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Group Title: Circular - University of Florida. Florida Cooperative Extension Service ; 193H
Title: Commercial vegetable insect, disease and nematode control guide
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072518/00001
 Material Information
Title: Commercial vegetable insect, disease and nematode control guide
Series Title: Circular (Florida Cooperative Extension Service)
Physical Description: 75 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Johnson, Freddie Allen, 1938-
Brogdon, James
Mullin, R. S ( Robert Spencer ), 1915-
Kucharek, Tom, 1939-
Dickson, Donald W ( Donald Ward )
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1974
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetables -- Diseases and pests   ( lcsh )
Agricultural pests -- Control   ( lcsh )
Plant nematodes -- Control   ( lcsh )
Nematode diseases of plants -- Control   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: F.A. Johnson ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "March, 1974."
General Note: "A revision of Circular 193G"--P. 3.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072518
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 51209336

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Main
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    Main
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Full Text




HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.





Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




JF1J~


-I-


Commercial Vegetable

Insect o Disease and

Nematode Control Guid


INSECTS
DISEASES
NEMATODES


F. A. JOHNSON
J. E. BROGDON
R.S. MULLIN
T. A. KUCHAREK
D.W. DICKSON


Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville

-7


~=


udl[


MARCH, 1974


CIRCULAR 193H










Commercial Vegetable Insect,

Disease and Nematode Control Guide

Insects: F. A. Johnson
J. E. Brogdon
Diseases: R. S. Mullin
T. A. Kucharek
Nematodes: D. W. Dickson

Prepared in cooperation with the following workers in the Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences:

Agricultural Research and Education Center, Sanford: J. F. Darby, W. H.
Denton, H. L. Rhoades, J. D. Strandberg

Agricultural Research and Education Center, Belle Glade: R. D. Berger,
W. G. Genung, J. Hoffman, M. J. Janes, T. A. Zitter

Agricultural Research and Education Center, Bradenton: J. P. Grill, J. P.
Jones, A. J. Overman, S. L. Poe

Agricultural Research Center, Ft. Pierce: N. C. Hayslip, R. M. Sonoda

Main Station, Gainesville: J. A. Bartz, A. A. Cool:, D. H. Habeck, D. E.
Purciful, N. C. Schenck, G. C. Smart, R. E. Stall, R. E. Waites, C. H.
Van Middelem, F. W. Zettler

Agricultural Research Center, Hastings: D. P. Weingartner, R. B. Workman

Agricultural Research Center, Immokalee: C. H. Blazquez

Agricultural Research Center, Dover: C. M. Howard

Agricultural Research and Education Center, Homestead: R. M. Baranowski,
R. A. Conover, R. T. McMillan, Jr., Ray Volin, D. 0. Wolfenbarger

Agricultural Research Center, Leesburg: W. C. Adlerz, J. M. Crall,
D. L. Hopkins


The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific
information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the products named and does not signify
that they are approved to the exclusion of others of suitable composition.




A Revision of Circular 193G
This revision March 1974

3







SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Read and Heed the Precautions on the Label.-Relatively
few deaths have occurred among workers handling poisonous
agricultural products or economic poisons. Those that have oc-
curred can be traced to disregard of even the minimum safety
directions and precautions found on product labels. Some viola-
tions occur through ignorance or misunderstanding of the avail-
able information. Many more violations result from plain care-
lessness-or what is worse, recklessness on the part of workers
who have been adequately informed. The key to safe handling
is understanding coupled with the diligent practice of safe work-
ing habits. Accidents with pesticides can be prevented. Some of
the major causes are: (1) leaving the material within reach of
irresponsible persons; (2) failure to read and follow the use
precautions on the label; (3) carelessness in the disposal of
empty containers.

ORGANIC PHOSPHATE PESTICIDES
The organic phosphate group of pesticides includes Para-
thion, Phosdrin, Malathion, Dibrom, Demeton (Systox), Guthion,
Dimethoate (Cygon, De-Fend), Diazinon, DDVP (Vapona),
Ethion, Gardona, Ethoprop (Mocap), Fenosulfothion (Dasanit)
and others. Some of these compounds are highly toxic while
others are relatively safe. All of them, however, can be used
safely by following the precautions on the label.

SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF:
ORGANIC PHOSPHATE POISONING
Early symptoms and signs of organic phosphate poisoning
include headache, dizziness, blurred vision, weakness, chest dis-
comfort, nervousness, a little later-nausea, abdominal cramps,
diarrhea, sweating, tears, salivation, slow pulse, muscular
tremors and possibly convulsions. This group of pesticides enter
the body through ingestion (swallowing), inhalation (breath-
ing), and absorbtion (through the skin).

CARBAMATE PESTICIDES
The Carbamate pesticides include Carbaryl (Sevin), Baygon,
Zectran, Methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin), Carbofuran (Furadan),
SMDC (Vapam), Zineb and Maneb (Manzate, Dithane). Some
of these compounds are highly toxic while others are relatively






safe. However use only those recommended for the job after all
the label has been read and precautions followed.

SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF:
CARBAMATE POISONING
Symptoms and signs of carbamate poisoning include constric-
tion of pupils, salivation, profuse sweating, fatigue, muscular
incoordination, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and
chest tightness. This group of pesticides can enter the body
through ingestion (swallowing), inhalation (breathing), and
absorbtion (through the skin).

CHLORINATED HYDROCARBON PESTICIDES
Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides include Lindane, Dibro-
mochloropropane (DBCP, Fumazone, Nemagon, Oxy-BBC),
DD (D-D, Vidden-D), EDB (Dowfume W-85, Soilbrom-85),
1,3-D (Telone), Methyl Bromide* (Brom-O-Gas, Dowfume
MC-2, MC-33, Terr-0-Gas 67), Chloropicrin* (Chlor-O-Pic, Pic-
fume), Aldrin, Toxaphene, Thiodan and others. These are gen-
erally less hazardous from an acute standpoint than many of
the phosphates and carbamates. However some are highly
toxic and label precautions should be carefully read before
usiag these compounds.

SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF:
CHLORINATED HYDROCARBON
POISONING
Symptoms and signs of poisoning of chlorinated hydro-
carbon pesticides include headache, nausea, vomiting, restless-
ness, tremors (shaking), dizziness, apprehension, and prostra-
tion. In more severe cases, convulsions, coma, and respiratory
failure occur. These poisons enter the body through ingestion
(swallowing), inhalation (breathing), and absorption (through
the skin).
NOTE: Many symptoms of these major groups of pesticides
overlap and it is necessary for the user to present the treating
physician with the label of the materials) used, should poison-
ing occur.
*Highly dangerous gases.

Some DO'S Concerning Pesticides
(1) DO read the manufacturer's label carefully and completely
paying particular attention to precautions and antidotes.







(2) DO wear adequate clean protective clothing and equipment
as specified on the label.
(3) DO wash immediately and thoroughly with soap and water
if spray is spilled on the skin.
(4) DO remove clothes after using poisonous chemicals and
bathe with plenty of soap and water. Wash work clothes
before using again.
(5) DO wash hands and face before eating or smoking.
(6) DO confine pesticides to the property being treated.
(7) DO store pesticides in the original labeled containers away
from food, feed or medicine; and out of reach of children,
pets and livestock.
(8) DO dispose of empty containers promptly and safely.
(9) DO call a doctor or get the patient to a hospital immedi-
ately if symptoms of poisoning occur during or shortly
after spraying or dusting.
Some DON'TS Concerning Pesticides
(1) DON'T breathe sprays or dusts.
(2) DON'T direct spray or dust stream into the wind.
(3) DON'T allow clothing to become saturated with dust or
spray.
(4) DON'T use sprayers with leaking hoses or connections.
(5) DON'T allow drift onto neighboring fields, particularly
pasture and forage crops, or fields containing produce
ready to harvest.
(6) DON'T contaminate fish ponds, streams or lakes.
(7) DON'T use the mouth to siphon liquids from containers or
to blow out clogged lines, nozzles, etc.
A NOTE FROM THE AUTHORS
Control measures recommended here are the most effective
within limits of research results and observations with approved
pesticides. Information is given on pesticide tolerances and
minimum days between last application and harvest. There will
be changes; therefore, the user is strongly urged to keep abreast
of developments through county agents, experiment stations,
industry, etc.
FACTORS CONCERNING
PESTICIDE APPLICATIONS*
Careful planning, close observation, coordination and super-
vision are essential in developing and maintaining an effective
*For factors concerning nematicide application see Nematode Section.







vegetable pest control program. Constant consideration must be
given to sanitation, potential incidence of diseases or insects,
weather, economics, correct identification, proper timing, nozzle
placement, spray pressure and agitation, wind direction and ve-
locity, uniformity and layout of field, stage of plant develop-
ment in relation to other plantings, speed of equipment and
thorough coverage.
Sanitation.-Destroy crop remains following last harvest
as well as control volunteer crop plants and weed hosts in un-
used fields, along field edges and in the production fields. It is
a good practice to rotate vegetable crops with cover crops or
other crops that are not susceptible to the same pests. Fallow-
ing and clean cultivation reduce many pests in fields not being
used. So does flooding with water for 6 to 8 weeks once a year.
These measures might be considered where sod is not needed
to reduce plant bed erosion and sand burn.
Sanitation practices will aid in the control of many hard-to-
control pests such as leaf miners, aphids and certain diseases.
Weather.-Weather factors have tremendous effect on the
incidence of plant pests, the tolerance of plants to damage by
the pests, the effectiveness of pesticide treatments and the
likelihood of damage to the plants from pesticide treatments.
Some pesticides are ineffective at low temperatures; some are
effective for very short periods at high temperatures. Rains will
often wash pesticides from the plant, making an additional ap-
plication necessary. Wind will decrease the effectiveness of
sprays by blowing spray droplets or dust particles away before
they are deposited upon the plant.
Compatibility.-Most spray mixtures perform satisfactorily.
There can be many suitable mixtures of chemicals, but a given
application must meet requirements, including: (1) each com-
ponent must be fully effective and (2) must not be harmful to
crop; and (3) the materials must mix readily and cause no dif-
ficulty in operation and maintenance of equipment. It is ad-
visable not to mix insecticides and/or fungicides with soluble
fertilizers. In case of questionable compatibility of a mixture of
chemicals, do not attempt the combination.
Formulations.-Pesticides may be applied as emulsions, wet-
table powder sprays, dusts, granules or baits. The effectiveness
of a pesticide and its potential for damage to crop plants is
partly determined by the quality of the emulsifiable concen-
trate, wettable powder, dust or granule used.

7







Amounts.-Pesticide materials are shown in amounts of the
listed formulation per acre unless otherwise indicated. There
may be several formulations; for example, parathion is avail-
able as 15% and 25% wettable powders (WP) and as liquid
concentrates (EC) containing 2, 4 or 8 pounds of active ingre-
dient per gallon. To save space only one formulation is listed
for a particular pest under a crop. Suggested acre rates should
be adjusted to insure complete coverage; in general, 20 to 35
pounds of dust, 50 to 150 gallons of spray or 20 to 40 pounds of
bait are accepted amounts from which adjustment may be
made.
The following table can be used as a guide in determining
equivalent amounts of other insecticide formulations that may
be used instead of those given in this publication:


Insecticide Amount of Formulation (at left) needed to ob-
tain the following amounts of active ingredient:
Formulation 1 lb. lb. % lb. I lb.


1% dust ....--...................--.... 25
2% dust .-...........................- -- 121/2
5% dust .............................. 5
10% dust ..............................- 2/2
15% wettable powder ..--..... 1%


25% wettable powder ...-..-
40% wettable powder .--.....-


lbs.


1 lb.
% lb.


50% wettable powder ......--...% Ib.
23-25% liquid concentrate
(2 lbs. active ingredient
per gallon) ........................... 1 pt.
42-46% liquid concentrate
(4 lbs. active ingredient
per gallon) ............................ 1/ pt.
60-65% liquid concentrate
(6 lbs. active ingredient
per gallon) ............................ % pt.
72-78% liquid concentrate
(8 Ibs. active ingredient
per gallon) .-....---..............-..... pt.


50
25
10
5
31/ lbs.
2 Ibs.
1% lbs.
1 lb.


1 qt.


1 pt.


75
371/2
15
712
5 lbs.
3 lbs.
1%/ lbs.
1% lbs.


100
50
20
10
6%2 Ibs.
4 lbs.
212 lbs.
2 lbs.


3 pts. 2 qts.


1 pts. 1 qt.


% pt. 1 pt.


11/ pts.


% pt. % pt. 1 pt.


Certain pests of vegetables, for example aphids and serpen-
tine leaf miners, are more numerous and more difficult to con-
trol in some areas of the state and some seasons than in others.







These differences frequently make variations in the dosages nec-
essary to control the same pest. Where there is a range in
amounts in this publication, the higher dosages should be used
where control is most difficult. For instance, the higher amounts
will usually be needed to control aphids and serpentine leaf
miners in the southern part of the state, while the lower dosages
may be adequate in the northern part.
Spraying pressure should not be excessive. Excessive spray-
ing pressure causes spray droplets to be broken down so small
that they drift and are not deposited on the plant. In addition,
high spraying pressures cause undue wear on engines, pumps,
nozzles and other sprayer parts. If fog is formed at the nozzles,
the spraying pressure is too great.
The speed of the sprayer should not exceed 5 miles per hour.
Greater speed results in poor coverage.

PESTICIDE RESIDUES AND TOLERANCES
Some of the chemicals used on crops may remain when they
are harvested and marketed. In excessive amounts, many are in-
jurious to humans. Any contamination of vegetable and other
agricultural foods is a matter of concern to growers, shippers,
the chemical industry, agricultural and public health authorities,
law enforcement officials and the consumer.

What is a Residue?
A pesticide residue is the remnant of a pesticide or its deg-
radation products that can be found on or in a crop or com-
modity after application or other exposure to the chemical.
Residues may result from a direct application, drift, up-take
from contaminated soil, or from other environmental sources.
Residues are usually expressed in parts per million (ppm) on a
weight basis.
What is a Tolerance?
Tolerance is the amount of chemical that scientists have
determined may safely remain as a residue on the food crop
without injury to the consumer. Tolerances for specific chem-
icals in or on crops are established by regulation.
How Can Growers Avoid Excessive Residues?
Generally, growers can avoid residues in excess of tolerances
on harvested crops by applying pesticides only on the crops spe-

9







cified, in the amounts specified and at the times specified in
this publication or on the label. It is not safe to reason that "if
a little is good, more will be better." The recommended amount
as well as the recommended time of application should be ob-
served. Growers should be especially careful in measuring and
applying the higher concentrated chemicals to be sure not to
exceed the recommended amounts. Examples of high concen-
trate materials are 8 pounds per gallon parathion, 8 pounds per
gallon toxaphene, 93% nabam and 20% toxaphene dust.
Drift of pesticides onto adjacent crops should be prevented.
Consideration of the wind direction and velocity, adjoining
crops, and methods of application is extremely important.
Growers are urged to consider carefully the locations of
various crops when planning their farming operations. Special
consideration should be given to planting in the same general
area those crops likely to receive the same approved chemicals.
Do not locate a crop adjacent to another if either is likely to be
treated with a chemical not cleared on the other. Also, two
crops should not be planted next to each other if one will re-
quire insecticide applications during the time of harvest of the
other crop.
Application of chemicals with ground equipment results in
less drift than application by aircraft under similar conditions.
Sprays, especially coarse sprays, drift less than dusts. Higher
spray pressures result in more drift than lower pressures.
Each gower should plan and follow a control program that
will assure him of vegetables without excessive residues. Raw
agricultural products marketed with residues exceeding toler-
ances set by the Environmental Protection Agency are poten-
tially injurious to consumers, may result in serious financial
loss to the grower, and may reduce public acceptance of fresh
Florida products.



INSECT CONTROL

F. A. Johnson, J. E. Brogdon

The amounts of insecticides recommended below are for one
acre of crop unless otherwise indicated. "Minimum Days to Har-
vest" means the minimum number of days that should be al-
lowed between last foliar application and harvest. The intervals







that follow are based on information in the Environmental Pro-
tection Agency Compendium of Registered Pesticide Uses. If the
dosages recommended in this publication are exceeded, the mini-
mum days given may not be applicable and a longer interval
should be allowed. NTL is the abbreviation for "no time
limitation."

