible cracks or dead root channels; or with groups of particles
unfavorably arranged. May be compacted or possibly cemented.


SLOPE

Slope is measured in feet fall or rise per 100 feet of horizontal
travel and is expressed in percent.


Si5 A. Nearly level
---L-- -_._ B. Gently sloping
.. 5%s" C. Moderately sloping
.V D. Strongly sloping
iE. Steep
O -W I F. Very steeP


EROSION -WIND AND WATER


0. 2%
2- 5%
5- 8%
8-12%
12-17%
17% or more


Erosion is the loss of soil by forces of water and wind. Fol-
lowing are the definitions of erosion terms.
None to slight: Less than 25 percent of surface soil removed.
No gullies.
Moderate: 25 to 75 percent of surface soil removed with or
without gullies.
Severe: 75 percent or more of the surface soil removed with
or without occasional uncrossable gullies.
Very severe: All of the surface soil removed and up to 75
percent of the subsoil lost.





















DRAINAGE:


Drainage can be thought of as an index of the natural condition
of wetness. It is associated with the rate at which water is re-
moved under natural conditions.


Poor: Water is removed so slowly that the soil remains wet
for a large part of the time. Poor drainage conditions may be
characterized by uniform or mottled gray or gray-green colors
at depths less than ten inches. Many Florida soils have an
organic stain, "hardpan" or Spodic layer at depths of ten to
forty inches. This Spodic layer, under virgin conditions, rep-
resents the level of the natural water table and is an indica-
tion of poor drainage conditions.

Fair: Water is removed slowly-the soil remains wet for a
part of the time. Fair drainage conditions are indicated by
colors ranging from uniform or mottled grays to pale brown,
dull yellow, or dull red colors mottled with grays at depths
between ten and thirty inches.

Good: This is the most desirable condition-no water problem.
Commonly pale brown, yellow or red colors with no grays oc-
curing within a depth of thirty inches.


Excessive: Water is removed in excessive amount and rate caus-
ing drought conditions. Excessive drainage is characterized
by pale brown, yellow or red colors and coarse texture. The soil
contains very little finer textured materials.






FACTORS DETERMINING CAPABILITY CLASS

Some combinations of the seven land characteristics just
described will determine the capability class.





LAND CAPABILITY CLASSES:


Class I: Soils in this class are suitable for cultivation over
a long period of time. They are well-drained, deep,
productive, nearly level, not subject to more than
slight erosion regardless of treatment and are free
from overflows that interfere with planting, grow-
ing, or harvesting of crops.

Class II: This class includes soils which are suitable for
cultivation over a long period of time; however,
they have some hazards and limitations such as
gentle slopes, slight erosion, or moderate wetness.
Following are some of the practices which may be
needed to overcome the hazards and limitations of
soils in this class: rotations that include soil con-
serving and improving crops at least one-half of
the time, water control, contour sloping lands, di-
version of overhead water and applications of fer-
tilizers and lime as needed.

Class III: These are good soils for cultivated crops but they
have severe limitations that reduce the variety of
plants that can be grown, require special conserva-
tion practices or both. Following are the treat-
ments which may be needed: terracing and contour
cultivation, strip cropping and crop residue man-
agement. They also need intensive crop rotations
which include soil conserving and improving crops
at least two-thirds of the time, diversion of over-
head water and application of fertilizers and lime
as needed. If the soils are wet they need water
control for crop production.








Class IV: Soils making up this class have very severe limita-
tions that restrict the choice of plants, require very
careful management, or both. Some of the limita-
tions are steep slopes, excessive wetness or poor
soil characteristics. They should be managed in
a rotation which includes soil conserving and im-
proving crops at least three-fourths of the time.
When cultivated, sloping land should be broken in
strips and will require practices such as terracing
and contour farming. Wet lands will require water
control. Both sloping and wet land will require
conservation of all organic residues and the appli-
cation of fertilizers and lime as needed. As a rule
they are best suited for pasture or hay.

Class V: These soils are not suitable for cultivation. They
may be used for permanent vegetation. They are
not more than slightly susceptible to deterioration
and therefore require no special conservation prac-
tices or restrictions in use. These soils may be fre-
quently flooded or poorly drained. The treatment
needed is good grazing management if utilized for
pasture or range and good timber management if
used for woodland. All areas should be protected
from wildfire.

