Group Title: Woodwork for little folks,
Title: Woodwork for little folks
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072502/00001
 Material Information
Title: Woodwork for little folks
Series Title: Woodwork for little folks,
Physical Description: 4 p. Á., 3 p. : front., 28 pl. ; 36 x 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Pierce, Frank H., 1853-
Publisher: C. Scribner's sons
Place of Publication: New York
Chicago etc
Publication Date: c1915
 Subjects
Subject: Woodwork   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Descriptive letterpress on verso of most of the plates.
Statement of Responsibility: by Frank H. Pierce.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072502
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 07685666
lccn - 15025554

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WOODWORK

FOR LITTLE FOLKS


BY

FRANK H. PIERCE
Instructor in Normal Manual Training, Pratt Institute,
Brooklyn, N. Y.


,


CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS


NEW YORK


CHICAGO


BOSTON







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COPYRIGHT, 1915, BY

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS


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TO

MY STUDENTS OF THE NORMAL ART AND MANUAL
TRAINING CLASSES OF PRATT INSTITUTE,

A NUMBER OF WHOM

I AM INDEBTED TO FOR MODELS AND
SUGGESTIONS,

THIS WORK IS RESPECTFULLY
DEDICATED














INTRODUCTION


HCILDREN love to create and construct, and take great interest in the
doing. This fact has been recognized ever since the days of Froebel and
Pestalozzi, and gives the teacher his opportunity. If the child's fondness for
constructing things is directed it may be made the means of training both
mind and hands, and so become of great educational value. The object of this
book is to give instruction in working out a variety of interesting toys from thin
wood. The equipment and materials are not expensive and are easily obtained.
The exercises are carefully graded, so that as the little hands become more skilful
the work becomes more exacting.
The work may be carried on with classes of children from six to nine years
of age, working in the schoolroom on the ordinary school-desks. It may also be
done at home, with a small amount of help from some. of the big brothers or
sisters, for the directions are so simple that they may be easily followed.












LIST OF PLATES


Interesting Toys That Little Folks Can Easily Make

Equipment, Material, Construction

The Numerals .

The Alphabet .

The Hatchet, The Bird

The Pig, The Boy .

The Squirrel .

The Soldier .

The Horse .

The Coachman .

The Giraffe .

The Dutch Girl and Child

The Rocking-Chair

The Sleigh .

The Wheelbarrow .

The Cannon

The Dump-Cart .

The Gun .

Four-Wheeled Wagon

The Jumping-Jack

The Acrobatic Monkeys

Locomotive and Tender.

The Dodo Bird

The Dancing Darky .


Frontispiece
PLATES
. 1

2

3,4,5
6

7

8

9

10

. 11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

S20,21,22

23

24

S 25, 26

27

28












THE WORK


I N starting the work the first step is to make the patterns. First lay a piece of tracing material over
the plate. Trace each pattern carefully with a soft, sharp lead-pencil. Where two of this"
appears on the plate it is intended that two pieces should be sawed from the same pattern.
Where no number is stated, only one piece should be sawed. One pattern of each part is enough.
Having traced the patterns, cut them out very carefully with a pair of shears or the point of a sharp
knife. After the patterns are cut out of the tracing material, lay them on cardboard and mark around
them with a very sharp pencil. Cut them out of the cardboard and the patterns are ready. A set of
patterns cut in this way will last a long time.
It will be well to keep the patterns cut from the tracing material, for a cardboard pattern may
be lost or destroyed, and if the tracings are handy it may be easily replaced.
Having secured the patterns, the next step is to mark them out upon the wood. Cut a piece of
the wood the size that the plate calls for, for each part. Lay the pattern on the wood and fasten it
down with two thumb-tacks. With a sharp lead-pencil, held perpendicular to the face of the wood,
mark around the edges of the pattern. Take out the thumb-tacks and remove the pattern. In all cases
where there are two parts to be sawed after the same pattern be sure and turn the pattern over when
marking out the second piece. This will bring the rough edges left by the saw on the inside when
putting the pieces together. The next step is to saw out the objects.
Fasten the saw-table to a table or bench and adjust it so that the top of the table just comes to
the upper button of the boy's coat, or a corresponding height to any one doing the work. Always have
the children stand while doing the sawing, as it gives them much more freedom of action. Place
a blade in the saw-frame, being careful that the teeth hook or point down toward the handle. See that
the blade is carefully fitted so that there is no twist in it. Place the wood upon the saw-table with the
line over the opening in the top of the table and begin to saw. Follow the lines carefully. Care must
be taken to hold the saw-blade perpendicular with the face of the wood, so that the edges will be
square and true. In turning a corner, keep the saw going up and down and turn it at the same time.
With a little practise the corner can be turned very squarely. Never stop the saw and try to start off
on the other line when turning a corner, for the blade will stick in the wood and when pulled too hard
will break. Where the inside of a number, letter, or wheel is to be sawed out, bore a hole with the
No. 3 spur-bit in the centre of the piece to be sawed out. Unhook the blade from the upper part of
the frame. Put the blade through the hole from the under side of the wood and hook it back into
the frame. The part may be sawed out and the blade removed by reversing the operation. The easiest
way to unhook the blade is to take the handle in the right hand with the thumb against the end of the
1





blade to keep it in place. Press the upper part of the frame against the edge of the table. This will
allow the upper end of the blade to spring out. Using the left hand, put the blade through the hole in
the wood, press the frame together and replace the blade in the slot in the upper part of the frame.
After a little practise, all of these operations will become easy. If the hole to be sawed out is small,
use the 1% in. brad-awl to make the hole for the saw in place of the No. 3 spur-bit.

