Group Title: Citrus Station mimeo report - Florida Citrus Experiment Station ; CES 67-5
Title: Hunter citrus colorimeter values determined in quality control laboratories of three commercial concentrate plants
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072443/00001
 Material Information
Title: Hunter citrus colorimeter values determined in quality control laboratories of three commercial concentrate plants
Series Title: Citrus Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 4 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Huggart, R. L
Barron, R. W
Wenzel, F. W
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: Florida Citrus Commission :
Citrus Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred FL
Publication Date: 1966
 Subjects
Subject: Orange juice -- Color -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Orange juice -- Quality -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Frozen concentrated orange juice -- Color -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 4).
Statement of Responsibility: R.L. Huggart and R.W. Barron and F.W. Wenzel.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "400-10/4/66-RLH."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072443
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 76752477

Full Text





Florida Citrus Commission and
Citrus Experiment Station CES 67-5
Lake Alfred, Florida 400-10/4/66-RLH



Hunter Citrus Colorimeter Values Determined in Quality Control Laboratories of
Three Commercial Concentrate Plants

R. L. Huggart and R. W. Barron
Florida Citrus Commission
and
F. W. Wenzel
Florida Citrus Experiment Station
Lake Alfred, Florida


One of the characteristics of reconstituted frozen concentrated orange juice,
which is a major quality factor, is its color. This is recognized in the U.S.
Standards for Grades of Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice (4). In a total score
of 100, 40 points may be given for color, 40 points for flavor, and 20 for
absence of defects.

Hunter Associates Laboratory, Inc., began developing a prototype citrus
colorimeter, Model E45, in 1963 (3). This instrument was designed to be used
to obtain objectively values indicative of the color of orange and grapefruit
juices. Results have been presented on the evaluation of this colorimeter (1)
(2). However, this prototype model was out-dated during the past year by the
design and production of an improved Hunterlab Citrus Colorimeter, Model D45.

Three of the improved citrus colorimeters were purchased by the Florida
Citrus Commission during the 1965-66 citrus season. These instruments were
allotted during the last week of January, 1966, to the quality control labora-
tories of three Florida processing plants which were designated by the Quality
Advisory Committee of the Florida Canners Association. The cooperating companies
were Libby, McNeill and Libby, Ocala; Florida Citrus Canners Cooperative, Lake
Wales; and TreeSweet Products Company, Fort Pierce. These colorimeters were
used by USDA inspectors and quality control personnel of these companies for
collecting data on which this report is based.

A Hunterlab, Model D45, Citrus Colorimeter was also purchased by the USDA
Consumer and Marketing Service, Fruit and Vegetable Division,Processed Food
Inspection for use in their laboratory in Winter Haven, Florida. This colori-
meter, identical to those used in the three commercial plants, has been used by
the authors during this year and its availability to them was appreciated.


Use of Hunterlab Citrus Colorimeter, Model D45

Readings for Citrus Redness (CR) and Citrus Yellowness (CY) of a citrus
juice may be obtained using the Hunterlab Citrus Colorimeter. The CR and CY
values of 20 reconstituted orange juices were determined after they had been
arranged in order of their visual color ranging from relatively poor to good
colors. Results are shown in Figure 1 from which it is evident that as the
visual color improved, the CR and CY values increased. These samples were
displayed by J. W. McAllister and the CR and CY values determined at the USDA
Processed Food Inspection laboratory in Winter Haven.









Samples of frozen concentrated orange juice (FCOJ) were obtained in the
three commercial plants at hourly intervals on a 24 hour basis during operation.
The sampling period started January 28, and continued through June 29, 1966. The
4435 samples examined in the plants represented products packed in 6 oz. or 12
oz. cans or bulk containers (barrels).

The visual colors of the reconstituted frozen concentrated orange juices
were determined using USDA plastic color comparator tubes, OJ2, OJ3, OJ4, and
OJ5 which represent visual color score points ranging from 36 (OJ5) to 40 (OJ2).
The juices, in 1-inch-OD screw-cap culture tubes, and the USDA plastic color
comparator tubes were viewed together in a Macbeth Examolite, daylight Model
EBA-220, with a rated color temperature of 74000 Kelvin.

The total number of samples, observed at each of the three plants, which
corresponded to each USDA color score point are presented in Table 1. Of the
4435 reconstituted orange juices, 2912 or 65.7% were given a score of 39, 19.6%
were scored 38, 14.3% were scored 37 and less than 1% were scored as either 36
or 40. Approximately one-half of the visual color scores were reported from
Plant B and about 25% from each of the Plants C and D, respectively.


Table 1. Frequency distribution of USDA OJ color score points for
samples of reconstituted commercial frozen concentrated orange juice scored
at three Florida plants during the 1965-66 citrus season.
Plant USDA OJ score points2 Total plant % of
code 36 37 38 39 40 samples samples

B none 17 323 1842 14 2196 49.5
C 1 337 376 390 none 1104 24.9
D 2 282 170 680 1 1135 25.6
Total group
samples 3 636 869 2912 15 4435
% of samples 0.1 14.3 19.6 65.7 0.3 100.0
Samples include both midseason and late season products, packed in 6 oz. or
12 oz. cans and in bulk containers (barrels).
2 Using USDA plastic color comparator tubes.