General Soil Inhabiting Insects
Insecticide recommendations are constantly changing. New
uses are being added and old recommendations may be with-
drawn, especially for insecticides applied to the soil. Growers
should make sure that the insecticides they plan to use are ap-
proved and recommended for the crop.
Cutworms--Apply toxaphene or chlordane at 2 pounds active
ingredient (5 pounds of 40%WP or 20 pounds of 10% dust or
granules) per acre to the soil surface before planting if cut-
worms are known to be present. Do not disturb soil for three
to five days. A 21/2% toxaphene or 2% chlordane or 5% trich-
lorfon (Dylox) bait can be used as above at 20 to 40 pounds
per acre. If cutworm damage to young plants is noted, baits
should be used at once. Regular applications of approved pesti-
cides, including parathion, toxaphene, etc. for control of foliage
insects will prevent the establishment of cutworms. Use only
those recommended for the particular crop.
A home-made bait can be prepared by thoroughly mixing
5 pounds of 40% chlordane WP or 6 pounds of 40% toxaphene
WP with 100 pounds of wheat bran. Moisten bait slightly with
water and apply in late afternoon. Use freshly mixed baits.
Mole Crickets--Broadcast aldrin or diazinon at 2 pounds or
chlordane at 4 pounds active ingredient per acre as spray, dust,
or granule, or a 2% chlordane or aldrin or 5% trichlorfon (Dy-
lox) bait evenly over the soil surface at 20 to 40 pounds per
acre before seeding or transplanting if insects are present. After
plants are up, use a fresh bait on soil (not plants) in late after-
noon when soil is moist and warm. See Crops-Use any of the
above insecticides, except where specific materials are listed. Do
not plant root crops in soil treated with aldrin.
For seedbeds use a bait; or drench with one of the above
materials at the rates given. Treatments should be made a
few days before seeding.








Wireworms-Apply parathion or diazinon at 2 pounds active
ingredient per acre on mineral soils; on organic soils apply
parathion at 5 pounds or diazinon at 4 pounds active ingre-
dient per acre. Distribute evenly over the soil surface 2 to 3
weeks before planting and immediately mix into the upper 6
inches of soil. Also see Systemic Insecticides for soil applica-
tion under Potatoes.

Beans
Bush, Lima, Pole


INSECTICIDES and
FORMULATIONS'

Diazinon 4E
Demeton (Systox) 2E
Dimethoate (Cygon,
De-Fend) 2.67E
Parathion 4E
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E


AMOUNTS MIN.
PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
1 pt. 7
11/2 pts. 21
1 pt. NTL
1/ pt. 7
1 pt. 1


Armyworms,
Corn Earworm


Cowpea Curculio

Bean Leafhopper
Bean Leafroller


*Methomyl (Lannate,
Nudrin) 90% SP
Carbaryl (Sevin) 80% WP
Toxaphene 8E
**Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E
Toxaphene 8E
Dimethoate (Cygon,
De-Fend) 2.67E
Azinphosmethyl (Guthion)
2E
*Methomyl (Lannate,
Nudrin) 90% SP
Parathion 4E
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E
Carbaryl (Sevin) 80% WP
Toxaphene 8E


12 Ib. 1*
114 lbs. NTL
1 pt. 7***
1 qt. 3**
1 pt. 7***

1 pt. NTL
1 qt. 7*
/2 lb. 1*
% pt. 7
1-2 pts. 1
114 lbs. NTL
1 pt. 7***


Mexican Bean Diazinon 4E 1 pt. 7
Beetle Malathion 5E 1 qt. 1
Parathion 4E 1 pt. 7
Carbaryl (Sevin) 80% WP % lb. NTL
Leaf Miners Diazinon 4E -1 pt. 7
Cucumber Beetle Dimethoate (Cygon,
De-Fend) 2.67E %-1 pt. NTL
*Azinphosmethyl (Guthion)
2E 1 qt. 7*
Thrips Parathion 4E % pt. 7
Stinkbugs *Azinphosmethyl (Guthion)
2E 1 qt. 7*
Parathion 4E %-1 pt. 7
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1 pt. 1
Carbaryl (Sevin) 80% WP 11 lbs. NTL
**Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E 1 qt. 3**


INSECTS


Aphids








BEANS (Continued)


INSECTICIDES and
INSECTS FORMULATIONS'


AMOUNTS MIN.
PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST


Saltmarsh Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1-2 pts. 1
Caterpillar Toxaphene 8E 1 pt. 7***
**Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E 1 qt. 3**
Lima Pod Borer Parathion 4E /2 pt. 7
Cutworms See Page 11
Wireworms See Page 12
Lesser Cornstalk See footnote No. 10
Borer


NOTE: Toxaphene and Sevin may cause some injury to Pole Beans.
'Other formulations may be registered and available.
*Methomyl and Guthion are cleared only on snap beans as of Nov-
1, 1973.
**Do not apply Thiodan more than 3 times per season.
***This EPA waiting period is for toxaphene dust (up to 6 lbs.
actual per acre). A Florida use only label has been registered
with EPA for 1 pint of Toxaphene 8E per acre with a 5-day
waiting period. There is no waiting period for shelled beans.

1. Armyworms.-Apply insecticides when armyworms ap-
pear; continue at seven-day intervals until control is complete.
Sulfur may be used as all, or part of the diluent in dusts for
beans.

2. Cowpea Curculio.-Apply insecticides when cowpea cur-
culio appears, especially when pods begin to set, and repeat
weekly. In areas where this pest is numerous, small plants
should also be protected. In the Everglades, destruction of the
wild cowpea, Vigna repens, can greatly reduce curculio infes-
tations.

3. Leafhoppers.-Apply insecticides at first sign of leafhop-
pers. Make one to three applications at 10-day intervals. During
severe infestations the time interval between applications may
need to be reduced. In the Everglades, Lower East Coast and
West Coast areas, leafhoppers are most severe in spring during
warm dry periods, while in Central and Northern Florida they
are most prevalent in the fall.

4. Leafrollers.-Wait for fairly heavy populations of leaf-
rollers before applying insecticides. In some cases, dusting bor-
ders of large fields by airplane is adequate. It is usually unnec-
essary to treat the whole field unless the acreage is small or
the infestation is severe.







5. Mexican Bean Beetle.-These pests are a problem in the
north and west Florida areas. Observations in the Gainesville
area indicate that lower dosages of parathion give satisfactory
control except when infestations are heavy.
6. Leaf Miners.-Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply insec-
ticide twice a week to small seedlings when there are heavy
migrations of adult leaf miners from nearby abandoned host
vegetable fields or to older plants when weekly applications are
not giving satisfactory control. Weekly applications of dime-
thoate have given good control. Diazinon has not been effective
in the Homestead and Lower East Coast areas in recent years.
Parathion will usually give control in Central and North Florida.
7. Thrips.-These insects may be a problem on leaves and
pods. Toxaphene used for other pests is also effective against
this insect.
8. Stinkbugs.-Apply insecticides when stinkbugs appear.
It is especially important to insure low population when pods
begin to set.
9. Lima Pod Borers.-Apply weekly when insects appear.
10. Lesser Cornstalk Borer.-In the Everglades area apply
parathion, using a wetting agent or detergent in the spray water
to help wet the soil and the webbing. Make first application
broadcast (covering rows and middles) just before crop emerges,
using 1 pint of parathion 4E per acre. Make second application
as soon as crop emerges and before cultivation, using 1 pint of
parathion 4E per acre. Higher gallonage (up to 300 per acre) of
more dilute coarse sprays at about 100 pounds pressure may be
more effective.
The lesser cornstalk borer is an erratic pest with outbreaks
during dry periods. It is doubtful that routine control measures
would be profitable.

CARROTS
INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS' PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
Aphids Parathion 4E %/-1 t. 15
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1 pt. 1
Leaf Miners Diazinon 4E %-1 pt. 10
Parathion 4E %-1 pt. 15







CARROTS (Continued)

INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS' PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
Armyworms Carbaryl (Sevin) 80% WP 11/ Ibs. NTL
Cutworms Toxaphene or trichlorfon (Dylox)-See page 11
Wireworms See Page 12
'Other formulations may be registered and available.



CELERY


INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS' PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
Aphids Demeton (Systox) 2E 1/2 pts. 28
Naled (Dibrom) 8E 1 pt. 4
Parathion 4E %1 pt. 15
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1 pt. 3
Foliage Naled (Dibrom) 8E 1-2 pts. 4
Caterpillars** Methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin)
90% SP 1/-1 lb. 14
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1-2 pts. 3
Toxaphene 8E 1-2 pts. *
Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E 1 qt. 7***
Leaf Miners Diazinon 4E 1/-1 pt. 10
Naled (Dibrom) 2E 1 pt. 4
Azinphosmethyl (Guthion) 2E 1 qt. 14
Thrips Parathion 4E % pt. 15
Garden Fleahopper
Cutworms Toxaphene or Chlordane-See page 11
Wireworms See Page 12

'Other formulations may be registered and available.
*Do not apply after plants start to bunch or after plants are half mature.
**Bacillus thuringiensis can be used for control of loopers. Several products con-
tain various amounts of the latest strain of Bacilus. Follow recommendations
on the label for crop and dosage.
***The waiting period for Thiodan is 4 days for 3 applications or less.


1. Aphids-Keep ditches and roadways free of weeds and
watch closely for aphids.

2. Leaf Miners-Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply insec-
ticides twice a week to small seedlings when there are heavy mi-
grations of adult leaf miners or to older plants when weekly
applications are not giving control.







CORN, SWEET


INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS1 PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
Aphids Parathion 4E % pt. 5
Spider Mites Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1 pt. 1
Fall Armyworms Gardona 75% WP 1-1%/ lbs. NTL
and Methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin)
Corn Earworms 90% SP 1/ lb. NTL
feeding in bud Parathion 4E plus 1/ pt.
Toxaphene 8E 1% pts. 5
Parathion-methyl parathion
6-3E /2 pt. 5
Silk-Fly Parathion 4E A1 pt. 5
Earworms Gardona 75% WP %-1 lb.* NTL
Methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin)
90% SP % lb.* NTL
Parathion-methyl parathion
6-3E 1/ pt.* 5
Carbaryl (Sevin) 80% WP 21/ lbs.* NTL
Corn Stem Gardona 75% WP 1% lbs. NTL
Weevil Methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin)
90% SP % lb. NTL
Cutworms See Page 11
Wireworms Dyfonate at 4 lbs. active ingredient per acre has con-
trolled wireworms on organic soils. See page 12 for
other materials and method of application.
Lesser Cornstalk See footnote No. 10, page 14
Borer

'Other formulations may be registered and available.
*These amounts should be mixed in 50 gallons of water and applied to one acre.


1. Aphids and Spider Mites-Infestation of these pests may
become heavy enough to require control measures in some areas
of the State.

2. Fall Armyworms and Corn Earworms Feeding in the Corn
Bud-Spray weekly or more often, depending on severity of in-
festation. For clean-up of budworms and fall armyworms, a rou-
tine application of insecticides should be made between the ap-
pearance of the tassel above the whorl and appearance of silks.
Direct the spray from above and from each side of the plant to
the upper leaves to thoroughly wet and run down into the bud-
whorl. Spray pressure should not be excessively high; 150 pounds






per square inch or lower is preferable. There should not be any
fog coming from the nozzles.

3. Silk-Fly-Check for adult silk-flies just prior to and
during silking.

4. Earworms-For control, timing and good coverage are
essential. Treatments must be started when the silks first appear
and continued until all the silks are dry or brown. Additional
applications may be needed where renewed silk growth occurs
after normal browning. Applications of one of the recommended
insecticides will give control when applied at 48-hour intervals
to sweet corn silking during October through March. During the
rest of the year, apply one of the recommended insecticides
every 24 hours. The amounts of insecticides recommended in
the preceding table should be mixed with 50 gallons of water
and applied to one acre. Insecticides should be directed to thor-
oughly cover the silks.

5. Corn Stem Weevil-Treatments must be started when
the first seedlings emerge from the soil and continued every
four days or two times a week for six applications or until the
corn stem is 1/2 inch or more in diameter. Sprays must be directed
to the lower stem and the adjoining soil. Use overhead nozzles
to apply 50 gallons per acre until the foliage begins to form a
canopy that prevents the spray from reaching the ground and
lower stem. Then, add a nozzle to each side of the row and in-
crease the rate to 100 gallons per acre. Cultivation should be as
infrequent as possible during this spray schedule and should
immediately precede a spray application.
Pre-emergence chemical weed control (See Extension Circu-
lar 196C) and delay of the first cultivation until after the final
corn stem weevil spray has resulted in better corn stem weevil
control. The corn stem weevil has been recognized as a pest only
in the Everglades.


CRUCIFERS

Adding a spreader-sticker in sprays applied to the foliage
of crucifers at the rate recommended by the manufacturer may
improve control.







CABBAGE

INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS1 PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
ADhids Demeton (Systox) 2E 1% pts. 21
Naled (Dibrom) 8E 1 qt. 1
Dimethoate (Cygon,
De-Fend) 2.67E 1-11 pts. 3
Oxydemetonmethyl
(Meta-Systox-R) 2E 1% pts. 24
Monitor 4E 1 pt. 35
Parathion 4E 1 pt. 10
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1 pt. 1
Leaf Miners Diazinon 4E 1-1 pt. 1
Naled (Dibrom) 8E 1 pt. 1
Dimethoate (Cygon,
De-Fend) 2.67E 3/-1 pt. 3
Azinphosmethyl
(Guthion) 2E 1 qt. 21
Cabbage Loopers **Bacillus thuringiensis NTL
***Chlordimeform (Fundal,
Galecron) 4E 1 pt. 14
Methomyl (Lannate,
Nudrin) 90% SP /2-1 lb. 1
Monitor 4E 1-1% pts. 35
Other Foliage Naled (Dibrom) 8E 1 qt. 1
Caterpillars**** Parathion 4E 1 pt. 10
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1 qt. 1
Cutworms See page 11
Mole Crickets See page 11
Wireworms See page 12
'Other formulations may be registered and available.
*Do not apply Meta-Systox-R more than 3 times per season.
**Several products contain various amounts of the latest strain of Bacillus.
Follow recommendations on label for crop and dosage.
***Effective only against eggs and small loopers. Regular treatments necessary.
Do not make more than 9 applications.
****Compounds for loopers will control most other foliage caterpillars.

1. Cabbage Loopers-These insects become increasingly
difficult to control with increase in size. Make applications on
a preventive schedule every 5-7 days or more often 'f needed.
Insecticides must completely cover all parts of the plant where
the loopers feed or hide for best controls.
2. Leaf Miners--Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply insec-
ticides twice a week to small seedlings when there are heavy
migrations of adult leaf miners, or to older plants when weekly
applications are not giving control. Weekly applications of dime-
thoate have given good control. Diazinon has not been effective
in the Homestead and Lower East Coast areas in recent years.







COLLARDS


INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS' PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
Aphids Naled (Dibrom) 8E 1 qt. 4
Dimethoate (Cygon,
De-Fend) 2.67E % pt. 14
Parathion 4E 1 pt. 15
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1 pt. 3
Leaf Miners Diazinon 4E %-1 pt. 10
Naled (Dibrom) 8E 1 pt. 4
Dimethoate (Cygon,
De-Fend) 2.67E %3 pt. 14
Cabbage Loopers *Bacillus thuringiensis NTL
Other Foliage Naled (Dibrom) 8E 1 qt. 4
Caterpillars Parathion 4E 1 pt. 15
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1-2 pts 3
Cutworms Chlordane, trichlorfon (Dylox) or toxaphene
See page 11
Mole Crickets Chlordane, trichlorfon (Dylox) or diazinon
See page 11
Wireworms See page 12
'Other formulations may be registered and available.
*Several products contain various amounts of the latest strain of Bacillus. Follow
recommendations on label for crop and dosage.


MUSTARD, TURNIPS, RUTABAGAS


INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS' PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST

Aphids, **Naled (Dibrom) 8E 1-2 pts 1
Foliage Malathion 5E 11/ pts. 7*
Caterpillars Parathion 4E 1/2 pt. 15*
***Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1-2 pts. 3
Cutworms Chlordane-See page
Wireworms Chlordane-See page
'Other formulations may be registered and available.
*Except 3 days for malathion on rutabagas and turnips and 7 days for parathion
on rutabagas.
**Dibrom not cleared on mustard and rutabagas as of Nov. 1, 1973.
***Phosdrin not cleared on rutabagas as of Nov. 1, 1973.

BROCCOLI AND CAULIFLOWER
Recommendations are the same as for cabbage with the fol-
lowing exceptions. Do not apply phosdrin to cauliflower within
S days of harvest. Do not apply diazinon to cauliflower or broc-
coli within 5 days of harvest. Do not apply Guthion to broccoli







or cauliflower within 15 days of harvest. Do not apply dimethoate
to cauliflower or broccoli within 7 days of harvest. Do not apply
Meta-Systox-R to broccoli more than once per season or within
21 days of harvest. Methomyl waiting period is 7 days for 1/ lb.
per acre and 14 days for 1 lb. per acre. Do not apply Monitor to
cauliflower within 28 days of harvest or to broccoli within 14 days
for 1 pint and 21 days for dosage over 1 pint.