The tools and equipment for the work are shown in part on Plate 1.


INDIVIDUAL TOOLS FOR EACH CHILD'

Coping or fret-saw with one dozen blades, No. 170 .
Pierce's patent adjustable saw-table .

GENERAL EQUIPMENT FOR CLASS

Brace or bit-stock, No. 14, 6-in. sweep .
Three spur or augur dowel-bits, No. 3, 29 cts.; No. 4, 26 cts.; No. 6, 26 cts.
Two Forstner bits, No. 4, 55 cts.; No. 6, 60- cts. .
Five handled brad-awls, two Y8 in., 10 cts.; two 1 in., 10 cts.; one 12 in., 6 cts.
Hammer, 5 oz.
Flat-nose pliers, 4Y in., No. 20 .. .
Round-nose pliers, 42 in., No. 21 .
Cutting-pliers, 3Y in., No. 1306 .
A pair of electricians' pliers, 5 in., may be used in place of the three mentioned
are not as satisfactory .
Two round or rat-tail files, handled, one 5 in., 10 cts.; one 7 in., 12 cts.
Small anvil, No. 1 . ,.


APPROXIMATE
PRICE
$ .35
.95


.88
S.81
1.15
S .26
S .45
S .40
.40
.95
above, but
.53
.22
1.30


An iron block of any kind, with a hole in it, may be used in place of the anvil.
The tools may be ordered by the set or such ones selected as desired.
The prices given above are for high-grade tools at the present time and may be subject to
slight changes.
Sets can be made up of cheaper tools but are not as desirable.
Extra saw-blades may be had at $1.00 per gross.
A discount will be allowed to schools on quantity orders.
The equipment and material used for this work may be obtained from Hammacher Schlemmer
& Co., Fourth Avenue and Thirteenth Street, New York City, or from almost any dealer in hardware.
The materials used in the work are shown in part on Plate 1.

To make all of the toys the following materials would be required:

FOR EACH CHILD

Ten sheets of three-ply wood, 16 x 24 in., A of an inch thick, $2.00 per doz.
If three-ply wood is not to be had, any single-ply wood of firm grain, of an inch in thickness,
will do, but is not as satisfactory.







THE PATTERNS


One set of patterns will do for the class and will require'the following materials to make them.
Eight sheets tracing-paper, 13 x 17 in. ....... 5 cts. per sheet
If tracing-cloth is -preferred, and it is much better, the same amount will cost about twice
as much.


Twelve sheets good bristol-board, 10 x 15 in.


75 cts. per doz.


MATERIALS FOR CLASS


Two lengths of dowel-rod of each of the following sizes:
Pound box brads, No. 20, one-half inch long
Pound box nails, No. 20, one-half inch long
Half-pound box bank-pins, No. 1 .
Half-pound box bank-pins, No. 3
Half-pint can liquid glue .
Box thumb-tacks, 8 in., steel
Ten sheets sandpaper, five No. 1 and five No. 1 .2


Nos. 3, 4, and 6, 36 in. long 2 cts. each
S. 14 cts. "
S . 14 cts. "
S. 30 cts. "
S. 35 cts.
25 cts. "
15 cts. per box
2 cts. per sheet


A good paint for coloring the toys in plain colors may be made by mixing dry colors with
white shellac varnish. Mix the dry colors with the shellac until it is heavy enough to cover the wood.
If colors become too thick to go on smoothly, thin with alcohol. Very pretty red, green, blue, and
yellow may be obtained in this way. For black use lamp-black to color the shellac. Clean shellac
brushes by washing them in borax water.

In painting the toys, where the joints are to be movable, paint each part separately before
putting together. If joints are to be glued, do the gluing and let dry thoroughly before painting.








EQUIPMENT


PLATE


BRACE OR BIT STOCK


SPUR OR AUGER BIT


FORSTNER BIT


CUTTING PLIERS


FLAT NOSE PLIERS


ROUND OR RAT-TAIL FILE


ROUND NOSE PLIERS


ELECTRICIANS PLIERS


MATERIAL


THUMB TACK



S AI
BRAD NAIL


BANK
PINS


DOWEL ROD


3

It


NO 6
8


NO.3. NO.1


CONSTRUCTION


TIGHT MOVABLE JOINTS


B


HUB


LOOSE JOINTS


WHEEL

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AXLE


GLUEING WHEEL


BRAD AWL


HAMMER
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Plate 2


THE NUMERALS


There are nine patterns for the numbers. The pattern for the number six may be used
for both the six and the nine. Have the children saw out all of the numbers. This will giv-
good practise in sawing square edges, straight and curved lines, and turning covers.





7 _PLATE 2


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Plates 3, 4, and 5


THE ALPHABET


There are twenty-six patterns for the alphabet. As it will be rather tedious for the
children to saw out all of the letters, it is a good plan to let them pick out the letters which
spell their name or their initial letters. This will give more practise in handling the saw.




