Group Title: Citrus Station mimeo report - Florida Citrus Experiment Station ; CES 66-2
Title: Variations in the color of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices during eleven citrus seasons
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 Material Information
Title: Variations in the color of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices during eleven citrus seasons
Series Title: Citrus Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 4, 6 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wenzel, F. W
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: Citrus Experiment Station :
Florida Citrus Commission
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred FL
Publication Date: 1965
 Subjects
Subject: Frozen concentrated orange juice -- Color -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: F.W Wenzel ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "400-10/12/65-FWW."
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Bibliographic ID: UF00072434
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 76038273

Full Text




Citrus Experiment Station CES 66-2
and Florida Citrus Commission, ~
Lake Alfred, Florida. 400-10/12/65-FWW



Variations in the Color of Commercial Frozen Concentrated Orange Juices
during Eleven Citrus Seasons

F. W. Wenzel
Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and
R. W. Barron, M. D. Maraulja and R. L. Huggart
Florida Citrus Commission
Lake Alfred, Florida


The color of reconstituted frozen orange juice is recognized as one of the
quality factors in the U.S. Standards for Grades of Frozen Concentrated Orange
Juice (1964). In a possible total score of 100, 40 points may be given for color,
40 for flavor and 20 for abscence of defects. Much effort and money has been
expended this year by the commercial development department of the Florida Citrus
Commission, together with assistance from some Florida commercial citrus process-
ing companies and the Citrus Experiment Station, to determine at the New York
World's Fair what effect certain characteristics, of frozen concentrated orange
juice, including color, have on consumer preferences.

Information has been obtained at this Station relative to the color of
commercial frozen concentrated orange juices over a period of many years. The
purposes of this report are to (1) present data available and briefly discuss
differences that have occurred in the color of this product, during this period
of time, and (2) if possible, indicate reasons for variations found in the color
of reconstituted frozen concentrated orange juices during 11 citrus seasons.


Collection of Samples and Determination of Color

Samples of commercial frozen concentrated orange juice have been furnished
by many Florida commercial citrus processing companies, beginning with the 1953-
54 season, With the exception of 1955-56 season, samples have been obtained
semi-monthly from over 20 plants from 1953 to 1965. A total of 2152 samples
have been examined to determine the color, as well as many other characteristics
of frozen concentrated orange juices.

A Hunter Color and Color Difference Meter has been used to measure the
color of both orange concentrates and the reconstituted juices. References
have been listed at the end of the previous paper (Citrus Station Mimeo Report
CES 66-1) relative to the design and use of this instrument; also, to research
investigations and results obtained at this Station by Huggart, Wenzel and
other persons.


Results and Discussion

Results of color measurements on the 2152 samples of frozen concentrated
orange juice are presented in Tables 1-6. These include frequency distribution
tables of the Hunter a and Rd values for both 420 Brix orange concentrates and
11.80 Brix reconstituted juices; also, minimum, maximum and average a and Rd









values for both midseason and late season samples. The relative color quality
of the samples has to date been based upon ranges of the Hunter a values for the
concentrates (Table 5). This makes it possible to classify the color as either
excellent, very good, good, fair or poor. For the sake of easier interpretation,
the five classifications have been condensed into three groups (Table 6).

Considering the frequency distribution for the Hunter a values (Table 1),
it can be seen that if frequency distribution curves should be made for the
Hunter a values of the concentrates, then 9 of the 11 curves would have two
peaks. One of these peaks results from the use of midseason oranges and the
other from the use of late season oranges for processing concentrates. The
percentage of the samples responsible for the late season peak is in a higher
range of Hunter a values than that for the midseason peak. The reason for this
is that the color of Valencia oranges is better, being redder, than the color
of both early or midseason fruit. This results in higher Hunter a values in
products made from late season fruit.

Only one peak would be found in the distribution curve for orange concen-
trates packed during the 1957-58 and 1962-63 seasons. The occurrence 6f freezing
weather during these two seasons caused damage to both fruit and trees. This
brought about more blending of bulk concentrates made from different varieties
of oranges. The overall color of concentrate was not as good as it was during
normal seasons.