Class VI: Soils in Class VI have severe limitations that make
them generally unsuited for cultivation and limit
their use largely to pasture or range, woodland, or
wildlife food and cover. Restrictions commonly
needed on pasture and range are deferred and rota-
tional grazing to maintain a good soil cover at all
times. Timber land should be protected from graz-
ing. All areas should be protected from wildfire.

Class VII: Soils in Class VII have very severe limitations that
make them unsuited for cultivation and that re-
strict their use to woodland or wildlife. Practices
required are protection from grazing, protection
from wildfire and other practices to increase wood-
land production and wildlife population.









This is land that is not suitable for cultivation and
not suitable for useful permanent vegetation or
woodland. It is land of little or no economic value
agriculturally, except for wildlife or recreational
purposes. It needs protection from wildfire and
restriction from grazing.


LAND CLASSES AND SAFE LAND USES

THE LENGTH OF BAR SHOWS THE SAFE USES FOR EACH CLASS OF LAND
NOTE: THE SHORTER THE BARS THE FEWER THE SAFE USES

CA NECEATION FORESTRY LIMITED INTENSIVE LIMITED MODERATE INTENSIVE INNVE
"FE GRAZING GRAZING CULTIVATION CULTIVATION CULTIVATION CULTIV IoN











V NO CULTIVATION BELOW

VIII



VIII -"


Class VIII:






CONSERVATION PRACTICES


Note: Local conditions may require some modifications of the
following recommendations; consult your County Extension
Agent, District Conservationist or Vocational Agriculture
Teacher.

VEGETATIVE:
Numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4. Use soil conserving and improving
crops: Prevent or retard erosion, maintain or improve rather
than deplete soil organic matter, improve soil structure-
tilth, increase water intake, increase fertility. Use practice
No. 1 on Class 1 every year between cash crops, practice No.
2 on Class II every other year, practice No. 3 on Class III
two years out of three and practice No. 4 on Class IV three
years out of four.

Number 5. Contour strip cropping: Grow row crops and
strips or bands of close growing cover crops in a systematic ar-
rangement on the contour. Use on Class II through IV where
the.slope is two percent or more and the surface texture is coarse
excepting excessively drained sands.
Number 6. Manage crop residue: Turn in rather than burn
off crop residue or provide a protective cover leaving the residue
of any previous crops as a mulch on the surface. Use on Classes
I through IV.
Number 7. Use sod based rotation: Grow crops in recur-
ring succession on the same land using grass pasture three
years out of four or six years out of eight. Use on Class IV.
Number 8. Wind strip cropping: Produce row crops in long,
relatively narrow strips between strips of tall growing grasses
or legumes, placed across the direction of the prevailing wind.
Use when a wind erosion problem is indicated on the conditions
poster.






Number 9. Use field windbreaks: Use a border of trees and
shrubs, usually three or more rows, to reduce or check the force
of the wind. Established for the protection of fields, orchards,
groves, feedlots, and homesteads. Use when a wind erosion
problem is indicated on the conditions poster .

Number 10. Control.noxious plants: Keep to a minimum un-
desirable vegetation. Mowing and spraying with chemicals are
two methods of control. Use on Classes I through VII.

Number 11. Establish recommended grasses and/or legumes:
Establish a protective cover on land not producing suitable per-
manent vegetation or on unprotected land not suitable for culti-
vated crops. Use on Classes V and VI.














Number 12. Manage pasture or range properly: Apply
practices to keep plants growing actively over as long a period
as possible and encourage the growth of desirable grasses and
legumes through controlled grazing and use of fertilizers and
lime. Use on Classes V and VI.
Number 13. Protect from wildfire: Self-explanatory. Use on
Classes V through VIII.
Number 14. Plant recommended trees: Use recommended
varieties of trees for post lots and woodland plantings. Use on
Class VII.
Number 15. Harvest trees selectively: Remove mature or un-
desirable trees and encourage reproduction under the remaining
stand. Use on Class VII.
Number 16. Use for wildlife or recreational area: Protect
or develop areas that are not suitable for cultivation, grazing
or forestry. Use on Class VIII.