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Plate 6


THE HATCHET



The hatchet is the last of the flat pieces. Children are interested in the hatchet, as the George Washington story has
given it a certain charm. The hatchet is a single piece.






THE BIRD



The bird is the first piece that is fastened together, or built up, as it is called. This bird may be either a pigeon or
a robin. There are three pieces to be sawed out: the body and two legs. Having sawed out the parts, fasten them to-
gether. Bore a hole in the body and in both legs at places marked. Use a small brad-awl. Place the point of the awl
on the place marked and turn it partly around and back again, keeping a steady pressure on the awl at the same time,
and it may be easily worked through the wood. Never put the awl on the wood and try to force it through without
turning, as it will break very easily. Push a No. 3 pin through one leg, then through the body, and then through the
other leg. Lay the bird on the anvil, or an iron block, with the pin in the hole and hammer down. Cut the pin off
with cutting-pliers, leaving about three-eighths of an inch sticking out of the wood (see Plate 1, "Tight Movable
Joint," A). With flat-nosed pliers bend one-eighth of an inch of the pin down toward the wood at a little more than a
right angle (Plate 1, B). Place the bird on the anvil with the head of the pin down, and holding the pieces firmly
together hammer the end of the pin down into the wood (Plate 1, C). The bird is now finished, and the joint will be
found to be tight enough to hold the legs in position and still allow them to be easily moved. Draw eyes, beak, and
wings with pencil.





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Plate 7


THE PIG



The pig requires five pieces: the body, two front legs, and two hind legs. Saw out all the parts and put the pig
together. Bore holes through the body and legs at places marked, using the small brad-awl. Fasten the legs on with
No. 3 pins. Put the pin through the front leg, then through the body and then through the other front leg. Do
the same with the hind legs. Use A B C method, Plate 1, in fastening the pins. Draw the eyes, ears, nose, mouth, tail
and feet with pencil.


THE


BOY


The boy is a swineherd and takes care of the pig. There are six pieces to be sawed out: the body, two arms,
two legs, and a stand. Be very careful with the sawing, so that the edges will be square. Be sure and make the arms
and legs right and left, so that the rough edges will come on the inside. Fasten together with No. 3 pins, using the same
method as in preceding models. The boy will not stand alone, so a stand must be made for him. Be careful not to cut
the notch in the stand too wide, as the boy's foot must fit the notch tightly. A hole may be bored in the boy's hand
and a toothpick stuck into it for a whip. Draw 'the face, coat, buttons and shoes with a pencil.




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Plate 8


THE SQUIRREL



There are six pieces to be sawed out for the squirrel: the body, two front legs, two
hind legs, and the chestnut. Saw out all of the parts and put the squirrel together. Use
No. 3 pins. Fasten the legs on first, using the same method as in the preceding models.
Put the nut between the paws and fasten with a pin. Draw the eyes, ears, nose, mouth,
and whiskers. The squirrel will sit up without a stand and may be made to take a number
of natural positions.






























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THE SOLDIER



It takes nine pieces to make the soldier: the body, two arms, two disks (to make the
shoulders), two legs, the gun, and the stand. Having sawed out all the pieces, make the
holes in the places marked. Use No. 1 pins to fasten on the arms and legs. Put the legs
on to the body first and fastest. Put the arms on next. Push a pin through one arm,
then through a disk, then through the body, through the other disk and last through the
other arm. Cut the pins off and rivet them down, using A B C method, Plate 1. The
stock of the gun should be fastened to one of the hands, it makes no difference which,
using a No. 3 pin. The soldier must have a stand to hold him in a marching position.
Cut. the notch in the stand carefully, so that the soldier's foot will just fit. Draw the
hat, face, coat, buttons, belt, and gaiters with a pencil.















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Plate 10



THE HORSE




The horse requires twelve pieces to be sawed out: the head, tail, two bodies, two
upper and two lower parts to the front legs, two hind legs and two disks. Saw out all parts
and then make the holes in places marked with a small brad-awl. Use No. 1 pins in putting
together. Put the knees together first, being sure to make them' right and left, with the
lower parts of the legs on the outside. Put a pin through the front leg and then through
one side of the body, being sure to put it in the right place. This can be told by looking
at the cut of the horse on Plate 11. Put a pin through one hind leg and then through the
body. Push a pin through the body where the head goes and one where the tail goes.
Turn the body over with the pins sticking up. Place the head and tail on the pins where
they belong. Place the two disks on the pins which come through the legs. Place the
other half of the body upon the pins and press down into place. Put on the other two
legs. Fasten all pins securely. If care has been taken in putting together and bending
the pins down firmly, the horse will stand nicely. Draw eyes, nostrils, mouth, ears, mane,
and hoofs with pencil.




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Plate 11


THE COACHMAN



This plate shows a drawing of the horse with the coachman on his back. The
coachman requires ten pieces: head, two arms, two bodies, two upper parts and two lower
parts to the legs, and one disk. Care must be taken in sawing out the face, so that it will
look the same on both sides. Having sawed out all. the parts, make holes in the places
marked. Use No. 1 pins. Put together exactly the same as the horse. Put the knees to-
gether first, being sure to have the lower part of the leg on the outside, so that when
completed the coachman will sit on the horse's back. Fasten the pins securely. Draw the
hat, face, coat, and boots. The coachman will stand alone, or will ride the horse.





