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Group Title: Circular - Florida Cooperative Extension Service ; 196 G
Title: Weed control guide for commercial vegetable production in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072510/00001
 Material Information
Title: Weed control guide for commercial vegetable production in Florida
Series Title: Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Physical Description: 34 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: William, R. D
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetables -- Weed control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Herbicides   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.D. William.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Circular (Florida Cooperative Extension Service) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072510
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 08851371

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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        Page 11
        Page 12
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        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
Full Text




HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





)ecember 1980


Weed Control Guide for Commercial


Vegetable Production in Florida

R. D. William


I i- 1*- : '

Florida Coo erative Erjlsl, S ice
Institute of Fo d and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesvill iri
John T. Woe te, Rean fo l~Een b t


-L I ---- --
_ ~ _91
---~---- --------- --~---------~


Circular 196 G











CONTENTS


Page Number
INTRODUCTION 3

DEFINITION OF TERMS 3

HERBICIDAL WEED CONTROL 4
Types of herbicides 4
Know your weeds 5
Apply herbicides correctly 5
Avoid herbicide drift and possible injury 6

HERBICIDE EQUIPMENT, CALIBRATION AND MAINTENANCE 6
Sprayers 6
Sprayer calibration 7
Herbicide formulations and calculations 8
Cleaning the sprayer 9
Handling herbicides carefully 10

EVALUATING RESULTS AND DIAGNOSING POSSIBLE INJURY 10

CONVERSION FACTORS FOR METRIC AND ENGLISH MEASURES 11

APPENDIX A: SOURCES OF ADDITIONAL
WEED CONTROL INFORMATION 12

APPENDIX B: LIST OF COMMON, TRADE AND
CHEMICAL NAMES OF HERBICIDES 13

APPENDIX C: SUGGESTED HERBICIDES FOR VEGETABLE CROPS 14
Beans & peas 14
Cole or crucifer crops 16
Cucurbit crops 17
Carrot & parsley 18
Celery 19
Lettuce, endive, escarole & spinach 21
Okra 22
Onion 23
Potatoes 24
Potato vine dessicants 25
Strawberries 26
Sweet corn 26
Sweet potato 30
Tomatoes, peppers & eggplant 30






WEED CONTROL GUIDE FOR COMMERCIAL
VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA'
INTRODUCTION
Weeds grow year-round in Florida, especially during the summer fallow
season when many vegetable fields lie idle. Weeds growing in fields often
hinder field preparation, vegetable planting operations, pesticide applica-
tion, and harvesting activities. Excessive weed growth during the crop
season increases production costs, and reduces crop yields and vegetable
quality. Weeds interfere with harvest, harbor crop pests, contaminate the
edible crop with weed seed, and compete for nutrients, water and
sunlight.
Efficient weed control requires a combination of crop and weed
management practices designed to suppress weed growth during the en-
tire year. Practices that suppress weed infestations include crop rotation,
planting cover crops during summer fallow, planting crops in close-
spaced rows and high plant populations, flooding during fallow periods,
plowing at different times of the year, mulching, cultivating, or applying
herbicides. Additional information describing year-round management of
certain weeds in vegetable cropping systems is available in other publica-
tions listed in Appendix A.
The use of herbicides to control weeds in commercial vegetable fields
requires certain skills, knowledge and equipment. This guide contains in-
formation about herbicides and proper application techniques for safe
and effective use in Florida. Decisions to list herbicides in this guide are
based on research conducted by IFAS personnel in various parts of
Florida and interpretation of herbicide labels. Additional literature and
product labels describing each chemical is available from the manufac-
turer or local farm supply dealer.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
General terms:
Weed a plant growing where it is not desired.
Weed control the process of limiting weed population or density so
that crops can be grown profitably or other production operations can be
conducted efficiently.
Herbicide a chemical used for inhibiting seed germination or plant
growth.
Selective herbicide a chemical that is more toxic to some plant
species than to others.
Volatile herbicide a chemical that evaporates when applied under
normal environmental conditions in the field.


'Previous title: Chemical Weed Control for Florida Vegetable Crops.






Rate the amount of an herbicide applied to a unit area. Generally
stated in pounds of active ingredient per acre (lbs. ai./acre) or pounds acid
equivalent per acre.
Spray drift the undesirable movement of airborne spray particles
from the intended target area.
Surfactant (surface active agent) a chemical mixed with pesticides
to emulsify, spread, wet, disperse or modify the interfaces between
liquids.

Application terms:
Broadcast uniform application over entire field.
Banded continuous application in a restricted area over, in, along, or
between crop rows.
Preplant or pretransplant application of an herbicide before the crop
is seeded or transplanted.
Preplant incorporated application and mechanical mixing of the
herbicide into 2 to 6 inches of soil prior to planting the crop.
Preemergence application of an herbicide prior to emergence of both
the crop and weeds.
Postemergence application of an herbicide after emergence of the
crop and weeds. Sometimes refers to application after crop emergence,
but before weeds emerge.
Posttransplant application of an herbicide after the crop is
transplanted. Can be over-the-top of transplants or directed.
Directed application a targeted application normally aimed at the
base of the plant or between crop rows to control weeds either pre- or
postemergence unless otherwise stated on the product label.
Directed, shielded application a targeted application between or
under shields that protect the crop from spray drift or accidental applica-
tion to crop leaves.
Layby application at time of last cultivation.


HERBICIDAL WEED CONTROL
Herbicides provide an effective and economic method of controlling
weeds when used as an integral part of a year-round weed control pro-
gram. Application of selective herbicides or the use of special application
techniques for less selective herbicides will inhibit or control weed
growth without injury to the crop. However, study this guide and other
literature thoroughly before applying herbicides in vegetable fields.
Types of herbicides Many herbicides registered for use in vegetables
are applied preemergence. These herbicides kill or stunt the growth of
germinating weed seedlings either by inhibiting root and shoot growth
during germination and emergence or by retarding photosynthesis im-
mediately after emergence. Weed seedlings treated with root and shoot
inhibitors often exhibit enlarged and stunted root tips and shoots.