After the visual color scores had been obtained, Citrus Red and Citrus
Yellow values for the color of the reconstituted juices were measured with
the Hunterlab Citrus Colorimeter. These results are shown in Tables 2 and 3.
For example, at Plant D, a total of 282 readings were made on samples which
scored 37 points. The CR values (Table 2) for these samples ranged from 30
to 37, while the CY (Table 3) readings varied from 79 to 85. The mean CR and
CY values reported by the three plants for all of the reconstituted orange
juices, which had been given a visual score of 37 was 34.1 (Table 2) and 83.1
(Table 3), respectively. The number of samples from each plant having
specific CR and CY values are grouped in Tables 2 and 3 on the basis of their
USDA visual color scores. The mean CR and CY values for juices scored 37 and
38 points at Plant C were consistently greater than those reported by Plants
B and D.
Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
400-10/4/66 RLH









Frequency distribution curves of the number of samples of reconstituted
frozen concentrated orange juice having identical Citrus Red or Citrus Yellow
values were plotted. Distribution curves of the CR values for products packed
during the midseason period, January 28 to March 15, 1966, and during the late
season period, March 16 to June 29, 1966, are shown in Figures 2A and 2B,
respectively. Similar distribution curves for the CY values are shown in
Figures 3A and 3B. Figures 2C and 3C are distribution curves of the CR and
CY values for the total number of samples examined from January 28 to June
29, 1966. All of the figures show three distribution curves, which from the
bottom of the page upward correspond to samples of frozen concentrated orange
juice packed in (a) barrels and (b) 6 oz. or 12 oz. cans; the third or top
curve shows the distribution of the CR or CY values for the total number of
reconstituted juices examined during the periods indicated.

Two peaks are evident in the midseason curves, Figures 2A and 3A. The
CR readings at the higher peaks were 34 and 40, while the CY values peaked
at 83 and 88. The lower CR and CY peaks resulted chiefly from the color of
the barreled products. The peaks occurred at higher CR (42) and CY (87)
readings in the late season curves, Figures 2B and 3B. There are two peaks in
Figures 2C and 3C, based upon the CR and CY values for the total number of
reconstituted orange juices examined. The CR and CY values for the lower
midseason peaks are 34 and 83, while those for the late season peaks are 42
and 87. Such differences in color between midseason and late season packs of
frozen concentratedorange juice have been previously indicated by data obtained
by the authors using the Hunter Color Difference Meter for measuring the red-
ness and yellowness of reconstituted juices.

It had been suggested early in this study that separate color groupings
might be found for barreled orange concentrate because of the anticipated
color differences between them and similar products packed in 6 oz. and 12 oz.
cans. Therefore, it was interesting to note, as data became available, that
the CR and CY color values for reconstituted juices obtained from barreled
concentrate placed them in the same color groups as those found when 6 oz. or
12 oz. cans of frozen concentrate were examined.

Data presented in Figure 4 show the CR and CY values of the USDA plastic
OJ color comparator tubes as measured with the citrus colorimeter; also,
plotted are the CR and CY means of the 4435 samples of juices which were
scored 36, 37, 38, 39 or 40. The straight line is the regression line cal-
culated to fit the OJ readings, with the exception of OJl. Differences were
found between both the redness (CR) and the yellowness (CY) in the plastic
color comparator tubes and that indicated by the CR and CY mean values of the
orange juices. Because of this, it is evident why quite frequently the
visual colors of the plastic tubes do not match those of orange juices. It
should also be noted that a larger difference was found between the CY mean
values for the reconstituted orange juices which were scored 36, 37, or 38,
However, a larger difference occurred between the CR mean values when'the
samples were scored 38, 39, or 40.

In conclusion, it should be indicated that the three Hunterlab Citrus
Colorimeters, Model D45, will be used again during the 1966-67 season at the

Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
400-10/4/66 RLH









same commercial plants to obtain more data pertaining to the color of frozen
concentrated orange juice. Then data from two citrus seasons will be avail-
able for statistical analysis to determine what parameter or range of redness
(CR) or what ranges of both redness (CR) and yellowness (CY) can be used as
being equivalent to designated color scores. If this can be accomplished, then
it will be possible to determine objectively with the Hunterlab Citrus Colori-
meter color scores for samples of orange juice.


Acknowledgments

This report was made possible by the assistance and cooperation of the
Florida Citrus Canners Cooperative, Lake Wales; Libby, McNeill and Libby,
Ocala; TreeSweet Products Company, Fort Pierce; and the USDA Consumer and
Marketing Service, Fruit and Vegetable Division Processed Food Inspection,
Winter Haven, Florida. The authors appreciated and express their thanks to
all personnel of these companies and the USDA who obtained and reported all
of the data on which this report is based.