RADISHES
INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS' PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
Aphids Malathion 5E 1% pts. 7
Parathion 4E /2 pt. 15
Foliage Toxaphene 8E 1 pt. NTL
Caterpillars
Cutworms Toxaphene or chlordane-See page 11
Mole Crickets Diazinon or chlordane--See page 11
'Other formulations may be registered and available.

CUCURBITS
Cantaloupe, Cucumber, Squash, Watermelon
INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS' PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
Leaf Miners Dimethoate (Cygon,
De-Fend) 2.67E 3/-1 pt. 3*
Azinphosmethyl (Guthion)
2E 1 qt. 1**
Aphids Dimethoate (Cygon,
De-Fend) 2.67E 3/-1 pt. 3*
Parathion 4E % pt. 15****
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1 pt. 1
Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E 1 qt. NTL
Cucumber Beetles, Lindane 25% WP 1 lb. 1
Melonworm, Parathion 4E 1/2 pt. 15****
Pickleworm, Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1 pt. 1
Squashbug Carbaryl (Sevin) 80% WP 1Y4 Ibs. NTL
Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E 2 qts. NTL
Rindworms on ***Bacillus thuringiensis NTL
Watermelon Guthion (Azinphosmethyl)
2E 1 qt. 1**
Methomyl (Lannate, 1 lb. 3
Nudrin) 90% SP
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1-2 pts. 1
Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E 1 qt. NTL
Cutworms Chlordane-See page 11
Mole Crickets Aldrin, Chlordane or Diazinon-See page 11







CURCURBITS (Continued)


NOTE: See precautions about bees below.
1Other formulations may be registered and available.
*Dimethoate not cleared on cucumbers and squash as of Nov. 1, 1973.
**Do not apply Guthion to watermelons or cantaloupes more than 4 times per
season. Do not apply Guthion more than 3 times per season to cucumbers. It
is not registered on squash as of Nov. 1. 1973.
***Bacillus thuringiensis flowable or wettable powder applied weekly on a pre-
ventative program has given control of loopers and other rindworms on water-
melon. Several products contain various amounts of the latest strain of Bacillus.
Follow recommendations on the label for crop and dosage.
****The EPA waiting period is 7 days for parathion on cantaloupes and water-
melons.


Leaf Miners-Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply insecti-
cides twice a week to small seedlings when there are heavy mi-
grations of adult leaf miners from nearby abandoned host vege-
table fields or on older plants when weekly applications are not
giving control. Weekly applications of dimethoate have given
good control.

To reduce injury to bees, which are necessary for pollination,
spraying or dusting should be delayed until late afternoon or
evening. It is suggested that parathion spray be applied early
enough to dry before dew falls, reducing possibilities of foliage
burn. Do not apply parathion when plants are wet or very young.



EGGPLANT

INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS1 PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
Aphids Demeton (Systox) 2E 1-11 pts. 7***
Parathion 4E 1/ pt. 15
Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E 1 qt. 1
Corn Earworm, Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E 1 qt. 1
Tomato Carbaryl (Sevin) 80% WP 114 lbs. NTL
Pinworm &
Other Caterpillars,
Potato Beetles,
Flea Beetles
Spider Mites *Dicofol (Kelthane) 11/-2 lbs. 2
18'/% WP
(red spider) Malathion 5E 1% pts. 3
Parathion 4E 1/ pt. 15
Thrips Parathion 4E 1/2 pt. 15







EGGPLANT (Continued)


INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS' PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
Leaf Miners Azinphosmethyl (Guthion)
2E 1 qt. **
Parathion 4E 1/% pt. 15
Cutworms Chlordane or toxaphene-See page 11
'Other formulations may be registered and available.
*Kelthane has caused some injury to eggplant; as a result, the manufacturer has
withdrawn eggplant from the Kelthane label.
**Do not apply after fruit is set.
***Do not make more than 2 applications per season.

1. Tomato Pinworm.-Due to the leaf mining, tying and
rolling habits, a regular spray schedule may be necessary. Tim-
ing and coverage are important if this pest is to be controlled.

2. Spider Mites.-More than one kind of spider mite infests
eggplant. Parathion, malathion and sulfur are effective against
the common red spider, but do not control certain other species.
Sulfur is the suggested diluent for parathion and malathion dust.

3. Leaf Miners.-Watch closely for leaf miners and apply
control measures when infestation appears. Guthion is more
effective than parathion, but should not be applied after edible
parts start to form.




ENDIVE (ESCAROLE)

INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS1 PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
Aphids Parathion 4E % pt. 21
Caterpillars Parathion 4E % pt. 21
Banded Cucumber Carbaryl (Sevin) 80% WP 114 lbs. 14
Beetle
Lygus Bug
Cutworms Effective insecticides are not cleared. Parathion or
diazinon applied for wireworms and regular applica-
tions of parathion or Sevin for foliage insects will aid
in control.
Mole Crickets Diazinon-See page 11
Wireworms See page 12
'Other formulations may be registered and available.

22








LETTUCE
INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS' PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
Aphids Naled (Dibrom) 8E 1 pt. 1
Parathion 4E /2 pt. 14**
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1 pt. 2
Banded Cucumber Parathion 4E /2 pt. 14**
Beetle Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1-2 pts. 2
Caterpillars*** Carbaryl (Sevin) 80% WP 1% lbs. 14*
Lygus Bug
Cutworms See page 11
Mole Crickets See page 11
Wireworms See page 12
'Other formulations may be registered and available.
*Except 3 days on head lettuce.
**Except 7 days on head lettuce. The waiting period for 1 pint of parathion 4E
on bibb and leaf lettuce is 21 days.
***Bacillus thuringiensis is effective against loopers. Several products contain the
latest strain of Bacillus. Follow recommendations on the label for crop and
dosage. Methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin) is effective against loopers and other
caterpillars. It is registered for use on head lettuce at the rate of % to 1 lb.
of Methomyl 90% SP per acre. The waiting period is 7 days for % lb. and 10
days for 1 lb.

OKRA

INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS' PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
Aphids Parathion 4E 1 pt. 21
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1 pt. 1
Okra Caterpillar Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1-2 pts. 1
Carbaryl (Sevin) 80% WP 1%1 lbs. NTL
Leaf Miners Parathion 4E pt. 21
Stinkbugs Parathion 4E % pt. 21
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1 pt. 1
Carbaryl (Sevin) 80% WP 11% lbs. NTL
'Other formulations may be registered and available.

ONIONS

INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS' PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
Thrips* Diazinon 4E 1 pt. 10
Malathion 5E 1% pts. 3
Parathion 4E % pt. 15
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1 qt. 1
Leaf Miners Diazinon 4E 1 pt. 10
Parathion 4E 1 pt. 15








ONIONS (Continued)

INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS' PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
Cutworms Chlordane or toxaphene-See page 11
'Other formulations may be registered and available.
*Thrips.-Apply insecticide when thrips appear; repeat when necessary. Direct
nozzles over rows close to plants. Addition of spreader-sticker to spray is suggested.
Spraying down into sheaths is very important.

PEAS

INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS' PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
Aphids Diazinon 4E 1 pt. NTL
Malathion 5E 11/ pts. 3
Parathion 4E 1 pt. 10
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1 qt. 1
Leaf Miners Diazinon 4E 1 pt. NTL
Parathion 4E 1 pt. 10
'Other formulations may be registered and available.

PEAS, SOUTHERN
Cowpeas, Black-eye, Crowder, Etc.

INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS1 PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
Aphids Malathion 5E 1%/ pts. 3
Parathion 4E % pt. 15
Cowpea Curculio Toxaphene 8E 1 pt. *
Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E 1 qt. 3**
Leaf Miners Azinphosmethyl (Guthion) 2E 1 qt. 7***
Parathion 4E 1/ pt. 15
Stinkbugs Azinphosmethyl (Guthion) 2E 1 qt. 7***
Parathion 4E 1/ pt. 15
Carbaryl (Sevin) 80% WP 11/ lbs. NTL
Toxaphene 8E 1 pt. *
Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E 1 qt. 3**
Bean Leafhoppers Azinphosmethyl (Guthion) 2E 1 qt. 7***
Bean Leafroller Parathion 4E %1/ pt. 15
Carbaryl (Sevin) 80% WP 1%4 lbs. NTL
Toxaphene 8E 1 pt. *
Lesser Cornstalk See footnote No. 10, Page 14
Borer


'Other formulations may be registered and available.
*No time limitation on use of shelled peas as human


food. Do not apply to peas


to be used as green snaps after pods begin to form.
**Dn not apply Thiodan more than 2 times during the fruiting period.
***Do not apply Guthion more than 4 times per season.








1. Cowpea Curculio.-Apply insecticides when cowpea cur-
culio appears, especially when pods begin to set, and repeat week-
ly. In the Everglades, destruction of the wild cowpea, Vigna
repens can greatly reduce curculio infestations.

2. Stinkbugs.-It is important to maintain good control of
stinkbugs as soon as pods begin to set.

3. Bean Leafhoppers and Bean Leafrollers.--See comments
under beans, Page 13.


PEPPERS

INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS' PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
Leaf Miners Diazinon 4E % pt. 5
Naled (Dibrom) 8E 1 pt. 1
Dimethoate (Cygon, De-Fend)
2.67E %-1 pt. NTL
Azinphosmethyl (Guthion) 2E 1 qt. 3*
Aphids Demeton (Systox) 2E 1-1% pts. 3
Dimethoate (Cygon,
De-Fend) 2.67E 4-1 pt. NTL
Methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin)
90% SP % lb. 10
Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E 1 qt. 1
Armyworms (fall, Methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin) % lb. 10
beet and southern) 90% SP
Corn Earworm Carbaryl (Sevin) 80% WP 11/ lbs. NTL
Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E 1 qt. 1
Toxaphene 8E 1-2 pts. 5
Pepper Weevil Toxaphene 8E 1-2 pts. 5
Thrips Parathion 4E 1/2 pt. 15
Cutworms See Page 11
Mole Crickets See Page 11
Lesser Cornstalk See footnote No. 10, Page 14
Borer

,Other formulations may be registered and available.
*This interval for a maximum of 4 treatments. If more than 4 treatments are
applied, allow 14 days to harvest.

1. Leaf Miners.-Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply in-
secticides twice a week to small seedlings when there are heavy
migrations of adult leaf miners, or to older plants when weekly
applications are not giving control. Weekly applications of dime-
thoate have given good control. Diazinon has not been effective







in the Homestead and Lower East Coast areas in recent years.

2. Beet Armyworm.-This worm is extremely difficult to
control beyond the second instar.

3. Pepper Weevil.-Cut open fallen blossom buds and small
fruits for evidence of infestations. Apply toxaphene at 7-day
intervals when infestation becomes evident.



POTATOES

AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS INSECTICIDES and PER DAYS TO
FORMULATIONS' ACRE HARVEST
Aphids Monocrotophos (Azodrin) 3.2E 20 fl. ozs. 7
Demeton (Systox) 2E 1% pts. 21
Dimethoate (Cygon, De-fend)
2.67E 1% pts. NTL
Oxydemetonmethyl (Meta-
Systox-R) 2E 1% pts. 7
Methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin)
90% SP %-1 lb. 14
Monitor 4E 1-1/2 pts. 14
(Also see Systemics below)
Armyworms, Monocrotophos (Azodrin)
Loopers, 3.2E 20-40 fl. ozs. 7
Other Methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin)
Caterpillars 90% SP %-1 lb. 14
Monitor 4E 1-1/2 pts. 14
Parathion 4E 1 pt. 5
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1 pt. 1
Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E 1-2 ats. NTL
Banded Cucumber Azinphosmethyl (Guthion) 2E 1 qt. 7
Beetle Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E 1-2 qts. NTL
Colorado Potato Carbaryl (Sevin) 80% WP 11% lbs. NTL
Beetle Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E 1-2 qts. NTL
Leaf-Footed Azinphosmethyl (Guthion) 2E 1 qt. 7
Plant Bug, Parathion 4E 1 pt. 5
Green Stinkbugs Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1 pt. 1
Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E 1-2 qts. NTL
Leaf Miners Monocrotophos (Azodrin) 3.2E 20 fl. ozs. 7
Diazinon 4E /2-1 pt. 35
Dimethoate (Cygon, De-Fend)
2.67E 3%-1 pt. NTL
Azinphosmethyl (Guthion) 2E 1 qt. 7
Cutworms Chlordane-See Page 11
Wireworms See Page 12 but increase the amount of parathion or
Diazinon from 2 pounds to 4 pounds of active ingre-
dient per acre on the marl soils of Dade County.


'Other formulations may be registered and available.

26







1. Systemic Insecticides for Soil Application.-Phorate (Thi-
met) and Disulfoton (Di-Syston) will give some control of aphids
on potatoes. Di-Syston is more effective, however, neither ma-
terial will give control for the full growing season.
Apply Thimet at the rate of 30 pounds of 10% granules or
Di-Syston at the rate of 20 pounds of 15% granules per acre at
planting in the seed piece furrow.
In tests against Conoderus wireworms in the Hastings area,
these materials applied as above in the seed piece furrow have
given satisfactory control. In limited tests against light infesta-
tions of Melanotus wireworms in the Homestead area, phorate
(Thimet) applied as above in the seed piece furrow has given
satisfactory control.
2. Leaf Miners.-Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply in-
secticides twice a week to small plants when there are heavy
migrations of adult leaf miners from nearby abandoned host
vegetable fields, or on older plants when weekly applications are
not giving control. Diazinon has not been effective in the Home-
stead and lower East Coast areas in recent years.


POTATOES, SWEET

INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS' PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
Armyworms Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E 1 qt. NTL
Hornworms,
Other Caterpillars
Gold Bugs
Flea Beetles
'Other formulations may be registered and available.

Begin application when insects appear; one to two applica-
tions usually are sufficient. Thorough coverage is difficult where
vines are dense.
Sweet Potato Weevil.-Practice sanitation and use certified
or weevil-free seed.

SEEDBED TREATMENT.-Apply dieldrin spray at 2 quarts
of dieldrin 1.5E per acre. Make the first application when the
first scattered plants appear. Make the second application when
all the plants are up. Make additional applications after each

27








pulling. Apply the material so as to cover all of the soil surface
around the plants.

FIELD TREATMENT.-Apply dieldrin spray at the rate
of 2 quarts of dieldrin 1.5E per acre in a 8 to 10 inch band on
each row along the plant crowns. Make the first application as
soon as the roots start to enlarge, then apply again 2 weeks later
or about the time the soil starts cracking because of root growth.
Do not apply dieldrin within 21 days of harvest.
Harvest all sweet potatoes before December 1 and cull out
any infested ones.
Potatoes should be used by March 1, being certain to destroy
all infested potatoes. Do not allow volunteer plants around old
storage sites; these and plants left in the field are almost certain
to carry weevils over from year to year.

SPINACH
INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS' PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
Aphids, Naled (Dibrom) 8E 1-2 pts. 1
Caterpillars, Malathion 5E 11% pts. 7
Other Chewing Parathion 4E %/ pt. 14
Insects Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1-2 pts. 4
Methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin)
90% SP %-1 lb. 16
'Other formulations may be registered and available.

STRAWBERRIES
INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS' PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
Pameras, Malathion 5E 1% pts. 3
Flower Thrips Parathion 4E 1/ pt. 14
Field Crickets Parathion 4E 1 pt. 14
Flea Beetles,
Leafrollers
Spider Mites Dicofol (Kelthane) 35% WP 2-3 lbs. 2
Dicofol (Kelthane) 4E 1 qt. 2
Omite 30% WP 2-3 lbs. 3
Naled (Dibrom) 8E 1 pt. 1
Cutworms Chlordane or toxaphene-See Page
Mole Crickets Aldrin, chlordane, or diazinon-See Page
Wireworms See Page 12
Citrus Root Weevil Same as wireworms.
'Other formulations may be registered and available.








TOMATOES


INSECTICIDES and AMOUNTS MIN.
INSECTS FORMULATIONS' PER DAYS TO
ACRE HARVEST
Aphids Demeton (Systox) 2E 1-1% pts. 3
Dimethoate (Cygon, De-fend)
2.67E %-1 pt. 7
Methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin)
90% SP -I lb. 2
Parathion 15% WP 2-3 Ibs. 10
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1-2 pts. 1
Endosulfan (Thiodan)
50% WP 1-2 Ibs. 1
Armyworms, (fall,Methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin)
beet and southern) 90% SP %-1 lb. 2
Tomato Parathion 15% WP 2-3 lbs. 10
Fruitworms, Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1-2 pts. 1
Pinworms and Carbaryl (Sevin) 80% WP 1%a lbs. NTL
Hornworms Endosulfan (Thiodan)
50% WP 2 Ibs. 1
Loopers *Bacillus thuringiensis NTL
Naled (Dibrom) 8E 1 qt. 1
Methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin)
90% SP -1 lb. 2
Parathion 15% WP 2-3 lbs. 10
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1 qt. 1
Endosulfan (Thiodan)
50% WP 2 lbs. 1
Leaf Miners Diazinon 4E 1-1 pt. 1
Naled (Dibrom) 8E 1 pt. 1
Dimenthoate (Cygon, De-Fend)
2.67E %-1 pt. 7
Azinphosmethyl (Guthion) 2E 1 qt. NTL
Stinkbugs Azinphosmethyl (Guthion) 2E 1 qt. NTL
Other Plant Parathion 15% WP 2-3 lbs. 10
Bugs Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 1 pt. 1
Carbaryl (Sevin) 80% WP 1%/ lbs. NTL
Endosulfan (Thiodan)
50% WP 1-2 lbs. 1
Banded Cucumber Azinphosmethyl (Guthion) 2E 1 qt. NTL
Beetle Endosulfan (Thiodan) 50% WP 1-2 lbs. 1
Cutworms, See Pages 11 and 12
Wireworms,
Mole Crickets
Field Crickets Same as Mole Crickets.