Sometimes only a single tap root will allow the weed to survive, but
shallow cultivation will normally dislodge these weeds. Weed seedlings
treated preemergence with photosynthetic inhibitors will exhibit brown,
necrotic and drying cotyledons immediately after emergence. Larger
weeds treated with photosyntheic inhibitors exhibit yellow, chlorotic
veins or brown, necrotic interveins and drying leaves.
Soil moisture is required to activate herbicides applied to the soil sur-
face. Low-volatile herbicides may be applied to the soil surface, but re-
quire rainfall or overhead irrigation for activation. Herbicides that are
destroyed by sunlight require soil incorporation preplantt incorporated)
to minimize evaporation loss of the chemical. Proper soil incorporation at
recommended times and depths in Florida's sandy soils is essential.
Otherwise, the herbicide will be lost with shallow incorporation or diluted
by deep incorporation.
A few herbicides may be applied postemergence to the crop or weeds.
Contact herbicides "burn" or dessicate leaves and are less selective than
herbicides applied preemergence. Often, special shielded equipment is re-
quired to protect the crop from spray drift or accidental contact with crop
leaves. Surfactants are used to increase contact and movement of the her-
bicide into the leaf. Growth regulator herbicides interfere with normal
growth activities of plants. Injury symptoms normally appear on new
growth as strap-shaped leaves, twisted stems, and deformed fruit. Most
vegetable crops are extremely sensitive to this group of herbicides.
Know your weeds Accurate weed identification is essential to select
the most effective herbicides for use in a year-round management pro-
gram. Most herbicides registered for use in vegetables will control certain
annual weed species during the early stages of the weed life-cycle, but will
not control most perennial weeds or a few resistant annual species. These
resistant weeds must be controlled prior to planting most vegetable
crops or suppressed during the crop season. For more information about
controlling these weeds, read the publications listed in Appendix A.
Identify and map the location of common weeds that infest your fields.
Purchase or request copies of the USDA and Extension publications
about weed identification listed in Appendix A. Also, ask your pesticide
dealer for complimentary weed identification pamphlets available from
several companies. Then, design a weed control program for your specific
weed infestations and cropping system.
Apply herbicides correctly The proper use of pesticides is very im-
portant for production of quality vegetable crops. Both the grower and
applicator must READ AND UNDERSTAND EACH HERBICIDE
LABEL before application to vegetable crops. Only a very small amount
of error in application can be tolerated or crop injury and poor weed con-
trol may result. Herbicides must be applied uniformly as described on the
product label with proper equipment at exactly the correct rate and the
proper time. To activate soil applied herbicides, (1) apply to moist soil, (2)
incorporate uniformly to desired depth mechanically or (3) moisten with






overhead irrigation. Following application, cultivate only as needed or
specified on the product label to reduce mixing untreated soil containing
viable weed seeds with the treated soil.
Growers are encouraged to become thoroughly acquainted on a trial
basis with the use of new herbicides or application techniques before use
on their entire acreage. Be familiar with all directions, precautions, or
restrictions listed on the label such as specific application or incorpora-
tion methods, herbicide rates for different soil types or organic matter
contents, or reapplication and replanting limitations for residual herbi-
cides.
Avoid herbicide drift and possible injury Herbicide spray, vapor
drift, or missapplications to non-target areas can injure susceptible
crops. Applications of certain low-volatile, contact-type herbicides may
be directed towards the base of the crop or between crop rows. Often,
spray shields are required to protect crop stems and leaves from herbi-
cide spray.
Avoid applications of volatile, growth-regulator herbicides such as
2,4-D in or near vegetable fields. Drift hazards from application of these
herbicides to other crops can be minimized by applying the chemical
under calm wind conditions, using anti-drift spray additives or invert
emulsions,* increasing droplet sizes by spraying under low pressures
with large orifice nozzles, and selecting low-volatile formulations.
Sometimes selective herbicides may vaporize and injure crops when
temperatures remain high for several days. Cloudy weather may reduce
the selectivity of an herbicide by reducing the crops ability to breakdown
or detoxify the chemical. Always read the herbicide label to note special
weather conditions that may cause crop injury or reduce the effectiveness
of an herbicide.
Avoid herbicide application to water in irrigation or drainage ditches.
Always contain run-off water from the herbicide mixing and cleaning
area to reduce possible contamination of the groundwater or the environ-
ment.

HERBICIDE EQUIPMENT, CALIBRATION AND MAINTENANCE
Sprayers Herbicides must be applied uniformly and accurately with
properly calibrated ground or aerial equipment. Ground sprayers
equipped with a low pressure piston pump and either mechanical or
bypass agitation will provide efficient and reliable application equipment
for most herbicides. The piston pump and agitators insure complete
suspension of wettable powder formulations. Adjustable spray booms,
both in distance between nozzles and height, will provide flexibility for
broadcast or band application of herbicides to crops planted at various
row spacings. Flat-fan nozzles with orifice angles of 73, 80, 95 or 110

*Invert emulsions are water-in-oil mixtures in which every spray droplet is surrounded by
oil instead of water.






degrees and 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 or 0.6 gallons per minute delivery rates,
designated as Spraying Systems 8004 or Delvan LF4, are commonly
used to apply herbicides evenly and accurately over the field. Large
orifice sizes of 0.4 and 0.6 will reduce drift by forming larger droplets, but
require more water for application per acre. Use 50-mesh screens at each
nozzle and an "in-line" strainer to avoid nozzle plugging with wettable
powder formulations. Adjust the height and distance between nozzles to
provide complete and uniform overlap of the spray pattern. For band ap-
plications, use "even spray" nozzles designated as Spraying Systems
8004E or Delvan LE4 to obtain an even application of herbicide across
the entire width of the band. Band treatments often are applied over the
crop row followed by cultivation between rows.
Aerial application of herbicides is limited to extensive acreages where
aircraft can maneuver properly. Although aerial application is much
faster, both the grower and applicator must carefully select the herbicide,
crop or field situation, and application conditions to minimize risk of non-
target crop injury or environmental contamination.
Equipment used to apply growth-regulator type herbicides such as
2,4-D should NEVER be used to apply other pesticides to sensitive crops
such as vegetables. These crops can be injured at extremely low concen-
trations of only a few parts per million (ppm) for some growth-regulator
herbicides. In some cases, vegetables have been injured by simply
moving a nozzle screen from one sprayer to another.
Sprayer calibration Uniform and accurate application of herbicides
requires precise calibration of your equipment to determine the amount
of spray being applied per acre. Before and after each use, clean each noz-
zle assembly and adjust the boom and nozzles to provide a uniform spray
pattern. Verify that each nozzle is delivering exactly the same amount of
spray. Calibrate the sprayer at regular and frequent intervals because
nozzle orifices wear or become larger, thereby increasing the delivery
rate. Replace worn nozzles and never use a pocket knife or sharp instru-
ment to clean an orifice.
Two simple methods that require only a few mathematical calculations
can be used to calibrate your sprayer. Before entering the field, set the
pressure and mark the throttle setting for uniform speed and application
of herbicides. Maintain these settings unless you recalibrate.
The first method requires that you fill the tank with water and ac-
curately measure by refilling the amount sprayed over a standard
distance of 660 feet in the field. Measure the width of the actual area
sprayed. For band applications, add the width of each band to determine
the total width actually sprayed. Then, calculate the application rate in
gallons per acre (GPA) using this formula:


Gallons of water applied x 66
GPA = ih m d i
Spray width measured in feet






Example 1. A grower needed 12 gallons of water to refill the spray tank after applica-
tion in a distance of 660 feet and a width of 24 feet. In another field, this grower applied 2
gallons of water in 8 bands, each 9 inches (0.75 feet) wide. Calculate as follows:
Broadcast application: Band application:
12 gal. x 66 2 gal. x 66
--- = 33 GPA ---- = 22 GPA
24 feet 0.75 ft. x 8 bands

The second calibration method involves the direct measurement of
spray volume in ounces delivered from a single nozzle when applied to
1/128th of an acre or 340 square feet (ft.2). This method requires different
distances or row lengths depending on the spray width of a single nozzle
to obtain 1/128th of an acre. Either calculate the distance using the follow-
ing formula or determine the course length from a standard table printed
in Extension Agricultural Engineering Fact Sheet, AE-5:

340 ft.'
Distance or row length (ft.) =
Spray width of one nozzle (ft.)


Mark the distance in a field. Collect and measure in ounces the amount
of spray from a single nozzle. The number of ounces of water collected
from a single nozzle will equal the rate of application in gallons per acre
(GPA).