The color of the reconstituted orange juices, as indicated by the Hunter a
values, varied somewhat differently from that of the concentrates. The frequency
distribution tables for both concentrates and reconstituted juices show only one
peak during the 1957-58 season. However, in contrast to the concentrates, the
distribution table for the reconstituted juices indicates two peaks. Also,
during both the 1963-64 and 1964-65 seasons, only one peak is indicated. This
again could have resulted from the blending of more bulk concentrates produced
from different varieties of oranges.

The frequency distribution tables for the Hunter Rd values (Table 2) of
both concentrates and reconstituted juices show that, in general, the variations
in the lightness (whiteness) of these products during the 11 citrus seasons were
quite similar; also, that only one peak would be evident on all of the distri-
bution curves. It should be pointed out that the percentages of reconstituted
juices with the Hunter Rd values in the higher ranges have been over 40% during
the last 7 out of 8 seasons. This has resulted in poorer color than that in
concentrates packed during the 1953-54, 1954-55, and 1956-57 seasons.

Data in Table 3 indicate that the minimum Hunter Rd values for orange con-
centrates, packed during the midseason periods, were in a range from 17.6 to
21.8; for the late season concentrates the range was from 14.5 to 19.5. The
ranges for the maximum Rd values were 27.5 to 35.4 and 22.3 to 29.9 for the mid-
season and late season packs, respectively. The minimum Hunter a values for
midseason concentrates ranged from 1.2 to 2.7 and the range for the maximum
values was 5.2 to 9.1. The late season samples had minimum Hunter a values from
2.5 to 5.8 and maximum values from 7.5 to 11.9. Similar data can be obtained for
the ranges of minimum and maximum Hunter Rd and a values for the reconstituted
juices from these values in Table 4.

The relative color quality of frozen concentrated orange juices for each of
11 citrus seasons is shown in Table 6. The different classifications are based
upon the Hunter a values for the concentrates. The color of these products
varied from very good to poor. The number of years when the color was very good,
good, fair or poor were 2, 2, 5 and 2, respectively.









Various factors may affect the color of frozen concentrated orange juice.
Some of these are (1) the variety of oranges used, either by mixing, prior to
extraction fruit of different varieties or by blending of bulk concentrates made
from early, midseason or late season varieties, (2) yield of concentrate, includ-
ing the effect on it of the amount of pulp of either large or small particle
size, (3) pulp washing which results in the inclusion in the evaporator feed
juice very large numbers of very minute water-insoluble solids which can cause
increased lightness in the color, (4) the use of frozen fruit and (5) seasonal
factors, such as rainfall, temperature, amount of bulk orange concentrate re-
processed into frozen concentrated orange juice and amount of end-of-season
carry over of frozen orange concentrate.

It is obvious but data are also available which show that the color of con-
centrates is very dependent upon the variety of oranges processed. Color is
best in juice from late season oranges, and good in midseason fruit but color
of juice is poor when early season oranges are used. The data reported (Tables
3 and 4) for minimum, maximum and average Hunter a and Rd values substantiate
this. The amounts of each different variety of oranges used for production of
concentrates, as mentioned above, may be controlled by either mixing of fresh
fruit or blending of bulk concentrates. The poor or fair color quality of orange
concentrates, reported in Table 6, for products made during the 11 citrus seasons
was caused in many samples by the utilization of proportionally large quantities
of early season oranges.

The relative color quality and the yield of concentrate may be compared
from information in Table 7.

Table 7. Comparison of relative color quality and yield of frozen concen-
trated orange juices
53-54 54-55 56-57 57-58 58-59 59-60 60-61 61-62 62-63 63-64 64-65

Relative color quality-based on Hunter "a" values for concentrates
Fair Fair Good Poor Fair VG VG Poor Good Fair Fair

Yield Av. gal. 420 Brix concentrate/box of fruit
1.36 1.45 1.47 1.30 1.52 1.51 1.51 1.57 1.10 1.57 1.63

From Florida Canners' Association annual reports.