'Other formulations may be registered and available.
*Several products contain various amounts of the latest
recommendations on the label for crop and dosage.


strain of Bacillus. Follow


1. Beet Armyworm.-This worm is extremely difficult to
control beyond the second instar.

29








2. Tomato Pinworm.-Due to the leaf mining, tying and roll-
ing habits, a regular spray schedule may be necessary. Timing
and coverage are important if this pest is to be controlled.

3. Leaf Miners.-Watch closely for leaf miners. Apply in-
secticides twice a week to small seedlings when there are heavy
migrations of adult leaf miners from nearby abandoned host
vegetable fields, or on older plants when weekly applications are
not giving control. Weekly applications of dimethoate have given
good control. Diazinon has not been effective in the Homestead
and Lower East Coast areas in recent years.



COMMON, CHEMICAL AND TRADE NAMES
OF CERTAIN INSECTICIDES


Common Name
azinphosmethyl


carbaryl
carbophenothion

chlordimeform

dicofol

dimethoate

disulfoton

demeton

endosulfan

methamidophos
(proposed)
methomyl

mevinphos

monocrotophos

naled


Chemical Name (EPA Compendium) Trade Name
O,0-dimethyl S-[4-oxo-1,2,3-benzo- Guthion
triazin-3 (4H)-yl)methyl] phos-
phorodithioate
1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate Sevin
S-[[(p-chlorophenyl) thio]methyl] Trithion
O,0-diethyl phosphorodithioate


N'-(4-chloro-o-tolyl)-N,N-dimethyl-
formamidine
1,1-bis (chlorophenyl) -2,2,2-trichlo-
roethanol
0,0-dimethyl S-[(methylcarbamo-
yl)methyl] phosphorodithioate
O,0-diethyl S-[2 (ethylthio)ethyll
phosphorodithioate


Galecron
Fundal
Kelthane

Cygon
De-Fend
Di-Syston


O,O diethyl 0 (and S) [2-(ethvl- Systox
thio)ethyl] phosphorothioate
hexachlorohexahvdromethano-2,4,3- Thiodan
benzodioxathiepin, 3-oxide
O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate Monitor

S-methyl N- [ (methylcarbamoyl) Lannate
oxy] thioacetimidate Nudrin
2- carbomethoxy-1-methylvinyl di-
methyl phosphate (alpha-Isomer) Phosdrin
dimethyl phosphate of 3-hydroxy-
N-methyl-cis-crotonamide Azodrin
1, 2-dibromo-2, 2-dichloroethyl di- Dibrom
methyl phosphate







COMMON, CHEMICAL AND TRADE NAMES
OF CERTAIN INSECTICIDES
(Continued)
Common Name Chemical Name (EPA Compendium) Trade Name
oxydemetonmethyl S-[2-(ethylsulfinyl)ethyl] 0, O-di- Meta-Systox-R
methyl phosphorothioate
phorate O,0-diethyl S-[(ethylthio)methyl] Thimet
phosphorodithioate
tetradifon 4-chlorophenyl 2,4,5-trichlorophenyl Tedion
sulfone
trichlorfon dimethyl (2,2,2, trichloro 1 hy- Dylox
droxyethyl) phosphorate Dipterex


DISEASE CONTROL
R. S. Mullin, T. A. Kucharek
The amounts of fungicides suggested as sprays are for 100
gallons of water or sufficient water for thorough coverage, as
indicated on the label per acre. Materials suggested as dusts are
to be used at 20 to 35 pounds per acre. Sprays are more effective
than are dusts in most situations. "Minimum Days to Harvest"
means the minimum number of days that should be allowed
between last foliar application and harvest. If the dosages sug-
gested in this publication are exceeded, the minimum days given
may not be applicable and a longer interval should be allowed.
Several chemicals used for soil treatment are formulated for
control of certain soil-borne disease, insect, nematode, and weed
pests. These materials, referred to as multi-purpose soil fumi-
gants, should be used where pest complexes are involved.

COMMON, CHEMICAL, AND TRADE NAMES
OF CERTAIN FUNGICIDES

Several of the fungicides have become well known by trade
names. Some have no common names assigned to them. Some
publications continue to use the well-estabished trade names,
others use both names, while still others use only the newly des-
ignated common names. This has resulted in some confusion and
uncertainty for those who are not aware of the common names.
This table gives: (1) the common names, if any, (2) the
chemical names used in the EPA Compendium of Registered
Pesticides, and (3) some trade names of materials listed in this
publication.









COMMON NAME CHEMICAL SOME TRADE
NAMES


Benomyl


Captan


Chloranil
Dichlone








Dinocap

Chloroneb
Chloropicrin

Chlorothalonil
Copper





DCNA
Ferbam


Maneb


MIT
Methyl
Bromide


PCNB
SMDC

Sulphur


Methyl 1-(butylcarbamoyl)-2-
benzimidazolecarbamate
N-trichloromethylmercapto-4
cyclohexene-1:2-dicarboximide

Tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone
2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone
Ammoniates of ethylene bisdithio-
carbamato zinc and dithiobis
thiocarbonyl iminoethylene bis
dithiocarbamato zinc
Cis-N- (1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethyl)
thio-4-cyclohexene-l,2-
discarboximide
2-capryl-4,6 dinitrophenyl
crotonate


Benlate

Stauffer captain,
Ortho captain,
Orthocide
Spergon
Phygon
Polyram



Difolatan (4
flowable)

Karathane


1,4-dichloro-2-5 dimethoxybenzene Demosan
Trichloronitromethane Chlor-O-Pic,
Picfume
Tetrachloroisophthalonitrile Bravo
Various Tribasic copper
sulphate, C-O-C-S,
Basic Copper
Fungicide,
Kocide 101,
Kocide 404
2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline Botran
Ferric dimethyl dithiocarbamate Fermate, Karbam
black, Stauffer
ferbam
Manganous ethylene bisdithiocar- Manzate D,
bamate plus zinc sulphate Dithane M-22
Special
NOTE: Wherever "maneb" is listed, the preferred for-
mulation is maneb plus zinc sulphate. In most
cases better results will be obtained with this
formulation than with maneb without zinc
sulphate added.
Methyl isothiocyanate Vorlex
Monobromomethane Dowfume MC-33,


Pentachloronitrobenzene
Sodium methyl dithiocarbamate

Sulphur


Dowfume MC-2,
Terr-O-Cide 67
Terraclor
Vapam, VPM,
Fume V
Sulphur








SOME TRADE
COMMON NAME CHEMICAL NAMES

Thiram Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide Thylate, Thiram
75-W, Thiramad,
Arasan
Mancozeb Zinc ion + manganese ethylene Dithane M-45,
bisdithiocarbamate complex Manzate 200
2,4-Dichloro-6-o-Chloroanilino-s- Dyrene
Triazine
Zineb Zinc ethylene bisdithiocarbamate Dithane Z-78,
Parzate C,
Ortho zineb

BEANS
Bush and Lima
Bacterial Blight (Xanthomonas phaseoli and Pseudomonas
phaseolicola).-No chemical control.
Halo blight and common bacterial blight are carried in and
on the seed and soil. Seed treatment is not beneficial, and sprays
in the field usually are not effective. Secure blight-free seed from
western areas where proper production precautions have been
taken. Rotate crops.
Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe polygoni).-Same as for rust
control.
Damping-off and Root Rots.-All cover crops should be
chopped down and allowed to dry completely before being plowed
under. Plow under cover crops six to eight weeks in advance of
planting and prepare seedbed 5 to 10 days ahead of planting.
Spraying seed and soil in a six to eight-inch band in the
opened furrow at planting time with a 50-50 mixture of captain
50% plus PCNB 75% at the rate of 8 pounds per acre has re-
sulted in improved stands. Protection cannot be expected for
more than a week or two after seed germinates. Be sure not to
exceed 8 pounds per acre, particularly during cool, rainy periods
of mid-winter. Do not feed treated vines to livestock.
Demosan, 65% WP at 1.5 pounds per acre, applied in-furrow
with the seeds will afford considerable control of the soil-borne
root rot and damping-off pathogens. (See "Rhizoctonia" below).
Rhizoctonia(Rhizoctonia solani).-Turn under summer vege-
tation in time for it to rot before planting, practice rotation,
plant disease-free seed, maintain good drainage and plant not







deeper than 1 to 1.5 inches. At harvest, cull out all pods showing
the disease to prevent its spread. If Demosan is used-In-Furrow
Treatment, apply Demosan 65W at 11/ lbs per acre (12,000 to
14,000 row feet) as an in-furrow spray at drilling, using 10 to
20 gallons of water per acre. Use a pressure sprayer equipped
with dual row nozzles, one nozzle directed downward covering
the seed in the open furrow and the other directed just in front
of the packing wheel into the covering soil. Do not graze livestock
on treated beans within 45 days of planting.
Rust (Uromyces phaseoli typica).-For severe rust, usually
during spring months when sulfur alone will not give control,
the following program is advised:
Spray with maneb (80%) at 1.5 to 2 pounds per acre or use
sulfur plus 3.5% maneb dust, beginning at emergence and con-
tinuing at seven-day intervals until a few days before harvest.
Minimum days to harvest: 4.
When rust is less severe during fall and winter, sulfur spray
at 7.8 pounds of sulfur, or dusting with 3.8 to 36.0 pounds sulfur
per acre should give adequate control. Minimum days to harvest
-surfur alone: 0.
To be effective, rust control should be started before the
leaves are infected. The control obtained before flowering has
more effect on yields than control late in the crop season.
Sclerotinia Wilt or White Mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum).-
Flooding fields for five or six weeks during summer months will
effectively reduce the number of sclerotia in the soil. Before
using flooding as a control measure, find out from local author-
ities if drainage into a given body of water after flooding agri-
cultural fields is permissible.
Apply Benlate 50W at 11/2 pounds per acre at 25% to 50%
bloom and repeat at peak bloom, by ground equipment only. Do
not apply within 14 days of harvest; do not graze or feed treated
bean vines or hay to livestock.

POLE BEANS
Bacterial Blight (Xanthomonas phaseoli and Pseudomonas
phaseolicola).-See under Bush Beans.
Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe polygoni).-Same as for rust
control.
Rust (Uromyces phaseoli typica).-Use rust-resistant va-
rieties of pole beans where these are adapted.
34








For the most severe rust conditions, which usually occur dur-
ing the spring months beginning with February, when sulfur
alone will not give adequate control, the following program is
advised.
1. Spray with maneb (80%), 1.5 to 2 pounds per acre, begin-
ning with emergence and continuing until poles are set. Apply
sprays often enough to cover new growth as it appears. Mini-
mum days to harvest: 4.
2. After staking, dust with sulfur plus 3.5% maneb twice
weekly until beans are setting, thereafter at five-day intervals
until about 10 days before harvest ceases. Use 30 to 50 pounds
per acre per application, depending upon plant size. Minimum
days to harvest: 4.
When rust is less severe, during fall and winter months, sul-
fur dust alone will give adequate control. Also, if sulfur plus
maneb dust is used during this period, the intervals between
applications may be lengthened to five to seven days. Minimum
days to harvest: 4; sulfur alone: 0.
To be most effective, rust control should be started before
the leaves are infected. The control obtained before flowering
has more effect on yield than control later in the crop season.
Sclerotinia (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum).-See under Bush
Beans.
CARROTS
MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Alternaria leaf Bravo 75%, 1%-2 lbs., or NTL**
Blight Zineb 75%, 1-2 lbs., or 7*
(Alternaria Copper 48-53% metallic copper
dauci) 2-4 lbs., or NTL**
Dithane M-45 80%, 11/-2 lbs.
in 75-125 gal water/A, or 7***
Manzate 200 80%, 11/2-2 lbs.
in 75-125 gal water/A. 7***
*7 days if treated tops are to be used for food or feed.
**No time limitation when used as suggested.
***Do not use tops for food or feed purposes.
In early plantings it may be satisfactory to begin applications
when plants are five to eight inches high and repeat at weekly
intervals. In later plantings, if the disease is established in the
area, it may be necessary to begin applications shortly after em-
ergence of the seedlings (three-inch stage).
Bacterial Blight (Xanthomonas carotae).-Seed treatment:
Treat seed 10 minutes at 1260F. Wash seed. Dry.








Pythium Brown Root (Pythium sp.).-No satisfactory con-
trol at the present time.


CELERY

Seedbed

Soil Fungi.-Preplant treatment:


FUNGICIDE
Chloropicrin
(Picfume,
Chlor-O-Pic)


SMDC
(Vapam.
Fume V,
VPM)


Vorlex


RATE/1200
SQ. FT.
2.0 gals. celery only
1.3 gals all other
vegetable seedbeds
(74 gal./A-celery
only; 35-46 gal/A
other vegetable
seedbeds)


2.8 gal
(100 gal/A)


1-1.1 gal
(35-45 gal/A)


1.4 gal
(50 gal/A)


DIRECTIONS
Application method: Inject to
6-8 inch depth with chisels
spaced 10-12 inches apart or
apply with hand-gun. Press
immediately and cover with
gas-tight plastic or apply a
water seal.
Exposure period: 24-48 hrs.
Aeration before planting: 7 to
14 days.
Application method: Inject to
6-inch depth with chisels
spaced 5 inches apart. Follow-
ing application, compact the
soil surface and cover with a
gas-tight plastic mulch or seal
with light watering to help
prevent gas escape.
Exposure period: 7 days.
Aeration before planting: 21
days.
Application method: Drench
on material in 150-250 gals of
water. Cover with gas-tight
plastic mulch or seal with light
watering to help prevent gas
escape.
Exposure period: 7 days.
Aeration before planting: 21
days.
Application method: Inject to
6-8 inch depth with chisels
spaced 6-8 inches apart. Press
and cover with gas-tight plas-
tic mulch.
Exposure period: 7 days.
Aeration before planting: Aer-
ate by shallow cultivation and
wait about 4 weeks before
planting.
Organic (peat and muck) soils.








When using any of the materials listed, read the instructions
and cautions on the label and follow carefully.

THESE GASES ARE HIGHLY TOXIC AND SHOULD NOT
BE INHALED.

Fungi.-Post-emergence treatment.-On organic soils, fixed
copper at 4 pounds of 48-53% metallic plus maneb, 80%, 11
lbs. applied at weekly intervals is usually sufficient for disease
control until covers are removed. However, if frequent rains
occur in early fall, additional treatment (even daily) will be
necessary. Avoid topping plants when they are wet. After this,
and for other diseases, use control measures suggested in table
and discussion below for field diseases.


Field

Bacterial Blight (Pseudomonas cichorii).-On organic soils
during the late spring and early fall when bacterial blight is
usually present, apply fixed copper at 4-5 lb/A of 48-53%
metallic every four or five days, depending on rainfall. No time
limitation when used as suggested.
Do not apply foliar nitrogen during the seasons favorable
for bacterial blight, and avoid over-fertilization with soil-applied
nitrogen. To help prevent spread of the bacterium keep workers
and farm equipment from brushing against wet plants.

MIN. DAYS
DISEASES SPRAY TO HARVEST
Early Blight Maneb 80%, 1/%-2 lbs., or 14*
Late Blight Dyrene 50%, 2-4 lbs. in 75-175
gal water/A, or NTL**
Manzate 200 80%, 21bs., or 14
Dithane M-45 80%, 2 lbs., or 14
Bravo 75% WP, 1-3 lbs., or 7
Bravo 6F, 1%/ pts., or 7
Kocide 101 85%, 1-3 Ibs., or NTL
Kocide 404, 1-3 pts.A NTL
Early Blight Polyram 80%, 2 Ibs. in 100-150 14*
gal./A
*Remove excess residues by stripping, trimming, and washing.
**Treated celery should be trimmed and washed.