Example 2. A grower measured a 30-inch (2.5 ft.) nozzle spacing and calculated a course
length of 136 feet. While spraying the measured distance in the field, 42 ounces of water
were collected from a single nozzle which equals a delivery rate of 42 gallons per acre. For a
banded treatment, the delivery rate would be the same for the actual area sprayed.

Herbicide formulations and calculations Herbicides are formulated
as soluble powders, wettable powders (WP), flowables or liquids (F, L, or
LC), emulsifiable concentrates (EC), and granules (G). Suggested herbi-
cide rates listed in this guide are stated in pounds of active ingredient per
acre (lbs. ai./acre) to avoid confusion between similar products which
might be formulated differently. Rates printed on herbicide labels nor-
mally are stated in the amount of product required per acre. To calculate
the amount of product from rates listed in lbs. ai./acre, use the following
formulas and calculations:

Formulated as percent:
Suggested rate (2 lbs. ai./acre)
= 2.5 lbs. product/acre
Percent ai. (80%)

Formulated as amount per gallon:
Suggested rate (2 lbs. ai./acre)
= 0.5 gal. product/acre
Pounds ai./gallon (4 lbs./gal.)






With band applications over rows or in middles, purchase the amount
of herbicide needed for only the treated area rather than the entire field
acreage. For example, row middles for vegetables grown on full-bed
plastic mulch often represent only 1/3 to V2 of the total land area in the
field. Therefore, the total amount of herbicide applied per acre will be pro-
portionally less.
Cleaning the sprayer With the exception of sprayers used for ap-
plication of growth-regulator herbicides, most herbicide sprayers that
have been properly cleaned and maintained can be used for a variety of
weed control situations. Before each use, rinse the sprayer thoroughly
and adjust or clean nozzle assemblies or other parts. Check the entire
sprayer frequently during operation and verify uniform application of
herbicides.
Following each application, thoroughly wash the entire sprayer with
clean water, both inside and outside. Clean strainer and nozzle assemblies
of deposits of wettable powders or other chemicals that can cause plug-
ging and non-uniform application. Rinse by pumping clean water through
the entire sprayer. Also, check the herbicide label to determine if there
are special cleaning procedures recommended by the manufacturer. To
avoid unnecessary cleaning and to reduce corrosion, never leave pesticide
spray solutions in the tank overnight.
Occasionally, a thorough cleaning with manufactured cleaning agents
may be desired. Add one of the following cleaning agents to the specified
amount of water and agitate thoroughly. Except for the lye solution
which can be corrosive, allow these cleaning agents to stand in the
sprayer for at least 2 hours. Pump the solutions through the boom and
nozzles and rinse thoroughly with water.

A. To clean sprayers with soluble, emulsifiable, or suspension formula-
tions, use one of the following in 100 gallons of water:
(1) 1 to 2 qts. soap or detergent
(2) 1 gallon of household ammonia
(3) 5 lbs. sodium carbonate (sal soda)
(4) 2 Ibs. sodium hydroxide (lye)
(5) 1 lb. activated charcoal circulated through sprayer to absorb
organic chemicals and expel in rinse water.

B. To clean oil soluble formulations, use one of the following in 95
gallons of water:
(1) 2 lbs. sodium hydroxide (lye)
(2) 5 lbs. sodium carbonate (sal soda), plus 5 gallons of kerosene
and 1 lb. of detergent.

C. To clean sprayers with copper salts, use 1 gallon of vinegar in 100
gallons of water before applying dinoseb herbicide.






Handling herbicides carefully Keep all herbicides in the original con-
tainer or package. Store herbicides in a safe, dry location, separate from
other pesticides or fertilizers. Clean an3 rinse liquid pesticides from con-
tainers with water and add to spray tank. Throw away, burn, or bury
packages made of paper products. Follow label instructions for disposal
of metal containers and other pesticide packages. Since label changes oc-
cur regularly, read the entire herbicide label before each use.


EVALUATING RESULTS AND DIAGNOSING POSSIBLE PROBLEMS
Herbicides control plant growth in many ways, and therefore, require
different periods of time before weeds are killed. For example, a contact
herbicide such as paraquat may require only a few hours to begin show-
ing injury symptoms, whereas several days or a couple of weeks may be
needed to assess the efficacy of soil applied herbicides. Read the label and
learn about the characteristics of each herbicide before reaching a hasty
conclusion about the effectiveness of the herbicide or possible crop in-
jury.
Herbicide injury symptoms can often be recognized by knowing the
way herbicides control plant growth. Brief descriptions of control symp-
toms were included in a previous section of this guide. However, careful
analysis of crop or weed symptoms or general injury patterns are
sometimes needed in the field to separate possible herbicide injury from
other factors such as virus infections, soluble salt injury, faulty
nematicide application, or pesticide spray injury. For more information
about diagnosing crop injuries and herbicide symptoms, obtain copies
and read the publications listed in Appendix A.





Author: R. D. William, Assistant Professor and Extension Vegetable Specialist.
Acknowledgements: Herbicide suggestions contained in this guide are based on label
registrations and the concerted research efforts of W. T. Scudder, S. J. Locascio, D. S.
Burgis, J. R. Shumaker, S. R. Kostewicz, and G. W. Elmstrom, faculty of the Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), University of Florida. Contributions of the IFAS
faculty are sincerely appreciated and acknowledged.

Cover illustration by Laura A. Walsh.



The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of pro-
viding specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the products
named and does not signify that they are approved to the exclusion of others
of suitable composition.






CONVERSION FACTORS FOR METRIC AND ENGLISH MEASURES


Metric to English


Length


centimeter (cm) = 0.394 inch
meter (m) = 3.281 feet
meter (m) = 1.094 yard
kilometer (km) = 0.621 mile


gram (g) = 0.035 ounce
kilogram (kg) = 2.205 pound


Weight


English to Metric


inch (in) = 2.54 cm
foot (ft) = 0.305 m
yard (yd)= 0.914 m
mile (mi) = 1.609 km


ounce (oz) = 28.35 g
pound (lb) = 453.59 g


Volume (liquid)


milliliter (ml) = 0.035 fluid ounce
liter (L) = 0.220 gallon

Area
square meter (m2) = 10.764 square feet
hectare (ha) = 2.471 acre


fluid ounce (fl oz) = 28.35 ml
gallon (gal) = 4.546 L


square feet (ft2) = 0.093 m2
acre (A) = 0.405 ha


Amount/Acre


kg/ha = 0.892 lb/A
L/ha = 0.089 gal/A
ml/100L = 0.16 fl oz/100 gal


lb/A = 1.12 kg/ha
gal/A = 11.21 L/ha
fl oz/100 gal = 6.24 ml/100L


Speed


km/hr = 0.621 mph
m/sec = 3.28 ft/sec


mph = 1.609 km/hr
ft/sec = 0.305 m/sec






APPENDIX A.
SOURCES OF ADDITIONAL WEED CONTROL INFORMATION1
Weed Identification
1. USDA Agricultural Handbook No. 366, "Selected Weeds of the
United States", Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.
2. Georgia or Florida Coop. Ext. Service, "Weeds of the Southern
United States".
3. Florida Coop. Ext. Circ. 331, "Florida Weeds Part I".
4. Florida Coop. Ext. Circ. 419, "Florida Weeds Part II".
5. Georgia or Florida Coop. Ext. Service, "Common Weed Seedlings of
the United States and Canada".