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Plate 12


THE GIRAFFE


The giraffe requires ten pieces: head and tail, two bodies, two front and two hind legs,
and two disks. The putting together is a review of the two preceding models. The giraffe
is a very interesting animal, and the children are always interested in making it.






PLATE 12


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Plate 13



THE DUTCH GIRL AND CHILD




This model requires the sawing out of twelve pieces: the girl's body, two skirts, two
arms, three disks, the child, two arms, and a stand to hold the girl in an upright position.
Saw out all of the parts and make holes where marked. Put the girl together first, using
No. 1 pins. Put a pin through the upper part of the skirt and one through the lower part.
Turn the skirt over with the pins sticking up. Place the girl's body on the upper pin and
a disk on the lower pin. Place the other side of the skirt in -position and fasten. Push a
pin through one of the girl's arms, then through a disk, then'through the body, through
another disk and through the other arm. Fasten. Put the child's arms on with a No. 3
pin. Fasten the child's left hand to the girl's right hand and the child's right hand to the
girl's left hand. Use No. 3 pins and fasten separately. Saw the slot in the stand carefully,
so that the girl's foot will fit tightly. The two figures may be made to take a number of
life-like positions. There is no pattern given for the stand, but the same stand may be used
as for the soldier.





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Plate 14



THE ROCKING-CHAIR



The rocking-chair is the first piece to be put together with nails. There are six pieces
to be sawed out: two sides, two rockers, back, and seat. Having sawed out all the pieces,
put them together with No. 20 half-inch wire brads, or wire nails, as preferred. First
fasten the rockers on to the outside of the legs in places shown by dotted lines. Make
holes in the rocker with a small- brad-awl. Drive a nail through the rocker and leg and
clinch on the under side. Make three holes in the sides where the seat is to be fastened
and nail the sides on to the seat. Be sure the rockers are on the outside. Put back in
the place indicated by dotted lines, make holes and nail. In making holes for No. 20
brads or nails, use the seven-eighths awl. Make hole through the upper piece of wood
only.





PLATE 14


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Plate 15



THE SLEIGH




The sleigh is the second problem in nailing. The drawing of the completed sleigh will
be found on Plate 16. There are nine pieces to be sawed out: two sides which form both
runners and sides of body, dash, back, bottom, seat, two shafts and cross-bar. To put
together, nail the dash and back to the ends of the bottom. It will be well to make
holes with a small brad-awl to start the nails. After nailing on the back, bend it to a
slant to fit the sides. Nail on sides. Nail in the seat at the place shown by dotted lines.
Nail shafts on to cross-bar at places shown by dotted lines. Use a little glue to fasten the
shafts more securely. Clinch the nails on the under side of the cross-bar. Make holes
through the front of the runners with a one-inch brad-awl. Make holes in the ends of
cross-bar with a small brad-awl. Cut two No. 1 pins off about three-quarters of an inch
from the head. Use the head end. Place shafts in position. Put a pin through runner
and drive into the hole in the end of cross-bar. Do not drive quite down so that shafts
will move freely.




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Plate 16



THE WHEELBARROW



The wheelbarrow is the first model having a wheel and using a piece of dowel-rod for an axle. There are nine pieces
to be sawed out: two sides, bottom, back, two legs, wheel, and two hubs. After marking out the wheel and hubs, bore
the holes in them before sawing out. Bore the holes with the No. 4 spur-bit. Bore from the upper side until the point of
the bit just goes through. Turn the wood over and bore from the other side. This makes the hole clean on both
sides. Having sawed out all the pieces, put the wheelbarrow together. First nail the bottom on to the back. Next
nail on the sides. Nail the legs on, in places shown by dotted lines, using two nails. The upper nail will come
through the sides, so it must be clinched down. Cut a piece of No. 4 dowel-rod to fit loosely between the ends of the
handles, which project in front of the barrow. This will form the axle. Slip the wheel on to the axle and locate it in
the centre. Glue a hub on each side of the wheel. Bore a hole with the one-inch brad-awl in the ends of the handles.
Bore a hole with the small awl in the ends of the axle. Place the wheel in position and drive a No. 3 pin into each end
of axle as far as possible without bending it. Cut the pin off even with handle. Spin the wheel around and see
that it runs true. Allow the glue to dry before using. If single-ply wood is used, bore the holes, in the wheel and
hubs, with the No. 4 Forstner bit. The Forstner bit will not split the wood.





