Group Title: Citrus Station mimeo report - Florida Citrus Commission ; CES 64-2
Title: Results of consumer surveys
Full Citation
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 Material Information
Title: Results of consumer surveys
Series Title: Citrus Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 5 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Black, W. E
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: Florida Citrus Commission :
Florida Citrus Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred FL
Publication Date: 1963
Subject: Grapefruit juice -- Quality -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Grapefruit juice -- Testing -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: W.E. Black.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "October 8, 1963."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072414
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 75959106

Full Text

Citrus Station Mimeo Report CES 6h-2
October 8, 1963

Results of Consumer Survey;s

W. E. Black
Director, Economic and Marketing Research
Florida Citrus Commission
Lakeland, Florida

Today I am going to balk about two studies recently made by the Florida
Citrus Commission's Department of Economic and Marketing Research: (1) Store
Sales Test and Consumer Study for Florida Dense-Sweet Grapefruit Drink Mix, and,
(2) Consumer Preferences in West Germany for Canned Citrus Juices with Different
Brix/acid Ratios.

Grapefruit Drink Mix Study

The product used in this study consisted of grapefruit juice, sugar and
grapefruit oil emulsion and was developed by Mr. R. W. Olsen of the Citrus Experi-
ment Station staff. Many of you will recall this product as the one we taste
tested at the Annual Citrus Processors' meeting two years ago. About half of you
liked the product, while the rest of you rated it "so-so." Two weeks after you
rated the product, the Florida Citrus Production Managers rated it, and 78 per-
cent of them said they liked it. We obtained still higher ratings from elementary
school children, and from business and professional women. These early taste
tests indicated the product to be of good and acceptable quality, therefore,
marketing tests were undertaken.

Another word about the product, before I get into the marketing study is that
the product, as sold, required the consumer to add an equal amount of water to
achieve normal Brix reconstitution. This, of course, reduced the bitterness or
sourness, a characteristic of grapefruit juice to which consumers sometimes object.
This feature, coupled with distribution savings, resulting from the consumer adding
tap water, constituted the chief marketing attributes of the product. The product
was packed by Ben Hill Griffin, and was priced at retail two cans for 35 cents.

The market tests were made in Columbus, Ohio and Grand Rapids, Michigan. The
Columbus test involved 35 retail food stores and five merchandising treatments:
(1) give-away sampling, (2) in-store demonstrations, (3) special end-of-aisle
diJrplay, (h) shelf talkers and, (5) nothing. In Grand Rapids the test product was
stocked in 50 stores (30 audit stores and 20 distribution stores). During the
first three weeks of the test the product was advertised in Grand Rapids. During
the seventh week of the test the product was end-of-aisle displayed in ten stores,
with five of these stores having in-store demonstrations on Thursday, Friday and
Saturday. The test ran for four months with the first month serving as a control
period, and consumers (about OO housewives) were interviewed during the last two
weeks of the test period.

Florida Citrus Ccrmmission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Statioan,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
o00-10/8/63 WEB


The most effective promotional treatment was, by far, in-store demonstrations.
In Columbus, Ohio, in-store demonstrations produced 30 times the amount of sales as
regular shelf displays did. Give-away sampling produced nine times as much, special
display four times as much, and shelf talkers 40 percent more sales than regular
shelf displays. During the 12-week sales period this new product obtained one-third
of the hot pack grapefruit juice and drink sales in stores with demonstrations. In
stores with give-away sampling, Drink Mix obtained nine percent of total hot pack
grapefruit juice and drink sales, while all other treatments in Columbus, Ohio ob-
tained less than five percent. During the entire period the new product accounted
for ten percent of all hot pack grapefruit juice and drink sales. However, most of
the sales gains by the new product came from losses in grapefruit juice sales and
secondly from losses in market share of grapefruit-type drinks.

In Grand Rapids (bear in mind that the product was advertised during the first
three weeks and merchandised in the seventh week) sales were slow and did not in-
crease appreciably throughout the test except in those stores receiving special
merchandising treatment. Displaying alone boosted sales eight fold, but had no
continuing effect after the display had been removed from the store. Displaying
with in-store demonstrations increased sales about 30 fold, and continued to stimu-
late sales after the merchandising treatment. But, as in Columbus, Florida Dense-
Sweet Grapefruit Drink Mix did not create a plus market for grapefruit. The sales
of this product appeared to most affect the sales of frozen concentrated grapefruit
juice, and secondly, and to a much lesser degree, the sales of canned sweetened
grapefruit juice.

From the consumer interviews we learned:
(1) that about half the purchasers bought more than once and
nearly ten percent of the purchasers bought five or more
times during the test sales period,

(2) that each can made about eight servings, and it was most
frequently served at breakfast. Next most common occasion for
serving Drink Mix was between meals, and, thirdly, to a far
lesser extent, with lunch or dinner,

(3) that housewives most frequently used the products, husbands
next and children least,

(4) that it was best liked by adult females and least liked by
pre-school aged children,

(5) that nearly all respondents said they like Drink Mix better
than grapefruit juice,

(6) that about one-half of the respondents said they intended to
buy the product again. The most common reason given for not buy-
ing the product again was the dislike for grapefruit flavor.

Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
OO-lO/8/63 WEB


Because most of the sales of this product were at the expense of grapefruit
juice, either frozen or hot pack, this product had not achieved a plus marketing
position or a., unique product status, Any decision to market this item should
take into account the substantial investment in marketing effort that would be re-
quired to establish it in the market. The product, if commercially marketed, will
mainly displace citrus juices at the breakfast table. For these reasons, I con-
sider the plus market likely to be created by this product to be exceedingly small,
and the economic benefits to this industry to be inadequate.

Consumer Preferences in West Germany for Canned Citrus Juices
with Different Brix/Acid Ratio

Both canned single strength orange juice and canned single strength grapefruit
were involved in this test. In proposing this study, the Export Advisory Committee
contended that we really didn't understand the taste preferences of foreign con-
sumers. Certainly it would be hazardous to project our understanding of taste
preferences among American consumers to foreign consumers. There are obvious
reasons for this, chief of which is that the foreign consumers' citrus preferences
have been largely conditioned by citrus products originating elsewhere than the
United States. In the last five years only 3.7 percent of U. S. marketing of
canned single strength citrus juices moved into European markets.

The Brix in the juices tested in West Germany were nearly constant, while the
acid level was varied. The Brix/acid ratio in oranges was 10,1 to 1; 13.4 to 1
and 15.8 to 1. In the grapefruit juices this was 7.1 to 1; 9,2 to 1 and 11,1 to 1.

The study was conducted in Hannover, Germany among 800 households. Rating was
done on a ten-point scale with ten being the top, (or excellent) to one being the
bottom (or very poor).


Respondents attributed little differences to differences in the Brix/acid

The grapefruit juice of seven ratio received an average rating of 6.74; nine
ratio, 7,10; and 11 ratio, 7.29. Nearly nine percent of the people found abso-
lutely no difference between the three juices.

The average rating for the three orange juices were also extremely close. The
ten ratio juice was rated 7.25; 13 ratio, 7.62; and 16 ratio, 7.41. In the case of
this product eight percent of the respondents found absolutely no difference between
the three acidity levels of orange juicer

Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
400-10/8/63 WEB

This certainly is not the results we expected to get. Why should these
different juices receive such uniform ratings? One reason, obviously, is the lack
of familiarity with citrus juices. Only five percent of the 2,377 households in-
terviewed in an adjunctive study claimed to have used grapefruit juice at least
twice a month, and 18 percent of the households claimed to have used orange juice
at least twice a month. Second, because of the lack of familiarity, there is an
"addiction effect", that is, with each usage the respondents learn to like the
product, and the expression of preference is related to frequency of usage rather
than differences in Brix/acid ratios. Thirdly, these tests were run in the home,
and there may have been addition of water or sugar, depending upon the preferences
of the respondent family, to the juice. The rating therefore, may apply to the
product altered to suit parental, dominant or prevailing taste preferences. And
lastly, the fact that the product was in a can may have influenced the average

The fruit juices, regardless of variety, purchased by German families are
without exception sold in bottles. "Hohes C" is thusly sold and has established
the distribution pattern for citrus juices. Although freshly squeezed orange
juice still holds a theoretical preference, "Hohes C" is the practical favorite
among German housewives. The study suggests that any citrus juices to be marketed
in West Germany should be tested against "Hohes C."

The study also revealed the following:

(1) Only slightly more than half of the German household have
refrigeration facilities in the home; three-quarters of the
"intensive orange juice users" have refrigeration equipment.

(2) Only about ten percent of the juice is consumed at breakfast,
the balance between meals.

(3) Only one-half of the German population uses fruit juices regu-
larly. Apple juice makes 50 percent; grape juice, 20 percent;
orange juice, 10 percent; grapefruit juice, five percent of the
fruit juice consumed.

(h) Bottled orange juice is much more popular than canned orange
juice in Germany, and fresh squeezed fruit juices are even more
popular. Grapefruit juice users have no marked preference between
fresh squeezed and canned grapefruit juices.

(5) Grapefruit juice users are "expert fruit-juice-lovers," who are
rich people, live mostly in larger towns, buy much more fruit than the
average and are even more enthusiastic about oranges than the people
who are classified as "intensive orange juice users."

(6) "Intensive orange juice users" are made up of better-than-average-
education-people, generally younger than average and buy larger quanti-
ties of fresh fruits. Only one-third of them never tried grapefruit vs.
one-half of the general population of homemakers above 16 years of age.

Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
00-10/8/63 WEB


(7) If one wants to promote the use of canned orange and
grapefruit juice in Germany, one should:

a. study intensively the consuming behaviors of
people, especially, the present orange and grape-
fruit juice users and reasons for the preferences,

b. test the effect of promotional campaigns aimed at
changing the occasional "between meal" user to a
"regular" breakfast user.

Florida Citrus Commission and
Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
00-10/8/63 WEB

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