Early Blight (Cercospora apii).-Begin applications at week-
ly intervals and reduce to four or five days if conditions become







favorable for disease development. Early blight forecasting sys-
tems which reduce the number of spray applications are available
for the Belle Glade area. On organic soils after two applications
of any of the organic materials, follow with one application of
copper, or combine copper with one of the organic applications.
Begin applications immediately after plants are set and repeat
at 4 to 5 day intervals. Maneb at 11/2 lbs. or Dyrene or Polyram
at 1 pound mixed in the spray tank with 4 pounds of 48-53%
metallic copper, is equally effective against early blight; in
addition, offers some control of bacterial blight.

Late Blight (Septoria apiicola).-Use three year old seed.
Early blight control measures are effective for late blight con-
trol. Dyrene and Bravo are more effective than maneb.
Pink Rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum).-Since the disease is
not serious every year, it is difficult to recommend a definite
control program. Each of the following control measures has
reduced Sclerotinia, but when conditions become favorable for
the development of the disease, it may be necessary to combine
all of them in order to obtain satisfactory control.
(1) Rotate with a crop not susceptible to Sclerotinia, such
as sweet corn.
(2) Flood the soil either completely, partially, or intermit-
tently for a period of 6 weeks during the summer.
(3) Spray weekly with a mixture of 4 lbs. ferbam plus 2 lbs.
hydrated lime, or 2 lbs. Botran/A. Remove residue by stripping,
trimming, and washing if ferbam is used (NTL), and do not
apply Botran within 7 days of harvest.
Rhizoctonia Stalk Rot (Rhizoctonia solani).-Direct a spray
nozzle on each side of the row toward the base of the plants
and apply 4 pounds fixed copper, 48-53% metallic, or 11/2 lbs.
Bravo/A. Spray applications may be made in combination with
those for early blight control.
Cucumber Mosaic (CMV) and Western Celery Mosaic
(WCMV).-The viruses causing mosaic are transmitted by
aphids. Maintain excellent aphid control and eradicate weeds
particularly in the seedbd area. CMV has a wide host range and
elimination of weed hosts (particularly wandering jew, Com-
melina spp.) improves control. Weed control near seedbeds is
most important. WCMV is apparently limited to celery and other
umbelliferous plants.








CORN, SWEET

MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Northern Corn Maneb 80, 1% lbs., or NTL*
Leaf Blight Polyram 80%, 1%-2 lbs., or 1* **
(Helminthos- Zineb 75%, 2 lbs., or NTL***
porium
turcicum) Dithane M-45, 1% lbs., or 7
Southern Corn Manzate 200 80%, 1% lbs., or 7
Leaf Blight Bravo 75W, 11/-2 lbs., or 14****
(Helminthos- Bravo 6F, 1%-2 pts. A. 14****
porium maydis)

*Do not feed treated forage to livestock.
**Use restricted to Florida. Do not use on sweet corn for processing.
***Do not feed forage or husks to dairy animals, or animals being finished for
slaughter.
****Do not apply to sweet corn for processing. Do not graze treated fields. Do not
ensile or use treated corn for feed or forage.
Any of the materials properly applied once or twice weekly,
depending on weather and disease conditions and locations, will
give economic control. Forecasting systems which reduce the
number of spray applications directed at Helminthosporium tur-
cicum are available for the Belle Glade area. For crops in the
"whorl stage" of growth, the spray should have two nozzles over
the row in addition to the side nozzles required for complete
coverage of unfurled leaves. Application of fungicide should
cease 10 days before harvest unless younger corn is growing
nearby. Maneb, Manzate 200, Dithane M-45, and zineb used for
blight control should also give satisfactory control of corn rust.
Where it is practicable, use Helminthosporium resistant varieties.

Rust (Puccinia sorghi).-Zineb as given for Helminthos-
porium blight control will control rust.

Bacterial Leaf Blight (Pseudomonas alboprecipitans).-No
chemical control. Avoid fields known to have previous histories
of disease damage.

CRUCIFERS
Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage, Cauliflower,
Chinese Cabbage
Spray materials do not stick easily to the waxy leaves of
most crucifers. Use a sticker-spreader as recommended by the
manufacturer on large plants in seedbeds and on plants in the
field.








Transplant Bed
Fungi-Preplant treatment: See celery transplant bed.

Transplant Bed Treatments

MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
AIternaria Leaf Zineb 75%, 2 lbs., or (See Field
Spot Maneb 80%, 1/2-2 lbs., or Treatment)
(Alternaria Bravo 75%, 11/2 lbs./A
brassicae)
Downy Mildew
(Peronospora
parasitica)

In the Hastings area, begin applications 7 to 10 days after
the seed is planted or before then, if mildew is present. Repeat
three times a week except when temperatures drop to 40F or
lower or heavy rains interrupt the schedule. Continue treatment
until plants are set in the field. Total number of applications
may vary from 6 to 15, depending upon season and weather. Use
80 to 150 gallons of spray or 15 to 35 pounds of dust per acre
at each application, depending on size of plants.
Plow under abandoned seedbeds and harvested fields to pre-
vent diseases from spreading to new plantings. Eradicate all
crucifers in vicinity of seedbed.


Field Treatments

MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Alternaria Leaf Zineb 75%, 2 lbs., or 7
Spot Maneb 80%, 1%/-2 lbs./A 7*
(Alternaria
brassicae)

*No time limitation when used as suggested on cauliflower and brussels sprouts.
Remove residules on broccoli by washing or trimming if treated within 3 days to
harvest. Do not use on Chinese cabbage. On collards, remove residue by washing.

Where seed is sown directly in the field, treat seedlings as
suggested for downy mildew. Use 100 to 150 gallons of spray or
25 to 30 pounds of dust per acre every 6 to 7 days.

Bacterial Leaf Spot-Cabbage (Pseudomonas cichorii).-No
chemical control.







Black Rot (Xanthomonas campestris).-Take every possible
precaution to secure disease-free plants. Do not locate seedbeds
or field plantings on land planted to any crucifer during the pre-
ceding 12 months. Use of tolerant or resistant varieties can de-
crease losses when proper rotation cannot be followed.
Cabbage seed grown in the Puget Sound area are reported
to be free of black rot, but the hot water treatment is sug-
gested regardless of source. Hot water treatment is carried out
as follows:
Treat seed at 1220F. Cabbage and brussels sprouts should
be treated 25 to 35 minutes; broccoli, cauliflower, collards, chi-
nese cabbage, kale, kohlrabi, rutabaga and turnips should be
treated 18 minutes.
Fill muslin bags about 2/3 full of seed. Tie the tops and im-
merse in a container of water at the temperature indicated. Keep
the water temperature within one degree of that specified. Keep
the seed under water, and stir to maintain uniform temperature.
At the end of the period, remove seed from the hot water and
plunge into cold water, then spread out and dry. Treatment is a
delicate operation and is best performed by a trained operator
using special equipment. It may be more satisfactory to have
seed treated at the nearest central seed treating plant.
Test seed for germination before treating with hot water.
Weak seed may be killed, while good seed will stand treatment
and germinate well if planted within two months.
Yellows (Fusarium oxysporum f. conglutinans).-The only
control after soil is infested is use of resistant varieties. Many
Japanese varieties or new hybrid varieties with Japanese parent
stock are not resistant. Growers should take every possible pre-
caution to secure disease-free transplants.
Black Speck.-On cabbage harvested during the winter
months numerous pin head sized black specks may appear on the
leaves extending all the way to the core. Usually they appear
approximately one week after harvest, or at times, particularly
if harvest is delayed, these specks may occur on cabbage in
the field.
The exact cause of these black specks is not fully under-
stood, however, some varieties and hybrids are much more sus-
ceptible than others. Use resistant or tolerant varieties.
41








Collards, Mustard, Turnips


MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Downy Mildew Maneb 80%, 11-2 lbs., or *
(Peronospora Zineb 75%, 2 lbs./A **
parasitica)
*For collards and mustard, 10 day limitations, and for turnips, 7 days. Remove
residues by washing.
**For collards, 7 days; for mustard, 10 days; for turnips, 7 days if tops are to be
used as food or feed.

When weather favors development of the disease, begin ap-
plications as soon as seedlings emerge and repeat at 3 to 4 day
intervals. Addition of a spreader-sticker may be advisable.
In the Hastings area, downy mildew is seldom observed and
is of no consequence. The cabbage mildew fungus does not at-
tack turnip and mustard.

Leaf Spots (Alternaria spp. and Cercospora spp.).-Exact
controls of the various leaf spot conditions reported on these
crops have not been fully determined. A regular schedule of
alternate sprays of maneb and zineb for Alternaria leaf spot and
sprays of zineb for Cercospora leaf spot is suggested.


Radish
Diseases of radish have not been a serious problem in Flor-
ida. If Alternaria leaf spots or downy mildew occurs, zineb
(NTL) can be used.


CUCURBITS
Cantaloupe, Cucumber, and Squash

Angular Leaf Spot (Pseudomonas lachrymans).-Use only
disease-free seed.

Weekly applications of copper sprays (3 pounds of 48-53%
metallic copper per 100 gal./A) help to control spread of the
disease in the field. Copper will not give satisfactory control of
powdery mildew and thus is not a substitute for the other
materials. Repeated copper applications may cause yellowing of
leaf margins and possibly reduction of yields. No time limitation
when used as suggested.









DISEASE
Anthracnose
(Glomerella
cingulata var.
orbiculare)
Downy Mildew
(Pseudoperono-
spora
cubensis)
Gummy Stem
Blight
(Mycosphaerella
citrullina)
Powdery Mildew
(Erysiphe
cichoracearum)
Cucumber Scab
(Cladosporium
cucuberinum)


SPRAY
Zineb 75%, 1 lb. plus
Maneb 80%, % lb., or
Manzate 200 80%, 11-3 lbs., or
Dithane M-45 80%, 1/-3 lbs., or
Bravo W75, 1%-2 lbs., or
Benlate, Y-% lbs./A
(Benlate does not control
downy mildew)


MIN. DAYS
TO HARVEST
5
5
5
5
NTL
NTL


Karathane 25%, 6-8 oz., or
Bravo W75, 112-2 lbs., or
Benlate, /4-%/ Ibs./A
Bravo W75, 1-2 lbs., or
Manzate 200 80%, 1%-3 lbs., or
Dithane M-45 80%, 11/2-3 Ibs./A


Anthracnose, Downy Mildew and Gummy Stem Blight.-
Downy mildew is serious in all parts of the state during warm,
damp weather. Spray every four to seven days, beginning be-
fore runners start, if necessary. In seasons of light infection,
applications may be delayed until runners form and intervals
may be longer.
There are several varieties of cucumbers and cantaloupe that
are resistant to downy mildew but fungicides should be used to
prevent other diseases.

Powdery Mildew.-The fungicides used for downy mildew
give some control of powdery mildew, but most will not give
sufficient control. Karathane, Bravo, and benomyl are effec-
tive. If powdery mildew is a persistent problem, use one of
these materials on a preventative basis, i.e., on a regular sched-
ule (every seven to fourteen days) before the disease appears.
During cold weather, sulfur may be used on squash (2 to 4
pounds) and on cucumber (no more than 2 pounds) two or
three times to control powdery mildew. Sulfur should never
be used on cantaloupe.

Viruses (Mosaic).-Most mosaic symptoms in these crops
are caused by aphid-transmitted viruses that occur naturally
in wild hosts. Elimination of weeds around the field before
planting will help greatly in reducing losses from virus diseases.
See section on watermelon mosaic.

43


7
NTL
NTL
NTL
5
5


~








WATERMELONS


MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Anthracnose Maneb 80%, 11%-2 Ibs., or 5
(Glomerella Dithane M-45 80%, 11/2-3 lbs., or 5
cingulata var. Manzate 200' 80%, 1-3 lbs., or 5
orbiculare) Difolatan 4 flowable, 2 pts., or NTL
Downy Mildew Bravo 75%, 11-21/2 Ibs., or NTL
(Pseudoper- Benlate, 1/4- lbs./A NTL
onospora (Benlate does not control downy
cubensis) mildew or Alternaria leaf spot)
Gummy Stem
Blight
(Mycosphaerella
citrullina)
Cercospora Leaf
Spot
(Cercospora
citrullina)
Alternaria Leaf
Spot
(Alternaria
cucumerina)
..........................................................................
Bacterial Leaf Copper (48-53%) 3 lbs./A NTL
Spot
(Pseudomonas
lachrymans

Copper (3 pounds of 48-53% metallic copper per 100 gal-
lons) may be used alternately or in conjunction with other
fungicides where downy mildew is the only disease of impor-
tance or bacterial leaf spot occurs with other foliar diseases.
Copper will not control Anthracnose and can cause leaf burn-
ing on watermelons.
The major foliar diseases of watermelons can be controlled
with fungicides. The severity of these diseases varies from year
to year, depending on weather and other factors. Usually one
or more of them cause damage in Florida. In dry seasons, the
value of fungicides may not be apparent, especially in northern
Florida, but higher yields of higher quality melons usually re-
sult from a systematic disease control program.
Inadequate coverage of foliage is probably the most com-
mon cause of poor disease control. Complete coverage of both
foliage and fruit is essential for adequate disease control. It is
necessary to cover the underside of the leaves as well as the
topside.
Make the first application soon after plants begin to grow
and before runners start. Weather conditions will govern the

44







number and timing of subsequent applications. In general, three
to five sprays are sufficient in northern and central Florida,
while seven or more may be needed in southern Florida.
Seed-Borne Diseases.-Most commercial seed are previously
treated by the seed producer and a special treatment need not
be applied by the grower unless desired. The following material
can be used at the indicated rates.

THIRAM Ounces Per 100 Ibs. Teaspoons Per Pound
Seed of Seed
4 %
Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. niveum).-This disease is
caused by a fungus that inhabits the soil and cannot be con-
trolled with fungicides. The use of resistant varieties, along
with rotation and new land, is the best control measure. Delayed
thinking is suggested with Charleston Gray when this variety
is planted on land previously grown in watermelon. A maximal
number of years between watermelon crops is desirable, even
with resistant varieties. There is always a possibility that wilt
may occur on new land even with resistant varieties as a result
of infestations through drainage water, tools, or cattle that
come in contact with infested fields.
Bacterial Leaf Spot (Pseudomonas lachrymans).-Bacterial
leaf spot has occurred to some extent each year since 1963 in
Florida. This disease is associated with cool, wet weather, oc-
curs most extensively in south Florida, and usually ceases to
be a problem with the onset of warm weather. Applications of
3 lbs. of copper (48% to 53%) plus 1/ lbs. maneb 80%, or 11/2
lbs. Manzate 200, 80%, or 11 lbs. Dithane M-45, 80%/A give
some control.
Watermelon Mosaic.-Elimination of wild hosts in the vicin-
ity of commercial plantings of watermelons and other cucurbits
is critical to the control of watermelon mosaic. In south Florida,
a perennial wild cucurbit, Melothria pendula L., known also
as creeping cucumber or melonette, grows commonly on the
spoil piles left from the usual land-clearing operations there.
It is frequently infected with Watermelon Mosaic Virus and is
thought to be a major source of inoculum for infection of cucur-
bitaceous crops in some south Florida areas. Momordica charan-
tia L., the wild balsam apple, has been found to be an impor-
tant source of inoculum in the squash-production areas of the
45







lower east coast. Isolation of cucurbit fields by use of surround-
ing plantings of non-hosts such as the solanaceous crops (e.g.,
tomato, potato, eggplant, pepper) might be helpful in reducing
the field-to-field spread of WMV.

EGGPLANT
Phomopsis Blight (Phomopsis vexans).-Florida Market is
resistant to the tip over stage of Phomopsis blight. However,
the fruit rot and leaf and stem lesion stages are serious prob-
lems. Only disease-free plants should be transplanted from seed-
bed to field. For a plant bed spray, use 2 Ibs. of 75% zineb per
100 gallons of water, or 2 oz. (8 level tablespoonful) per 6 gal-
lons of water.
Make two applications when plants emerge and repeat at
seven day intervals. For general foliage and fruit disease con-
trol, apply 75% zineb at 11/-2 lbs. per acre on a regular sched-
ule every 5 to 10 days. A suitable spreader-sticker will be ben-
eficial in coverage on fruit. No time limit on harvesting egg-
plant treated with zineb.
Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum).-No chemical
control. Use new land or rotate with non-susceptible crops.

LETTUCE AND ENDIVE
MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Downy Mildew Zineb 75%, 2 Ibs., or 10
(Bremia Maneb 80%, 11-2 lbs./A 10*
lactucae)
*Remove residues from head lettuce by stripping and trimming, and from leaf lettuce
and endive by washing or other effective means.
Begin applications when disease appears, repeat at 7 day in-
tervals.