MECHANICAL:


Number 18. Terrace: Use terraces which are ridges or
embankments of soil constructed across the slope to control
runoff, minimize erosion and increase percolation of water
into the soil. Use on Class II through IV when slope is more
than 2 percent but less than 8 percent and surface texture is
fine or medium.
Number 19. Farm on the contour: Conduct field operations
such as plowing, planting, and cultivation on the contour or at
right angles to the direction of slope with or without the use of
terraces and/or contour strip cropping. Use on Classes II
through IV where the slope is 2 per cent or more excepting
excessively drained sands.

















Number 20. Maintain terraces: Keep terraces in shape to
work effectively. Do not cultivate across them. Use with
practices No. 18 or 21.
Number 21. Construct diversion terraces: These are larger
terraces constructed to handle a larger flow of water than a nor-
mal field terrace. Use when an overhead water problem is in-
dicated on the conditions poster.
Number 22. Develop waterways: Use natural or constructed
courses to accommodate a flow of water. Generally seeded to
grass or hard-surfaced. Use on all contoured land.
Number 23. Install water control system: Control water on-
land by means of surface or sub-surface drains and structures.
Use where the rooting zone is limited by a high water table.
Number 24. Control gullies: Prevent further erosion in gul-
lies. Use where gullies are present.





Number 25. Subsoil: Till soil below the normal plow depth.
Sometimes referred to as chiseling. The intended purpose is
to break or shatter a hardpan, claypan or plowpan which has
been limiting the rooting depth and/or impeding internal soil
drainage. Use where a compaction problem is indicated on the
conditions poster.

FERTILIZER AND SOIL AMENDMENTS:

Use soil analysis as a basis for fertilizer and soil amendment
recommendations. Use limestone where pH is below 6.0.
Number 27. Dolomitic limestone (dolomite): Use dolomitic
limestone to adjust the soil pH (reduce soil acidity) and supply
calcium and magnesium.
Number 28. High calcic limestone: Apply high calcic lime-
stone to adjust soil pH (reduce soil acidity) and supply calcium.
Number 29. Sulphur: Sulphur can be used to adjust soil pH
(increase soil acidity).
Number 30. Manure or Compost: Apply manure or compost
whenever available to improve soil conditions, add organic mat-
ter and supply some plant foods.


















Numbers 31-33. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potash: Apply
these plant foods to correct soil deficiencies. These are major
plant foods.

Number 34. Micronutrients: Apply micronutrients to
correct soil deficiencies. These are required by plants in very
small quantities.





LAND CHARACTERISTICS AND THEIR
LIMITATIONS ON CAPABILITY CLASS

Best Possible
Factor Land Class

Surface Texture
Coarse ......... .......... ................................. .............. I
Medium ................................................................. I
Fine ........... ......................... ............ III

Organic Matter
H igh ......................................................................... I
Medium ................................................................. I
Low ................................................ ................. I

Thickness of rooting zone
Thin ......................................... .................. III
Thick ..................................................................... I
Very thick ........................................... ........... I

Permeability
Rapid ................................................ .................... II
M moderate ...................................................................... I
Slow ............................................... ....................... II

Slope
A Nearly level ....................................... ........... I
B Gently sloping ................................................... II
C Moderately sloping ........................................... III
D Strongly sloping ....................................... ..... IV
E Steep ...................................................................... VI
F Very steep .............................................................. VII

Erosion
None to slight ................................ ............ I
Moderate ................................... .... ............. II
Severe ....................................................................... III
Very severe ............................ .................... III

Drainage
Poor .......... .................................... III
Fair ................ ............................... ...................... II
Good .............................................. .................... I
Excessive ..................................... III



15





HOW TO USE THE LAND JUDGING SCORE CARD

1. Score cards must ALWAYS be identified with Field No. and
Name.

2. An "X" is used to mark your answers on Part One and Part
Two. Land Capability Class should be circled.

3. In case the land is in Class I, the rule is to mark no factors!
For other classes, the rule is to mark the factors that keep
the land from being Class I.

