Group Title: Citrus Station mimeo report - Florida Citrus Experiment Station ; CES 66-3
Title: Aldehyde content of expressed Valencia orange oil as related to total rainfall
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072435/00001
 Material Information
Title: Aldehyde content of expressed Valencia orange oil as related to total rainfall
Series Title: Citrus Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 3, 2 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kesterson, J. W
Hendrickson, Rudolph
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: Florida Citrus Experiment Station :
Florida Citrus Commission
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred FL
Publication Date: 1965
 Subjects
Subject: Orange oil -- Analysis -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Aldehydes -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 3).
Statement of Responsibility: J.W. Kesterson and R. Hendrickson.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "400-10/12/65-JWK."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072435
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 76039087

Full Text





Citrus Experiment Station CES 66-3
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida 400-10/12/65-JWK


Aldehyde Content of Expressed Valencia Orange Oil as Related
To Total Rainfall


J. W. Kesterson and R. Hendrickson
University of Florida Citrus Experiment Station
Lake Alfred, Florida


The aldehyde content of expressed orange oil will vary considerably from
one season to another. Low aldehyde content oils are generally considered to
be inferior to oils with a high aldehyde content from the standpoint of flavor
and aroma. For this reason it would be desirable to always produce an oil
with a high aldehyde content. However, this has not been possible since the
factors responsible for this phenomenon have not been fully understood. The
purpose of this paper is to show how the aldehyde content of Valencia orange
oil is influenced by rainfall and how this information can be used to forecast
or predict what the aldehyde content will be for any given season.


EXPERIMENTAL SAMPLES

For the past 14 years commercial samples of Valencia orange oil produced
throughout the processing season by the various processing methods (3) have
been collected and analyzed to ascertain the aldehyde content (1). These
lots of commercial oil ranged from 10,000 to 30,000 pounds. The percent
aldehyde content for a season is calculated by averaging the analyses of a
variable number of orange oil samples that are equivalent to a minimum quantity
of 120,000 pounds of oil. This represents the oil produced from approximately
1,760,000 boxes of fruit.

The total rainfall, as used in the text, tables and figures, is taken
from March of one year through May of the following year since this 15-month
period represents the growing and harvesting season for the Valencia orange.
Rainfall data are based on the official records of the Lakeland Weather Bureau
(2) for the Lake Alfred Station. The average rainfall for this 15-month period
over the past 14 years is 63.94 inches.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The aldehyde content of Valencia orange oil shows a positive correlation
with the total rainfall, Table 1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.603 which
is significant at the 5 percent level. These data are presented graphically in
Figure 1. The aldehyde content of the oil rose with increased rainfall and
diminished when rainfall decreased. The 1954-55 and 1964-65 seasons are
exceptions to this rule. This may possibly indicate that the distribution of










rainfall within a season is a factor that also influences the aldehyde content
but data were not analyzed to ascertain this relationship.

The question most often asked by purchasers of Florida citrus oil is:
"What will be the aldehyde content of orange oil next season?" The interre-
lationship of the percent aldehyde content and total rainfall is shown by the
regression line in Figure 2. If the rainfall for a particular season is known
it is an easy matter to look at this chart and predict the aldehyde content.

The aldehyde content could possibly be maintained at a satisfactory level
by the proper use of irrigation water. Future widespread use of irrigation
will undoubtedly result in an improvement in the over-all quality of Florida
orange oil.


Table 1. Aldehyde Content of Valencia Orange
to Total Rainfall


Oil as Related


Season Total Aldehyde Number of
Rainfall Content Oil
March May Inches % Samples

51 52 73.65 1.61 8
52 53 68.28 1.61 8
53 54 63.53 1.62 8
54 55 48.10 1.71 18
55 56 43.64 1.41 11
56 57 73.12 1.72 8
57 58 72.13 1.71 8
58 59 72.10 1.80 9
59 60 90.73 1.74 27
60 61 77.25 1.60 8
61 62 45.64 1.55 12
62 63 54.95 1.49 12
63 64 62.91 1.62 8
64 65 49.17 1.67 7

Correlation Coefficient = 0.603 (Significant at 5% level).


SUMMARY

The aldehyde content of Valencia orange oil is one variable that often
has been used as a criterion of high quality and it is established herein as
being directly related to the total rainfall. Use of rainfall data makes
it possible to predict in advance oil quality for any given season. The proper
use of irrigation would make it possible for the aldehyde content to be main-
tained at an optimum value.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
400- 10/12/65 JWK









LITERATURE CITED


1. Guenther, H. 1948. The essential oils. 1-427. D. Van Nostrand
Company, Inc.

2. Johnson, Warren 0., et al. 1965. The Seasons Report .of the Federal-
State Frost Warning Service. U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Weather Bureau
and Univ. of Fla. Agr. Exp. Stations, Lakeland, Florida.

3. Kesterson, J. W. and R. Hendrickson. 1953. Essential Oils from Florida
Citrus. Univ. of Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. 521: 1-70.












































Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
400- 10/12/65 JWK
















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