Alternaria Leaf Spot (Alternaria sonchi).-Chloranil (Sper-
gon) is the only fungicide approved by the Environmental
Protection Agency for control of this disease for lettuce
only and this in plant bed only. Use 2 lbs. of 95% material
per 100 gallons water at 3 to 5 day intervals until plants are
drawn.
Drop (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum).-Since the disease is not
serious every year, it is difficult to suggest a definite control

46







program. Each of the following control measures has reduced
drop, but when conditions become favorable for the develop-
ment of the disease, it may be necessary to combine all of them
in order to obtain a satisfactory control.
(1) Rotate with a crop not susceptible to this disease, such
as sweet corn.
(2) Flood the soil either completely, partially, or intermit-
tently for a period of six weeks during the summer. Before
using flooding as a control measure, find out from local author-
ities if drainage into a given body of water after flooding agri-
cultural fields is premissible.
(3) For lettuce only, spray weekly with a mixture of 2
pounds ferbam* plus 1 pound hydrated lime per 100 gallons
of water, using 100 to 200 gallons of spray per acre. Remove
residue by stripping and trimming. Do not apply within 7 days
of harvest.
Lettuce Mosaic.-Most severe on head lettuce. The only
control is to use seed which has been indexed as mosaic-free.
Field spread may be reduced by aphid control.
*Use of ferbam--Florida only. Do not apply within 7 days of harvest. Remove resi-
dues by stripping and trimming.

OKRA
Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum).-No fungicide
approved by the Environmental Protection Agency for control
of this disease.
Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum).-No chemical
control. Use new land or rotate with non-susceptible crops.

ONIONS

DUST MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Downy Mildew Zineb 75%, 2 lbs. plus Zineb
(Peronospora sticker, or 61/% 7*
destructor) Maneb 80%, 1%1-2 lbs.,
Blast plus sticker, or NTL
(Botrytis sp.) Manzate 200 80%, 1%-
Purple Blotch 21/2 lbs., or 7**
(Alternaria Dithane M-45 80%, 1%-
porri) 2% lbs./A 7**
*No time limit on dry onions: 7 days on green onions.
**Do not apply to exposed bulbs.







When weather conditions favor the development of disease,
begin applications when seedlings emerge and repeat at weekly
intervals.
It is extremely difficult to obtain adequate foliage cover-
age because of the waxy nature of the onion plant. Successful
control has been reported by timing dust applications to coincide
with formation of fine films of moisture on the leaf surface at
certain periods of the day.

PEAS
Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe polygoni).-Spray with wettable
sulfur or dust with 325 mesh dusting sulfur.
Begin applications when signs of disease appear. Repeat at
10 to 14 day intervals, or often enough to keep the disease under
control. Do not apply when plants are wet or during periods of
high temperatures (above 900F).
Powdery mildew sometimes becomes serious during winter
months. It is usually necessary to adhere to a strict spray pro-
gram to keep it under control.

PEPPERS
Fungi.-Pre-plant treatment in transplant bed: See celery
seedbed section.
Bacterial Spot (Xanthomonas vesicatoria). Use 4-5 Ibs.
of copper (48-53% metallic copper) /A NTL.
Spray applications should be started at emergence of seed-
lings and continued on a 7 day schedule. Complete coverage is
essential. In plant beds, begin spraying when plants emerge.
Damping-off (Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia spp., etc.).-Avoid
planting on low or poorly drained areas. Do not follow peppers
with peppers. A chemical soil treatment with SMDC (Vapam,
VPM, Fume V) on direct-seeded peppers may be tried where
damping-off and other soil-borne troubles are a problem. Inject
five to six inches deep on the prepared bed at the rate of 1
pint per 100 lineal feet of row or in two bands at the same rate
for two row beds. Good moisture for sealing and compaction
of the bed following application is essential for success. A wait-
ing period of at least three weeks before seeding is necessary
for chemicals to escape (at least 30 days if soil temperature is
below 600F).







MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Frogeye Spot Zineb 75%, 2 lbs., or NTL
(Cereospora Copper 4 lbs. of 48-53%
capsici) metallic copper, or NTL
Maneb 80%, 11/2-2 lbs./A NTL
Gray Leaf Spot Zineb 75%, 2 lbs./A NTL
(Stemphyllium
solani)
Phytophthora
Blight
(Phytophthora
capsici)

In plant beds begin spraying when plants are two to three
inches high and repeat at seven day intervals. In fields, after
plants have become established, repeat at 7 to 10 day intervals
as needed.
Frogeye spot is not normally a serious disease, and when
weather conditions are not favorable for its development, the
spray schedule may be modified.
Viruses.-Use resistant varieties where possible.
Workers handling pepper plants should wash hands with
strong soap and water or 70% alcohol before handling plants..
This is most important for workers who use tobacco.
To reduce insect transmission of viruses from wild host
plants (nightshade, ground cherry and others) several practices
are suggested:
(1) Eradicate wild plants in fencerows and on ditch banks
during season when crops are not growing.
(2) Plant barrier crops around pepper fields. A 50-foot
strip of a non-susceptible crop (corn, beans, etc.) tends to trap
insects flying in until they become non-infective.
(3) Spray barrier crop with suitable insecticide at least
weekly to reduce population of insect vectors. See insect control
suggestions.
(4) Destroy old infected crops before planting following
crops alongside them.

Bacterial Soft Rot of Fruit (Erwinia carotovora).-Avoid
harvesting while plants are wet. Avoid wounding fruit. Chlorine
of the form of commercial bleach or injected chlorine gas must
be included in the first water solution used in the packing
house. The rate used should be one gallon commercial bleach to
50-100 gallons water, or 100 to 200 parts per million of chlorine.







Treatment is particularly important if soft rot is observed in
the field or at the packing house.

POTATOES
Numerous viral, bacterial and fungal diseases are controlled
by always planting certified seed.
Seed-piece treatment.-Potato seed-piece treatments are of-
ten helpful in obtaining better stands and yields. Effective ma-
terials for seed treatment are:
Captan 7/2 % dust 1 lb. per 100 lbs. of seed or
Dithane M-45 or Manzate 200, 8% dust 1 lb.
per 100 lbs. of seed.

DO NOT USE TREATED SEED FOR FOOD OR
FEED PURPOSES
Corky Ringspot.-This disease is caused by a tuber and soil-
borne virus. Pungo is highly resistant to corky ringspot and is
suggested for planting in infested soil. Nematode control will
also assist in controlling this disease.
MIN. DAYS
DISEASE SPRAY TO HARVEST
Early Blight Maneb 80%, 112-2 lbs., or NTL
Alternaria Dithane M-45 80%, 11/2-2 lbs., or NTL
solani) Manzate 200 80%, 1/2-2 lbs., or NTL
Late Blight Polyram 80%, 1-2 lbs., or NTL
(Phytophthora Bravo 75%, 1-11/ lbs./A NTL
infestans)

In south Florida, begin spraying for late blight when plants
have emerged and continue at four to five day intervals.
In Hastings area, begin spraying when the plants are six
to eight inches high, if late blight does not show earlier, and con-
tinue at five to seven day intervals; or use a more economical
method of control by spraying the plants following eight con-
secutive days when the seven day average daily temperatures
range from 50 to 770F. and the ten day total rainfall is 1.01
inches or greater. When the latter method is used, intervals
between spraying may vary from 5 to 14 days or more depend-
ing upon the severity of late blight and the duration of periods
when temperatures and rainfall favor its development. Also,
consult with county extension personnel concerning disease fore-
casting available in your area.






Scab (Streptomyces scabies).-Use of certified seed and
crop rotation, and holding soil pH below 6.0 will assist in con-
trolling scab.
Sclerotinia (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum).-Flooding fields for
five to six weeks during summer months will reduce the num-
ber of sclerotia in the soil. Before using flooding as a control
measure, find out from local authorities if drainage into a given
body of water after flooding agricultural fields is permissible.

POTATOES, SWEET

Black Rot (Ceratocystis fimbriata), Scurf (Monilochaetes
infuscans), and Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. batatas).-These
diseases will be kept under control with the following practices:
Seed Selection: Most diseases can be reduced by growing
enough seed from vine cuttings to produce next year's seed
supply. Select hills at digging time that are free of disease, have
desirable varietal characteristics, and have at least four or five
Number 1 size potatoes per hill. Take special care in digging
and storing the seed potatoes, handling as little as possible to
prevent bruising.
Plant Bed Site: Locate the bed where sweet potatoes and
tobacco have not been grown within three years. If permanent
beds are to be used, remove soil to a depth of 12 inches, drench
the bed and frame with a solution of 1 pint of formaldehyde per
15 gallons of water, then replace with new soil.
Plant Treatment: Cuttings from the seedbed will give ef-
fective control of black rot and scurf. Cut one inch above soil
line rather than pulling with roots on.
Internal Cork.-Seed stock should be free of internal cork, a
disease for which there is no other known control. Cork-free seed
potatoes are available.

STRAWBERRIES
Soil-borne Diseases (Plantbed and Field) Various.-Soil
treatment using Vorlex, chloropicrin, Dowfume MC-33, or Terr-
O-Gas 67 is effective in controlling certain soil-borne diseases.
See the nematode section of this circular for rates and methods
of application.







Anthracnose (Colletotrichum fragariae).-Occurs most of-
ten in nursery beds, causes spotting and girdling of runners
and leaf stems. Most severe with high temperature and mois-
ture. After plants are established, spray with benomyl (Benlate)
1 lb. of 50% WP/A at weekly intervals, or use 3 lbs. of 48-53%
metallic copper from basic copper sulfate, plus spreader-sticker,
or dust with 6% copper dust at 20 to 35 pounds per acre as a
preventative schedule. No time limit between last application
and harvest.

Rhizoctonia Bud Rot (Rhizoctonia solani).-Most prevalent
during cool, humid weather. Favored by fog and heavy dew.
Avoid areas where this disease has been prevalent on previous
crops particularly where heavy legume cover crops have been
grown. Cut and allow cover crops to thoroughly dry before
turning under. Set plants at proper depth.

Leaf Spots (common, scorch, and blight).-In the nursery
spray with three to four pounds of 48-53% metallic copper
from basic copper in 100 gallons of water at 75 to 150 gallons
per acre or Captan 50% WP, 3 lbs./100 gal., or benomyl 50%
WP, 12 lb./100 gal./A, or dust with 6% copper dust at 20 to
35 pounds per acre at seven to ten day intervals.
In fruiting fields, benomyl, or zineb, or captain may be used.
Use two pounds of zineb* in 100 gallons of water, or 20 to 35
pounds of 6/% zineb dust per acre at seven day intervals until
full bloom, then switch to three pounds of 50% captain in 100
gallons of water, using 100 to 200 gallons per acre, or 20 to 40
pounds of 6% captain dust per acre at 7 day intervals, through-
out fruiting season. The captain treatment may be used through-
out the season. Benomyl should be applied at one lb. of 50%
material/A at 10% bloom and again at full bloom, and addi-
tinal applications of Y lb./A at 7 to 14 day intervals as needed.
*Do not apply zineb within 7 days of harvest, no time limitation for captain and
benomyl.

Black Root.-This condition occurs on older plants in the
nursery. These plants will produce new lateral roots and vigorous
plants when transplanted. Good soil aeration two to three weeks
prior to digging aids in new root initiation.

Red Stele (Phytophthora fragariae).-PURCHASE DIS-
EASE-FREE, CERTIFIED TRANSPLANTS. This disease has
52






occurred in Florida only when uncertified plants were pur-
chased. It has not survived in Florida.

Sclerotium Rot (Southern Blight). (Sclerotium rolfsii).-
Develops during hot, wet weather and is most severe in the
nursery during the summer. This fungus attacks plants at the
soil line and invades both the crown and roots, causing sudden
death of plants. Avoid areas where this disease has been preva-
lent on previous crops, particularly where heavy legume cover
crops have been grown. Cut and allow cover crops to thoroughly
dry, then bury plant debris at least 6 in. deep.

Gray Mold Fruit Rot.-Use 3 lbs. captain, 50% WP as a spray
or 20 to 40 lbs. of 6% dust at 7 day intervals or spray benomyl
50% WP, 1 lb./A at 10% bloom, at full floom, and then 1/ lb./A
at 10 to 14 day intervals as needed. No time limitation between
last application and harvest.

Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum) i-No chemical
control. Use new land or rotate with non-susceptible crops.

TOMATOES
Transplant Bed
Fungi.-Pre-plant treatment in transplant bed: See celery
seedbed section.

Bacterial Spot (Xanthomonas vesicatoria).-Use 4 pounds
of basic copper sulfate (48-53% metallic copper) plus 11/-2 lbs.
of maneb 80%, or 1/ lbs. Dithane M-45, 80%, or Manzate 200,
80% per acre.
Spray applications should be started at emergence of seed-
lings and continued on a 3 to 5 day schedule. Complete coverage
is essential. Control in plant beds helps reduce subsequent losses
in field.

Gray Leaf Spot (Stemphylium solani).-Treat as for late
blight, except that applications every five to seven days should
be sufficient. Use resistant varieties where these are adaptable.

Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans).-Same as field con-
trol.







Field
Resistant varieties and fungicide applications are the two
major control methods used in the field. The following table
summarizes the status 'of certain varieties with respect to
resistance and susceptibility to certain diseases.

DISEASES





Florida
MH-1 R R R S S S S S,
Walter R R R S S S S S
Homestead S S S S S S S S
Tropic R R S S S S S S
Floradel R R S S S S S S
S-Susceptible, R-Resistant
Bacterial Spot (Xanthomonas vesicatoria).-Follow sugges-
tions listed above under transplant bed.
Early Blight (Alternaria solani).-Control as for late blight.
Fusarium Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. lycopersici).-Use
resistant varieties or new land. Soil treatment with Vorlex,
SMDC (Vapam, Fume V, VPM), chloropicrin, Dowfume MC-33,
or Terr-O-Gas 67 is effective in controlling Fusarium wilt. See
the nematode section of this circular for rates and methods of
application.
Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum).-Use new land
or rotate with non-susceptible crops. Soil treatment with SMDC
(Vapam, Fume V, VPM), Vorlex, chloropicrin, Dowfume MC-33,
or Terr-O-Gas 67 is effective in controlling Verticillium wilt.
See the nematode section for rates and methods of application.
Bacterial Wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum).-Do not plant
seedbeds on land where the disease has ever been present. If
such land must be used, treat soil as suggested in section on
"Damping-off" under celery. Rotate with crops other than sola-
naceous plants. Avoid movement of water or equipment from
infested to non-infested fields or areas.






Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans).-Spray with Bravo
75%, 11-2 lbs., or maneb 80%, 11/2-2 lbs., or Manzate 200 80%,
11-3 lbs., or Dithane M-45 80%, 11/2-3 lbs., or Difolatan 4 flow-
able, 21/2 pints, or Polyram 80%, 1h-21/2 lbs. per acre. Difolatan
may be used only on tomatoes that will be machine harvested.
In southern parts of the state, begin applications immedi-
ately after transplanting or emergence and continue at 4 to 5
day intervals. In areas or seasons when the disease is less
severe, the time between applications may be 5 to 7 days.
Gray Leaf Spot (Stemphylium solani).-Control as for Late
Blight except that Dyrene 50% 2 Ibs. per 100 gal./A is also
effective.
Use resistant varieties where they are adapted.
Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea).-The disease does not develop
on plants grown on soils of calcareous nature. Liming practices
cap decrease the disease development. For control by spraying,
use Manzate 200, Dithane M-45, or Bravo as listed for late blight.
Gray Wall (Physiologic).-Use resistant varieties.
Phoma (Phoma destrictiva).-Treat seeds and seedbed. The
only fungicide approved by Environmental Protection Agency
as a spray for control of Phoma is dichlone (Phygon) and this
in seedbed only.
Sclerotinia (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum).-Flooding fields for
five to six weeks during summer months will reduce the num-
ber of sclerotia in the soil. However, flooding may spread other
soil-borne pathogens as those causing Fusarium Wilt and bac-
terial wilt.
Adequate drainage, sanitation and crop rotation are im-
portant in the control of this disease. Plant tomatoes in well-
drained fields. Do not plant tomatoes immediately following
Sclerotinia-diseased crops of beans, cabbage, celery, lettuce,
potato, or any other susceptible crop.
Southern Blight (Sclerotium rolfsii).-The best protection
against southern blight is sanitation. Whenever diseased fruit
or plants are found in a field they should be collected and dis-
posed of, preferably by burying 2 or 3 feet deep or by burning.
In this way, the distribution of the sclerotia throughout the
field will be prevented and to a large extent the disease will be
controlled. Since the sclerotia are so large that they are not
55






carried by the wind and since their numbers are comparatively
small, sanitation is an effective control measure. The careful
regulation of water by means of a well-designed irrigation-
drainage system to prevent excessive soil moisture will-.help
prevent the occurrence 'of the disease. Plants in the fields
where the disease has been prevalent should be staked. This
will keep the fruit from touching the ground and thus prevent
infection of the fruit.
Leaf Mold (Cladosporium fulvum).-Leaf mold is con-
trolled by the application of the fungicides Bravo or maneb
at the rates as suggested for late blight. Use resistant varieties.
Staking, pruning, and ventilation help to control the disease.
Buckeye Rot (Phytophthora parasitica).-Good field drain-
age. No fungicides approved by Environmental Protection
Agency.
Soil Rot (Rhizoctonia solani).-Good field drainage, fungi-
cide applications of Bravo are helpful in control. The disease is
seldom of importance in fields where the plants have been
staked and pruned. Fruit losses in transit may be controlled
by careful grading.
Potato Virus Y and Tobacco Etch Virus.-Eradicate wild host
plants (nightshade, ground cherry, volunteer tomato plants)
BEFORE the crop is planted. Avoid planting subsequent crops
next to diseased early plantings until after the early plantings
have been destroyed. Avoid tomatoes in close proximity to
potatoes.
Pseudo-Curly Top Virus.-Destroy nightshade and ragweed
growing in and around the field before planting the crop. If the
disease appears in the field, spray the margin of the field with
an approved insecticide to kill the tree hoppers that transmit
the virus.
Tobacco Mosaic Virus.-Direct seed if possible; use high
clearance spray and cultivation equipment; have workers han-
dling plants wash hands with soap and water after smoking.
Bacterial Soft Rot of Fruit (Erzinia carotovora).-Avoid
harvesting while plants are wet. Avoid wounding fruit. Chlo-
rine in the form of commercial bleach or injected chlorine gas
must be included in the first water solution used in the packing






house. The rate used should be one gallon of commercial
bleach to 50-100 gallons water, or 100-200 ppm of chlorine.
Treatment is particularly important if soft rot is observed in
the field or at the packing house. Avoid chilling green fruit
below 550F. Use in first water bath because once this bacterium
enters through a wound, the above treatment is not effective.
Florida MI-1 and Homestead 24 are more tolerant to this dis-
ease than Walter, Tropic, or Floridel.