4. The perfect score of each field is variable depending on the
number of conservation practices required.

5. Conservation practices are listed on the face of the score card.

6. The blank lines on the face of the Land Judging Score Card
can be used to write in soil conserving and improving prac-
tices not listed. When they are to be used, officials will make
this announcement and everyone can write in the practice
or practices.

7. In selecting conservation practices in Part 2 of the score
card consider the most intensive use that could be made of
the land based on its limitations.

8. If you use more conservation practices than are necessary
the judges will give credit for correct practices and penalty
points for those which are incorrect.

9. Select the number of conservation practices needed for
each field. Use number 1 on Class I, number 2 on Class II,
number 3 on Class III, and number 4 on Class IV. Do not
use one of the first four practices on Class V, VI, VII or
VIII! Practices 1 through 9 should generally be used on
Classes 1 through IV. Practice 10 should be used on
Classes I through VII. Practices 11 through 16 will gen-
erally be used on Classes V through VIII. Practices 18
through 25 should be used as needed. Practices 27 through
35 are selected on the basis of the assumed soil test. Use
practice 30 ONLY when manure or compost is listed as
available.






LAND JUDGING SCORE CARD


Field No. ...................


Indicate your answer by an X in the O


D CHARACTERISTICS -
PART ONE
FACE TEXTURE
Coarse .......................................... .
Medium ........................................--
Fine ............................................. .
ANIC MATTER (SURFACE SOIL)
High ........................................---... .
Medium ............................................ .
Low ............................................. O.
CKNESS OF ROOTING ZONE
Thin ......................................... ...... .
Thick ............................................
Very Thick ..................................... O
VEMENT OF AIR AND WATER
IN THE SOIL (PERMEABILITY)
Rapid .................................. ..........
M moderate ..........................................
Slow .................................. ..........
,PE
A Nearly level ................................ .
B Gently sloping ............................
C Moderately sloping ......................
D Strongly sloping ..........................
E Steep ....................................... .....
F Very steep ...................................
OSION WIND AND WATER
None to slight ................................ O
M moderate ........................................ .
Severe ........................................ .....
Very severe ..................................... O
AINAGE
Poor .......................................... .......
Fair .................................... ......... .[
Good ........................................ ..
Excessive ..................................
FACTORS DETERMINING
LAND CLASS
Texture ........................................ ....
Organic matter ................................ O
Thickness of rooting zone ..................
Permeability ...................................
Slope ............................ ................... ...
Erosion ...................................... ...
Drainage ..........................................
ND CAPABILITY CLASS
II III IV V VI VII VIII
ircle one of the above


CONSERVATION PRACTICES
PART TWO
VEGETATIVE
Use soil conserving and improving crops:
1. Every year.
2. Every other ye&r.
3. Two years out of three.
4. Three years out of four.

5. Contour strip cropping.
6. Manage crop residue.
7. Use sod-based rotation.
8. Wind strip cropping.
9. Use field windbreaks.
10. Control noxious plants.
11. Establish recommended grasses
and/or legumes.
12. Manage pasture or range properly.
13. Protect from wildfire.
14. Plant recommended trees.
15. Harvest trees selectively.
16. Use for wildlife or recreational area.
17 ................................... ............
MECHANICAL
18. Terrace.
19. Farm on the contour.
20. Maintain terraces.
21. Construct diversion terraces.
22. Develop waterways
23. Install water control system.
24. Control gullies.
25. Subsoil.
26. .......................................................
FERTILIZER & SOIL AMENDMENTS
27. Dolomitic Limestone.
28. High Calcic Limestone.
29. Sulphur.
30. Manure or Compost.
31. Nitrogen.
32. Phosphorus.
33. Potash.
34. Micronutrients.
35. ...................................................


SCORE PART I ...............
SCORE PART II ................


TOTAL SCORE .
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA TOTAL SCORE
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
17


..............................................................................................







The sign titled Conditions of Fields, posted at each site,
will give information useful in judging individual sites.




CONDITIONS OF FIELDS FOR LAND JUDGING




FIELD NO.................




1. Assumed soil tests show deficiencies in

a................................... .. ........... .................................

b...... ... ............... ........ ... ............. .................... ......

c....................................................... ..................... .