Weed management and vegetables
1. Florida Ext. Veg. Crops Fact Sheet VC-12, "Nutsedge Suppression
in Commercial Vegetables".
2. Florida Ext. Veg. Crops Fact Sheet VC-13, "Perennial Grass Con-
trol in Commercial Vegetables".
3. Florida Ext. Veg. Crops Fact Sheet VC-14, "Weed Control for Full-
Bed Mulched Vegetables".
4. Florida Ext. Veg. Crops Fact Sheet VC-16, "Weed Control in
Market Vegetable Gardens".
5. Florida Ext. Veg. Fact Sheet VC-17, "Herbicidal Control of Florida
Weed Species".

Sprayer calibration and metrics
1. Florida Coop. Ext. Circ. 275, "Calibration of Pesticide
Applicators".
2. Florida Ext. Agr. Engineering Fact Sheet AE-5, "The 1/128th of an
Acre Sprayer Calibration Method".
3. Florida Ext. Agr. Engineering Fact Sheet AE-7, "Using the Metric
System".

Herbicide injury and diagnosis
1. Coop. Ext. Serv. of North Carolina State University, "Herbicide In-
jury Symptoms and Diagnosis", at Raleigh, N.C. 27607.
2. Coop. Ext. Serv. of Michigan State University E-809, "Diagnosis
and Prevention of Herbicide Injury", at East Lansing, MI 48824.

1 Copies of Florida Cooperative Extension Service publications listed above can
be obtained from your local County Extension Office. Other publications can be
purchased by requesting copies from the respective agencies.







APPENDIX B. LIST OF COMMON, TRADE,
AND CHEMICAL NAMES OF HERBICIDES

Common Name Trade Name Chemical Name


Alachlor Lasso


Ametryn

Atrazine

Benefin

Bensulide


Bentazon

Butylate
CDAA
CDEC
Chloramben
Chlorpropham
DCPA
Dinitramine

Dinoseb
Diphenamid
Endothall

EPTC
Glyphosate
Linuron

Metribuzin

Napropamide

Naptalam
Nitrofen*, **
Paraquat*
Pebulate
Profluralin

Prometryn

Pronamide*

Propachlor
Simazine
Trifluralin

Vernolate
2,4-D


Evik

Several brands

Balan

Prefar


Basagran

Sutan+
Randox
Vegedex
Amiben
Furloe
Dacthal
Cobex

Several brands
Enide
Des-I-Cate

Eptam, Eradicane
Roundup
Lorox

Lexone & Sencor

Devrinol

Alanap
Tok
Paraquat CL
Tillam
Tolban

Caparol

Kerb

Ramrod, Bexton
Several brands
Treflan

Vernam
Several brands


2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl)-
acetanilide
2-(ethylamino)-4-(isopropylamino)-6-
(methylthio)-s-triazine
2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropyl-
amino)-s-triazine
N-butyl-N-ethyl-a,a,a-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-
p-toluidine
O,O-diisopropyl phosphorodithioate
S-ester with N-(2-mercaptoethyl)ben-
zenesulfonamide
3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-
4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide
S-ethyl diisobutylthiocarbamate
N,N-diallyl-2-chloroacetamide
2-chlorallyl diethyldithiocarbamate
3-amino-2,5-dichlorobenzoic acid
iospropyl m-chlorocarbanilate
dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate
N',N4-diethyl-a,a,a-trifluoro-3,5-dini-
trotoluene-2,4-diamine
2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol
N,N-dimethyl-2,2-diphenylacetamide
7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarb-
oxylic acid
S-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate
N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine
3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-l-methoxy-1-
methylurea
4-amino-6-tert-butyl-3-(methylthio)-as-
triazin-5(4H)-one
2-(a-naphthoxyl)-N,N-diethylpropion-
amide
N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid
2,4-dichlorophenyl p-nitrophenyl ether
1,1 '-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium ion
S-propyl butylethylthiocarbamate
N-(cyclopropylmethyl)a,a,a-trifluoro-
2,6-dinitro-N-propyl-p-toluidine
2,4-bis(isopropylamino)-6-methylthio-s-
triazine
3,5-dichloro(N-1,1-dimethyl-2-propynyl)-
benzamide
2-chloro-N-isopropylacetanilide
2-chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine
a,a,a-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-p-
toluidine
S-propyl dipropylthiocarbamate
(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid


*Restricted use pesticides. Requires a "Restricted Pesticide Applicators License"
for purchase and application.
**Voluntarily removed from market at time of printing.
13





APPENDIX C: SUGGESTED HERBICIDES FOR VEGETABLE CROPS
NOTE: Herbicides must be applied at exactly the correct rate and time to selectively control weed growth in a vegetable crop. Obtain more
consistent results by reading the herbicide label and other information about the proper application and timing of each herbicide. To
avoid confusion between commercial formulations, suggested rates listed in this guide are stated as pounds active ingredient per acre
(lbs. ai./acre) unless otherwise indicated. Apply lower rates for sandy and rockland soils with low organic matter and clay contents.
Herbicide rates listed in parenthesis ( ) are suggested for trial purposes only. Read each herbicide label for specific weeds controlled


and compare the information presented in Florida Coop. Ext. Service Fact Sheet, VC-17.

Rate (lbs. ai./acre)
Time of Sandy,
Labelled application Loam
Crops Herbicide crops to crop & Rockland Muck Remarks and Limitations
BEANS & PEAS CDAA Bush, pole and Preemergence 4.0 Controls germinating annuals, es-


Bush, pole &
lima beans;
English peas &
southern peas


(Randox)


lima beans


pecially grasses. Apply to moist
soil.


CDEC Bush, pole and Preemergence 4.0 4.0 Controls germinating annuals, es-
(Vegedex) lima beans to to pecially broadleaf weeds. Over-
6.0 6.0 head irrigate after application.
Chloramben Lima beans Preplant incor- (2.0 Controls germinating annuals.
(Amiben) porated or pre- to Incorporate 2 to 4 inches or over-
emergence 4.0) head irrigate.
Dinoseb Bush, pole and Before crop Controls small emerged annuals
(Several lima beans and emerges or in 3.0 6.0 and some perennial weeds. Apply
products) English peas early "crook" to moist soil just prior to crop
stage emergence.
DCPA Bush, pole and Preemergence 8.0 Controls germinating annuals.


(Dacthal)


lima beans and
southern peas


- Incorporate 1 to 2 inches or over-
head irrigate. Note label precau-
cautions of replanting non-regis-
tered crops within 8 months.