The average yield of concentrate was higher in the 1961-62, 1963-64
and 1964-65 citrus seasons and lower in the 1957-58 and 1962-63 seasons than in
that packed during the other six seasons. Low yields in the 1957-58 and 1962-63
seasons resulted because of the utilization of freeze-damaged oranges. The
color in products packed during 1957-58 and 1962-63 periods was poor and good,
respectively. The good quality of the 1962-63 packs, even though a severe freeze
occurred in December, 1962, may have resulted partially from the experience
gained during the 1957-58 season when very large quantities of freeze-damaged
fruit were processed for the first time since 1945-46 when commercial production
of frozen orange concentrate began.

The poor, fair, and fair color of frozen orange concentrates packed in
1961-62, 1963-64, and 1964-65 was apparently the result of increased juice

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 400-10/12/65-FWW









yields, together with increasing amounts of very minute particles of water-
insoluble solids. Such particles cannot be separated from water extracts of
pulp by centrifugation and cause the lightness of the reconstituted juices to
increase, as indicated by increases in the Hunter Rd values. This makes the
color of juices poorer.

With so many factors which can or may affect the color of reconstituted
frozen concentrated orange juices, the relative color quality of these juices
will always depend upon not just one but on several of these factors. This
is also true relative to any one of many characteristics of such orange juices.













































Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 400-10/12/65 FWW










Frequency distribution


Table 1i
tables of Hunter "a" values for commercial frozen
collected during 11 citrus seasons


concentrated orange juices


1953-54 1954-55 1956-57 1957-58


1958-59 1959-60
Concentrates


1960-61 1961-62 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65


11.1-12.0
10.1-11.0
9.1-10.0
8.1- 9.0
7.1- 8.0
6.1- 7.0
5.1- 6.0
4.1- 5.0
3.1- 4.0
2.1- 3.0
1.1- 2.0
Less than 1.1


0.0
0.5
2.3
5.1
12.6
11.6
12.6
14.9
17.2
12.5
10.2
0.5



0.0
2.8
11.2
17.2
15.8
23.7
26.5
2.8


0.9
5.2
8.0
18.8
11.8
4.3
9.4
17.0
20.8
3.8
0.0
0.0



1.9
8.5
21.2
13.2
9.0
21.7
21.7
2.8


0.0
0.0
2.7
8.2
16.8
10.9
9.5
17.3
20.5
10.5
3.6
0.0



0.0
4.1
16.8
17.3
12.7
27.7
20.0
1.4


Hunter Color Difference Meter values.




Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 400-10/12/65-FWW


Hunter
"a"


0.0
0.5
4.1
12.2
15.2
8.6
4.6
11.2
22.8
19.3
1.5
0.0


0.0
0.0
0.5
2.1
9.8
13.5
13.0
21.2
18.1
13.5
7.3
1.0



0.0
2.6
10.9
16.1
20.7
21.7
26.4
1.6


0.0
1.6
8.6
18.7
15.0
11.2
15.6
18.7
9.6
0.5
0.5
0.0


Reconstituted juices
2.5 0.0
9.1 8.0
15.7 20.3
9.6 18.7
10.2 23.5
29.5 26.8
22.4 2.7
1.0 0.0


0.0
-1.0
-2.0
-3.0
-4.0
-5.0
-6.0
Less


to -0.9
to -1.9
to -2.9
to -3.9
to -4.9
to -5.9
to -6.9
than -6.9


0.5
0.0
4.1
19.5
14.9
12.8
13.8
19.5
11.8
3.1
0.0
0.0



0.5
3.1
16.4
23.6
14.4
29.7
12.3
0.0


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
13.6
25.8
15.2
18.2
19.7
4.5
1.0



0.0
0.0
0.0
10.6
25.7
26.8
30.8
6.1


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6
12.1
23.0
23.6
21.3
12.7
6.1
0.6
0.0



0.0
1.2
10.3
35.2
17.6
24.8
7.9
3.0


0.0
0.0
0.0
4.3
12.2
23.2
12.2
14.6
11.6
14.6
6.7
0.6



0.0
0.6
3.7
23.1
22.6
22.6
20.1
7.3


0.0
0.0
0.5
1.5
10.6
21.3
12.1
14.1
20.7
16.2
2.5
0.5



0.0
0.5
3.0
20.2
20.2
23.7
27.9
4.5









Table 2
Frequency distribution tables of Hunter "Rd" values for commercial frozen concentrated orange juices
collected during 11 citrus seasons