2. Pay no attention to practices on the field.


3. Consider the most intensive use of the land.


4. Thickness of the surface soil was .......... ....................


5. Barnyard manure is (............), is not (.............) available.


6. Other conditions are .. ............ .......................................





GENERAL RULES FOR LAND JUDGING CONTESTS


* DO NOT USE BULLETINS, BOOKS, NOTES, LEVELS,
DRAWINGS, SOIL SAMPLES, or other devices of assistance
or information in the contest. It is permissible to carry a
small bottle of water to moisten the soil for making a de-
termination of SURFACE TEXTURE.


* DO NOT COPY information from others in the contest.


* Officials ask that there be NO TALKING BETWEEN CON-
TESTANTS DURING THE TIME OF CONTEST.


Twenty minutes will be allowed to make the placings on
each field unless otherwise designated.


* Location of the fields for the contest will not be announced
before the start of the contest.


* It is very important that you comply with the rules. Your
cooperation will be appreciated. Please pay close attention
to guides or leaders and be prompt in following instructions.


* Field 1 will be the first tie breaker. Part 1 of field No. 1
will be the first score used to break a tie. If this does not
break the tie, Part 2 of field 1 will be considered. The tab-
ulators will continue in this manner with fields No. 2, 3, and
4, if necessary to break a tie.


* Paid agricultural workers are ineligible to compete for prizes.


* Decisions of the judges will be final!










THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLES MAY BE HELPFUL IN LEARNING
GETHER TO MAKE DIFFERENT LAND CAPABILITY CLASSES.


HOW THE FACTORS GO TO-


Surface Organic Thickness of Permea-
Example Texture Matter rooting zone ability Slope Erosion Drainage Class


Coarse
I

Medium
I

Coarse
I

Coarse
I

Medium
I

Medium
I

Coarse
I

Medium
I


Low
I

Medium
I

Low
I

Low
I

Medium
I

Low
I

High
I

Medium
I


Thick
I

Thick
I

V. thick
I

V. thick
I

V. thick
I

Thin
III

Thick
I

Thin
III


Mod.
I

Slow
II

Raid


Rapid
II

Mod.
I

Slow
II

Rapid
II

Slow
II


Mod.
II

Mod.
II


I

None
I

Mod.
II

Mod.
II

None
I

Mod.
II


Good
I

Fair
II

Excessive
III

Good
I

Good
I

Poor
III

Poor
II

Fair
II


Low V. thick Mod.
I I I


C Severe Good
III III I IV


9. Medium
I






AN EXAMPLE OF SCORING

A master key for grading contestants score cards can be
made by preparing a cutout like the example below. Correct
answers are marked with arrows and points assigned. When
the overlay is applied to the card to be scored, the shaded area
is the only part of the contestant's card that is visible.


SURFACE TEXTURE
Coarse .............................. .- 3
Medium .....................................-.- O
Fine .......................... ........ .......
ORGANIC MATTER (SURFACE SOIL)
High ................................... .....
Medium ............................. ...-
Low ............... ......... ..........
THICKNESS OF ROOTING ZONE
Thin ......................................... .
Thick ................... .......... ......
Very Thick ...................
MOVEMENT OF AIR AND WATER
IN THE SOIL (PERMEABILITY)
Rapid ....... ......... .. ...
Moderate ....................................
Slow ....................................................
SLOPE
A Nearly level ...................... .........
B Gently sloping .............. .--.' g 3
C Moderately sloping ...................
D Strongly sloping ..................... ]
E Steep ............................................
F Very steep .................................... I
EROSION WIND AND WAT R
None to slight ........................,, 3
Moderate ......................................
Severe ................................................
Very severe ........................................
DRAINAGE
Poor .......................................... ....
F air .................................... ............
Good ................................. ..--
Excessive ............................................
FACTORS DETERMINING
LAND CLASS
Texture ........................................ .
Organic matter ................................
Thickness of rooting zone ................
Permeability .................0 ,...a-,..., [
Sloperos .................. ....... .
Eros ae ............................................... 0
Dranage --........... ................ ........... 0
LAND CAPABILITY CLASS
I III IV V VI VII VIII
Circle one of the above