PLATE 16










































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Plate 17



THE CANNON




The cannon represents an old-fashioned field or siege gun. There are sixteen pieces: two sides for the barrel, two
strips to go between the sides of the barrel, plunger, two sides for the carriage, two wheels, four hubs, two disks to go
on each side of the barrel, and a cross-bar. After marking parts out on wood, bore all holes before sawing. Bore from
both sides. Having sawed out all of the parts, put the barrel together first. Cut off two pieces of No. 4 dowel, seven-
eighths of an inch long. These form what are called the trunnions, which hold the barrel on to the carriage. Place one of
the disks, which has a quarter-inch hole in it, on one piece of dowel, letting it slip back three-sixteenths of an inch from
the end. Cover the projecting end of the dowel and the face of hub with glue and push into the hole in the side of
the barrel. Do the same with the other piece of dowel. Lay one side of the barrel down with the trunnion on the under
side. Support the ends on books. Spread a thin coating of glue on both sides of the two narrow strips and put them
in place as shown by dotted lines. Lay the other side of the barrel in place with the trunnion up. Nail through from
both sides with half-inch brads in the places marked. Be sure that the trunnions are in line. Next put the carriage
together. Cut two pieces of No. 4 dowel, one and seven-eighths inches long. Glue one end of one piece into the
hole A. Glue one end of the other piece into the hole B. Put glue on the end of the cross-bar aand nail into the place
shown by dotted lines. Put glue on the other ends of the dowels and cross-bar and fasten on the other side. Run
round file through holes C and make them large enough so that the No. 3 dowel will turn easily. Slip the barrel into
position. Cut a piece of No. 3 dowel three and one-eighth inches long. Slip the hub on one end, letting it slip back
three-eighths of an inch from the end. Spread glue on the face of the hub and projecting end of axle. Slip it on the
wheel. Spread glue on the face of another hub and slip it on the axle. Press the hubs tightly against the wheel. Slip
the axle through the holes in the carriage and glue up the wheel on the other end, using the same method (Plate 1,
"Glueing Wheel "). Spin wheels around and true up while the glue is still soft. Slip the plunger into the barrel. If
the plunger does not slide easily, sandpaper it. Bore a hole in the end of the plunger where shown. Take light
elastic band about three inches long when doubled, and put through hole in the end of the plunger. Slide the barrel
to one side and loop an elastic over the trunnion. Do the same on the opposite side. Bore a small hole in the trun-
nions just inside of the carriage on both sides and put in pin or brad. Should the elastic break, it can be easily
replaced by removing pins. The cannon is now ready for action.





TWO OF THIS


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Plate 18



THE DUMP-CART




The dump-cart represents a city ash-cart and will dump its load in most approved fashion. The drawing of the
cart and the pattern for the wheel are shown on Plate 19. It takes eighteen pieces to make the cart. The body is
made up of front, bottom, slanting back, and two sides. There are two shafts, two cross-bars, dumping lever, two lugs
to hold the body on to the axle, two wheels, and four hubs. Having marked out the parts, bore holes where required
with No. 4 spur-bit. Be sure to bore from both sides. Saw out carefully, having straight square edges, so that the
parts will nail together well. First nail the body together. Nail the bottom on to the front in the place indicated by
the dotted line. Nail sides to the front and bottom. Nail the slanting back in place. Nail on the lugs in the places
indicated by dotted lines. Spread a thin coating of glue on the lug where it fits on to the body before nailing. The
upper nail will come through, so clinch it down on the inside. Nail the shafts on to the cross-bars in the places in-
dicated by dotted lines, having the longest cross-bar nearest the ends of the shafts where the holes are bored for the
axle. Cut off a piece of No. 4 dowel, six and one-fourth inches long, for the axle. Run the round file through the holes
in the lugs and ends of the shafts, filing them out until the axle fits them loosely. Glue up one wheel on the end of the
axle, using the method explained under Plate 17, and shown on Plate 1, "Glueing Wheel." Place the shafts in position
between the lugs and slip the axle through holes in the lugs and shafts. Glue up the wheel on the other end of the
axle. Leave about one-eighth of an inch between the wheel and the lug so that the wheels will turn freely. Spin the
wheels around and true them up before the glue hardens. The last thing is to fasten on the dumping lever. The
lever hooks over the projection on the front of the bottom. Locate the lever on the inside of the shaft and make a
hole with a small brad-awl through both shaft and lever. Put the pin through from the inside and rivet it down.
Do not use the cart until the glue dries. It should stand five or six hours. If the cart has been carefully made, it
should work very nicely.




































































































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Plate 19



THE GUN




Most boys are fond of playing cowboy and they must have the necessary guns. This gun is simple to make, per-
fectly harmless, and still is real enough to afford the- youngsters pleasure. There are only five pieces to saw out: two
sides to the handle, the trigger-guard, barrel, and hammer. The sawing of all the parts must be very carefully done,
because they fit so nicely that unless well sawed they will not go together. When all the pieces are ready, put them
together. Make holes in the sides of the handle with a small brad-awl at the places indicated in pattern. Make holes
also in the barrel and hammer where shown. Push two No. 1 pins through holes in one side of the handle. Put the
barrel and the hammer in place and press them down on pins. Place the trigger-guard in position as shown by dotted
lines, and holding it firmly in place try the hammer and the barrel to see that they work freely. If the patterns have
not been well traced or the sawing well done there may have to be a little trimming to make the parts work easily.
After fitting, spread a thin coating of glue on the trigger-guard where it fits on to the side and press down firmly. Take
off the barrel and the hammer, leaving the pins in position. Spread glue on the surface of the trigger-guard where the
other side of the handle rests upon it. Put pins in holes in the handle and press together. To hold the handle together
while the glue is drying, drive half-inch brads in places marked. After the glue is hard, withdraw the pins and sand-
paper the handle so as to get the edges even. Sandpaper across the edges with No. 182 sandpaper wrapped around
a stick. The sharp corners of the handle and of the trigger may be taken off with sandpaper. Slip the hammer and
the barrel into place and fasten them by putting through No. 1 pins. Hammer-the pins down and cut the ends off close
to the surface. The pins need not be turned over as they will stay in place, and they may be easily taken out to re-
move either barrel or hammer. The gun may be cocked, the trigger pulled, and the barrel tipped down for loading in
a very realistic manner.