EPTC
(Eptam)


Bush and pole beans
including Ramano
types


Preplant incor-
porated or at
layby


Trifluralin Bush, pole and lima Preplant incor- 0.5 Controls germinating annuals, es-
(Treflan) beans; English peas porated to pecially grasses. Incorporate 4
and southern peas 0.75 inches or less within 8 hours.
Results in Florida are erratic on
soils with low organic matter and
clay contents. Note label precau-
tions of planting non-registered
crops within 5 months.
Profluralin Bush, pole and lima Preplant incor- (0.5 Controls germinating annuals, es-
(Tolban) beans and southern porated to pecially grasses. Incorporate 4 to
peas 0.75) 6 inches within 4 hours. Note
label precautions of planting non-
registered crops.
Dinitramine English peas Preplant incor- (0.3 Controls germinating annuals. In-
(Cobex) porated to corporate 1.5 to 2.0 inches within
0.5) 24 hours.
Bentazon Lima beans Early post- (0.75 Controls small emerged broadleaf
(Basagran) emergence to weeds. Apply when 1 to 2 trifo-
1.0) late lima bean leaves have ex-
panded.
Glyphosate Edible beans and Prior to field (1.0) (1.0) Controls rapidly growing weeds
(Roundup) English peas preparation to to including some perennial weeds.
2.0 2.0 Apply several weeks prior to field
preparation. Adjust rates de-
pending on weeds to be con-
trolled. Note label restrictions of
replanting non-registered crops
within 12 months.


Controls germinating annuals
- and suppresses nutsedge and
other perennial weeds. Incorpor-
ate in same operation to reduce
evaporation loss. Direct layby ap-
plications between rows and in-
corporate.






APPENDIX C: SUGGESTED HERBICIDES FOR VEGETABLE CROPS (Continued)

Rate (lbs. ai./acre)
Time of Sandy,
Labelled application Loam
Crops Herbicide crops to crop & Rockland Muck Remarks and Limitations

COLE OR CDAA Cabbage Preemergence or 4.0 4.0 Controls germinating annuals, es-


posttransplanting


pecially grasses. Apply to moist
soil immediately after planting.


CRUCIFER
CROPS
Broccoli
Cabbage
Cauliflower
Collards
Mustard
Turnips
Kale


porated


- pecially grasses. Incorporate 4
inches or less within 8 hours.
Results in Florida are erratic on
soils with low organic matter and
clay contents. Note precautions
of planting non-registered crops
within 5 months.


(Randox)


CDEC All listed crucifers Preemergence or 4.0 4.0 Controls germinating annuals, es-
(Vegedex) posttransplanting to to pecially broadleaf weeds. Apply
6.0 6.0 immediately after planting and
overhead irrigate. Note rates
depending on temperature.

CDAA + CDEC Cabbage Preemergence or Total: Total: Controls germinating annuals.
posttransplanting 4.0 4.0 Adjust proportion of each rate
to to depending on grass or broadleaf
6.0 6.0 weeds to be controlled, but do not
exceed 3 lbs. CDAA in mixture.
Note remarks for each herbicide
above.

DCPA All listed crucifers Preemergence or 8.0 Controls germinating annuals.
(Dacthal) posttransplanting to Apply immediately after planting
10.5 and irrigate or incorporate 1 to 2
inches. Note precautions of
replanting non-registered crops
within 8 months.
Trifluralin All listed crucifers Preplant incor- 0.5 Controls germinating annuals, es-


(Treflan)




Nitrofen*, **
(Tok)


Broccoli, cabbage
and cauliflower


Postemergence or
posttransplanting


Preemergence


All listed cucurbits


Preplant incor-
porated


Controls germinating grasses. In-
corporate 1 to 2 inches. Note pre-
cautions of reapplying within 12
months and planting non-regis-
tered crops within 18 months.


Naptalam Cantaloupes, cucum- Preemergence or 3.0 Controls germinating annuals.
(Alanap) bers and water- postemergence to Apply preemergence to weeds
melon 4.0 and incorporate with overhead ir-
rigation.
Bensulide + Cantaloupes, cucum- Preplant or pre- 5.0 Controls germinating annuals.
naptalam bers and water- emergence + Incorporate with overhead irriga-
melon 3.0 tion. Note remarks for each herbi-
to cide above.
4.0
Chloramben Squash and Preemergence 3.0 Controls germinating annuals.
(Amiben) pumpkins Incorporate 2 to 4 inches or
overhead irrigate.
Paraquat* Watermelons Preemergence 0.5 Controls emerged weeds only. Ap-


ply prior, during or after plant-
ing, but before crop emerges. Use
a non-ionic spreader.


Controls germinating annuals.
- Apply either EC or WP formula-
tions. Irrigate briefly, if dry.
2.0 Controls germinating annuals.
to Apply only WP formulation one
4.0 time 2 weeks after crop
emergence or transplanting and
overhead irrigate. Some cabbage
hybrids may be sensitive to
nitrofen.


Bensulide
(Prefar)


CUCURBIT
CROPS
Cantaloupes
Cucumbers
Squash
Watermelon


(Paraquat
CL)






18 APPENDIX C:


SUGGESTED HERBICIDES FOR VEGETABLE CROPS (Continued)


Rate (lbs. ai./acre)
Time of Sandy,
Labelled application Loam
Crops Herbicide crops to crop & Rockland Muck Remarks and Limitations
CARROTS Linuron Carrots Preemergence 0.5 0.5 A Special Local Needs 24(c) Label


between rows


for Florida only. Controls germi-
nating annuals. Use row shields
and apply preemergence treat-
ment only between carrot rows.
Plant carrot seed at least 0.5 inch
deep. Do not exceed a total of 2
lbs. ai./acre for a single crop
season. Note precautions of plant-
ing non-registered crops within 4
months.


Postemergence


0.25 Controls emerged annuals. Multi-
to ple applications are possible if a
1.0 total of 2 lbs. ai./acre are not ex-
ceeded for a single crop season.
Use lower rates for young carrots.
Apply after carrots are 3 inches
tall or 4 true leaves and before an-
nual grasses are 2 inches and
broadleaf weeds are 6 inches tall.
Do not use a surfactant.


Nitrofen*, ** Carrots and Preemergence and 2.0 2.0 Controls germinating and emerged
(Tok) parsley postemergence to to annuals. Use EC formulation. Ap-
4.0 4.0 ply postemergence treatment
after 2 to 4 true leaf stage while
weeds are in seedling stage.
Mineral spirits Carrots and Post- 40 to 40 to Controls small emerged annuals.
or Stoddard's parsley emergence 60 gal. 60 gal. Apply at 3 leaf stage once or
solvent twice, but not within 60 days of
harvest.


& PARSLEY


(Lorox)


1









Posttransplanting 4.0


4.0 Controls germinating grasses.
Apply within 3 days after
transplanting and overhead ir-
rigate. Apply second time within
3 weeks, if necessary. (Florida
label).


CDEC Celery Posttransplanting 4.0 4.0 Controls germinating annuals, es-
(Vegedex) to to pecially broadleaf weeds. Apply
6.0 6.0 within 3 days after transplanting
and overhead irrigate. Apply sec-
ond time within 3 weeks, if
necessary.
CDAA + CDEC Celery Posttransplanting Total: Total: Controls germinating annuals. Ad-
4.0 4.0 just proportion of each rate
to to depending on grass or broadleaf
6.0 6.0 weeds to be controlled, but do not
exceed 3 Ibs. CDAA in mixture.
Note remarks for each herbicide
above. (Florida label).
Linuron Celery Posttransplanting 0.5 0.5 Controls emerged annuals. Apply
(Lorox) to to following transplanting and
1.0 1.0 establishment of celery, but
before crop is 8 inches tall. An-
nual grasses should not exceed 2
inches and broadleaf weeds 6
inches tall. Avoid application
when temperatures exceed 850F.
Do not use a surfactant or mix
with other chemicals. Note
precautions of planting non-
registered crops within 4 months.