Time limitations for fungicides used on tomatoes are as follows:
MIN. DAYS
FUNGICIDE TO HARVEST


Maneb
Manzate 200, Dithane M-45
Bravo
Dyrene
Difolatan
Copper formulations


5
5
NTL
NTL
NTL
NTL


*Difolatan can only be used on tomatoes that will be machine harvested.

PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES

D. W. Dickson

There are several important nematode pests of vegetable
crops in Florida. Many of these nematodes may cause drastic
yield reductions unless effectively controlled. The following is a
list of the major nematode pests of vegetable crops:


Common Name
Root-knot nematodes
Sting nematodes
Stubby-root nematodes
Root-lesion nematodes
Cyst nematodes
Awl nematodes
Stunt nematodes
Lance nematodes
Spiral nematodes

Ring nematodes
Dagger nematodes
Bud and Leaf nematodes


Scientific Name
Meloidoqyne spp.
Belonolaimus spp.
Trichodorus spp.
Pratylenchus spp.
Heterodera spp.
Dolichodorus spp.
Tylenchorhynchus spp.
Hopolaimus spp.
Helicotylenchus spp. and
Scutellonema spp.
Criconemoides spp.
Xiphinema spp.
Aphelenchoides spp.






NEMATODE CONTROL
Damage caused by plant parasitic nematodes feeding on
vegetable crops can be greatly reduced or eliminated by proper
land-management practices and/or chemical control. Once nema-
todes become established in a field it is almost impossible to
eradicate them. Recommended control practices only reduce them
to a level at which the crop can be grown successfully before
they again increase to damaging levels. Most effective control
can generally be obtained by using a combination of manage-
ment practices, such as crop rotation, crop residue disposal, fal-
lowing and chemical control.
Land Management Practices.-Crop rotation-The continu-
ous cropping of vegetables on the same land year after year
often leads to the build-up of heavy infestations of nematodes.
Crop rotation often can be used to help reduce plant parasitic
nematode populations to below damaging levels. This method
of control is based on the fact that some nematode species re-
produce well on certain host crops but less well or not at all on
others (non-host crops). However, due to the wide array of
vegetables susceptible to nematodes and the different kinds of
nematodes often found in a field, it is difficult to find a rota-
tional crop that will not favor the increase of at least one kind
of nematode. Some forage grasses such as bahiagrass, pangola-
grass and coastal bermudagrass could be used in fields in which
root-knot nematodes are a major problem; however, these crops
may be susceptible to several other important nematode pests.
Crop residue disposal.-Following harvest of the vegetable
crop, the soil should be disked and allowed to lie fallow for at
least two weeks before planting cover crops. Disking the land at
least twice during this period will help since the heat and drying
action of the sun and wind reduce nematodes and other pest
populations in the soil.
Flooding and Fallowing.-This practice is applicable on cer-
tain crops grown on muck soils and in other areas where con-
trolled flooding is possible. It has been shown to be a highly
effective method for control of root-knot nematodes on muck
soils in the Zellwood and Belle Glade areas. This method should
not be used on certain crops such as tomatoes unless a source of
clean water is available (such as obtained from deep wells).
Water obtained from drainage canals around tomato fields may
be infested with important disease pathogens of tomatoes.






Alternating periods of flooding and fallowing (drying) is
most effective. The flood-fallow cycle should be carried out as
follows: flood 2 or 3 weeks, dry for 2 weeks, flood for 2 weeks,
dry for 2 weeks and flood for 2 weeks. The soil should be worked
up during periods of drying to increase aeration and facilitate
drying. This also helps prevent weed growth on which the nema-
todes may reproduce if allowed to grow for a sufficient period
of time.

CHEMICAL CONTROL
At the present time chemicals are the most effective and
reliable means of controlling a wide variety of nematode pests
of vegetables. Chemicals used to control nematodes are called
nematicides, and are classed as soil fumigants or non-fumigants,
whereas chemicals effective in controlling nematodes, certain
soil-borne diseases, insects and weeds are called multi-purpose
soil fumigants.
These chemicals vary in their effectiveness against nema-
todes and other soil-borne pests. Consequently, it is necessary
for a grower to recognize and evaluate the relative importance
of nematodes, soil-borne diseases, insects and weeds before
choosing a material. If nematodes are the primary problem
choose a nematicide (soil fumigant or non-fumigant), however,
if control of soil-borne diseases, insects or weeds is also desired
(see Disease and Insect Sections) choose a multi-purpose soil
fumigant.

NEMATICIDES
Soil Fumigants.-These chemicals are volatile liquids that
diffuse through the soil profile in the gaseous state. These gases
are soluble in the soil water and their retention in it is depend-
ent on the soil temperature. If they come in contact with nema-
todes at the correct dosage for sufficient time, the nematodes
are killed.
For general field fumigation for nematode control, the fol-
lowing nematicides are recommended:
Dichloropropene-dichloropropane mixture (D-D or Vidden D)
Dichloropropenes (Telone)
Ethylene dibromide (Dowfume W-85 or Soilbrom-85)
Dibromochloropropane (Nemagon, Fumazone or Oxy BBC)
Those materials containing dichloropropene-dichloropropane
mixtures or dichloropenes may be applied on all vegetable crops,
whereas those containing ethylene dibromide or dibromochloro-
59






propane cannot be applied on certain vegetables because of either
toxicity to the crop or accumulation of bromide residues in the
crop (See tables for rates and crop use).
Non-Fumigant Nematicides.-These materials, which are
commonly referred to as contact nematicides are non-fumigants
and will not give satisfactory control if applied by fumigant
methods. Two such materials, ethoprop (Mocap) and fensulfo-
thion (Dasanit), are recommended for use on certain vegetables.
These compounds are non-volatile organo-phosphate chemicals
which are formulated as granules. They must be mixed into
the top four inches of soil. The active ingredient is dissolved from
the carrier (granules) into the soil water and comes into con-
tact with nematodes. If the concentration of the chemical is
high enough nematodes are killed.

MULTI-PURPOSE SOIL FUMIGANTS
Multi-purpose soil fumigants are recommended for control
of nematodes, certain soil-borne diseases (see Disease Section),
insects and weeds in vegetable seedbeds and on certain high in-
come crops such as strawberries and tomatoes. The materials
recommended are:
Chloropicrin (Picfume or Chlor-O-Pic)
Dichloropropene-Dichloropropane-methyl isothiocyanate mix-
ture (Vorlex)
Methyl bromide (Dowfume MC-2 or Brom-O-Gas)
Methyl bromide-chloropicrin mixture (Dowfume MC-33 or
Terr-O-Gas 67)
Sodium methydithiocarbamate (Vapam)
Methyl bromide may be used only for treating vegetable
seedbeds for production of transplants, whereas methyl bromide-
chloropicrin mixture may be used for seedbed and field produc-
tion of strawberries and tomatoes. The other materials may be
used on all vegetable crops.

GENERAL DIRECTION FOR APPLICATION OF
NEMATICIDES AND
MULTI-PURPOSE SOIL FUMIGANTS
Soil Preparation-Plow or disk area to be treated thor-
oughly. Allow sufficient time for plant residues to decompose.
60






Soil fumigants are sorbed by and react with organic matter,
rendering them ineffective to nematodes. If soils have high or-
ganic matter, fumigate only when the soil is moist and relatively
loose. For optimum kill of nematodes with soil fumigants, the
soil should have an open, continuous air space network. In wet
soils, the air spaces are filled with water, slowing the rate of
movement of fumigants. If wet soils are high in organic mat-
ter, the fumigant will have time to react with this debris. On
the other hand, if soils are extremely dry, the sorption and
reaction of fumigants with organic matter is greatly increased.
Undecayed plant material may harbor live nematodes, or their
eggs. This makes it difficult or impossible for nematicides to
penetrate the plant material and kill the nematodes. Also, a large
amount of coarse debris will hinder the movement of fumigation
equipment through the soil.

When To Treat Fumigants: Apply fumigants when
the soil temperature at a 5-6 inch depth is 50-800 F and the soil
moisture content is suitable for seeding. Very dry soils that
would allow the fumigant to be readily sorbed by organic matter
should be avoided. If the surface soil is too' dry to seal properly,
moisten it by overhead irrigation and compact after fumigation.
Use all the fumigants, except dibromochloropropane as a
preplant treatment. Dibromochloropropane may be used as a
preplant, at planting or post plant treatment on most vegetable
crops.

Non Fumigants: Apply non-fumigant nematicides either
preplant or at-planting time when the soil is in seedbed condition
with adequate moisture for good seed germination.

Application Method-Fumigants: Fumigants may be applied
overall or in-the-row by using gravity-flow or pressure-type
chisel injection equipment. Overall applications may also be
made with plow sole equipment. The equipment should be ac-
curately calibrated to insure correct dosage and uniform distri-
bution. For an overall application of most fumigants a 10-12 inch
chisel spacing may be used. For Vapam and Vorlex use a chisel
spacing of 5 and 8 inches, respectively. One to several chisels
may be used for row treatment, depending upon the width of
row to be treated and the material used. Inject fumigants at






least 6-8 inches below the final soil surface and compact the soil
immediately after application. Seal the chisel channels with a
drag float, ring roller, press wheel, or similar device.
Areas treated with multi-purpose soil fumigants should be
well compacted with a bed press and covered with polyethylene
(at least 1.0 mil thick). Ideally, the fumigation, pressing and
mulching should be done simultaneously.
Vapam also can be applied by drenching over the soil surface,
rolling and sealing with overhead irrigation. However, injection
and covering with polyethylene is the best method of application
for soil-borne pest control.
For small areas, such as seedbeds, methyl bromide may be
released by special applicators under polyethylene.

Non-Fumigants: Granular nematicide applicators may be
used to apply non-fumigant nematicides. For an overall appli-
cation apply the specified dosage uniformly over the entire area
to be treated. Band or row application may be made by placing
the specified dosage in a 12-18 inch band over the row before
or at-planting. After the granules are uniformly applied, disk
or till thoroughly to a depth of 4 to 6 inches to insure adequate
mixing in the soil.

Waiting Period-Fumigants: For all soil fumigants except
dibromochloropropane, a waiting period is required to allow the
chemical to escape from the soil. Wait at least 2-3 weeks before
planting, and longer before planting in organic and heavy soils.
Allow a longer waiting period when the soil temperatures are
below 600 F or the soil moisture is high. These conditions will
retard the escape of the fumigants from the soil. Following fumi-
gation, do not disturb the soil for 7-14 days. The soil can then
be worked at least once to a depth of several inches to speed up
the escape of the gas. This is essential for thorough aeration if
heavy rains accompanied by low temperatures occur during the
exposure period. Fumigated soils are subject to recontamination
if any untreated soil is mixed with treated soil.
No waiting period is required for dibromochloropropane when
applied at-planting time.

Non-Fumigants: No waiting period is required for non-
fumigant nematicides when applied at-planting time.








Explanation of Rates Listed in the
Following Tables

The overall rate of all soil fumigants except Vapam and
Vorlex is based on a 12-inch chisel spacing. Vapam and Vorlex
require a 5 and 8 inch chisel spacing, respectively. The row rate
is based on a 36-inch row spacing and is given as a guide to
determine the total amount of chemical needed for a field. Closer
row spacing will require more chemical per acre; wider row
spacing, less. For row applications apply at the rate listed per
1000 ft. of row regardless of row spacing. For row application
where 2 or more chisels are used per row apply at the same rate
per chisel as for overall treatment.

The dosage listed for soil fumigants should be increased for
organic soil (peat and muck) (see label). Do not use FUMA-
ZONE, NEMAGON or BBC on organic soils. Use either the con-
centrate or the emulsifiable concentrate of these three materials.

Rates of non-fumigant materials are given in pounds
formulation.


BEANS-Bush, Pole and Lima

Overall Row
Fl oz/chisel Fl oz/chisel
per 1000 per 1000
Nematicide* Gal/Acre linear ft Gal/Acre linear ft

D-D 20-25 59-73 8-10 72-90
Vidden D
Dowfume W-85** 4.5-6.0 13-18 1.5-2.0 13-18
Soilbrom 85**
Fumazone 86
Nemagon 12.1 1.5-2.0 4.4-5.9 .75-1.0 6.6-8.8
OXY BBC12
Nemagon 8.6 2.1-2.8 6.2-8.2 1.0-1.4 8.8-12.3
Telone 15-20 44-59 6-8 54-72


*See above, Explanation of Rates.
**Use on lima beans only.
Important Nematode Pests: Sand-Sting, root-knot,
Muck-Root-knot nematodes.


awl, & stubby-root nematodes.














Nematicide**

D-D
Vidden D
Dowfume W-85
Soilbrom 85
Fumazone 86


OXY
Nem

Telo


CARROTS*

Overall
Fl oz/chisel
per 1000
Gal/Acre linear ft

20-25 59-73

4.5-6.0 13-18


Row
Fl oz/chisel
per 1000
Gal/Acre linear ft

8-10 72-90

1.5-2.0 13-18


iagon 12.1 1.5-2.0 4.4-5.9 .75-1.0 6.6-8.8
r BBC 12
lagon 8.6 2.1-2.8 6.2-8.2 1.0-1.4 8.8-12.3
ne 15-20 44-59 6-8 54-72

*Summer flooding and drying is a control method. (See page 58 Flooding and
Fallowing.) Early fall crops planted in muck soils not flooded are frequently hurt
severely.
**See page 63, Explanation of Rates.
Important Nematode Pests: Sand-Root-knot and sting nematodes. Muck-Root-knot
nematodes.


CELERY*


Overall Row
Fl oz/chisel Fl oz/chisel
per 1000 per 1000
Nematicide** Gal/Acre linear ft Gal/Acre linear ft

D-D 20-25 59-73 8-10 72-90
Vidden D
Fumazone 86 1.5-2.0 4.4-5.9 .75-1.0 6.6-8.8
Nemagon 12.1
Nemagon 8.6 2.1-2.8 6.2-8.2 1.0-1.4 8.8-12.3
Telone 15-20 44-59 6-8 54-72


*Flooding and drying is a control method. (See page 58, Flooding and Fallowing).
**See page 63, Explanation of Rates.
Important Nematode Pests: Sand-Sting, root-knot, stubby-root and awl
nematodes. Muck-Root-knot nematodes.








CORN, SWEET

Overall Row
Fl oz/chisel Fl oz/chisel
per 1000 per 1000
Nematicide* Gal/Acre linear ft Gal/Acre linear ft

D-D 20-25 59-73 8-10 72-90
Vidden D
Dowfume W-85 4.5-6.0 13-18 1.5-2.0 13-18
Soilbrom 85
Telone 15-20 44-59 6-8 54-72

Rate/12-15 inch
lbs/1000 band/1000
lbs/Acre sq ft Ibs/Acre linear ft


Mocap 10 G** 60 1.5 15-20 1.2-1.5 lb
Dasanit 15 G 13.5 14.5 oz

*See page 63, Explanation of Rates.
**Do not use as a seed furrow treatment. Use the low rate for row treatment only
where the sting nematode is the major nematode problem.
Important Nematode Pests: Sand-Sting, stubby-root, awl, root-knot, root-lesion, and
lance nematodes. Muck-(Belle Glade), Stubby-root, spiral, stunt and root-knot
nematodes.