I PLATE 19


























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Plates 20, 21, and 22



FOUR-WHEELED WAGON




This wagon is a light-delivery or democrat wagon. The wagon requires thirty pieces: dash and tail gate, two
sides, bottom, two ends, back and bottom of seat, four yokes, two shafts, two narrow strips to fasten the shafts on to
the body, cross-bar, four wheels, and eight hubs. After marking out wheels and hubs, bore -holes in them with the No. 6
bit, boring from both sides, before sawing out. Having all the pieces ready, begin to put together by nailing the dash-
board and tail-gate on to the ends of the bottom. Next nail on the sides.. The seat comes next. Nail the back of the
seat on to the bottom of the seat. Nail the bottom of seat on to the sides of body where they are raised to receive it.
Nail on the ends of the seat. Take the two narrow strips and make a hole with the one-inch brad-awl at place shown by
the double-dotted line. This is to put a pin through to fasten on the shafts. Nail the strips on to the bottom of the body
at each of the front corners, letting the single-dotted line come just to the front of the dash. Take the four yokes
and make holes through them, at places indicated by double-dotted line, with the one-inch brad-awl. Nail the yokes on
to the body at places shown by dotted lines. Be sure and nail the long yokes on the front and the short yokes on the back.
This will make up for the difference in the size of the wheels and will make the body stand level. Nail the yokes on
with three nails, and to make a little more secure spread a thin coating of glue over the yoke where it fits on to the body.
The upper nail will come through, so should be clinched on the inside. The axles are made from a piece of No. 6 dowel-rod
seven and one-eighth inches long. Glue the wheels on to the ends of the axles, using the method described under Plate 17,
" The Cannon," and shown on Plate 1, "Glueing Wheel." Be sure and glue the small wheels on to one axle and the large
ones on to the other. Having glued up one set of wheels, lay them in the yokes and spin them around. True them up
while the glue is soft. Do the same with the other set and lay both sets aside until the glue has hardened. Fasten the
shafts on to the ends of the cross-bar, using glue as well as nails. The nails will come through, so they should, be clinched.
Make holes in the ends of the cross-bar with a small awl. Place the shafts between the strips on the front of the wagon
and drive No. 1 pins through strips into the ends of the cross-bar. Place the wheels- in the yokes and put No. 3 pins
through the holes in the lower part of the yokes. Bend the ends of the pins over to keep them from coming out.
The wagon is now ready for the road. If single-ply wood is used bore the holes with No. 6 Forstner bit.




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Plate 23



THE JUMPING-JACK




The jumping-jack is one of the oldest known mechanical toys. It is always of interest to children. It requires
nine pieces to make it: head, two bodies, two arms, two upper and two lower parts for the legs. After marking out,
bore holes in the arms and legs with No. 4 bit, as shown. Saw out all pieces. Run a round file through the holes in
the arms and legs, so that a No. 4 dowel will fit loosely. Make holes in the two bodies with one-inch brad-awl in the
places shown. Make holes in both parts of legs, at the knee, with one-inch brad-awl. Fasten the knees together
with No. 3 pins. Cut the pins off a little less than one-half inch from the wood. Bend the ends of pins into a loop
with a round-nose or electricians' pliers (Plate 1, "Loose Joints"). Make holes in the top edge of the arms and
legs with the one-inch brad-awl in the places shown. Take a piece of cord, such as druggists use, about five inches long
and tie a loop in the middle. Push the ends into the holes in the top of the arms. Whittle a stick to a point (or use a
toothpick), and after dipping the end in glue force it into the hole beside the cord. Break off the stick. Take a second
piece of cord two inches long and fasten the ends into the top of the legs in the same way. Nail and glue the head on
to one of the bodies in the place indicated by dotted line. Take a piece of No. 4 dowel, and make a hole in the centre
of one end about half an inch deep with the one-inch brad-awl. Saw off a piece of the dowel, with the hole in it one-
fourth of an inch long. Work the awl in a little deeper and saw off another piece one-fourth of an inch long. Make
four of these little bushings, as they would be called. Take the side of the body on to which the head has been
fastened and push four No. 1 pins through the holes from the opposite side from the head. On each of these pins slip
one of the bushings. Place the arms and legs in position. They should fit very loosely on the bushings. Take a piece
of the cord about two feet long and tie one end into the loop between the arms. With the arms and legs held down
in position, tie the long cord around the cord which connects the legs (consult the drawing on Plate 23). Pull the cord
and see that it is properly adjusted before putting on the other half of the body. If it is all right, put the body on to
pins and press together. Cut the pins off and rivet them down, using the A B C method, Plate 1. If the buslhings are
cut one-sixteenth of an inch longer than the thickness of the wood of which the arms and legs are made, the bodies will
be held apart, so that the arms and legs will work freely. The jumping-jack may be painted in bright colors, or the face
and coat drawn with a pencil.