CELERY


CDAA
(Randox)


Celery





APPENDIX C:


SUGGESTED HERBICIDES FOR VEGETABLE CROPS (Continued)


Rate (Ibs. ai./acre)
Time of Sandy,
Labelled application Loam
Crops Herbicide crops to crop & Rockland Muck Remarks and Limitations


Celery seedbed


Celery field


Postemergence


Posttransplanting


Controls emerged annuals. In seed-
bed, apply when seedlings have 2
to 5 true leaves after seedbed
covers are removed for at least
one week.
Controls emerged annuals. Apply
one time after celery is established,
but before 6th week. Weeds
should not exceed 2 inches. Note
precautions of planting non-
registered or sensitive crops
within 5 months.


Nitrofen*, ** Celery Posttransplanting (1.0 (1.0 Controls emerged annuals. Use EC
(Tok) to to formulation only. Apply 2 weeks
6.0) 6.0) after transplanting when weeds
are in 2 to 3 leaf stage. Use lower
rates for susceptible weeds such
as purslane and pigweed.
Mineral Celery Posttransplanting 25 to 25 to Controls small emerged annuals.
spirits or 40 gal. 40 gal. Apply as a directed spray at base
Stoddard's of transplants. Treat within one
solvent month after transplanting.


CELERY
(Cont.)


Prometryn
(Caparol)









LETTUCE,
ENDIVE,
ESCAROLE &
SPINACH


CDEC
(Vegedex)


Lettuce, endive,
escarole and
spinach, EXCEPT
SPINACH GROWN
ON MUCK SOILS


Preemergence


Controls germinating annuals, es-
pecially broadleaf weeds. Apply
immediately after planting and
overhead irrigate. Some lettuce
varieties or cultivars may be sen-
sitive to CDEC.


Pronamide* Lettuce, endive Preemergence 1.0 Controls germinating annuals.
(Kerb) and escarole to Overhead irrigate briefly or in-
1.5 corporate 2 to 3 inches. Note
precautions of planting non-
registered or sensitive crops after
application.
Paraquat* Lettuce Preemergence 0.5 0.5 Controls emerged weeds. Apply
(Paraquat to to prior, during or after direct seed-
CL) 1.0 1.0 ing, but before lettuce emerges.
Use a non-ionic spreader.
Postemergence 0.4 0.4 A Special Local Needs 24(c) Label
as a directed/ to to for Florida Only. Controls emerged
shielded spray 0.5 0.5 weeds. Apply as a directed/shielded
spray between rows when weeds
are 1 to 6 inches tall. Use a non-
ionic spreader.
Benefin Lettuce Preplant incor- 0.75 Controls germinating annuals. In-
(Balan) porated corporate 2 to 3 inches within 8
hours.





APPENDIX C: SUGGESTED HERBICIDES FOR VEGETABLE CROPS (Continued)

Rate (lbs. ai./acre)
Time of Sandy,
Labelled application Loam
Crops Herbicide crops to crop & Rockland Muck Remarks and Limitations

OKRA Trifluralin Okra Preplant incor- (0.5) Controls germinating annuals, es-


porated


pecially grasses. Incorporate 4
inches or less within 8 hours.
Results in Florida are erratic on
soils with low organic matter and
clay contents. Note precautions
of planting non-registered crops
within 5 months.


Profluralin Okra Preplant incor- (0.5 Controls germinating annuals, es-
(Tolban) porated to pecially grasses. Incorporate 4 to 6
0.75) inches within 4 hours. Note label
precautions of planting non-
registered crops.
Diphenamid Okra Preemergence 5.0 Controls germinating annuals. In-
corporate 0.5 to 2 inches with
overhead irrigation or shallow
cultivation. Note precautions of
planting non-registered crops
within 6 months.


(Treflan)









ONION
Bulb and
green bunching


CDAA
(Randox)


Bulb onions


Preemergence or
posttransplanting


4.0 Controls germinating annuals. Ap-
ply just prior to onion emergence or
soon after transplanting. Apply a
second application as a directed
spray after 3 true leaf stage. Do not
apply within 45 days of harvest.


Chlorpropham Onions Preemergence, (3.0 6.0 Controls germinating annuals. Not
(Furloe) postemergence or to to labelled for onions grown on sandy
posttransplanting 4.0) 8.0 soils. On other soil types, apply
preemergence at early "loop" stage,
but not "flag" stage. Apply
postemergence or posttransplan-
ting as a directed spray to base of
onion after 3 true leaf stage.
DCPA Onions Preemergence, 6.0 Controls germinating annuals. In-
(Dacthal) posttransplanting to corporate 0.5 to 1 inch with over-
or at layby 10.5 head irrigation or shallow cultiva-
tion. Apply layby treatment to
weed-free field up to 14 weeks
after planting at rates not ex-
ceeding 10.5 lbs. ai./acre per
season. In Hastings area, onions
may be injured with single ap-
plications exceeding 6.0 lbs.
ai./acre. Note precautions of plan-
ting non-registered crops within 8
months.
Nitrofen*, ** Bulb onions Postemergence (3.0 (3.0 Controls germinating annuals. Ap-
(Tok) to to ply once when onions are in 2 to 3
4.0) 4.0) leaf stage and weeds are growing
rapidly.





APPENDIX C:


SUGGESTED HERBICIDES FOR VEGETABLE CROPS (Continued)


Rate (lbs. ai./acre)
Time of Sandy,
Labelled application Loam
Crops Herbicide crops to crop & Rockland Muck Remarks and Limitations

POTATOES Paraquat* Potatoes Preemergence 0.25 Controls emerged weed seedlings


- Apply after planting, but before
potatoes emerge. Use a non-ionic
spreader.


Alachlor White-skinned Preemergence 2.0 Controls germinating annuals.
(Lasso) potatoes May delay maturity and/or
reduce yields of some varieties
under cold, wet conditions.
Dinoseb Potatoes Preemergence 3.0 3.0 Controls small emerged annuals.
(Several to to Apply at least 1 day before crop
brands) 6.0 6.0 emerges.
Mptrihlzin Whitel-kinned Preepmr-enrc n. 5 Controls earminatinc annuals es-


Preemergence or
early layby



Preemergence
early layby


b g ,
pecially broadleaf weeds. Apply
to moist soil after planting. Note
label precautions of planting non-
registered or sensitive crops
within 4 to 18 months.
- Controls germinating annuals.
Apply to moist soil. Note label
precautions of replanting non-
registered crops within 8 months.
Controls germinating annuals.
Apply to moist soil. Shallow culti-
vation will not reduce herbicide
efficacy, but hilling or rebedding
may reduce weed control. Note
label precautions of planting non-
registered crops within 6 months.


(Paraquat
CL)


potatoes


(Lexone or
Sencor)




DCPA
(Dacthal)



Diphenamid
(Enide)


Potatoes


Potatoes


.


-- -"*"""'L--'C-




EPTC
(Eptam)


Potatoes


POTATO VINE
DESSICANTS


Ametryn
(Evik)


Potato vines
and weeds


Before harvest


Apply 10 to 14 days before har-
vest in a minimum of 100 gal. of
water to assure thorough wetting
of foliage. Sensitive or non-
registered crops may be injured if
planted within 12 months.