1953-54 1954-55 1956-57 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60
Concentrates


1.8
17.7
28.7
28.2
14.1
6.8
2.7


6.9
21.8
21.4
32.6
13.5
3.8


7.5
23.2
26.9
23.1
13.2
3.7
1.9
0.5


7.8
18.6
33.2
30.0
6.2
3.2
1.0
- t


6.6
20.3
21.4
29.9
15.8
4.0
1.5
0.5


2.7
11.8
27.3
29.4
22.0
4.8
1.0
0.0
1.0


1960-61 1961-62 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65


5.2
15.9
29.7
27.2
15.4
6.1
0.5


4.5
23.3
26.7
21.7
18.3
4.0
1.5


1.8
13.9
29.7
32.3
16.9
4.8
0.6


0.6
5.5
27.4
36.6
24.4
5.5


- -
0.5
11.1
27.8
34,4
18.7
6.0
1.5


Reconstituted juices


7.0
30.7
36.3
23.2
2.8


10.3
33.5
35.9
17.0
3.3


- m

3.1
22.8
47.7
24.3
2.1


1.5
15.3
41.6
34.5
7.1


Hunter Color Difference Meter values.


Hunter
"Rd"
14.0-15.9
16.0-17.9
18.0-19.9
20.0-21.9
22.0-23.9
24.0-25.9
26.0-27.9
28.0-29.9
30.0-31.9
32.0-33.9
34.0-35.9


14.0-15.9
16.0-17.9
18.0-19.9
20.0-21.9
22.0-23.9
24.0-25.9
26.0-27.9
28.0-29.9


3.2
31.4
35.0
22.7
6.8
0.9


9.1
31.5
40.7
18.1
0.5


1.5
21.0
49.7
25.7
2.1


1.5
22.7
36.9
31.9
6.5
0.5


0.6
13.3
41.3
37.6
7.2


6.7
27.4
45.8
18.9
1.2


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 400-10/12/65-FWW


6.6
41.0
42.9
8.0
1.5








Table 3
Minimum, maximum, and average Hunter "Rd" and "a" values for commercial frozen concentrated
orange juices

Hunter 1953-54 1954-55 1956-57 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65
value Midseason Samples

"Rd" Min. 17.6 19.9 20.6 21.1 20.8 21.8 21.4 21.1 20.5 20.5 19.7
Max. 27.5 28.3 32.0 30.6 32.2 35.4 30.9 31.9 30.2 27.5 28.8
Av. 21.9 23.3 25.4 24.6 25.3 25.8 25.1 25.6 25.4 23.8 23.7

"a" Min. 1.2 0.5 2.3 0.7 1.5 2.0 2.7 0.7 1.9 0.9 1.1
Max. 6.1 5.2 7.9 6.3 8.5 7.5 9.1 7.5 8.0 7.0 7.5
Av. 4.0 3.2 4.3 3.3 3.6 5.0 4.9 3.2 4.4 3.4 3.6

Late Season Samples

"Rd" Min. 14.5 16.5 18.2 18.2 18.2 19.4 18.4 18.6 19.5 17.7 17.7
Max. 22.3 24.4 27.2 29.9 25.6 29.6 26.6 29.8 29.0 26.5 27.7
Av. 18.4 19.7 21.7 22.1 21.9 23.2 22.4 22.0 23.2 21.9 21.2

"a" Min. 4.4 3.7 5.0 2.5 5.5 4.5 5.8 3.1 2.4 3.5 3.0
Max. 10.0 10.5 11.4 9.1 10.1 10.6 11.9 7.5 8.2 8.9 9.3
Av. 7.3 6.9 8.7 6.0 7.8 6.5 8.1 5.6 6.2 6.5 6.5

Hunter Color Difference Meter values.





Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 10/12/65-FWW
400













Table 4
Minimum, maximum, and average Hunter "Rd" and "a" values for reconstituted juices from commercial
frozen concentrated orange juices


1953-54 1954-55 1956-57 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65


Midseason Samples

20.8 22.1 21.0
27.2 27.9 26.8
24.3 25.1 23.8


-7.0
-2.7
-5.7


-6.8
-3.0
-5.0


-6.9
-1.9
-5.3


Hunter
value

"Rd" Min.
Max.
Av.