S.




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Plate 24



THE ACROBATIC MONKEYS




The acrobats make a very interesting mechanical toy. Thirty-two pieces are required for their construction. Each
of the monkeys takes seven pieces: body, two arms, two upper and two lower parts to the legs. Two of the largest
wheels, three of the second size, one of the small size, handle, seven hubs, two uprights and two pieces for the base are
also needed. Mark out all the parts and bore holes with the No. 4 spur-bit in the wheels, hubs, both ends of handle,
upper ends of uprights and in one upright near lower end in the place shown and in the monkeys' hands. Bore from both,
sides to insure a smooth hole. Saw out all parts. Fasten the monkeys together with No. 3 pins, using the "loose joint"
method shown on Plate 1, and explained under Plate 23, "The Jumping-Jack." The base is built up of two pieces, the
upper one being three-eighths of an inch smaller, each way, than the lower. Nail and glue them together, letting the
lower piece project three-sixteenths of an inch on all sides. The nails will come through, so clinch them on the under
side. Fasten the uprights to the base in the places shown by the dotted lines. Use nails and glue. Nail the uprights
into the edge of the top piece and nail up through the bottom into the end of the upright. Use a small brad-awl,to
start the nails. By referring to Plate 1, "Acrobats," under Construction," it will be seen just how the acrobats go
together. Cut a piece of No. 4 dowel five and one-half inches long. Slip a hub on to the end of the dowel, letting the
dowel project a little over half an inch. Spread glue on the hub and the projecting end of the dowel. Slip on one of
the large-sized wheels. Take a second-size wheel and coat both sides with glue and slip it on to the dowel, then slip
on the other large wheel and press them all together with a twisting motion. This forms the pulley upon the end of
the pole upon which the monkeys perform. File the holes in the tops of the uprights with the round file, so that the
pole will fit very loosely, and slip the pole in place. Spin the pulley around and true it up. Glue up the lower pulley
on a piece of quarter-inch iron rod, or on the end of the saw frame. The order will be one second-size wheel, the
small wheel, the other second-size wheel and the handle. Press firmly together. Glue a piece of No. 4 dowel, one
and one-quarter inches long, into the hole in the end of the handle with a hub to make it secure. After the glue is dry
it may be slipped off the iron rod and the hole filed out so that it will run easily on the No. 4 dowel. Cut off a piece
of No. 4 dowel one and one-half inches long. Glue this piece of dowel into the lower hole in the upright, gluing a hub
on both sides. Slip the pole through the hole in the upper part of the upright, slip on a hub, push the pole through one
monkey's hands, then through the other monkey's hands, put on a hub, then put the pole through the other upright and
put the last hub on the end of the pole. The monkeys may be put on in opposite directions, if desired, so that one
will turn forward and the other backward. Drive half-inch brads through the hubs and the monkeys' hands into the
pole. Let the brads stick out about one-eighth of an inch, so they can be pulled out if necessary. Secure a piece of
No. 20 chain, which can be found at almost any hardware store, about fifteen inches long. Slip the lower pulley into
place and measure the chain for length. Open a link and hook it together and close the link again. Fasten the chain
together while off-the pulleys. Remove the lower pulley, drop the chain over the upper pulley, pass it around the
lower pulley and slip the pulley into place. Make a hole in the projecting end of the dowel with a small brad-awl.
Put through a pin to keep pulley from coming off. Now turn the handle and the acrobats will perform. If the chain
stretches take out a link. A cord may be used in place of the chain, but is hard to keep tight. In all cases where
single-ply wood is used bore holes with Forstner bits.






PLATE 24






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Plates 25 and 26



LOCOMOTIVE AND TENDER




Plates 25 and 26 give the drawing and patterns for the locomotive and tender. It takes twenty-one pieces to make
the locomotive, besides about four feet of strip three-sixteenths of an inch thick and one-fourth of an inch wide. The
tender requires twelve pieces. For the locomotive there are the two side pieces, the centre piece, top of cab, four
driving-wheels, four front or pilot wheels, eight hubs, and bell. For the tender there are two sides, bottom, back, four
wheels, and four hubs. All pieces must be sawed out very carefully to the line with square edges, so that they will fit
together well. Before putting them together bore the holes at the places shown for the axles. Bore the holes with the
No. 3 spur-bit. To put together, take the centre piece, which is the one with the smoke-stack, and cut strips to fit all
places indicated by dotted lines. Cut two strips exactly the same length for each place. Nail the strips on to one side
with one-half inch brads, driving them part way in or until the points just project through the centre piece. Place
strips on the under side and drive the brads down. Having nailed ,the strips on both sides of the centre piece, nail
on the outside pieces. Be sure that the edges exactly match. Nail on the top of the cab. Make holes in the top
of bell-supports with a one-inch awl. Make a hole through the bell with a small awl. Take a No. 1 pin and bend
the crank on the head end with about a one-fourth inch throw. Push a pin through the support, through the bell,
and then through the other support. Bend the end so the pin will not slip back. With a five-inch round file enlarge
the holes for axles, so that a No. 3 dowel will run very easily. Cut off four pieces of No. 3 dowel one and three-
fourths inches long for the axles. Slip on the hub and glue on the wheel. Put the axle through the hole and glue the
hub and the wheel on the other end. Glue up all four pairs of wheels exactly the same. Spin the wheels around and
true up while the glue is soft. Be sure and put the four driving-wheels in the back and the four small wheels, called
the pilot-wheels, in the front (see the picture of the locomotive). The tender or coal-car is put together in the same
way as the locomotive except that there is no ceritre piece, the sides being nailed on to the bottom and back. Bore
holes for the axles. Nail the bottom on to the back. Nail on the sides as shown by dotted lines. File out holes for
the axles. Glue up the wheels. The coupling, with which the locomotive is hitched to the tender, may be made with
two small screw-eyes. Open one a little or cut a small piece out of it and screw it into the locomotive in the place
shown in the picture. Screw the other into the tender and hook together. A whole train of cars may be worked out
in this same way.