Dinoseb Potato vines Before harvest 1.5 1.5 Apply 10 to 20 days before har-
(Several and weeds to to vest during bright, sunny
brands 2.0 2.0 weather. Mix non-ionic emulsifier
or spreader with 5 gal. fuel oil in
30 gal. water and add dinoseb ac-
cording to instructions on label.
Paraquat* Potato vines Before harvest 0.25 Apply once 3 to 7 days before har-
(Paraquat and weeds to vest or split higher rate when
CL) 0.5 vine growth is dense and apply
twice. Do not apply within 3 days
of harvest, nor more than twice
with 5 days between applications.
Apply in 50 to 100 gal. of water
with a non-ionic spreader to
assure thorough wetting. Do not
apply on muck or peat soils to
avoid injuring subsequent crops.
Endothall Potato vines (Not suggested for use in Florida's fresh market potatoes due to observed post-
(Des-I-Cate) and weeds harvest quality and/or decay problems).


Postemergence
at early layby


- Controls germinating annuals and
suppresses nutsedge. Apply to
both sides of the row and incor-
porate by covering with soil after
first true leaves have enlarged.





26 APPENDIX C:


SUGGESTED HERBICIDES FOR VEGETABLE CROPS (Continued)


Rate (lbs. ai./acre)
Time of Sandy,
Labelled application Loam
Crops Herbicide crops to crop & Rockland Muck Remarks and Limitations

STRAW- DCPA Strawberries Posttransplanting 9.0 Controls germinating annuals.
BERRIES (Dacthal) Apply to bed surface before full-
bed plastic mulch is secured over
bed. Apply to moist soil in row
middles after transplanting, but
before weeds emerge. Note
precautions of planting non-
registered crops within 8 months.
Diphenamid Established straw- Posttransplanting 4.0 Controls germinating annuals.
(Enide) berry plants Apply 2 to 3 weeks after
transplanting when new leaves
have begun to grow. Note precau-
tions of planting non-registered
crops within 6 months.


SWEET CORN Glyphosate Sweet corn Prior to field (1.0) (1.0) Controls rapidly growing weeds,


(Roundup)


preparation


to including some perennial weeds.
2.0 Apply several weeks prior to field
preparation. Adjust rates
depending on weeds to be con-
trolled. Note label restrictions of
replanting non-registered crops
within 12 months.


Paraquat* Sweet corn Preemergence 0.5 0.5 Control emerged weeds. Apply
(Paraquat to to prior, during, or after planting,
CL) 1.0 1.0 but before corn emerges. Use a
non-ionic spreader.
Alachlor Sweet corn Preemergence or (1.5 (4.0) Controls germinating annuals.


preplant incor-
porated


Incorporate 2 inches with over-
head irrigation or shallow cultiva-


(Lasso)




CDAA
(Randox)


Sweet corn Preemergence


CDEC Sweet corn Preemergence 6.0 4.0 Controls germinating annuals.
(Vegedex) to Overhead irrigate after applica-
6.0 tion.
Propachlor Sweet corn Preemergence 4.0 4.0 Controls germinating annuals. In-
(Ramrod or to to corporate 2 inches with overhead
Bexton) 5.0 5.0 irrigation or shallow cultivation.
Dinoseb Sweet corn Preemergence or 3.0 Controls germinating annuals.
(Several early post- to Use higher rates preemergence
products) emergence 7.5 and lower rates as early
postemergence before 2 leaf
stage. Apply to moist soil during
clear, but not excessively hot
weather for maximum weed con-
trol with minimum crop injury.
EPTC or Sweet corn Preplant incor- (2.5 Controls germinating annuals at
Butylate porated to lower rates and suppresses nut-
(Erradicane 7.0) sedge at higher rates. Incorpor-
or Sutan+) ate 4 to 6 inches immediately to
reduce evaporation loss. May in-
jure corn if soil remains extremely
wet.
Atrazine Sweet corn Preemergence 1.0 2.0 Controls germinating annuals.
(Several to to Apply to moist soil. Note label
products) 2.0 3.0 precautions of planting non-
registered or sensitive crops for
at least one growing season.
Postemergence (1.0) (1.0) Controls emerged weeds. Apply
to to in a minimum of 10 gal. of water
2.8 2.8 before weeds are 1.5 inches tall.
Use lower rates when weeds are
small. Note replanting precau-
tions listed above.


5.0 Controls germinating annuals, es-
pecially grasses. Apply to moist
soil.






APPENDIX C:


SUGGESTED HERBICIDES FOR VEGETABLE CROPS (Continued)


Rate (Ibs. ai./acre)
Time of Sandy,
Labelled application Loam
Crops Herbicide crops to crop & Rockland Muck Remarks and Limitations
SWEET CORN Atrazine+ Sweet corn Postemergence 1.0 1.0 Controls emerged weeds. Apply


(Cont.) Oil


to small test plots to evaluate
tolerance of new hybrid corn
varieties. Follow mixing instruc-
tions listed on the label and rates
of emulsified oil or oil concentrate


depending on ground or aerial ap-
plication methods. Apply before
annual grasses are 1.5 inches and
broadleaf weeds are 4 inches.
Note replanting precautions
listed above. Do not apply to
breeding stock or inbred lines of
sweet corn.
Simazine Sweet corn Preemergence 2.9 Controls germinating annuals.
(Several Apply to moist soil. Note label
products) precautions of planting non-
registered or sensitive crops for
at least one growing season.
Ametryn Sweet corn Postemergence (1.0 (1.0 Controls emerged weeds. Apply


directed spray


to when corn is at least 12 inches
2.0) tall and weeds 2 to 6 inches. Use
row shields or leaf lifters and add
a surfactant to insure complete
wetting of weed foliage. Note
label precautions of planting non-
registered or sensitive crops for
at least one season.


(Evik)




Linuron
(Lorox)







Bentazon
(Basagran)


2,4-D amine
salt
(Several
products)






Alachlor+
Atrazine


Atrazine+
Propachlor


Atrazine+
Simazine


Sweet corn


Postemergence


0.75







Sweet corn Preemergence 1.5
+
1.0
Sweet corn Preemergence or 1.0
early post- +
emergence 2.5
Sweet corn Preemergence 1.0


Sweet corn Postemergence
directed spray







Sweet corn Early post-
emergence


0.75 Controls emerged weeds. Apply
to when corn is at least 15 inches tall
1.5 and weeds 2 to 5 inches. Direct
spray between rows avoiding con-
tact with corn leaves. Thoroughly
wet weed foliage. Note label
precautions of replanting non-
registered crops for 4 months.
0.75 Controls actively growing emerged
to broadleaf weeds. Apply when
1.0 weeds are 2 to 6 inches tall.
0.3 Controls emerged broadleaf weeds.
to Apply as directed spray with drop
0.75 nozzles. Avoid application when
corn is growing rapidly under hot,
wet conditions or during tasseling
or ear formulation. Avoid drift and
use a separate sprayer for 2,4-D ap-
plications. Some sweet corn
varieties are susceptible to 2,4-D.
Controls germinating annuals.
Note remarks for each herbicide
listed above.
Controls germinating or emerged
annuals. Note remarks for each
herbicide listed above.
Controls germinating annuals.
Note remarks for each herbicide
listed above.