"a" Min.
Max.
Av.



"Rd" Min.
Max.
Av.

"a" Min.
Max.
Av.


16.1
24.0
20.4

-7.1
-3.5
-5.7



14.0
20.7
17.7

-5.7
-1.0
-3.1


18.9
24.4
21.8

-7.4
-4.1
-6.0



14.3
22.9
19.2

-5.7
-0.5
-3.5


21.1
26.5
23.6

-7.0
-4.4
-5.8



18.5
24.0
20.9

-5.4
-0.5
-2.6


Hunter Color Difference Meter values.






Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 400-10/12/65 FWW


Late Season Samples

19.1 20.4 19.4
25.1 28.1 24.7
22.2 24.3 22.0


21.1
26.9
23.6

-6.8
-4.0
-5.9



18.7
25.2
22.2

-7.2
-1.3
-3.7


-5.0
-1.1
-2.8


-5.0
-0.5
-3.0


-5.3
+0.2
-2.6


21.0
28.2
24.5

-8.0
-3.7
-6.2



19.4
25.3
22.1

-7.2
-3.2
-4.6


22.7
29.8
26.6

-7.3
-3.4
-5.2



21.9
28.0
24.8

-7.3
-1.9
-3.7


20.1
26.2
23.4

-7.9
-3.6
-6.1



18.4
24.7
21.6

-6.4
-1.6
-4.0


19.1
27.0
22.8

-8.1
-2.5
-6.0



19.1
25.4
21.3

-6.3
-1.5
-3.9









Frequency distribution


Table 5
table of relative color quality of frozen concentrated orange
juices based on Hunter "a" values


Hunter
"a"


Relative
color quality


1953-54


1954-55


1956-57


1957-58


1958-59


1959-60


Concentrates


More than 9.1
7.1-9.0
5.1-7.0
3.1-5.0
1.1-3.0



More than 9.1
7.1-9.0
5.1-7.0
3.1-5.0
1.1-3.0


Excellent
Very good
Good
Fair
Poor



Excellent
Very good
Good
Fair
Poor


2.7
25.0
20.4
37.8
14.1


1960-61
4.6
34.4
26.6
31.3
3.1


2.8
17.7
24.2
32.1
23.2

1961-62
0
2.0
39.4
33.4
25.2


14.1
30.6
13.7
37.8
3.8

1962-63
0
12.7
46.6
34.0
6.7


0.5
11.9
26.5
39.3
21.8

1963-64
0
16.5
35.4
26.2
21.9


4.6
27.4
13.2
34.0
20.8


1964-65
0.5
12.1
33.4
34.8
19.2


Hunter Color Difference Meter values.


1
Huggart, R. L. and Wenzel, F. W. 1954. Measurement and
Proc. Florida State Hort. Soc., 1954. 210-216.


control of color of orange concentrate.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 400-10/12/65-FWW


10.2
33.7
26.8
28.3
1.0













Table 6


Condensed frequency distribution table of
juices based


relative color quality of frozen
on Hunter "a" values


concentrated orange


Hunter
"a"


More than 5.1


3.1-5.0
1.1-3.0
Relative color
for season

More than 5.1


3.1-5.0
1.1-3.0


Relative
color quality


Excellent, very
good, and good
Fair


Poor
quality


Excellent, very
good, and good
Fair
Poor


Relative color quality
for season


1953-54


1954-55


1956-57


1957-58


Concentrates


48.1

37.8
14.1


Fair
1960-61


65.6

31.3


Very good


44.7

32.1


23.2
Fair
1961-62


41.4

33.4
25.2


Poor


58.4

37.8


3.8
Good
1962-63


59.3

34.0
6.7


Good


38.9

39.3


21.8
Poor
1963-64


51.9

26.2
21.9


Fair


Hunter Color Difference Meter values.






Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 400-10/12/65-FWW


1958-59


1959-60


45.2

34.0


20.8
Fair
1964-65


70.7

28.3
1.0

Very good


46.0

34.8
19.2


Fair




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