CRUCIFERS-BROCCOLI, CABBAGE, CAULI-
FLOWER, COLLARDS, MUSTARDS,
RUTABAGAS, TURNIPS, and RADISHES*

Overall Row
Fl oz/chisel Fl oz/chisel
per 1000 per 1000
Nematicide** Gal/Acre linear ft Gal/Acre linear ft

D-D 20-25 59-73 8-10 72-90
Vidden D
Dowfume W-85*** 4.5-6.0 13-18 1.5-2.0 13-18
Soilbrom 85***
Fumazone 86****
Nemagon 12.1**** 1.5-2.0 4.4-5.9 .75-1.0 6.6-8.8
OXY BBC 12****
Nemagon 8.6**** 2.1-2.8 6.2-8.2 1.0-1.4 8.8-12.3
Telone 15-20 44-59 6-8 54-72









CRUCIFERS (Continued)

lbs/15 inch
lbs/1000 band/1000
lbs/Acre sq ft lbs/Acre linear ft

Mocap 10 G***** 50 1.2 20 1.2

*Radishes-Root-knot nematodes occasionally cause slight root malformation, how-
ever, the rapid maturation of this crop results in escape of most injury.
**See page 63, Explanation of Rates.
***Use on broccoli and cauliflower only .
****Use on broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, radishes and turnips only.
*****Use on cabbage only. Do not use as a seed furrow treatment. Florida only.
Important Nematode Pests: Sand-Sting, root-knot, stubby-root, awl and cyst
(cabbage) nematodes.

CUCURBITS-CANTALOUPE, CUCUMBER,
SQUASH and WATERMELON
Overall Row
Fl oz/chisel Fl oz/chisel
per 1000 per 1000
Nematicide* Gal/Acre linear ft Gal/Acre linear ft

D-D 20-25 59-73 8-10 72-90
Vidden D
Dowfume W-85 4.5-6.0 13-18 1.5-2.0 13-18
Soilbrom 85
Fumazone 86
Nemaron 12.1 1.5-2.0 4.4-5.9 .75-1.0 6.6-8.8
OXY BBC 12
Nemagon 8.6 2.1-2.8 6.2-8.2 1.0-1.4 8.8-12.3
Telone 15-20 44-59 6-8 54-72

**See page 63, Explanation of Rates.
Important Nematode Pests: Sand-Root-knot and sting nematodes.

EGGPLANT, ENDIVE, LETTUCE*, OKRA, ONIONS,
PEAS, PEPPER and SPINACH

Overall Row
FI oz/chisel Fl oz/chisel
per 1000 per 1000
Nematicide** Gal/Acre linear ft Gal/Acre linear ft


D-D
Vidden D


20-25


Dowfume W-85*** 4.5-6.0
Soilbrom 85***


59-73

13-18


8-10

1.5-2.0


72-90

13-18









EGGPLANT, ENDIVE, LETTUCE*, OKRA,
ONIONS, PEAS, PEPPERS and SPINACH
(Continued)
Overall Row
Fl oz/chisel Fl oz/chisel
per 1000 per 1000
Nematicide** Gal/Acre linear ft Gal/Acre linear ft
Fumazone 86****
Nemagon 12.1**** 1.5-2.0 4.4-5.9 .75-1.0 6.6-8.8
OXY BBC 12****
Nemagon 8.6**** 2.1-2.8 6.2-8.2 1.0-1.4 8.8-12.3
Telone 15-20 44-59 6-8 54-72

*Lettuce is mostly grown in cooler months when nematodes are less active.
**See page 63, Explanation of Rates.
***Use on eggplant, lettuce, okra, and pepper only.
****Use on eggplant, endive, lettuce, okra, and direct seeded pepper (other than
Bell peppers) only. On pepper transplants (other than Bell peppers) apply
NEMAGON 12.1 or NEMAGON 8.6 preplant overall at the rate of 1.0 or 1.5 gal./acre,
respectively and wait 2 weeks before planting. BBC and FUMAZONE are not labeled
on pepper.
Important Nematode Pests: Sand-Sting, root-knot, stubby-root and awl
nematodes. Muck-Root-knot nematodes.


POTATOES*

Overall Row
Fl oz/chisel Fl oz/chisel
per 1000 per 1000
Nematicide** Gal/Acre linear ft Gal/Acre linear ft
D-D 20-25 59-73 8-10 72-90
Vidden D
Telone 15-20 44-59 6-8 54-72


lbs/12 inch
band/1000
lbs/Acre linear ft

MOCAP 10 G*** 30 2.1

*Crop Rotation-Many of the potato fields which have the heaviest infestations of
nematodes have been cropped annually to potatoes for many years. The cover crops
commonly grown in potato fields are very susceptible to nematodes and help in-
crease their numbers. Cabbage is not a good crop to rotate with potatoes because it
is susceptible to each of the nematodes commonly found in potato soils. Stubby-
root nematodes transmit the virus which causes corky ringspot disease (CRS).
CRS can be effectively controlled through use'of the resistant variety, "Pungo". Soil
fumigation has not effectively controlled CRS under Florida growing conditions.
*See page 63, Explanation of Rates.
***Do not use as a seed furrow treatment. Florida only.
Important Nematode Pests: Sand-Root-knot, sting, stubby-root, stunt and awl
nematodes.








POTATOES, SWEET


Nematicide*

D-D
Vidden D
Dowfume W-85
Soilbrom 85
Telone


Gal/Acre

20-25

4.5-6.0

15-20


Overall
Fl oz/chisel
per 1000
linear ft

59-73

13-18

44-59


Row
Fl oz/chisel
per 1000
Gal/Acre linear ft

8-10 72-90

1.5-2.0 13-18

6-8 54-72

lbs/12-15 inch


lbs/1000 band/1000
lbs/Acre sq ft lbs/Acre linear ft

Mocap 10 G 80 1.8 40 3.3

**See page 63, Explanation of Rates.
Important Nematode Pests: Sand-Root-knot nematodes.






STRAWBERRIES


Overall Row
Fl oz/chisel FI oz/chisel
per 1000 per 1000
Nematicide* Gal/Acre linear ft Gal/Acre linear ft
D-D 20-25 59-73 8-10 72-90
Vidden D
Dowfume W-85 4.5-6.0 13-18 1.5-2.0 13-18
Soilbrom 85
Fumazone 86**
Nemagon 12.1** 2.0 5.9 1.0 8.8
OXY BBC 12**
Nemagon 8.6 3.0 8.8 1.5 13.2
Telone 15-20 44-59 6-8 54-72


**See page 63, Explanation of Rates.
**Where FUMAZONE, NEMAGON, or BBC are used, allow at least 55 days be-
tween treatment and harvest.
Important Nematode Pests: Sand-Sting, root-knot, root lesion, dagger and bud and
leaf nematodes.

68


POTATOES, SWEET







TOMATOES


Overall Row
Fl oz/chisel Fl oz/chisel
per 1000 per 1000
Nematicide* Gal/Acre linear ft Gal/Acre linear ft
D-D 20-25 59-73 8-10 72-90
Vidden D
Dowfume W-85 4.5-6.0 13-18 1.5-2.0 13-18
Soilbrom 85
Fumazone 86**
Nemagon 12.1** 1-2 2.9-5.9 0.5-1.5 4.4-13.2
OXY BBC 12**
Nemagon 8.6*** 1.5-3.0 5.9-7.3 1.0-2.0 8.8-17.6
Telone 15-20 44-59 6-8 54-72

lbs/12-inch
lbs/1000 band/1000
lbs/Acre sq ft lbs/Acre linear ft

Dasanit 15 G 66.7-133 1.5-3.0 22.2-44.3 1.5-3.0

*See page 63, Explanation of Rates.
**Use 1.0 gal per acre overall for transplants and wait 2 weeks before planting.
***Use 1.5 gal per acre overall for transplants and wait 2 weeks before planting.
Important Nematode Pests: Sand-Root-knot, stubby-root, awl and sting nematodes.







FIELD GROWN VEGETABLES

Chemicals effective in controlling nematodes, certain soil-
borne diseases, insects and weeds are called multi-purpose soil
fumigants; whereas, chemicals used only to control nematodes
are called nematicides. These two chemical groups vary in their
effectiveness against nematodes and other soil-borne pests. Con-
sequently, it is necessary for a grower to recognize and evaluate
the relative importance of nematodes, soil-borne diseases, insects
and weeds before choosing one of these materials. If nematodes
are the primary problem, choose a nematicide (soil fumigant or
non-fumigant) ; however, if control of other soil-borne pests is
also desired, choose a multipurpose soil fumigant. (See Disease
and Insect Sections for additional information.)








MULTI-PURPOSE SOIL FUMIGANTS


Overall Row
Rate/chisel Rate/chisel
per 1000 per 1000
Fumigant* Rate/Acre linear ft Rate/Acre rate/Acre
Chloropicrin** 35-46 gal 103-135 fl oz 12-15 gal 103-135 fl oz
(Picfume)
(Chlor-O-Pic)
Dowfume 350 lbs 8.0 Ibs 117 lbs 8.0 lbs
MC-33***
Terr-O-Gas 67***
Vapam**** 40-60 gal 50-74 fl oz 6-8 gal 50-74 fl oz
Vorlex 30-35 gal 60-70 fl oz 7-8 gal 60-70 fl oz


*See page 63, Explanation of Rates.
**Use the high rate in fields heavily infested with nematodes. An additional
7-10 day waiting period is generally necessary when the high rate is used.
***Use only on strawberries and tomatoes.
***Do not use in fields known to have high soil-borne disease stress.


SEEDBED TREATMENT FOR PRODUCTION
OF VEGETABLE TRANSPLANTS

Fumigant* Rate Directions


Methyl Bromide
(Brom-O-
Gas)**
(Dowfume
MC-2)**


(Dowfume
MC-33)**
(Terr-O-Gas
67)**
Chloropicrin
(Chlor-O-Pic)
(Picfume)


872 lbs/Acre
(24 lbs/1200 sq ft)


350 lbs/Acre
(9.6 lbs/1200 sq ft)


35-46 gal/Acre
(1-1.3 gal/1200 sq ft)


Use for production of ve-
getable transplants only,
or a strawberry plant bed
treatment. Application
method: Inject to 6-8
inch depth with chisels
spaced 10-12 inches apart.
Cover with polyethylene.
Exposure period: 48-96
hrs. Aeration before plant-
ing: 2 to 10 days.
Same as above.



Application method: In-
ject to 6-8 inch depth with
chisels spaced 10-12 inches
apart or apply with hand-
gun. Press immediately
and cover with a polyethy-
lene or apply a water seal.
Exposure period: 24-
48 hrs.
Aeration before planting:
7 to 14 days.









SEEDBED TREATMENT
(Continued)

Fumigant* Rate Directions


Vapam (Inject)












Vapam (Drench)


Vorlex


74 gal/Acre
(2.0 gal/1200 sq ft)

100 gal/Acre
(2.8 gal/1200 sq ft)










100 gal/Acre
(2.8 gal/1200 sq ft)


34-40 gal/Acre
(1-1.1 gal/1200 sq ft)








50 gal/Acre
(1.4 gal/1200 sq ft)


Celery seedbeds.


Application method: In-
ject to 6-inch depth with
chisels spaced 5 inches
apart. Following applica-
tion, compact the soil sur-
face and cover with
polyethylene or seal with
light watering to help
prevent gas escape.
Exposure period: 7 days.
Aeration before planting:
21 days.


Application method:
Drench on material in
150-250 gals of water.
Cover with polyethylene
or seal with light water-
ing to help prevent gas
escape.
Exposure period: 7 days.
Aeration before planting:
21 days.

Application method: In-
ject to 6-8 inch depth
with chisels spaced 6-8
inches apart. Press and
cover with polyethylene.
Exposure period: 7 days.
Aeration before planting:
Aerate by shallow
cultivation and wait about
4 weeks before planting.

Organic (peat and muck)
soils.


*Effective in controlling nematodes, certain soil-borne diseases, insects and weeds.
(See Disease and Insect sections for additional information).
**Where used for nematode control at the rates listed below, it will also control
certain soil-borne diseases, insects and weeds.








COMMON, CHEMICAL AND TRADE NAMES OF
CERTAIN NEMATICIDES


The following list of nematicides gives
name, (2) the chemical name or mixtures, and
mon trade names used in this publication.


(1) the common
(3) the most com-


Chemical Name
Common Name (or mixtures in parenthesis) Trade Name


methyl bromide
(MBR)


bromomethane


DBCP


ethylene
dibromide (EDB)
1,3-D
DD


DD-Mencs

fensulfothion

ethoprop

SMDC

chloropicrin


(MBR 98% & chloropicrin 2%)

(MBR 67% & chloropicrin 33%)

1,2 dibromo-3-chloropropane


1,2-dibromoethane


1,3-dichloropropene
1,3-dichloropropene & 1,2-
dichloropropane
(DD 80% & methyl
isothiocyanate 20%)
O,0-diethyl 0 [p- (methylsulfinyl)
phenyl] phosphorothioate
O-ethyl S,S-dipropyl
phosphorodithioate
sodium N-methyl-
dithiocarbamate
trichloronitromethane


Brom-O-Gas
Dowfume MC-2
Dowfume MC-33
Terr-O-Gas 67
Fumazone
Nernagon
Oxy BBC
Dowfume W-85
Soilbrom-85
Telone
D-D
Vidden D


Vorlex
Dasanit

Mocap

Vapam

Picfume
Chlor-O-Pic


Single copies free to residents of Florida. Bulk rates available upon
request. Please submit details on request to Chairman, Editorial
Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University
of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601.



This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$2,938.70, or 39 cents per copy to inform commercial vege-
table growers about insect, disease and nematode control.







SPRAY NOTES







SPRAY NOTES









POISON CONTROL CENTERS IN FLORIDA*
City Hospital
Apalachicola ......-.....-- .... George E. Weems Memorial Hospital
Bartow ........--..........- ...--...- ....... Polk County Hospital
Bardenton ...-....- .-................... Manatee Memorial Hospital
Daytona Beach ..---...--..------..--.... ...... Halifax District Hospital
Ft. Lauderdale .....-........ ...............- Broward General Hospital
Ft. Myers ........ .. ... ..-.... ... .......... Lee Memorial Hospital
Ft. Walton Beach -------........-. ---.. ..-. Ft. Walton Beach Hospital
Gainesville ---........-.............-- ....--- ...... Alachua General Hospital
Gainesville .-...-......----- ----..... J. Hillis Miller Health Center
Jacksonville ..--.........----------....----. St. Vincent's Medical Center
Key West ---.......-----........---......--.. Monroe General Hospital
Lakeland .....-.......... ---.....-- -....--. Lakeland General Hospital
Leesburg .-------..------......--.-------. Leesburg General Hospital
Melbourne .................-........ ....................... Brevard Hospital
Miami .....--........-...-.................... Jackson Memorial Hospital
Miami Beach --...--.....- ... Mt. Sinai Hospital of Greater Miami
Naples ......--------..-----.......-... Naples Community Hospital
Ocala ..---. ----.....-....... --..... ......- .... Munroe Memorial Hospital
Orlando ....----.......----....---------- Orlando Memorial Hospital
Panama City .....--------..-..-----. Memorial Hospital of Bay County
Pensacola ---.........--...... -- -----..... --........... Baptist Hospital
Plant City --....--...-..-.....-....--------- South Florida Baptist Hospital
Pompano Beach ..------....-- ...----..------ North Broward Hospital
Punta Gorda ....... .---.......---------........-........ Medical Center
Rockledge -------~.~....- --.. --.-------.... Wuesthoff Memorial Hospital
St. Petersburg ....~....--.....-... Bayfront Medical Center, Inc.
Sarasota ...---...........---- .........-.... Sarasota Memorial Hospital
Tallahassee --....-........-...-.---. Tallahassee Memorial Hospital
Tampa ..-----..-- --....... ------ .. ...----.. .. Tampa General Hospital
Titusville .--.................--. ...... Jess Parrish Memorial Hospital
West Palm Beach .............. ...-.......... Good Samaritan Hospital
Winter Haven ...............--.-...... Winter Haven Hospital, Inc.
*Poison Control Centers have been established at each of the above
hospitals to furnish prompt and up-to-date information, during the day or
night, on the symptoms and treatment of cases resulting from exposure to
poisons, including pesticides. When calling any of these hospitals, ask for
the POISON CONTROL CENTER.




























































9-7.5M-74





COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida
and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
Joe N. Busby, Dean


I nvriyo lrd




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