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Plate 27



THE DODO BIRD




The dodo bird is a very grotesque mechanical toy and amuses both the children and the older people as well. There
are five pieces besides the standard and weight: head, tail, two sides, and a centre piece for the body. Select a piece of
material a full three-sixteenths of an inch thick for the centre piece. This will make the space between the sides a
little wider, so that the head and tail will work freely. Having sawed out the parts of the bird, proceed to put together.
Take the side pieces and lay the pattern on them. Mark the places where holes are to be made for the pins, which
hold the head and tail in place. Mark the edges where the centre piece comes as shown by dotted lines on the pattern.
Make holes for the pins with a small brad-awl. Spread a thin coating of glue on the centre piece and lay it in place
on one side. Spread glue on the exposed surface of the centre piece and lay it on the other side. Put No. 3 pins through
holes. This will keep the sides in place while nailing. Nail the sides to the centre piece with half-inch brads in the places
marked. Make holes in the head and tail in the places shown, using a one-inch awl. Remove the pins. Try the head
and tail in place to see that they work easily. If they fit too tightly thin them down a little with sandpaper. Cut a
piece of cord, such as druggists use, about four feet long. Put the end of the cord through the hole in the head near-
est the end and tie a knot. Put the other end of the cord through the hole in the tail nearest the end and tie a knot.
Be sure to put the cord through from the upper side (see drawing, Plate 27). Put the head aind tail in place and push
in the pins. Cut the pins off even with the face of the wood so they can be easily removed. Do not rivet. Cut a
piece of No. 4 dowel four inches long and glue it into the hole in the centre piece to make the bird's legs. Saw the
standard out of wood one-half inch thick. Any kind of solid wood will do. Saw carefully as half an inch is pretty
thick for the small saw, but with care it can be done. Bore a hole with a No. 4 bit, as shown by the dotted lines
in the heavy end of the standard. Bore a hole through the lower projection in the place shown to receive screw-eye.
Glue the end of the dowel, which projects from the bird, into the hole in the standard. Be sure and place the bird at
right angles with the standard. Screw in the screw-eye and fasten the bird to the edge of a table or shelf. Draw
the strings down until the head and tail are raised to position. Tie the strings together about three inches below the
standard. The weight may be made from a piece of broomstick about six inches long. Any kind of weight may be
used that is heavy enough to balance the head and tail. Fasten the string to the top of the weight with a small
screw-eye. Swing the weight and see the bird bob his head and tail. The bird may be painted in bright colors and
a feather stuck into its head for a plume. This will add to its comical appearance.





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Plate 28



THE DANCING DARKY




This toy is one that never fails to interest. There are eighteen pieces to be sawed out: the body, two upper and
two lower parts for the arms, two disks to go under the arms at the shoulders, two upper and two lower parts for the
legs, post, base, movable base, and four cleats. After all pieces are sawed out fasten the man together. Use the "loose
joint" method, the same as for "The Acrobats." Be sure and bore the holes large enough so that the joints will work very
freely. To fasten on the arms use a No. 1 pin, as there will be five thicknesses to fasten together. For all other joints
use No. 3 pins. Have the heads of the pins on the inside at the knee and elbow joints with the loops on the outside.
Next glue the post into the stationary base with a cleat glued on each side to make it firm. Bore a hole through the post near
the lower end at the place shown by the circle. Cut off a piece of No. 16 brass wire five-eighths of an inch long. Put
the wire through the hole in the post, letting the ends stick out on each side. Drop movable base over the post. See
that it fits loosely and will rock easily on wire. To hold the base in place cut notches in the two remaining cleats large
enough to fit over the projecting ends of the wire. Glue the cleats on to the under side of the movable base. This will
hold the base in place, but will allow it to work freely on the wire. Cut a piece of No. 16 brass wire six inches long.
Bore a hole in upper part of the post at the place shown by dotted lines, using a one-inch brad-awl. Bore a hole in
the back of the man at the place shown by dotted lines. Drive one end of the wire into the post and force, the other
end into the man's back. His feet should be suspended about three-fourths of an inch above the movable base. If
the distance is not right the wire can be bent at the posts. To make the darky perform, drum on the round end of
the movable base with the fingers. This will cause him to dance in a very pleasing manner.





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