VEGETATIVE
Use soil conserving and improving crops:
0 1. Evef year.
4 KI, l 'jD their year.
o 3. Tw years out of three.
O 4. Three years out of four.
4 1~<6 Go r strip cropping.
i f 46. a!lBge crop residue.
-4 E 7. Us od-based rotation.
-I. J 8. Wind strip cropping.
- I 9. Use feld windbreaks.
41 i,4..Ceo iol noxious plants.
] 11. Establish recommended grasses
and/or legumes.
O 12. Manage pasture or range properly.
O 13. Protect from wildfire.
O 14. Plant recommended trees.
o 15. Harvest trees selectively.
0 16. Use for wildlife or recreational area.
0 17 .................................................
MECHANICAL
O 18. Ter ace.
O ,49~ Fer--on the contour.
o 20. Mai tain terraces.
O 21. Constuct diversion terraces.
O -.S .top waterways
] 23. Install water control system.
C] 24. Control gullies.
O1 25. Subsoil.
O 26. .......................................................
FERTILIZER & SOIL AMENDMENTS
O2 27. Dolt itic Limestone.
4 IS p48rgbfCalcic Limestone.
E] 29. Sulplur.
0 30. Manure or Compost.
Q 31. Nitrogen.
0 32. Phosphorus.
1 33. Potash.
12 34. Micronutrients.
D 35. ........ ........ .... ........ ...........-
SCORE PART I 47.. ...
SCORE PART II ........
TOTAL SCORE ....:. .......






CONDUCTING LAND JUDGING EVENTS
Holding a land appreciation school and land judging contest
requires planning, organization and co-ordination. A county
committee made up of representatives of various agricultural
agencies and interested groups makes getting the job done
much easier. The County Agent is in a logical position to take
the initiative at this point.
Events may be held any time throughout the year-weather
permitting. Saturday have proven to be poor days and are not
recommended unless special local conditions make it necessary
to use that day.
Instructions should be given to the contestants at a land ap-
preciation school or series of training sessions including several
field trips. Later a field trip is made to selected sites for the
contest.
IT WORKS THIS WAY
Before the event begins, a team of official judges (technically
trained soils men) should select the sites, get the landowner's
permission, prepare the pits, and fill out a score card for each
location. This score card will then serve as the master guide
or key for grading the score cards of all the contestants.
As soon as the contestants finish judging each site, the score
cards should be collected and given to the tabulating committee
for grading. In this way, the tabulating committee can be
grading cards while the contest is being conducted. Within a
rather short time the committee will have the final results ready.
INDIVIDUAL OR TEAM COMPETITION
Competition may be on the individual or team basis. It is
suggested that in either case members of different organizations
not compete against each other, but in their own division.
PICK THE WINNERS
The high scoring individuals should be recognized as such
whether competition is on the individual or team basis. If
teams of four individuals compete, the scores of the high three
members are added to arrive at the team score. If teams of
three compete, the three members' scores are added for the
team score. It is recommended that teams consist of four mem-
bers.
RECOGNIZE THE WINNERS
Present whatever awards the county committee has thought
suitable and has obtained for the occasion.
EVALUATE
Take a backward glance over the land appreciation school
and judging event. Determine where there might have been a
rough spot or two. Make plans so that the event will run more
smoothly in the future.
22


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Single copies free to residents of Florida. Bulk rates
available upon request. Please submit details on
request to Chairman, Editorial Department, Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.





YAY 1919377 ; 4, -

MAR 1 6b W an"eW ACKNOWLEDGMENT


Some of the ideas and material in this booklet have been
obtained from several state and federal publications. Sug-
gestions were made by many individuals in the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences; USDA,
Soil Conservation Service; and the Florida Department of
Education, Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Edu-
cation, Agricultural Education Section.

Special appreciation is due Dr. Frank G. Calhoun, Soil
Taxonomist, IFAS, Agricultural Experiment Station, Depart-
ment of Soils and Mr. Robert W. Johnson, State Soil Scientist,
USDA, Soil Conservation Service.

This wealth of assistance is gratefully acknowledged.


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida,
and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
J. N. Busby, Dean




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