APPENDIX C: SUGGESTED HERBICIDES FOR VEGETABLE CROPS (Continued)
Rate (lbs. ai./acre)
Time of Sandy,
Labelled application Loam
Crops Herbicide crops to crop & Rockland Muck Remarks and Limitations

SWEET Chloramben Sweet potato Pre- or post- 4.0 Controls germinating annuals. Ap-
POTATO (Amiben) transplanting ply to moist soil or overhead
irrigate.

Vernolate Sweet potato Preplant "bed-up", 1.5 Controls germinating annuals and
(Vernam) "bed-over", or to suppresses nutsedge. Follow rec-
incorporation 3.0 ommended rates listed on label for
each application method. Incor-
porate or cover with soil in "bed-
over" immediately to reduce
evaporation loss.

DCPA Sweet potato Posttransplanting 8.0 Controls germinating annuals. Ap-
(Dacthal) or layby to ply to moist soil or overhead irri-
10.5 gate. Apply to weed-free field up to
6 weeks after transplanting. Note
label precautions of replanting non-
registered crops within 8 months.

Diphenamid Sweet potato Posttransplanting 4.0 Controls germinating annuals. Ap-
(Enide) ply to moist soil or overhead
irrigate. Note label precautions of
replanting non-registered crops
within 6 months.
m _%s* mTc o..,* +, Prnm on, Pt, mrrnQ, or 0 5 Controls emerged weeds. Use a


T Al I 1 rI, U ,
PEPPERS &
EGGPLANT:
Bed Culture
Without Mulch


(Paraquat
(Paraquat
CL)
Diphenamid
(Enide)


omallenLo aCtl
peppers

Tomatoes and
peppers


---6--
pretransplanting


Preemergence or
posttransplanting


non-ionic spreader and thoroughly
wet foliage.
Controls germinating annuals. Ap-
ply to moist soil 1 week before or
within 4 weeks after transplanting
crops. For tomato, incorporate
higher rate 0.5 to 2 inches. Note
label precautions of replanting non-




Napropamide
(Devrinol)






DCPA
(Dacthal)


Tomatoes and
peppers






Established
tomatoes, peppers
and eggplant


Preemergence or
posttransplanting






Posttransplanting
after establish-
ment


Tomatoes (except
Dade County) and
pepper transplants


Pretransplant
incorporated


- Controls germinating annuals, es-
pecially grasses. Incorporate 4
inches or less within 8 hours.
Results in Florida are erratic on
soils with low organic matter and
clay contents. Note label precau-
tions of planting non-registered
crops within 5 months.


- Controls germinating annuals and
suppresses nutsedge. Incorporate
2 to 3 inches immediately, either
before transplanting or in weed-
free row middles.
- Use on a trial basis to control
germinating weeds. Incorporate
2 to 4 inches. May be tank mixed
with trifluralin.


- A Special Local Needs 24(c) Label
for Florida Only. Controls germi-
nating annuals. Apply to moist soil
or incorporate 1.0 to 2.0 inches.
Note label precautions of replant-
ing non-registered or sensitive
crops within 12 months.
- Controls germinating annuals. Ap-
ply to weed-free soil 4 to 6 weeks
after transplanting when crop is
established and growing rapidly.
Note label precautions of replant-
ing non-registered crops within 8
months.


Trifluralin
(Treflan)


Pebulate
(Tillam)


Metribuzin
(Sencor
only)


Tomatoes


Tomatoes


Pre- or post-
transplant
incorporated


4.0


Pretransplant
incorporated


~~~






APPENDIX C: SUGGESTED HERBICIDES FOR VEGETABLE CROPS (Continued)

Rate (lbs. ai./acre)
Time of Sandy,
Labelled application Loam
Crops Herbicide crops to crop & Rockland Muck Remarks and Limitations
TOMATOES, Metribuzin Tomatoes Postemergence or (0.25 Controls small emerged weeds
PEPPERS & (Sencor posttransplanting to after tomato transplants begin to
EGGPLANT; only) after establish- 0.5) grow. Apply in single or multiple
Bed Culture ment applications with a minimum of
Without Mulch 14 days between treatments and
(Cont.) a maximum of 1.0 lb. ai./acre
within a crop season. Avoid ap-
plication for 3 days following cool,
wet or cloudy weather to reduce
possible crop injury.
Postemergence or (0.5 Use on a trial basis to control
posttransplant as to persistent weeds in tomato fields
a directed spray 1.0) after 5 to 6 true leaf stage or
transplants begin to grow. Note
all other precautions listed above.
TOMATOES. DCPA Established Postnlanting in 6.0 Controls germinating annuals.


tomatoes, peppers,
and eggplant


Diphenamid Tomatoes and
(Enide) peppers


row middles after
crop establishment




Preemergence for
"plug" planting
or posttrans-
planting for
plant holes;
after mulch
application for
row middles


Apply to moist soil in row middles
after crop establishment. Note
label precautions of replanting
non-registered crops within 8
months.
Controls germinating annuals.
Apply as a directed band over
plant holes after "plug" planting
or transplanting. Apply to moist
soil in row middles soon after
mulch is secured. Use lower rate
for peppers. Note label precau-
tions of replanting non-registered
crops within 6 months.


PEPPERS &
EGGPLANT;
Full-Bed
Plastic Mulch


(Dacthal)




Napropamide
(Devrinol)


Tomatoes and
peppers


Chloramben Tomatoes and Preplant to bed 3.0 A Special Local Needs 24(c) Label
(Amiben) peppers shoulders or post- for Florida Only. Controls germi-
planting in row nating annuals. Apply once per
middles crop season while forming bed
shoulders or after existing weeds
in row middles are removed.
Paraquat* Tomatoes and Postplanting 0.5 Controls emerged weeds. Direct
(Paraquat peppers directed spray spray over emerged weeds 1 to 6
CL) in row middles inches tall in row middles between
mulched beds. Use a non-ionic
spreader. Do not apply more than
3 times per crop season.
Metribuzin Tomatoes only Pre- or post- (0.25 Controls germinating annuals.


plant in row
middles


Apply in single or multiple ap-
plications with a minimum of 14
days between treatments and a
maximum of 1.0 lb. ai./acre within
crop season. Avoid applications
for 3 days following cool, wet or
cloudy weather to reduce possible
crop injury.


Preemergence for
"plug" planting or
posttransplanting
for plant holes;
after mulch appli-
cation for row
middles


- A Special Local Needs 24(c) Label
for Florida Only. Controls germi-
nating annuals. Apply to bed sur-
face before plastic mulch is
secured or to moist soil between
beds. Note label precautions of
replanting non-registered crops
within 12 months.


(Sencor
only)


*Restricted use pesticides. Requires a "Restricted Pesticide Applicators License" for purchase and application.


**Voluntarily removed from market at time of printing.





Notes





Notes

























































This publication was promulgated at a cost of $2,541.00 or .423 cents
per copy to provide Floridians with weed control information.
11-6M-80.


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY'OF FLOR-
IDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES,
K. R. Tefertiller, director, in cooperation with the United States
Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the
purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is
authorized to provide research, educational information and other
services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex or national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth
publications) are available free to Florida residents from County Extension Offices.
Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers Is available from C. M.
Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida,
Galnesvllle, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact
this address to determine availability.




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