References


1. Huggart, R. L., R. W. Barron, and F. W. Wenzel. 1964. Evaluation of
Hunter Citrus Colorimeter. Report CES 65-2. Fifteenth Annual Citrus Processors'
Meeting, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Florida.

2. Huggart, R. L., R. W. Barron, and F. W. Wenzel. 1966. Evaluation of
Hunter citrus colorimeter for measuring the color of orange juices. Food
Technol. 20, 109.

3. Hunter, Richard S. 1963. A colorimeter for grading citrus juices.
Report CES 64-3. Fourteenth Annual Citrus Processors' Meeting, Citrus Experi-
ment Station, Lake Alfred, Florida.

4. USDA. 1964. U.S. Standards for grades of frozen concentrated orange
juice. U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Marketing Service, Washington, D, C.

















Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
400-10/4/66 RLH








Table 2. Frequency distribution of
concentrated orange juice, as determined
plants during the 1965-66 citrus season


Citrus Red (CR) color values for samples of reconstituted frozen
with a Hunterlab Model D45 Citrus Colorimeter, at three Florida


CITRUS RED Color Values Mean CR values
Plant 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 57 Plant Group.
S Number of Samples
USDA Color Score for Group = 36
B -
C -- 1 32.0
D 1 1 30.5
31.0

USDA Color Score for Group = 37
B 1 1 9 3 1 2 33.5
C 1 4 5 6 8 38 83 90 36 33 20 8 4 1 34.9
D 3 9 62 90 94 18 4 2 33.2
34.1

USDA Color Score for Group = 38
B 1 10 23 54 47 31 41 32 24 29 16 8 4 1 1 1 36.7
C - 7 23 28 100 125 60 21 12 -- 41.7
D 6 24 61 46 13 6 6 4 4 35.7
38.7
USDA Color Score for Group = 39
B 4 2 6 15 30 147 391 550 412 163 65 24 15 5 3 3 2 4 1 42.2
C 2 17 55 101 91 74 30 17 3 - 42.8
D 2 16 52 112 177 152 96 52 17 4 - 41.5
42.1
USDA Color Score for Group = 40
B 1 1 3 2 3 1 1 1 1 48.8
C - -
D 1 49.0
48.8
Total
Samples 1 4 10 17 82 166 258 221 121 97 96 145 341 743 938 663 310 125 47 21 8 7 4 3 4 2 1 40.3

Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
400-10/4/66 RLH








Table 3.
concentrated


Frequency distribution of Citrus Yellow (CY) color values for samples of
orange juice, as determined with a Hunterlab Model D45 Citrus Colorimeter,


reconstituted frozen
at three Florida


plants during the 1965-66 citrus season
CITRUS YELLOW Color Values Mean CY values
Plant 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 Plant Group
Number of Samples
USDA Color Score for Group = 36
B -
C 1 82.0
D 1 1 79.5
80.3

USDA Color Score for Group = 37
B 3 12 2 81.9
C 2 5 11 40 76 79 60 42 5 9 7 1 84.1
D 1 29 47 89 98 17 1 82.1
83.1
USDA Color Score for Group = 38
B 4 25 73 78 53 29 36 24 1 83.6
C 2 13 72 99 104 56 28 2 88.5
D 2 9 43 68 34 14 85.0
86.0
USDA Color Score for Group = 39
B 3 2 6 77 408 649 559 128 10 87.1
C 1 10 154 168 56 1 86.7
D 14 42 192 248 148 36 86.9
87.0
USDA Color Score for Group = 40
B 6 4 4 88.9
C -
D 1 90.0
88.9
Total
Samples 4 39 86 220 265 213 289 879 1180 877 281 72 28 2 86.3


Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
400-10/4/66 RLH





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Florida Citrus Commission
and Florida Citrus Experiment Station
Lake Alfred, Florida


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4i-- ,,,.. Distribution of CITRUS B Values: P

Figure 2B



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T":'7: GCOJ ":n 2607 -- -
i arrels n: 51 -



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January 28 to June 29, 1966
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;Distribution of CITRUS RZD

I1 rei 20


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YCOJ n 3656
Barrels 787


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aa&q9Q Total -nm 171
~n 1o ~o,
4 4-4.4 .4...... 444.
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..: L+_Distritbution of CITRUS-. YLLOW4Value8s
: .-.. .. '. t .4. .. i gure -'B 4 If --r --.




A' 3..
org j d t fo'..'
S ; m Late Season Total n I ,8 .-- .
: ..Zi stribu. ...........of....:...... n 26LLOW7.Va.ue..


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Late Seaine Total n e 2958 -










Marchl6,1966 toLjune 29t l 6
..... I . . :l ....
i 4i 4+ 1 4T,.
r


Values were obtained on reconstituted i--
orange juice during the period from .i.l-
March 16, 1966 tolJune 29, 1966- 4.1 .... '.





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it i t i 'd o l'', o i im t'0
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i 35
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